parenting styles in the Jewish community differentially correlate with alcohol use of Jewish College Freshmen males (18-26)?
Underage and college drinking is an increasing problem for youth. This later phase of adolescence is one where pressure and a desire to act as an independent individual are overwhelming, and can convince college students to opt toward excessive alcohol usage (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). The degree to which parenting styles correspond to college age drinking frequency within the Jewish community remains unknown.
The given research is intended to investigate and measure whether there is a relationship between the parenting styles experienced by a Jewish child during childhood and the potential to develop an alcohol intake frequency during late adolescence. It is evidenced that there is a considerable relationship between the parenting styles and the degree of alcohol consumption in college aged adolescents and young adults in many college communities (Beck et al., 2004). Interestingly, it is currently unknown how parenting styles within the Jewish community correlate with youth drinking frequency, and this is an area upon which current research can and should be expanded.
Research Question(s) and Hypotheses
RQ 1- Do the parenting styles in the Hasidic, Orthodox, and Modern Orthodox Jewish communities differentially correlate with alcohol use of Jewish College Freshmen males (18-26)?
Null HP- Parenting Styles have no correlation with teenage drinking frequency.
Alternate HP-2- Do parenting styles have a positive or negative correlation on teenage drinking frequency? Alternate HP-3- What type of parenting styles dominate in the Borough Park Jewish community? Alternate HP-4- Provided the investigation of specific parenting styles in the Borough Park Jewish community, is there a correlation if any, toward the existence of Alcohol use frequency within the Jewish Community Specifically in College Age Students?
Alternate HP-5 Are parenting behaviors related to influencing alcohol drinking frequency in college age children?
Independent Variable-1 - Parenting styles (Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved) for each institution. Independent Variable-2 - Jewish affiliations (Hassidic, Orthodox, and Modern Orthodox). Dependent Variable - Frequency of drinking (how much/how often). Methodology -- Two Way Anova.
Theoretical Framework for the Study
According to Bowlby and Ainsworth (1982), attachment styles of parenting relate directly to how both children and caregivers see themselves. The theory of attachment parenting will be used as the theoretical framework for this study, to show the correlation between parenting styles and college-age drinking in their children. The main theory will also be expanded to address the way different affiliations of the Jewish faith parent their children, so the correlations between faith, parenting, and drinking behaviors can be addressed more clearly in the methodology, analysis, and discussion areas in future chapters. The major hypothesis that there is a correlation between college-age drinking behaviors and parenting styles will be more fully explained in Chapter Two, which will delve more thoroughly into attachment parenting theory and the reasons behind parenting styles affecting the behavior of adolescents and beyond, when it comes to drinking and many other activities. The attachment parenting theory relates to the approach taken in the study and the research questions based on how parents of any and all faiths have a strong affect on how their children develop and how they act once they are free of as much parental control. Since this freedom generally begins in college, whether this is the reason for increased drinking behavior must be explored.
The concept that grounds this study deals with parenting styles and how they affect the reactions of children once those children are released from parental control. In other words, the way a child is parented as he or she is growing up will affect his or her behaviors once he or she goes off to college and is no longer as controlled and/or watched over by parents. Whether a college-age child engages in inappropriate behaviors at that time or not is believed to be strongly affected by the way his or her parents raised him or her. According to the research, there is a great deal of information on parenting and drinking behavior (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982; Baumrind, 1991; Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). Much more of this will be presented in Chapter Two. However, there are no studies provided where this information is analyzed in the course of whether the parents are Jewish in faith and/or what affiliation or style of Jewish faith these parents exhibit.
In other words, the paper will focus on the concept of faith and parenting affecting the drinking behavior of college-age children. The conceptual framework for this study will be used to provide information on what has been seen in the literature and what will be seen in the future. It will also drive the development of the methodological instruments and the data analysis in Chapters Three and Four.
Nature of the Study
The nature of the study involves the issue of parenting style and how it correlates to the drinking behavior of college-age children. There is much research on this issue (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982; Baumrind, 1991; Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). The rationale behind the study, however, comes from the fact that there is no research that has been done regarding this issue where faith is concerned. In order to determine how the Jewish faith plays a role in parenting styles and how those styles then correlate to drinking behavior in college-age children, it is necessary to examine people who meet the criteria set forth in the study.
Key independent variables for the study will include the type of parenting style used (Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved), and the specific affiliation of Jewish faith (Hassidic, Orthodox, and Modern Orthodox). The frequency of drinking is also a significant dependent variable that must be explored. A two way Anova will be used as the method of analysis for the methodology in Chapter Three, and the data will be collected from both parents and college-age children of those parents in the Borough Park Jewish community. Most of this data will come from surveys, but some will also come from observation conducted by the researcher.
1. Jewish -- For purposes of this study, Jewish includes Hasidic, Orthodox, and Modern Orthodox.
2. College-Age -- While people of nearly any age can attend college, this study defines college-age as being between 18 and 21 years of age.
3. Parenting Style -- This study limits parenting style to the four different styles of attachment parenting addressed by Bowlby and Ainsworth (1982). Those styles are Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved.
4. Frequency of Drinking -- Both how often a person drinks and the amount of alcohol he or she takes in are considered under this term.
It is assumed that there are three different classifications in the Jewish faith and four parenting styles. In theory, this is accurate. However, many Jewish people mix aspects of several different "styles" of faith, and some are more devout than others. Additionally, parenting styles may sometimes be a mix of several different options, and few parents fall completely into one of the four styles discussed in this study. However, there is no way to address every possible configuration between faith and parenting. Because of that, it becomes necessary to reduce the number of faith and parenting options to a number that can be worked with by the researcher. Without doing that, the study would become far too large and convoluted, as every possible difference between each family surveyed, its faith, and its parenting style would have to be analyzed, discussed, and categorized.
Scope and Delimitations
The scope of the study focuses on the role the Jewish faith plays when it comes to the parenting styles and drinking behaviors that will be discussed within its boundaries. This was chosen because it is an important part of the Jewish community and there have not been any studies conducted that address it. Included populations are the three types of Jewish people addressed in previous sections, and located within the Borough Park Jewish community. All other faiths and communities are excluded from this study. Attachment parenting is the only framework that will be used, and other styles or theories regarding parenting and how it affects children in later life were not addressed. The study could be potentially generalized to other Jewish populations in other areas, but would likely not be generalizable to other faiths or other ways of determining or studying parenting styles.
The main limitation of the study is that it focuses only on the population in the Borough Park Jewish community. That not only excludes other faiths, but also excludes all other Jewish people who do not live within that community's boundaries. By limiting the study to only those people, the researcher may miss out on important information that he or she would otherwise acquire regarding the issue being addressed. This is a risk taken by all studies where…