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At the same time, the socialist views of Karl Marx and Frederic Engels came to be known in Russia and offered the intellectuals a new consideration of the relation between work, remuneration, and the relationship between the worker and its employer. This in turn created a new sense of national unity and a reconsideration of what nationality really meant.
Taking all these perspectives into account, it is essential that the precise reason for the revolution. First and foremost, there was a need for change and the socialist views considered that change cannot occur through evolution, but rather revolution. In this sense, at the time, it was considered that the tsarist rule had brought the Russian empire to its ruin through the constant attempts to support social exclusion and differentiation. Thus, "for more than a century Russia's progressive forces stubbornly and tirelessly labored for the destruction of the most despotic governmental system on earth. Perhaps no national movement for freedom has undergone a bloodier series of experiences." (Don Levine, 1917). Therefore, the need to change the system could not be satisfied but through a revolution.
Secondly, with this idea of revolution in mind, the issue of the change of system also determined many of the soldiers to come back from the front and fight for the liberty and freedom in their country. In this sense, large parts of the Russian army decided to come back to Russia and support the Revolution started by Lenin. Thus, it can be said that another reason for which the revolution was effective, aside from the legitimacy of the idea of change, was the support from the military. At the same time, the fact that the Imperial armies began to withdraw also triggered a negative attitude towards the tsarist family.
Thirdly, the issue of nationalities was addressed by Lenin considering it to be an essential element in the way in which post war politics would be conducted (Hobsbawm, 1995). More precisely, Lenin considered that the 20th century must be a century of national states and in the same manner as the Russians have the right to form their own state, so du the rest of the minorities within the Empire. At the same time, Lenin discussed the issue of the empire as being a costly and unfair consideration of the freedom of the peoples to decide for their own the future of their fate. Finally, Lenin's personality is important to the evolution of the Russian history because he was one of the first political presences that introduced the idea of class distinction and the need of the proletariat to advance beyond the rule of the aristocracy.
Another possible reason for the success of the Russian Revolution was the fact that the issue of nationalism and patriotism, as considered prior to the war changed to a certain extent. More precisely, "revolutions do not only change governments and class relations; they also redefine loyalties, including those to state and nation. Yet at the same time, the patriotic wave that temporarily quelled those strong patriotic convictions can indeed subdue revolutionary tendencies. In the case of Russia, therefore, either a decline in or redefinition of patriotism appears to have been a prerequisite for a successful revolution" (Jahn, 1995). The most important element on which the Russian leadership, be it republican or Tsarist relied on, the nationality and identify of the Russians was put in question. Therefore, the issue of identify was an essential element for the success of the revolution because it offered a situation of disequilibrium and the population could no longer be reliable and united. Thus, a sense of confusion was created which was useful for the elaboration of the revolutionary techniques.
Concluding, it can be said that there was a sum of factors which made the idea of revolution appealing to the lower parts of the society. In particular, there was the belief that a new system would change the current situation in the country. More precisely, the most important element in this sense was the entire array of factors presented above. Thus, the economic situation created by the war along with the luxurious life style of the tsarist family made the population suffer; under these conditions, the spread of the socialist line of though offered people a possible alternative to war, troubled life, and poverty. Finally, while the tsarist rule had appealed to a certain nationalistic view that had in mind the existing of the Empire, thus nationalities inside an empire, the socialist forces focused on the idea of each nation with its own state, despite the fact that this implied the demise of the Empire. Overall, the success of the Russian Revolution gave rise to the U.S.S.R., a political creation in which the issue of nationalities was indeed respected, despite the fact that the authoritarian rule of the Communist Party would not take into account the voices of the peoples.
Basil, John. "Russia and the Bolshevik Revolution. Russian Review." The Editors and Board of Trustees of the Russian Review, 1968.
Don Levine, Isaac. The Russian Revolution. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1917.
Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Empire 1875-1914. Oxford: Abacus, 1995.
Jahn, Hubertus. Patriotic Culture in Russia During World War I. Ithaca,.: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Trotsky, Leon. The History of the Russian Revolution. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1957.…[continue]
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