Chicago/Turabian Citation Guide

Chicago/Turabian Citation Guide

Chicago/Turabian Citation Guide

About Chicago Manual Style…

The Chicago style of citation is used with many subjects and forms of reference such as books, magazines, newspapers, and other non-scholarly publications. It is most common in history courses and may incorporate footnotes and endnotes.  It is also sometimes referred to as Turabian and is considered the citation of choice for the American Anthropological Association and the Organization of American Historians.

Key Point to Remember…

Chicago style bibliography pages are listed and numbered by their order of appearance within the paper.


Article in a print journal: (Note: List the specific page numbers consulted or page range for the whole article.)

Wiener, Jamila. “The Market in Plato’s Republic,” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.

Article in an online journal: (Note: Include a doi if available, otherwise list a URL. It is customary to list an access date.)

Cosines, George, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed October 12, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Article in a newspaper or popular magazine:

Holden, Tamika and Robert Gomez, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times, February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2012,

Books, Printed Materials

One author:

Pole, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2012.

Two or more authors:

Ward, Kevin C., and Ken Burnside. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

For four or more authors: (Note: list all of the authors in the bibliography; however, in the end- or foot- note, list only the first author, followed by et al. (which means “and others”) :

1. Diana Blanton et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporations in the 1960s

2. Blanton et al., Plastics . . .

Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author:

Lahore, Richard trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author:

Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Eddie Gross. London: Cape, 2011.

Chapter or other part of a book:

Kelly, John D. “Seeing Red: Mao Fathoms.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kerry, Beatrice Jarvis, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book:

Rigger, James. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Web-Based Materials

Webpage or Website:

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note (“As of July 19, 2013, the Xerox Corporation listed on its website . . .”).

The following examples are more elaborate citations and can be used if needed.  Note that such content is subject to change, so be sure to include an access date or list the date that the site was last modified.

Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2013.

McDonald’s Corporation. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19, 2013.

Blog entry or comment:

Blog entries or comments are often excluded from the end of paper bibliography and instead mentioned in text (“In a comment posted to The Ratchet Blog on April 3, 2010 . . .”).

The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If an access date is required, add it before the URL.

Jack, April 3, 2010 (7:03 p.m.), comment on Richard Bowles, “Double Exports in Five Years?,” The Ratchet Blog, December 1, 2010,

E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in text (“In a text message to the author on March 1, 2011, John Doe revealed . . .”).  They are rarely listed in a bibliography. Here is a more formal, bibliographic example if you choose to create one:

John Doe, e-mail message to author, May 31, 2011.

Item in a commercial database

For items retrieved from a commercial database, add the name of the database and an accession number following the facts of publication.

Choi, Mahwah. “Contesting Imaginaries in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2011. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted – either print or web. For books consulted online, list a URL and include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2010), Kindle edition.

Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), accessed July 19, 2013,

In-Text Citations

In-text citations should include the year and actual page number. If the sources you use should be cited in the text of your paper, either in parentheses or as part of the text itself, refer to the following examples:

During the turbulent 1960s, science fiction programs on television reflected the public's attitudes toward the older generation (Hodgkin 2003, 176).

Hodgkin (2003, 176) discussed how, during the turbulent 1960s, science fiction programs on television reflected the public's attitudes toward the older generation.

In a 2003 article, Hodgkin (176) discussed how, during the turbulent 1960s, science fiction programs on television reflected the public's attitudes toward the older generation.

Two authors:

(Kirby and Spock 2013, 47)

Three authors:

(Kirby, Spock, and McCoy 2013, 47)

Four or more authors:

(Kirby et al. 2013, 47)
Note: Be sure to include all of the authors in the reference list.       

Corporate author:

(NAACP 2011, 47)
Note: It is okay to create an abbreviation for long names.

No author:

("Evening Glory" 2005, 47)
Note:  Use the first few words to shorten the title, excluding initial articles. Place the title in italics or quotation marks (or neither) the same way that you would in the reference list.

No page numbers:

(Copper 2011, para. 2.16)
("Triumphed" 2011, under "1990s Series")

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