In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.
The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's is a clear reflection of social values and scientific philosophy in late-17th-century England" (462).
The style implemented by Wren also ensured that the interior was just as ornate and imposing as the exterior. This accentuated the sense of opulence and grandeur of the building, and increased its religious and national importance. To this end ceiling mosaics were added in 1890 by William Richmond after Queen Victoria complained that there was not enough colour in the cathedral (St. Paul's Cathedral) . The significance of the design controversy is summarized by Soo as follows: "the sequence of schemes for St. Paul's demonstrates Wren's empirical, almost arbitrary approach to design" (Soo 462).
It is also important to note that in terms of the master builder tradition, Sir Christopher Wren embodied and continued the principles of this tradition. He designed the cathedral and worked with a team to manage the actual on-site construction and was given the freedom to make design alterations throughout the process.
Similarly to the English Baroque, the French Baroque style reflects wealth and ostentation, coupled with the decorative dynamics of the Italian style. One of the differences in design and construction in French Baroque is the emphasis on certain aspects and areas of the buildings. Areas such as the roof of the building were, for example, deemphasized in the French style. In contrast to the dynamic and circular Italian buildings, the French style is described as being more static and is often described as being coldly ostentatious. However, a central facet of the French architectural style of this period is the close integration between outer and inner space, with the garden forming a centre of focus in many French buildings; which also reflects the classical-baroque compromise of northern Europe.
While all the these style of architectural design and construction differ to varying degrees they conform in terms of the essential aspects and opulence and religious intention, which remains the central theme of most of the significant buildings constructed during this period. The buildings are also unified by the emphasis on decorative effects and references to wealth and by the scientific underpinnings and associations of the buildings and their architectural methods and processes.
Conclusion ( 3): for "Analysis of Five Industrial Revolution Building Projects: Their relationship with the Industrial Revolution Architectural Principles, Construction Technology and Master Builder Tradition"
The buildings that have been discussed above are representative of the industrial and technological age and its influence on the architectural design and building of the period. The industrial revolution had profound and far-reaching consequences for architectural design and innovation on a number on interconnected levels. This included the methods and techniques of building as well as the materials that could be used in the process of building and construction. It also follows that these new and innovative technologies would have a dramatic impact of the way that buildings were designed and on creative architectural thinking. These and other concomitant aspects were augmented by new methods of transportation and building management which were all radically altered by the industrial revolution.
The industrial revolution ushered in the 'machine age' and machines facilitated a wide range of improved methods and processes in building as well as in the creation of building tools. As has been emphasised in the above analysis and discussion, one of the areas of construction and building that was to be irrevocably changed by the industrial revolution was building materials and the manufacture of building parts, which could be transported to the site. Furthermore, industrial mechanization also meant a revolution in the creation of building materials which could be processed much faster and more effectively than in the past. The industrial process also altered and to a great extent improved the organizational process and procedures and increased worker productivity.
In a broader context the industrial revolution changed the world and had a radical impact on society and culture. This impact was also deeply felt in the areas of architectural design, building and engineering. The link between industrialization, mechanization, the creation of new materials and economics explored in the discussion above, also indicates that the construction of large buildings became more economical in terms of materials and labour costs.
Therefore, the growth and development of industrial technologies and methods had a profound effect on architecture and building and resulted in a number of cardinal architectural innovations. These changes in method, procedure and materials also affected the aesthetic aspects of architecture. This can be seen in the use of extended and open planned buildings and progressive designs, which became possible through the use of materials such as glass and iron, and which in turn added new depth and dimensionality to architectural design. In this regard one could refer to combination of imaginative aesthetic design and the functionality that new materials and methods allowed in the creation of, for example, in the construction of the Menai Straits Suspension Bridge, Thames Tunnel and Eiffel Tower
Furthermore, materials such as glass, in combination with various building techniques, utilized natural light to create new aesthetic spaces. The Crystal Palace erected in London in 1851 out of prefabricated cast iron structure and plate glass panels is a good example of the use of glass to create a unique architectural and aesthetic sense of dimensionality and space.
The industrial revolution did not only change the way in which buildings were designed and built but also led to new and different types of construction. In the first instance, industrialization led to increased urbanization and a greater demand for city construction. A good example of these new types of construction is the tunnel shield for subaqueous tunnelling (Landow), as well as Iron suspension bridges and other types of large exhibition halls and towers that were conceived based on the new technology, materials, and engineering advances.
A central facet of this age is that the new and innovative materials that were developed as a result of industrial processes had a dramatic affect on the possible shape and size as well as the aesthetics of new buildings. One could refer in this regard to the Eiffel Tower where industrial materials allowed for greater extension and space. For example, technological advancements that led to elevator systems definitely played a part in the size of the Eiffel Tower, while the formula for steel would prove crucial to the many skyscrapers that dominated architecture in the 20th century.
A material that typifies the Industrial age is iron and its use in various industrial creations as well as building and contraction (Gillespie 4). The availability of cast iron and plate-glass led to the increasing creation of structures that incorporated large quantities of natural sunlight and space. One of the most influential of these structures was the aforementioned Crystal Palace. Cast iron reinforcements combined well with for the plate glass finishing (McRae). Furthermore, cast iron became cheaper with the advance of industrial techniques following the building of the innovative first cast iron Shropshire's Iron Bridge, in 1778. This led to further advances and the replacement of cast iron by steel reinforcements which allowed for more building and design flexibility (McEntee). By the end of the 19th century, cast-iron frames were largely replaced with wrought iron and those utilizing steel (McEntee).
The Iron Bridge serves as a good example of some of the central aspects of this period. Its construction in cast iron exemplifies the use of industrial material and technology at the time. This construction also paved the way for further constructions in cast-iron and also motivated later technological advances in materials, as well as in construction techniques. In this regard one should also refer to the construction of the famous Crystal Palace, which helped to encourage further construction projects in iron. The building of the Crystal Palace also exemplified the industrial age by the use made of prefabricated parts in its construction.
In brief, technological development in the Industrial Revolution radicalized construction. This age saw the development of new machines, materials, and work processes. As described above, the new machines harnessed and used natural energy such as coal and steam to power…