Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Girls and Gangs
When people think of gangs and gangsters, they often think of young males. While females may be part of gang culture, they are often viewed as being in the periphery. In many ways, this view of female gang membership is correct. For example, females that are affiliated with gangs have oftentimes been reduced to sexual objections, being used for the gratification of gang members, as a way to lure new recruits (Firmin 2009, p. 15). Furthermore, female sexuality has traditionally been seen as a way to ensnare rival gang members, so that female gang members and females associated with gangs have often acted as spies infiltrating rival gang networks (Aabbad 2012, p.272). However, the traditional view of girls as sexual accessories and playthings for gang members does not reflect the reality of the modern-day gang situation. While women still face significant marginalization and sexual violence within the context of the street gang, gang expectations have also expanded to encompass and embrace a larger role for women within the structure of the gang. For example, there is evidence that, in some gangs, girls are participating in hard-core crimes such as robbery, rape, and murder (Young 2009, p. 225). In fact, the escalation of female violence in the gang setting cannot be ignored. However, the increase in female violence is not proportionate with the increase in female gang membership, suggesting that girls and women are drawn to gangs, not only due to criminality, but also for myriad other social reasons. For girls from depressed or dangerous areas, gang membership not only comes with significant risks, but also with significant potential benefits (Batchelor 2009, p. 413). In many ways, girls in gangs experience the same expansion of familial camaraderie as boys in gangs, which can be essential to survival in rough neighborhoods or if a girl lacks an adequate family structure. Despite the risks inherent with engaging in a criminal organization, the fact that gangs can offer some benefits to their members helps explain the growing population of people joining gangs in areas that had traditionally resisted gang affiliation, such as South Wales (Maher 2009, p. 180). Taken as a whole, this information indicates that the nature of gang membership is changing for girls and for boys. Girls are taking more active roles in gangs, which means that they are engaging in more overt and violent criminal activity. However, many girls in or affiliated with gangs are still treated as sexual chattel, to be used by gang members and as tools for recruitment and training. As a result, women who are affiliated with gangs are exposed to a high risk of violence, particularly sexual violence. In order to understand why these young women would accept the risks that are inherent with gang membership, it is critical that researchers understand the benefits, or at least the perceived benefits, to the girls from such membership.
I have found Google Scholar to be the most comprehensive internet library search service because of its ability to search multiple databases in a single search. Therefore, I chose Google Scholar to conduct this search. I went to www.scholar.google.com and entered my search terms. Having chosen girls and gangs as my topic, and interested in recent scholarship that focused on the United Kingdom, I typed "girls and gangs UK" into my search bar. Then, I limited my time frame, limiting myself to research that had been published in the period between 2009-2015. I included both articles and books in the search results, knowing that book chapters can sometimes reveal significant leads for peer reviewed articles. The search returned 11,700 results. Had I been using a smaller database, such a large number of results would have been unwieldy. However, I find that Google Scholar does an adequate job of sorting articles by relevancy. By looking over the first four pages of results, I was able to locate six articles that I believed would be helpful to my research question. More importantly, I found links and references to background books and articles that could not only provide insight into girls in gangs in the modern United Kingdom, but also more generalized knowledge about gangs and Europe.
From the large number of search results, I was able to select a smaller sub-group based upon Google Scholar's built-in relevancy search algorithm. In other words, the books and articles cited near the top were most likely to be relevant to my search. From the first several pages of search results, I was able to narrow the initial 11,700 results down to a more manageable 50-60 results. I then scanned their title information and the small blurb available to help guide my further research. For example, many of the results seemed both promising and informative, but were chapters from book or other forms of publications, rather than from journals. After determining whether sources were journals, I looked up the relevant journals to determine whether or not they were peer reviewed. Then, I scanned abstracts to determine whether or not the articles would be relevant to my research goals.
Aabbad, H. 2012. 'Sexual exploitation: The use of peers for recruitment', British Journal of School Nursing, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 272-274.
While sometimes viewed as social groups, it is important to treat gangs as criminal organization that may interact with, influence, or be influenced by other local criminal behavior. For example, local gangs play an active role in the recruitment and grooming of young sex workers. This article explains the interaction between gangs and the sex trade, specifically examining how gangs recruit female members for usage in sex-linked criminal activities.
Batchelor, S. 2009. 'Girls, gangs and violence: Assessing the evidence', Probation Journal, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 399-414.
This article focuses on two of the primary challenges of examining gang violence and women: 1) failure to adequately define what constitutes a gang; and 2) the fact that prior research on gangs has generally been conducted by men on male gang members. This research focuses on women and girls in gangs. It concludes that women may join gangs for different reasons than men, and that female gang membership may be based upon more prosocial reasons than male gang membership.
Bell, K. 2007. 'Gender and gangs: A quantitative comparison', Crime and Delinquency, vol. 55,
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Bell examines whether males and females are drawn to gang membership for different reasons. Research already describes several risk factors for male gang membership including: community characteristics, parent-child relationships, and association with other gang members. The goal of this research was to determine whether the same risk factors also had predictive value in female gang membership. The research concluded that the following risk factors impacted male and female gang involvement in similar ways: parental social control, attachment and involvement, school safety, peer fighting, age, and race.
Firmin, C. 2009. 'Girls around gangs,' Safer Communities, vol. 8, no.2, pp. 14-16.
Firmin examines the roles played by female gang members in the modern UK, specifically examining the role that female gang members play in the violent interactions between gangs. She finds that while girls are playing an increasing role in the perpetration of violence and crime, it is male attitudes towards violence that continue to dominate gang interactions. The researcher concludes that male dominance in gangs contributes to the level of violence in gangs, making it more difficult to de-escalate inter-group rivalries.
Maher, J. 2009. 'Gangs? What gangs? Street-based youth groups and gangs in South Wales',
Contemporary Wales, vol. 22, no.1, pp.178-195.
This article focuses on street gangs as an emerging problem throughout the United Kingdom, focusing specifically on street gangs in South Wales. The article does not focus specifically on female involvement in these gangs, but looks at overall youth involvement in gangs. Unlike other research, the focus of this research does not begin with an assumption that youth involvement in gangs is necessarily detrimental and related to criminal activity. Instead, it investigates the relationship between gang involvement and youth criminal activity in an area outside of the cities where gang activity has a documented link to criminality. It specifically examined youth group involvement in South Wales, whether these youth groups could be considered gangs, and, when they could, profiled these gangs.
Young, T. 2009. 'Girls and gangs: Shemale gangsters in the UK?', Youth Justice, vol. 9, no.3,
This article focuses on the recent changes of public perceptions of the behavior of female gang members. It begins with an acknowledgement that females are becoming increasingly involved in the criminal activity committed by gangs. This criminal activity includes violent offenses including robbery, rape, and murder. While female gang members have become increasingly involved in violence, by examining the use of weapons by gang members, the researcher concludes that the shift from passive member to violent threat has not been complete among female street gang members. Instead, while violence among female gang members has risen, most female…[continue]
"Girls And Gangs" (2014, April 30) Retrieved December 2, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/girls-and-gangs-187695
"Girls And Gangs" 30 April 2014. Web.2 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/girls-and-gangs-187695>
"Girls And Gangs", 30 April 2014, Accessed.2 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/girls-and-gangs-187695
Gangs in the Military In the present era the gang problem is all encompassing and intimidating in a greater measure compared to any other period in history. In the bygone 20 years, gang associations have transcended all socioeconomic, ethnic and racial limits and currently pervade American society. Gangs by way of increased dreadfulness, felony and economic costs influence society. Now we are confronted with the outcome of the gang subculture's startling
gang violence in Canada Though gang violence is not a new phenomena in Canada, the number of gangs and the dynamics within these gangs has changed. It has been reported that the four most common types of gangs found within the Canadian provinces are street gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, mafias and organized crime organizations, and hate gangs. Increasing gang membership -- and the rising number of girls joining gangs, gun
However, some gang members specialize in multiple criminal activities such as street robbery, human trafficking and drug trafficking. Street Gangs Street gangs are the major concern to parents, school administrators and the communities because they recruit students and the youths across the United States to enhance the growth of gang memberships. Street gangs are the most prevalent type of gangs in the United States because they influence a strong control in
Gang Rape on Facebook Gang rape is considered a particularly horrific crime, not because of how society views rape, which is not always in a negative light, but because it deglamorizes rape and strips away any pretense that the behavior was consensual, romantic, or simply the result of someone who let himself get out of control. That the rape in this scenario involved an 11-year-old girl seems almost impossible to explain.
In the end, the capacity for gangs persist throughout history has shown that they are not merely one-dimensional juvenile delinquents, as they are often portrayed in media. They are also well-organized groups that have the ability to serve social purposes. This also shows that a reason why society still allows them to exist is because of these social functions (Branch 1997). Nevertheless, media is also responsible for glamorizing the life of
When Santano looks back on his old life in prison he comments that Fulsom was the "big time." He had more power there. Before the gang, if someone wanted something from him, "They just took it" because he was weak, but being in the gang stopped that because he became strong. He looks back on prison life with a certain sense of nostalgia and tells his girlfriend, "I loved
(St. Lawrence). Delivering the intervention while housed in correctional facilities has the advantages of minimizing attrition, maintaining attendance at sessions, successfully delivering greater intervention dosage, and controlling for both the assessments and the intervention delivery. The disadvantages, as indicated above, are twofold: First, incarcerated girls will not have real-world opportunities to practice newly acquired skills between sessions; second, potential concerns exist regarding whether content acquired from an intervention delivered