high concentration of road salt on lead solubility. The paper describes the impact in the light of several academic articles and the observations from them. Total 8 academic articles have been reviewed and out of them some major findings are used as a basis for this paper.
An important aspect of studying Pb (Lead) is its combination with the road salt. There have been several studies on the same topic, especially since 1970s, as its significance was understood only after that era, when tetra ethyl was discovered and phased out. Lead contains highly intoxicated components and can be severely dangerous to the human nervous system. Apart from the human life it is also highly dangerous for the marine life and other animals. It also reduces the productivity of the agriculture fields. Tetra ethyl is used as a fuel additive which improves the productivity of the agricultural fields and enhances the soil fertility which is a major concern for every economy. (A.C. NorrstromU, G. Jacks, 1998).
Tom Gibson in his article published in the journal of Progressive Engineers, mentions that Tetra ethyl lead is used as an automotive fuel, however due to its vulnerability it has been banned in many parts of the country. There have been major increases in the number of automotive vehicles all over the world that are reliant on lead and tetra ethyl for gasoline. (Tom Gibson, 2002)
One of the most important applications of salt is anti-icing (deicing). Grandjean has mentioned in his work, "Widening perspectives of lead toxicity," that Anti-icing is used in spread and grit bins. Whenever there is a forecast of a snowfall, in many countries anti-icing with brine is used to protect roads. Brine solution is a mixture of salt in water (concentrated). Brine and road salt prevents the bond creation of ice and the surface of the road. The processes of combining the two elements help in removing the heavy application of salt after the snow period. In many occasions calcium and magnesium chloride are also used as additional agents. (A.C. NorrstromU, G. Jacks, 1998),
The storms in winter hamper the overall economic activity. Road salt is applied in order to minimize the damage caused. Osanai T, Fujiwara N. And Saitoh M. have mentioned in their article "Relationship between salt intake, nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine and its relevance to patients with end-stage renal disease," that apart from the economic sufferings, human life also faces a lot of danger in snow storms. In order to provide assured access to drivers during the snow storms or even after it, effective snow fighting is required. The failure to do so can cause a great damage economically. (B. J. Mason, 2006)
The use of sodium chloride in the form of a deicing salt can alter the behavior of the combined containments present in the roadside soils. The application of sodium chloride as a deicing agent is exposed to road soil reaction. Sodium with high concentration is exposed to salinity water in the snow melting periods. (Osanai T, Fujiwara N, and Saitoh M, November 2002)
The impact of road salt on lead solubility is important to understand to grasp the concept of whole mechanism. When there is a reaction with lead, the chemical bound is dominated by the oxide bound. Secondary importance is given to the carbonate bound with 35% compared to the 54% oxide bound. In a research carried out by Norrstrom and Jacks, samples of road salt were taken from a distance of almost 2.5 m away from the road which was then analyzed and found out that oxide bound had the largest percentage with 54%. The soil examination suggested that the mn-oxide had a higher concentration with the soil, which leads to a hypothesis that Pb prefers Mn oxides over Fe oxides and carbonate fractions. Such experiments were carried out earlier also and gave the same conclusions. The absorption of Mn oxides was found out to be almost 40 times more than Fe oxides. Surprisingly, the carbonate fractions were high, considering that the pond soil was infiltrated. (B. J. Mason, 2006)
However there is a strong possibility that the redistribution of some exchangeable part would have occurred during the time at which analysis is taken. On the contrary there have been researchers earlier who had found out in their work that there was a much higher percentage of carbonate fractions. Concentrated lead is usually associated with the interexchange able characteristics with the residual fractions and the organic compounds. (Grandjean, P., 1978)
It is observed in many salt profiles that the dispersion can result in the mobilization of the organic matter and oxides. Lead is most likely to be mobilized. The portion which contains the carbonated fractions is highly susceptible to mobilization in case the soil acidity is increased from the normal level. The saturation level at the lower base was observed showed a complete different picture which was a likely scenario. The Magnesium chloride extraction reflects the condition of the soil reacted with the road salt. This can also represent the most number or the maximum fraction of chloride complexes being formed with the metal. For most of the metals the fraction would be smaller in proportion. Most of the times, the proportion is as low as 2% as or even less than that. The soil lacks any innate property that can form any sort of relationship because of its own pH value. (B. J. Mason, 2006)
The study carried out has clearly suggested that a large portion of Lead was a part of the chemical reaction which was vulnerable to react with the exposed sodium chloride concentration, resulting in a reduction in the pH value. The concept of isoocuuring helps in understanding the impact that road salt has taken on lead. Whenever there is an increase in the concentration of lead with the rising depth of soil there is a downward transport in the form of isooccurring. (B. J. Mason, 2006)
There have been many conflicting results in the various studies that have been conducted. The variation in the results is mainly because of the changes in the methods of the sample collection and the difference in the procedures of data collection and the handling of the samples. The physical and the chemical properties of soil can also be different in different circumstances when they are taken for samples as they can be taken away in different situations and in different environment which can have an effect on its impact on lead and other metals. (Grandjean, P., 1978)
The extractions are important for the study because there operations can help in the sequential analysis of the fractions. The highly significant correlation being observed was the relationship between the soil and the chemical fractions of Lead. When the soil is dispersed it collides with the lead and results in a hydraulic conductive reduction. The basic purpose of taking observations from this article was that it was quite relevant to the research that is conducted. The impact of h concentration of road salt on lead solubility can be measured and discussed through the observations of this article. (The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576)
The topic can be discussed in the light of the experiment carried out by Loretta Y. Ali. It was observed that Lead was only limited to the upper 0.3 m of the road soil (highway corridor), the insignificant particles of were at the depth of the soil. The results had suggested a low level of concentration, even though it was exposed to high concentration of road salt. While it was dissolved with the highly concentrated form of road salt then it was observed that the interexchange able property of lead took over and reacted with the oxides to form oxide bounds instead of contaminating with the salt. (Retention Capacity and Environment Mobility of Pb in Soils, 2005)
In that research a total of 139 samples were taken which shows the comprehensiveness of the research and were analyzed with different Lead concentrations. The results from the large amount of samples taken were also comprehensive in nature and showed a clear direction of the impact of road salt on the solubility of lead. The results were also reexamined by the commission appointed by the medical team of the state juts to cross check the results and observations of the research. The rod sat has been used as a deicing agent. It is often used for the protection of the economic activity and the human lives in case of heavy snowfalls and the snow storms. Lead can cause great damage to the marine life and the human nervous system therefore it is important that the lead solubility with the road salt is studied intensively just as these researchers have done and came up with conclusions with definite solutions. (Grandjean, P., 1978)
There has been a massive increase in the consumption of lead gasoline. The increase in the consumption has led to a much more…