Alcohol Drinking Frequency Correlated to the 4 Parenting Styles 'Methodology' chapter

Excerpt from 'Methodology' chapter :

Parenting styles have been correlated with the degree and frequency of alcohol use in college age students (that is what the next sentence is for!). In particular, there has been a clear association between parental monitoring and less drinking among teens (Beck et al., 2004). In fall 2006, a random sample of under graduate students attending 10 universities were invited to participate in an online Internet-based survey of alcohol use and other risky behaviors (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008). All participating universities had a graduate program and surveys were sent to graduate and undergraduate students combined (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008). Campuses ranged from approximately 5,375 to 44,841 students (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008). Further, 139 Caucasian well-educated parents were paired with their adolescent children and assessed according to their perceived parenting styles (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008) Comment by AJ: Not sure where you were going with this. What happened?

One of the parenting styles that have beenwas positively correlated with reduced alcohol use among adolescent college adults in this study wass the authoritative style. Authoritative parents are described as being highly demanding but responsive, demonstrating noteworthy success in safeguarding their children from alcohol use frequency (Baumrind, 1991). There are basically two dimensions to authoritative parenting: the dimension of responsiveness and the dimension of demandingness (Baumrind, 1991). Responsiveness refers to "the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiescent to children's special needs and demands," ((Baumrind, 1991;, p. 56). Demandingness refers to demands placed on children for personal responsibility, maturity, and discipline (Baumrind, 1991). Thus, authoritative parenting has been positively correlated with reduced tendency to engage in alcohol-related risky behaviors, and negatively correlated with heavy drinking (Baumrind, 1991; O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008). Comment by AJ: This has nothing to do with what was above. Confused?

The importance of understanding the impact of parenting style on adolescent drinking stems from the importance of reducing alcohol use among teenagers. Health risks are serious, both in the short- and long-term. For example, aAdolescents may be more likely to drink when they are adults, which could lead to mental and physical health problems (Yang, Zhiyong, & Schaninger, 2010). Therefore, it is important to understand how to reduce prevalence of alcohol abuse (Yang, Schaninger, & Laroche, 2012). Consequently, addressing parenting style is one way to address the problem (Yang, Schaninger & Laroche, 2012). Parenting styles are identified as a dominant factor in deciding the overall outlook of a child's behavior (Baumrind, 1991). In particular, with an authoritative style, parents can mediate alcohol use frequency in their teen children (Yang, Schaninger, & Laroche, 2012). Children with strained relationships with their parents tend to show a greater inclination for alcoholism in later parts of their lives (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). While a strained relationship with a parent or both parents is not necessarily related to parenting style, it is worth noting that style alone is not a variable that can definitively predict whether or not an adolescent will develop alcohol abuse later in life. The rationale of this relationship is based on theories of attachment, social change theories, such as family system theory and social learning theory (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). Comment by AJ: Again no transition from paragraph to paragraph

The current study focuses on a specific population to determine the correlation (if any) between parenting styles and drinking frequency among adolescent college age adolescents/freshman ages 18-26.

Background

Healthy attachment styles are also related to parenting styles (Doyle, Karavasilis, & Markiewicz, 2003). "Parenting styles convey parents' parents' overall feeling about the child through body language, tone of voice, emotional displays and quality of attention" (Benson & Haith, 2010, p.281). In particular, authoritative parenting is correlated with secure adolescent attachment (Doyle, Karavasilis, & Markiewicz, 2003). Moreover, different parenting styles have been measured in accordance with self-regulation during peer pressure incidents such as those involving pressure to use alcohol (Balhorn, Cheong, Patock-Peckham & Nagoshi, 2001) Accordingly, self-regulation of alcohol use among teens was positively correlated with authoritative parenting styles (Balhorn, Cheong, Patock-Peckham, & Nagoshi, 2001). On the contrary, some parenting styles are associated with negative outcomes of self-regulating behavior in adolescents, and those teens were more likely to engage with alcohol (Balhorn, Cheong, Patock-Peckham, & Nagoshi, 2001).

One of the most famous researchers on parenting styles was Baumrind (1991), who proposed four dominant areas of parenting. These areas include warmth, nurturance, discipline strategy, communication skills, and expectations about maturity (Sarac, 2001). Exhibition of these four elements had a bearing on child development (Baumrind, 1991; Sarac, 2001). The ability of the parents to control and limit their children's behavior is one of the most significant features associated with helping adolescents develop in prosaically (Baumrind, 1991).

In theory, there are three typical parenting behaviors: authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative (Baumrind, 1991). Another parenting style was identified as the uninvolved/disengaged parent (Maccaboy & Martin, 1983). The nature of parenting style has been considered as a dominant factor in deciding the overall outlook of a child's personality (Baumrind, 1991). However, alcohol use frequencies are present in all four different styles of parenting to a greater or less degree (Balhorn, Cheong, Patock-Peckham, & Nagoshi, 2001). It can clearly be inferred that these different parenting styles need further investigation of how they correlate with alcohol consumption of children during their years of college.

Alcohol use frequency is an increasing problem on college campuses (Larimer & Conce, 2007). This later phase of adolescence is one where pressure and a desire to act as an independent individual are overwhelming enough to convince college students to opt toward excessive alcohol use frequencies (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007).

Problem Statement

This research focuses on drinking behaviors in a Jewish college student cohort, because the degree to which parenting styles correlate with college age drinking frequency within the Jewish community remains unknown. There are no extant studies examining specifically the role of parenting styles on drinking behaviors in rabbinical school students, and this research attempts to fill that gap. There is a considerable relationship between the parenting styles and the degree of alcohol use frequencies in college aged adolescents/young adults in various ethnic and religious communities (Beck et al., 2004). For health and social reasons, it is important to know how parenting styles within the Jewish community correlate with our community youth alcohol use drinking frequency so that intervention programs can be targeted and culturally relevant. Alcohol use frequency is an increasing problem on college campuses (Larimer & Conce, 2007). This later phase of adolescence is one where pressure and a desire to act as an independent individual are overwhelming enough to convince college students to opt toward excessive alcohol use frequencies (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007).

Purpose of the Study

Investigating the relationship between parenting styles and alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents can reveal potential for intervention programs or community health initiatives (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). At the present, there are few documented studies to determine the interaction of parenting styles with alcohol use frequency of college and rabbinical college students in the American Jewish community. The Brooklyn Borough Park Jewish community was selected in this research as a convenience sample. The purpose of this study is to correlate parenting styles with drinking behaviors, and suggest possible targeted interventions to prevent unhealthy drinking habits. Comment by AJ: The purpose of this (what type study) is to Research Question

Do the parenting styles in the Jewish community differentially correlate with alcohol use frequency of Jewish College Freshmen males (18-26)? Only males are selected, because this research is about rabbinical school students. Comment by AJ: Why did we only select males?

Null HP Parenting styles do not differentially correlate with alcohol use frequency. Comment by AJ: This is not how this is written Comment by AJ: What does this mean? Comment by AJ: This does not entirely match your research question. Where is the alternative hypothesis

How The Study Will Be Measured:

Independent and dependent variables being studied: IV-1 -- Parenting Styles (4) IV-2 - Jewish Affiliations to be measured via self-report (3), and DPV- Frequency of Drinking. Parenting styles will be measured via a perceived parenting style questionnaire prepared by:

Karen DeBord, Ph.D., (Child Development Specialist) from North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Drinking frequencies will be measured through an alcohol use frequency questionnaire from a local or online evidence based alcohol clinic. Both questionnaires will be given to the adolescent college/rabbinical college freshman and will be answered via student self-report. A local psychologist will be consulted for a normative rate of drinking for the target age group if needed. When the data is complete, it will be put through the SPSS software and analyzed by a Two Way ANOVA methodology. Ultra-Orthodox Hassidim…

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