Aesthetics Essays

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Widdowson's Claim That Television and Film Cannot Produce an Aesthetic Effect Essay

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43863977


Widdowson claims that television and film do not fit the definition of "literary" objects. For one, a script for film or television production has no autonomy. As Widdowson points out, "while there is always a script on which the finished product is based, the script is granted little status or autonomy as an object of reading in and for itself" (124). Of course, an interested party can seek out the script for study but scripts are rarely encountered for their literally literary function: as pieces of writing that exist for the sole purpose of being read as texts.

Moreover, Widdowson notes that the finished product in film or television is "always already mediated/interpreted" in order to become a motion picture. In other words, the director, actors, and cinematographers alter the original script in fundamental ways. These fundamental means of altering the original (or, as Widdowson calls it, "originary") product, the script, are exactly what makes film and television not have the same aesthetic effect as other literary forms like poetry. With film and television, the problem of interpretation exists. The same script can be interpreted in a number of different ways, just as a poem written by an ancient Greek can be interpreted (translated) in different ways. What one person believes to be the original intent of the poet might not be what another believes: this is why there are differences in aesthetic effects when reading different versions of the Bible, or Homer, or other seminal pieces of writing in archaic languages. Interpretation problems occur even with living languages, as two different translators will render the poetry of Borges or Rilke in completely different ways, using different diction. A resulting aesthetic effect will be unique for each reader, too. The same script in the hands of two different directors will also be rendered totally differently.

As Widdowson notes, the…… [Read More]

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Story of Greek Tragedy Essay

Words: 2088 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29632964


Sophocles' Antigone is taken as a paradigm of the very idea of tragedy. Why is Sophocles' play called "Antigone" and not "Creon"?

The play "Antigone" by Sophocles illustrates many of the factors and paradigms that go into defining a great tragedy. A tragedy can be thought of as a literary work in which the principal character is engulfed in some form of a morally significant struggle which in the end results in ruin or in which the primary character experiences some profound disappointment in their life. Throughout the tragedy "Antigone," Sophocles uses many literary techniques to engage the empathy of the reader and manifest feelings of fear and pity which is a requirement of an excellent tragedy.

To meet all of the requirements for a great classical tragedy, the plot must achieve the response of fear and pity in the reader. In the plot of "Antigone," Sophocles does a great job of highlight the prompts of these emotional responses. The plot also includes many sub-themes that are related to the creation of these emotions. For example, another lesson or theme that is evident is the role of stubbornness and how stubbornness can prevent the person from conduct themselves in a thoughtful and disciplined manner. In the story, Antigone's stubbornness and his sentiments towards her brother offers the reader a moral lesson. A similar theme can also be exhibited by Creon's unwillingness to give in to Antigone because of worry about the way such actions would be perceived by others. However, the blind adherence to stubbornness ultimately sets the stage for the personal tragedy in which Creon loses all at the end of the play in great pain and alone. The experience of such personal losses have a timeless quality in which they can still prompt empathy from readers from different cultures and through different periods of history and the themes in the story are still relevant even in the modern age.

Plot Overview

In the story of Antigone, the plot begins with the mention of Oedipus and how his two sons, Polyneices and Eteocles, have already died. This has left an opening in…… [Read More]

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High Renaissance Bramante and the Essay

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4871289

The second stage was of the Ionic order and with windows, rising to the level of the first apartments of the papal palace and of those of the Belvedere; to form subsequently a loggia more than four hundred paces on the side towards Rome and another towards the wood, with the valley between, so that it was necessary to bring all the water of the Belvedere and to erect a beautiful fountain" (Vasari, 2006, Donato Bramante).

The work combined elements of a variety of sacred and secular Roman architecture in its inspiration and design. Its "axiality recalled the ancient temple complex at Palestrina, the symbolism of the Cortile del Belvedere (1507-7) combined overtones of Roman villa and theatre" (Donato Bramante, 2011, Encyclopedia of Art). Unlike the anonymous artists of the Gothic era, Bramante proudly created a frieze on the front of the Belvedere which bore the name of his patron the Pope and also his own, celebrating his achievement. The antique gallery in the Belvedere contained statues of Greek antiquity (Vasari, 2006, Donato Bramante). This willingness to proudly take credit for his labor and to include images that celebrated the beauty of the human form, including works that predated Christianity, embodied a spirit of intellectual tolerance that could not have existed previously.

What was supposed to be Bramante's greatest work, the complete rebuilding of St. Peter's basilica, was never fully realized, but of the designs that remain it was clear that Bramante envisioned a far more Roman-like conception of St. Peter's than what was eventually constructed: "Bramante's vision for St. Peter's, a centralized Greek cross plan that symbolized sublime perfection for him and his generation & #8230;was fundamentally altered by the extension of the nave after his death in 1514. Bramante's plan envisaged four great chapels filling the corner spaces between the equal transepts, each one capped with a smaller dome surrounding the great dome over the crossing" (Donato Bramante, 2011, All About). Bramante's was succeeded by a number of architects, finally cumulating in his successor Michelangelo: "Michelangelo returned to the fundamental ideas of the brilliant creator, and by the completion of the dome substantially carried the work to a conclusion. The curvature of the dome is not quite as bold and effective as that planned by Bramante; on the other hand it offers in its greater rise, a much more elegant and vigorous silhouette" (Donato Bramante,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Catt, Kasey. (2011). Donato Bramante. PSU. Retrieved September 6, 2011 at

Chilvers, Ian. (2004). Bramante, Donato. The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford University
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Nature Imitates Art Imitating Nature Essay

Words: 3164 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72376537

" (41) it is unclear how to understand "things are because we see them." Traditionally perception is conceived as a passive process: we open our eyes and receive input from the world. Kant suggests that perhaps it is not so passive: we "organize" the world into temporal and spatial dimensions, attribute cause and effect, etc. But what Wilde suggests here is even more radical. The "things are because" suggests a causal relationship, such that what we see exists as an effect of seeing. It would be as if looking "paints" the world. But this is completely absurd. Onto what would seeing "paint" the world? and, even weirder, notice that it wouldn't be that seeing paints the world so that we could then look at what was painted. Rather, it would be that seeing is painting, so that we always see and paint simultaneously, always just "creating" whatever we see, under the influence of the arts.

I pause a moment to consider this claim because there is a popular related claim: our beliefs determine what we see, hear, etc. If you believe that Mary is beautiful, then you "see her differently," you do not see the same thing that Mary's detractors do when they look at her. Wilde could claim this commonplace view as supporting his thesis as follows. When we look at nature, our experience of it is "mediated" by our past experiences of landscape paintings, poetic descriptions of snowy forests, etc. Having come to believe that these works of art are faithful representations of the world, we expect to see them when we look upon landscapes, snowy forests, etc. And since our beliefs determine what we see, we see what has already been art. And so nature, so far as we can see it, imitates art.

But it isn't at all true that what we…… [Read More]

2. Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray and Other Writings. New York: Pocket Books, 2005. 241-365. Print.

The Decay of Lying was first published in 1889; the Golden Stair is from 1880.
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Are Video Games Art Essay

Words: 8319 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81588196

Pervasive Video Games as Art

The form and function of art has evolved and changed quite a bit over the years, decades and millennia. Paintings and sculpture have been artistic mainstays for much to most of the world of the civilized human race. However, with the technological revolution that has roared up over the last fifty years or so, new forms of art have bubbled to the proverbial surface. Digital technology has enhanced prior forms of art e such as photography. Beyond that, completely brand new forms have art have been created and the latter is what this report is assessing in the form of pervasive video games. The depth and breadth of this art and the effects it has on its users and fans when done will are worthy of massive study and analysis both in this report and elsewhere.

Chapter I - Introduction

Video games, at this point in history in the mid-2010's, is not new and has not been for some time. However, the richness of video games has allowed for the creation and propagation of alternative worlds and universes that allow people to become engrossed in things such as gameplay, the world created and the culture that has been created within the same. Such a line of thought would have been deemed to have been sheer madness prior to the technological revolution and expansion of the definition of art over the last 50 years. Even today, such supposition and statements would seem to be over the top and beyond the pale to many people. Some would even snicker at the idea of losing one's self in a video game world and culture. However, this phenomenon and happenstance absolutely happens albeit to varying degrees. Some people ignore this as it happen while the other side of the spectrum either welcomes the escape no matter how silly or far-fetched it may seem. As with most things, most people that have an opinion about the topic fall somewhere in the middle.

This event, to the extent that it does happen, is a natural offshoot of a society that is becoming more digital, automated and communication-based in nature. Social media and internet technology in general has made the world a lot…… [Read More]

Blizzard. "World of Warcraft." World of Warcraft. / (accessed

May 29, 2014).
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Views of Immanuel Kant and Eduard Hanslick on Formalist and Modernist Approach Art and Music Essay

Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63614564

Kant, Hanslick and Music

Kant and Hanslick on Music and the Beauty Thereof

Several theories have been formulated regarding how art should be evaluated aesthetically and how this aesthetic evaluation can be applied to music. While some contend that aesthetics and music should be evaluated from a Marxist perspective in which socio-historic factors are taken into consideration, others contend that a work of art should be judged based upon its form or structure. In order to better understand what can and is considered beautiful, one can look to Immanuel Kant's The Critique of Judgment; likewise, Eduard Hanslick in Vom Musikalisch-Schonen: Ein Betrag Zur Revision der Asthetik der Tonkunst (On the Musically Beautiful: A Contribution Towards the Revision of the Aesthetics of Music) is able to build upon Kant's arguments regarding beauty and attempt to define what makes music aesthetically pleasing.

Music is a special kind of art because it is considered to be a uniquely human process. Due to music's uniqueness, it is believed that certain values can be expressed through the medium and that music has the potential to be a vehicle for the expression of values. Furthermore, music is a subdivision of sound with the other category being comprised of noise. While noise does not have a formal structure of any sort, "music is the sole source of organized sound" (Graham, 95). Moreover, music has the capacity of being used to convey ideas that "relate to audible changes in strength, motion, and proportion…consequently [including]…ideas of increasing and diminishing, acceleration and deceleration, clever interweavings simple progressions [of ideas] and the like" (Robinson, 296).

Music is also unlike all other forms of art since it requires an audience to be willing to partake or participate in the art. Since no one forces an individual to listen to music then it is the listener that makes the determination as to what he or she will listen to. Eduard Hanslick contends that,

The servile dependence of the various special aesthetics upon a supreme metaphysical principle of general aesthetics is…… [Read More]

"Classicism and the Avant-Garde in 19th-Century Music." PowerPoint Presentation. Fall 2011.

Graham, Gordon. Philosophy of the Arts: An Introduction to Aesthetics. New York: Routledge,
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Baderman Island Shingle Replacement Replacing Essay

Words: 1046 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93039436

Advances in title-production have also made customization an option in tiles that are at the high-end of the market (House Building, 2007). Roof tiles are also known for their sustainability or environmentally friendly characteristics and low cost of ownership (TCO) over time (House Building, 2007). In addition to all of these attributes, tiles are known for being self-cleaning and having a very high resiliency to weather extremes.

The second option fo installing premium tiles at $50 per square foot meets with the aesthetic, branding and customer service requirements for the roof replacement. The opportunity cost of the installed however is very high at 3 weeks or $30,000 yet the tile is prospected to last 40 years. There is also an $875 per year amortization cost to this option assuming there is no incremental maintenance to be done. At $35,000 this is also the priciest option there is and needs to be re-evaluated based on costs alone.

The third option is using Composite Tile, which is tile comprised from a variety of materials including concrete and shock-resistant materials (House Building, 2007). Composite tile is comparable to the higher-end tile materials in Option 2, yet the TCO is extremely low given its resilient finish. It is consistent with the overall aesthetics of the Island report and can be tailored to specific color needs at a relatively low cost compared to the more premium tiles as well (House Building, 2007). Composite tiles also have an exceptionally low replacement rate given the combination of elements used to create them (House Building, 2007). With a total cost of $23,500 and an amortization cost of $783.33 per year, and the fact that composite tiles can be special ordered for no charge from many vendors (House Building, 2007) this alternative is recommended. The following table provides an analysis of all three alternatives.


The replacement of the Convention Center roof is a critical decision in the long-term lifecycle of that asset. The preventative maintenance aspects of this decision and the selection fo Composite Tiles will significantly reduce TCO while also causing the minimum amount of disruption to the Convention Center's availability. Tiles are also the best approach to minimizing reactive maintenance, which would…… [Read More]

Bullock, J.H. (1979). Maintenance planning and control. Strategic Finance, 60(10), 53-53.

Engebretson, G.A., & Skokan, B. (1997). Facilities management benchmarks: Lessons learned. AACE International Transactions, (15287106), 7-11.