However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.
Power and identity are both socially constructed. The process of social construction of identity and power is reflexive; that is, the self-concept influences...
What others see and perceive changes their reactions, and those reactions reflect back an image, identity, and perception of one's role and status. A cycle of power and subjugation can be seen in the way patriarchy has been the governing system in the American military.
Sexism and racism have the "same roots," as Johnson (n.d.) points out (p. 242). The roots of sexism and racism are related to social power. The masculine hegemony that characterizes the American military subculture is one that is built on the notion of power and domination. It is a privilege to be a part of the dominant group, which is male, and it is a struggle to be a part of the subordinate female group. Ironically, females can have relatively high ranks in the military. Their official titles allow female ranking officers to mitigate sexism somewhat, but ultimately, female military leaders to contend with the male hegemony. An African-American male generally does nothing to change this situation, in spite of understanding how damaging hegemonic systems can impact a community.
Acker, J. (1992). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21(5). (Sep., 1992), pp. 565-569.
Fields, J. (2001). Normal queers. Symbolic Interaction 24(2): 165-187.
Hinojosa, R. (2010). Doing hegemony. The Journal of Men's Studies 18(2): 179-194.
Johnson (n.d.). Unraveling the gender knot.
Prokos, a. & Padavic, I. (2002). There oughtta be…
Researchers in Chicago found the following statistics in relation to NYC heavy users of drugs among those in detention in terms of gender, race and age. The following figures reveal what their findings were. Heavy Users in Detention All Detained Youth Gender Gender Male 82% Male 83% Female 18% Female 17% Race Race Black 64% Black 63% Hispanic 31% Hispanic 31% White 5% White 4% Other 0% Other 2% Ages Ages Source: Callahan (2001) Vera Institute of Justice Report Treatment Options Cognitive
(Archie-Booker, Cervero, and Langone, 1999) This study concludes that: "...power relations manifested themselves concretely through these factors in the social and organizational context, which by defining African-American learners as generic entities, produced undifferentiated educational programs." (Archie-Booker, Cervero, and Langone, 1999) The work of Gilbert and Wright reports a study conducted through collecting a series of articles in which African-American women were interviewed concerning living with AIDS. They write in their
African-American Women in New York State "About 30% of Hispanic and 20% of African-Americans lack a usual source of health care compared with less than 16% of European-Americans" (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2003). "Racial and ethnic disparities in health care, whether in insurance coverage, access, or quality of care, are one of many factors producing inequalities in health status in the United States" (Lillie-Blanton & Lewis, 2005, p. 1).
African-American males between the ages of 15 and 24 are at relatively higher risk of suicide according to Center for Disease control and prevention. Since 1980s the suicide rate has increased tremendously and many young seemingly successful males are committing suicide following years of suffering from chronic depression. Such cases highlight the importance of recognizing signs of depression young males but since researches and studies do not always reach parents
S. news magazines between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1998. They concluded that the images of the poor in these news magazines "do not capture the reality of poverty, but instead provide a stereotypical and inaccurate picture of poverty that results in a misconception of beliefs about the poor, antipathy toward blacks and lack of support for welfare programs. Similarly, Dixon and Linz (2000) researched the content of a random
African-American people from a qualitative perspective. The literature review will provide a brief background on African-American people and leading health problems they face along with a brief inclusion of census data to create a general picture of health from the perspective of an African-American person. One African-American man was interviewed. His answers provide a means of generating a construct that will be used to draw conclusions for nursing practice and