Aesthetics Essays Examples

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Widdowson's Claim That Television and Film Cannot Produce an Aesthetic Effect

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43863977

Aesthetics

Widdowson claims that television and film do not fit the definition of "literary" objects. For one, a script for film or television production has no autonomy. As Widdowson points out, "while there is always a script on which the finished product is based, the script is granted little status or autonomy as an object of reading in and for itself" (124). Of course, an interested party can seek out the script for study but scripts are rarely encountered for their literally literary function: as pieces of writing that exist for the sole purpose of being read as texts.

Moreover, Widdowson notes that the finished product in film or television is "always already mediated/interpreted" in order to become a motion picture. In other words, the director, actors, and cinematographers alter the original script in fundamental ways. These fundamental means of altering the original (or, as Widdowson calls it, "originary") product, the script, are exactly what makes film and television not have the same aesthetic effect as other literary forms like poetry. With film and television, the problem of interpretation exists. The same script can be interpreted in a number of different ways, just as a poem written by an ancient…… [Read More]

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Story of Greek Tragedy

Words: 2088 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29632964

Aesthetics

Sophocles' Antigone is taken as a paradigm of the very idea of tragedy. Why is Sophocles' play called "Antigone" and not "Creon"?

The play "Antigone" by Sophocles illustrates many of the factors and paradigms that go into defining a great tragedy. A tragedy can be thought of as a literary work in which the principal character is engulfed in some form of a morally significant struggle which in the end results in ruin or in which the primary character experiences some profound disappointment in their life. Throughout the tragedy "Antigone," Sophocles uses many literary techniques to engage the empathy of the reader and manifest feelings of fear and pity which is a requirement of an excellent tragedy.

To meet all of the requirements for a great classical tragedy, the plot must achieve the response of fear and pity in the reader. In the plot of "Antigone," Sophocles does a great job of highlight the prompts of these emotional responses. The plot also includes many sub-themes that are related to the creation of these emotions. For example, another lesson or theme that is evident is the role of stubbornness and how stubbornness can prevent the person from conduct themselves in…… [Read More]

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High Renaissance Bramante and the

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4871289

The second stage was of the Ionic order and with windows, rising to the level of the first apartments of the papal palace and of those of the Belvedere; to form subsequently a loggia more than four hundred paces on the side towards Rome and another towards the wood, with the valley between, so that it was necessary to bring all the water of the Belvedere and to erect a beautiful fountain" (Vasari, 2006, Donato Bramante).

The work combined elements of a variety of sacred and secular Roman architecture in its inspiration and design. Its "axiality recalled the ancient temple complex at Palestrina, the symbolism of the Cortile del Belvedere (1507-7) combined overtones of Roman villa and theatre" (Donato Bramante, 2011, Encyclopedia of Art). Unlike the anonymous artists of the Gothic era, Bramante proudly created a frieze on the front of the Belvedere which bore the name of his patron the Pope and also his own, celebrating his achievement. The antique gallery in the Belvedere contained statues of Greek antiquity (Vasari, 2006, Donato Bramante). This willingness to proudly take credit for his labor and to include images that celebrated the beauty of the human form, including works that predated Christianity,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Catt, Kasey. (2011). Donato Bramante. PSU. Retrieved September 6, 2011 at http://www.personal.psu.edu/mrp5074/donato%20Bramante.html

Chilvers, Ian. (2004). Bramante, Donato. The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford University
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Nature Imitates Art Imitating Nature

Words: 3164 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72376537

" (41) it is unclear how to understand "things are because we see them." Traditionally perception is conceived as a passive process: we open our eyes and receive input from the world. Kant suggests that perhaps it is not so passive: we "organize" the world into temporal and spatial dimensions, attribute cause and effect, etc. But what Wilde suggests here is even more radical. The "things are because" suggests a causal relationship, such that what we see exists as an effect of seeing. It would be as if looking "paints" the world. But this is completely absurd. Onto what would seeing "paint" the world? and, even weirder, notice that it wouldn't be that seeing paints the world so that we could then look at what was painted. Rather, it would be that seeing is painting, so that we always see and paint simultaneously, always just "creating" whatever we see, under the influence of the arts.

I pause a moment to consider this claim because there is a popular related claim: our beliefs determine what we see, hear, etc. If you believe that Mary is beautiful, then you "see her differently," you do not see the same thing that Mary's detractors…… [Read More]

Sources:
2. Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray and Other Writings. New York: Pocket Books, 2005. 241-365. Print.

The Decay of Lying was first published in 1889; the Golden Stair is from 1880.
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Are Video Games Art

Words: 8319 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81588196

Pervasive Video Games as Art

The form and function of art has evolved and changed quite a bit over the years, decades and millennia. Paintings and sculpture have been artistic mainstays for much to most of the world of the civilized human race. However, with the technological revolution that has roared up over the last fifty years or so, new forms of art have bubbled to the proverbial surface. Digital technology has enhanced prior forms of art e such as photography. Beyond that, completely brand new forms have art have been created and the latter is what this report is assessing in the form of pervasive video games. The depth and breadth of this art and the effects it has on its users and fans when done will are worthy of massive study and analysis both in this report and elsewhere.

Chapter I - Introduction

Video games, at this point in history in the mid-2010's, is not new and has not been for some time. However, the richness of video games has allowed for the creation and propagation of alternative worlds and universes that allow people to become engrossed in things such as gameplay, the world created and the culture…… [Read More]

References:
Blizzard. "World of Warcraft." World of Warcraft. http://us.battle.net/wow/en / (accessed

May 29, 2014).
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Views of Immanuel Kant and Eduard Hanslick on Formalist and Modernist Approach Art and Music

Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63614564

Kant, Hanslick and Music

Kant and Hanslick on Music and the Beauty Thereof

Several theories have been formulated regarding how art should be evaluated aesthetically and how this aesthetic evaluation can be applied to music. While some contend that aesthetics and music should be evaluated from a Marxist perspective in which socio-historic factors are taken into consideration, others contend that a work of art should be judged based upon its form or structure. In order to better understand what can and is considered beautiful, one can look to Immanuel Kant's The Critique of Judgment; likewise, Eduard Hanslick in Vom Musikalisch-Schonen: Ein Betrag Zur Revision der Asthetik der Tonkunst (On the Musically Beautiful: A Contribution Towards the Revision of the Aesthetics of Music) is able to build upon Kant's arguments regarding beauty and attempt to define what makes music aesthetically pleasing.

Music is a special kind of art because it is considered to be a uniquely human process. Due to music's uniqueness, it is believed that certain values can be expressed through the medium and that music has the potential to be a vehicle for the expression of values. Furthermore, music is a subdivision of sound with the other category being…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
"Classicism and the Avant-Garde in 19th-Century Music." PowerPoint Presentation. Fall 2011.

Graham, Gordon. Philosophy of the Arts: An Introduction to Aesthetics. New York: Routledge,
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Baderman Island Shingle Replacement Replacing

Words: 1046 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93039436

Advances in title-production have also made customization an option in tiles that are at the high-end of the market (House Building, 2007). Roof tiles are also known for their sustainability or environmentally friendly characteristics and low cost of ownership (TCO) over time (House Building, 2007). In addition to all of these attributes, tiles are known for being self-cleaning and having a very high resiliency to weather extremes.

The second option fo installing premium tiles at $50 per square foot meets with the aesthetic, branding and customer service requirements for the roof replacement. The opportunity cost of the installed however is very high at 3 weeks or $30,000 yet the tile is prospected to last 40 years. There is also an $875 per year amortization cost to this option assuming there is no incremental maintenance to be done. At $35,000 this is also the priciest option there is and needs to be re-evaluated based on costs alone.

The third option is using Composite Tile, which is tile comprised from a variety of materials including concrete and shock-resistant materials (House Building, 2007). Composite tile is comparable to the higher-end tile materials in Option 2, yet the TCO is extremely low given its…… [Read More]

References:
Bullock, J.H. (1979). Maintenance planning and control. Strategic Finance, 60(10), 53-53.

Engebretson, G.A., & Skokan, B. (1997). Facilities management benchmarks: Lessons learned. AACE International Transactions, (15287106), 7-11.
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Video Games Interactivity

Words: 9740 Length: 31 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66772662

Interactivity in Video Games and Movies

Information technology has changed the way we live in today's world. Everything from our television to our cell phones are connected through network medium. Computers define the way we do many of the things in our lives, such as, how we maintain our bills and expenses to even conducting business activities online. Therefore, it comes as no surprise to know that the gaming industry is worth over nine billion dollars worldwide. This paper is a dissertation, which aims to compare the interactivity of games to movies and how their consumers view them.

Chapter I The Rise of Video Games

Chapter II Games as a Major Form of Entertainment in Today's World

Chapter III Studying Games

Chapter IV Games, Media and Interactivity

Chapter V Exploring interactivity in video games and movies

Chapter VI Home Entertainment Networks

Chapter VII Violence in Games

Chapter VIII Are Games Just for Boys

Chapter IX Indiana Jones and Tomb Raider

Chapter X The Use of Streaming Media in the Gaming and Video Industry 30

Chapter XI Online World of Games called Linden Lab:

An Example of Streaming Technology

Chapter XII Problems Associated with Streaming Technology

Chapter XIII What makes Streaming…… [Read More]

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Magritte and Wallace John Dewey

Words: 3649 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95216166

The latter's dark waves unify experiences of a fearsome and truly elemental ocean in the winter; of a fish's waterside flopping as simultaneously pathetic, terrifying, and heart-breaking; and one's own experiences of helplessness. But I think we should be loathe to take these differences in degree of unity as differences in kind of experience. Viewing either Collective Invention or a Necker Cube constitutes an experience, rather than simply leading to one. We should say that each is a work of art.

Collective Invention, however, is perhaps great art. If so, then according to Dewey, it should not only be that viewing it constitutes an experience, as with the Necker Cube; it should be that viewing it repeatedly constitutes repeated experiences; and each successive experience of it is deeper -- which, I assume, is to say that each successive experience unifies more experiences.

I should now like to ask whether two works that I consider masterpieces do seem to be possessed of an inexhaustible depth of meaning. The works are Rene Magritte's painting Collective Invention and David Foster Wallace's novel Infinite Jest. I conclude that each of these masterworks does indeed seem to contain an inexhaustible depth of meaning. But this…… [Read More]

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Yuago From the Tale of

Words: 837 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46038993

(108-109) This would seem to indicate that when it came to older women, particularly family or other close personal acquaintances, it was proper to show respect, and even emotions for such persons regardless of their social class.

Heian society was highly regulated and hierarchical, and from this it can be concluded that the government was highly regulated and hierarchical. It is clear from the text that the Heian Japan was ruled by an Imperial government with an Emperor at the head. It would also seem clear that many of the official posts of the government are filled with aristocratic men. Prince Genji himself, the son of the Emperor by a lower concubine, held a government post. It is also clear that Heian Japan's dominant religious belief was Buddhism. There are many examples of Buddhist rites and traditions throughout the text. For example, it was described that in the depths of his grief, Genji prayed "…inwardly to the Buddha," (132) and later when the Emperor mistakenly thought Genji ill, the Emperor ordered "…continual prayers to be said for him in all the major temples." The Emperor appears to be following Buddhist religious practices, and if the Emperor was Buddhist, then Buddhism…… [Read More]

Resources:
Keene, Donald. Anthology of Japanese Literature, from the Earliest Era to the Mid-nineteenth Century. New York, Grove, 1955. Print.
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Girl Scouts and the Eight

Words: 879 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32428845

Even so, the rate of such situations is rather limited and parents fully trust the organization's capabilities and consider it a highly reliable institution that is most likely to retrieve the desired results.

4. Conformance

Girl Scouts operates in full accordance with all pre-established national, international and organizational standards. They respect and protect all human and children's rights. The organization is committed to respecting all regulations and is even working on developing new ones that offer better protection for children and girls across the globe.

5. Durability

Most programs initiated by Girl Scouts have life time durability. This length can easily be explained by the fact that these programs are so created as to leave an eternal mark. They are useful lessons for life and they aid to the building and formation of the girls' characters. Girls who learn to be independent and kind to those in need are prone to manifest such behaviour throughout the rest of their lives.

6. Serviceability

Girl Scouts is not a directly serviceable program. It is neither ruthless nor useless; it is simply there to aid the girls learn how to 'serve' themselves and the others. And serve in the meaning of aid. The…… [Read More]

References:
2007, Official Website of Girl Scouts of the U.S.A., http://www.girlscouts.org/,last accessed on November 20, 2007

2007, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, http://www.wagggs.org/en/home, last accessed on November 20, 2007
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Price Beauty 'For Though Beauty Is Seen

Words: 6265 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40095914

Price Beauty?

'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this head have almost been given up"

William Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, (1753)

Not very encouraging words, but if the great artist William Hogarth felt himself up to the task, we can attempt at least to follow his lead. That beauty is enigmatic goes almost without saying. Different ages, different cultures, and even different individuals, will have their own definitions of "beauty." The problem is more than skin deep. Any term that can be so widely and irregularly employed is bound to trap the casual researcher ... Or reader ... Or viewer ... Or for that matter, any other human being who attempts to define what is and what is not "beauty." People, places, things -- even ideas dreams -- can all be beautiful. Each can be beautiful for a different reason. Sometimes beauty is a kind of code word for "harmonious," or "slim," or "profound." It all depends on the context, and on your point-of-view. A man of the Eighteenth Century, like Daniel Defoe, would likely have had a very…… [Read More]

Sources:
Al-Braizat, Fares. "Muslims and Democracy: An Empirical Critique of Fukuyama's Culturalist Approach." International Journal of Comparative Sociology (2002): 269+.

Browne, Stephen H. "EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797)." Eighteenth-Century British and American Rhetorics and Rhetoricians: Critical Studies and Sources. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. 42-50.
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James Spoils People Things and

Words: 2590 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48459477



Fleda has no artifice about her: she is frank, honest, and acts with an unwavering sense of ethical commitment that is almost as single-minded -- though naturally more varied and nuanced -- as Mrs. Gereth's sense of artistic appreciation. She is a woman of ideas just as much as Mrs. Gereth is a woman consumed by her passion with things. In fact, the dichotomy that these two women represent can be seen in the opening chapter of the novel, when Mrs. Gereth "thingifies" Fleda by saying (or rather, with the narrator saying, though seeming to deliver Mrs. Gereth's inner thoughts), "Fleda Vetch was dressed with an idea, though perhaps not with much else" (Ch. I, par. 2). The near-nakedness of Fleda's ideas and ideals is seen time and time again throughout the Spoils of Poynton, as she attempts to manipulate Owen and Mrs. Gereth, by turns and one at the behest of the other, but does so with near total honesty to each. Even when she is not being entirely forthcoming her face reveals everything, especially to Mrs. Gereth, as Fleda's sensibilities run towards the internal world of ideas rather than the external world of things -- she is as…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Baym, Nina. Fleda Vetch and the Plot of the Spoils of Poynton. PMLA 84(1): 102-11.

Broderick, John C. Nature, Art, and Imagination in the Spoils of Poynton. Nineteenth Century Fiction 13(4): 295-312.
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Masculine in Happy Together Chinese Film the

Words: 1926 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2125322

Masculine in Happy Together

Chinese Film

The paper will focus upon the issue of masculinity in Happy Together, a film written and directed by acclaimed director, Wong Kar Wai. "Happy Together" is also the name of a song by The Turtles. It was a popular lovesong about the classic story of boy meets girl and they fall in love. Happy Together is another sort of lovesong, but one more bittersweet about when boy meets boy, and they cannot stop falling in and out of love. The film takes place in the late 1990s in Argentina. Ho Po-Wing and Lai Yu-Fai are young lovers from Hong Kong on holiday in Argentina. They once bought a lamp of a famous waterfall that exists in Argentina. The couple is madly in love with each other, whether they are together or broken up. Over the course of their excursion/road trip in Argentina to the falls, they get lost on the road. Ho Po-Wing dumps Lai Yu-Fai, played by the famous Tony Leung. This film is one of at least three films Wong Kar Wai and he have worked on together. The young men become stranded in Argentina without enough money to return to Hong…… [Read More]

Resources:
Wai, W.K. (1997) Happy Together. 97 minutes.

Zhang, Y. (2004) Chinese National Cinema. Routledge: NY.
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Apocalypse Concerning the Apocalypse in Art of the Technological Era

Words: 4255 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44389119

Apocalypse of Art in the Tech Era

Modern Apocalypse Art and Technological Aspects

The purpose of this paper is to examine modern art, in particular that which is referred to as "apocalypse art" and further to examine the interactions between art and technology. Specifically this paper will look at the new dimensions that technology has contributed to the rendering of art as well as what contribution or impact that art has rendered to technology.

The methodology for this study is through examination of several of the artists as well as scholars who are in some way interconnected in this process of producing apocalypse art.

The question that seems to weigh on the minds of those who view the modern "apocalypse" art exhibits asks:

Has this artist attempted to achieve the effect of shock or is the artist attempting to convey some deeper truth?"

London's Art Gallery featured an exhibit entitled "Apocalypse" in the year of 2000. Reports were many but the theme of the reports were pretty much the same which was that of shock, ridicule and disbelief that the artist could take themselves as "real." Reuters News, London, description of the exhibit was:

giant sculpture in the shape of…… [Read More]

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Texas Chainsaw and Pink Flamingos

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88655551

Texas Chainsaw Massacre and Pink Flamingos belong to utterly different genres, they share in common aesthetic sensibilities that celebrate the macabre, fetish, and even the grotesque. As such, both films encapsulate the punk aesthetic and its complete disregard for, and subversion of, the manufactured "beauty" packaged by the dominant culture. Both these films were released in the early years of the 1970s, Pink Flamingos in 1972 and The Texas Chainsaw Massacre in 1974. In many ways, both films capture the disillusionment with popular culture and with establishment norms and values. The early years of the 1970s arrived at the tail end of the counterculture movement of the late 1960s, during which sexual norms and gender norms, as well as norms related to race and class were being systematically challenged. As the Vietnam War wound to a bitter end, many Americans confronted deep and even existential questions about their own society and especially its cultural myths. The Texas Chainsaw Massacre and Pink Flamingos challenge prevailing myths about American culture and American beauty.

Tobe Hooper's 1974 film The Texas Chainsaw Massacre fails to conform to mainstream aesthetics, and directly subverts those aesthetic judgments. Its monster, Leatherface, is everything a handsome man or…… [Read More]

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Beauty the Nature and Principles

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90777667



Socrates and Plotinus also have very similar ideas on how Beauty is recognized, which though intimately related to their ideas on the nature of Beauty are somewhat different, also. For both men, Beauty was connected to the eternal. Socrates, being at least somewhat (and perhaps completely) atheistic, does not immediately or necessarily connect the concept of the eternal with the concept of the divine, however, but rather recognizes the inherent Beauty in the only act of immortality that mortals can engage in -- procreation and generation, which leads to "beauty in birth." The physical act of love between a man and a woman is described by Socrates -- through the voice of Diotima -- as an act of supreme beauty, and its effects are equally beautiful, as it causes immortality and hence touches upon the eternal. Beauty is also connected to love because love cannot occur with deformity; the closer a material thing comes to representing its ideal form, the more Beautiful it becomes because it is closer to touching the eternal.

This argument in some ways celebrates material beauty, though only insofar as it connects to eternal Beauty. Plotinus sees this connection also, but departs from Socrates in his…… [Read More]

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Dramatic Performance Andrea Chenier

Words: 3388 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29738655

Andrea Chenier

Though Umberto Giordano's work has often been overshadowed by that of his rather more famous contemporary Giacomo Puccini, Giordano's Andrea Chenier offers the ideal site for one to engage in a critical examination of nineteenth century opera and the various thematic and stylistic strains popularized at the time, as well as the complications which arise from modern interpretation and performance. In particular, examining the critical history of verismo alongside the historical context of Andrea Chenier serves to demonstrate how fully a modern performance of the opera seemingly subsumes and dissolves any revolutionary character that might have been present in the original text by reproducing the story of doomed love during the French Revolution in a gaudy, ahistorical performance.

Before conducting an analysis of a modern performance of Andrea Chenier, there are a few key topics one must investigate further in order to place the subsequent analysis in its proper context. Firstly, as a means of historicizing this investigation, one may note that Andrea Chenier was first performed in 1896 and was one of Giordano's earliest works, even as he was one of the "youngest composers of the generation dominated by Giacomo Puccini in Italian opera" (Holland, 2010, p.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Giger, A. (2008). Landscape and gender in italian opera: The alpine virgin from bellini to puccini. Journal of the American Musicological Society, 61(2), 431-438, 454.

Giger, A. (2007). Verismo: Origin, corruption, and redemption of an operatic term. Journal of the American Musicological Society, 60(2), 271-315, 472.
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Laugier What Is Laugier's Justification

Words: 1064 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16492122



Why does Greenough object to American architects borrowing styles from Europe? Which of his reasons do you consider valid, and which are unconvincing?

The main objection Greenough has to American architects borrowing styles from Europe is that these styles are unsuited for the American background which is vast, open and different from Europe in terms of climate. Furthermore, unlike the religiously homogenous states in Europe, America is very diverse and therefore much of ecclesiastical architecture has no application. Furthermore the author sees the misappropriation of designs for purposes other than their original purpose as the surest sign of decline. I am not convinced that the issue of appropriateness of a certain kind of architecture to its purpose is a legitimate objection. Consider for example the rotunda of the Capitol Hill and compare it to the Vatican City's architecture.

Fathy:

Why does Fathy consider the plant is a good analogy for how architecture interacts with its environment? What does he think is wrong with looking at buildings as machines?

Plants are a good analogy to architecture's interaction with the environment because plants are attuned to their environment and climatic conditions. They are constantly interacting with their environment and have- to use…… [Read More]

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Agreement the Last Time You

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82303548

(Pendola) ("Radio Shack") ("Radio Shack Profits from Mobiles")

This helped us to understand how everything works and it allowed us to see the benefits of the Android over competitors. For instance, the Radio Shack salesperson helped us to transfer the settings from our old phone over to the new one. This made it easier to customize the device and select applications that were the most beneficial to us. (Pendola) ("Radio Shack") ("Radio Shack Profits from Mobiles")

The criterion that was used to prove if one location was better than the other was based upon a number of factors. To include: the response time, product knowledge and ability to meet our needs. In the case of response time, Radio Shack was quicker in welcoming us to the location and helping to select the best phone. Moreover, they had superior product knowledge and the ability to meet our needs when it comes to service. (Pendola) ("Radio Shack") ("Radio Shack Profits from Mobiles")

This is superior service and support in contrast with Best Buy. As the salesperson, did not welcome us or have the ability to help customize the phone. Once we left the location is when there were challenges after the purchase.…… [Read More]

Sources:
Evaluation Arguments, n.d.

"Radio Shack." Radio Shack, 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013.
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Fanon Frantz Black Skin White

Words: 1466 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15879983

Mannoni's belief that colonial racism is different than other kinds of racism Fanon dismisses as utterly naive: "All forms of exploitation are identical because all of them are applied against the same 'object': man" (88). He next turns to Mannoni's statement that a minority can only have experiences of dependency or inferiority toward the majority (92-93). Fanon spends the remainder of the chapter disproving this claim by engaging with various aspects of Mannoni's argument. He concludes that Mannoni's lacks foundation for his claims.

Fanon focuses this chapter on the observation that only in interaction with the white man is the black man compelled to "experience his being" (109). He argues that, contrary to other claims, this condition is not reciprocal; only the black man suffers from a 3rd person view of himself. Fanon strives to find an identity for the black man outside the parameters of the white man's view. He draws comparisons and contrasts to the black man and the Jew, yet he finds that he still has no identity there. He examines antiquated identities of the black man, his closer connection to the world and his ancient civilizations, and still finds him denied autonomy. In his exploration of…… [Read More]

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Vindication of the Rights of

Words: 12319 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94246949

Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:

Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)

Mary Wollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other women of their time. Much of their work as writers and political thinkers developed from and represented the spirit of the Romantic era in which they lived. Wollstonecraft said she sought justice for women. Specifically, such justice would be found when women were educated as were men and when women…… [Read More]

Resources:
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
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Andrea Chenier an Analysis of

Words: 3389 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61609133

For example, the scene in which Andrea stands before the statue of Marat and sings "Credi al destino" fails to evoke for me any real sensation. Perhaps it is because, as Grout suggests, the opera is "laden with harmonies that are heavy and oldfashioned [and] has little of special interest" (p. 495). Such could explain why the scenes feel at time clunky and abysmally lacking in flair. Still, at other times, they are vibrant and alive with life -- and those times are when the drama calls for gaity (not for fatalism or idealism).

The opera may, therefore, be interpreted as a political piece -- but I do not wish to convey that interpretation, for I think there is already too much Romanticism in contemporary politics today. I think Andrea fits better as a period piece that should be left in the period for which it was written: one that believed in revolution despite the bitterness of its effects. Today's audiences, I suspect, are less willing to undergo the martyrdom of the fictionalized poet for beliefs that history has proven to be somewhat stilted toward the utopian dream. Therefore, I would suggest that Andrea be performed and watched as an…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Beckmessers Rants. Retrieved from http://beckmessersrants.blogspot.com/2011/09/andre-chenier-in-geneva-and-importance.html

Mordden, E. (1980). The Splendid Art of Opera. NY: Methuen.

Zoran Todorovich -- Credi al destino. (2011). YouTube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sbKIvvFlHpk
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Bramante Architecture a Fact of History Is

Words: 1151 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52011850

Bramante Architecture

A fact of history is that Renaissance marked a new emerging base towards the already established architecture of antiquity that was rooted in thorough recovery of the past and new inventiveness, but it was because of this that the great cities of Europe gathered much of their form that is admired by the world today. The word renaissance has entered the minds of people with dominant positive connotations of pure genius and renewal. (Campbell, 2004)

Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the early 15th to 17th centuries in different areas of Europe which demonstrated a revival of elements of the ancient Greek and Roman thought and culture. First established in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, the renaissance spread like wild fire to other parts of Italy as well and from there the style was carried to France, England, Russia, Germany and other parts of Europe. (Gromort)

During the Renaissance, artists were no longer considered as mere artisans like they had been in the past. They were now considered to be personalities who were independent and comparable to writers and poets. It was a period of devoted exploration and it was during that time developments in humanism took place. (Kleiner,…… [Read More]

Sources:
Campbell, G. (2004). Renaissance art and architecture . (1 ed., p. 318). Oxford University

Press, USA.
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Benedict Park Urban Design and Ed Benedict

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95309497

Benedict Park

Urban Design and Ed Benedict Park

The story of Ed Benedict Park in Portland, Oregon, is indicative of many of the principles of urban design and the importance of gardening as a discipline, a knowledge area, and a matter of aesthetics. Named for the citizen that dedicated the last years of his life to claiming this publicly acquired space, the land that now contains a skateboard park, a public garden, playground structures and equipment for children, grassy areas for sports play and other recreation, and paved paths lined with trees for joggers and those simply out for a casual stroll. Each of these elements is integrated into the park as part of a cohesive design that takes up the entirety of a large block, and fits into the larger surroundings of Portland, Oregon and the specific area in which the park is isolated as both a well-integrated part of the landscape and a noticeable spot of green escape within a somewhat crowded urban area.

The many different purposes of Ed Benedict park suggest a philosophy similar to that espoused by John Evelyn in his description of the many "universal uses" of public parks and gardens. The skate park…… [Read More]

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Urban Forestry

Words: 1033 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51903840

Urban Forestry

Describe where you would locate your urban forest and explain why you would locate it there. Remember to take into account major features, waterways, elevations, roads, etc. As well as climate and soils of the location. You can describe the area by noting bordering roads and features.

The devastation created by Hurricane Katrina was at least partially due to the decision to build homes in areas highly prone to flooding during frequent storms. Given the likelihood of another catastrophic hurricane, 'locating' an urban forest as inland as possible on elevated ground would be essential. "New Orleans offers an opportunity to study an urban forest in a subtropical environment…The city has been built on the natural levees of the Mississippi River, backswamps, marshes, and reclaimed land along Lake Pontchartrain. Little of the natural vegetative cover of the site remains; today's urban forest is anthropogenic" (Talarchek 1987: 217). This means that virtually any urban forest created will be human-engineered, rather than a natural extension of the environment. The designers must seek to ensure that the forest is far away from the lowest-lying areas yet is still accessible to a cross-section of the population by virtue of being accessible by public…… [Read More]

Resources:
Gill, Dan. (2012). Fruit trees provide sweet harvest for your landscape. Times Picayune.

Retrieved:
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Frank Lloyd Wright Design Theory Frank Lloyd

Words: 1756 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33304275

Frank Lloyd Wright Design Theory

Frank Lloyd Wright is one of the most well-known architects in United States history. The buildings he created have a distinctive flow, both inside and out, which either draws or distracts the viewer. His most famous project is probably Fallingwater, a house he built for Edgar Kaufman and his wife just outside of Pittsburgh. This home is built with an incorporated waterfall that was supposed to bring the occupants closer to nature, and showed off an element of design that was a hallmark of Wright's work. This essay looks at two Frank Lloyd Wright houses, and the design concept that made him the country's most famous architect.

It is important to understand, briefly, who Frank Lloyd Wright was and how he developed his distinctive style. He was born in Wisconsin in a small town to unassuming parents. At 15, he went to the University of Wisconsin at Madison to become an engineer because "they had no school of architecture" (Hurder, 2001). When he left the university at 20, he apprenticed to several small architectural firms in Chicago as a drafter before he landed a job with Louis Sullivan, who at the time was the most…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Aikens, J. (2009). Fallingwater: The story of a country house. AIArchitect, 16.

Hurder, S. (2001). Brief biography of Frank Lloyd Wright. Retrieved from  http://www.oprf.com/flw/bio/ 
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Management Strategy Apple Inc -- Management Strategy

Words: 2370 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38943658

Management Strategy

Apple Inc. -- Management Strategy

Vision, Mission, and SMART Objectives

Vision

SMART Analysis

Strategy Implementation

Management Strategy

Apple Inc. has had a long history of reinventing itself. The first Apple computers were built in a garage without any type of case, monitor, or keyboard. Despite these modest origins, there was still demand for Apple grew exponentially. It wasn't long before Apple introduced the trademark Macintosh and then the Mac OS X which revolutionized the company. It was also at this time also dedicated much of the company's resources to aesthetics and further developing the Apple brand image through distinctive designs and intuitive features. This dedication to user friendly designs created generations of loyal customers who have fully embraced the Apple brand and champion the Apple products. The digital hub strategy which was responsible for the iPod, iPhone, and iPad completely revolutionized the industry. Make no mistake, Apple's competitive advantage is due to their ability to innovate and reinvent themselves at every corner.

However, with the death of Steve Jobs and information surfacing publicly about some of the challenges faced in the supply chain in regards to social and environmental issues, Apple must again reinvent themselves in order to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
HP, 2012. A Creative Outlet for Mac's Digital Hub. [Online]

Available at: http://h41140.www4.hp.com/mac_connect/pdf/hp_mac_background.pdf
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Saudi Arabia vs American Business Culture

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90817441

Saudi Arabia vs. American Business Culture

A number of U.S. And Europe-based MNCs have, in the past, suffered huge losses due to the lack of appreciation for the Asian way of conducting business, and their culture in general. This explains why it is necessary for businesses and individuals to understand and manage diversity in culture. There is a huge cultural variation between the western and the Asian worlds. Diversity management goes beyond just changing standards and valid expectations; it entails recognizing the fact that different groups would approach different situations in different ways, and then developing mechanisms through which potential frictions could be reduced. Whereas effective diversity management is a success factor, the contrary could have detrimental effects on the success of any business unit.

Differences between American and Saudi-Arabian Cultures

Religion and Language: U.S. doctrines strongly advocate for the separation of the church, and the state. The bulk of the American population is Christian, although there exists a significant number of non-Christian groups. Of significance is the fact that "religious observances do not usually interfere with business, and it is not uncommon, therefore, to find restaurant and chain store employees working during religious holidays such as Christmas" (Chaney &…… [Read More]

References:
CESL. (2008). The Differences between Saudi Society and American Society. AE2. Retrieved from  http://ceslae2.blogspot.com/2008/09/differences-between-saudi-society-and_13.html 

Chaney, L.H. & Martin, J.S. (2012). Global Business Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs (2nd ed.). Santa Barbra, CA: ABC-CLIO.
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Indian Art

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43859409

Indian Art

In what ways are the form and function of the Buddhist stupa and Hindu temple similar to or different from the Islamic mosque?

The Buddhist Stupa, the Hindu Temple, and the Islamic Mosque all have social, cultural, and religious functions. Their physical forms are more similar than they are different, in that each boasts tapered and often rounded edifices. However, Hindu temples are more likely to have angular features and involve the use of straight lines and parallel planes; both stupas and mosques prefer curvilinear elements and bulbous forms. Hindu temples and Muslim mosques will also have larger interior spaces devote to personal prayer.

In what ways may the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi be considered an Islamic (ate) building and an Indic one in terms of its construction and its design?

The Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi is clearly Islamic because of the minaret, as well as the domes and arches in the construction of the main edifice. The fundamental forms of these elements are clearly Islamic. There are also no anthropomorphic architectural or interior design elements, as there might be in Hindu, Jain, Buddhist, or other Indian architecture. However, the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque is also Indic…… [Read More]

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Industrial Revolution and Beyond it Is Difficult

Words: 4904 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64200298

Industrial Revolution and Beyond

It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. We imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: We think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. We imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the shift to machines came important shifts not only in the amount of work that each person had to do but in other aspects of society as well. Living as we all do in a world in which nearly everything is mass produced and so nearly everything that we come into…… [Read More]

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Manchester Town Hall and St Pancras New Church

Words: 1609 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20096353

London has a rich architectural history. Some of the most popular buildings today come from the 19th century when Victorian Gothic architecture was popular. St. Pancras New Church offers a take at Greek revival style with a brick build, faced with Portland stone. Another Victorian style building, Manchester Town Hall, while built in the same century as St. Pancras, has its differences thanks to the rapid expansion and accompanying pollution so frequently seen in Victorian cities. Both structures hallmarks of British Victorian architecture, but also indelibly varied and indicative of the skill and engineering of the architects of the era.

Pancras Paris Church, also called St. Pancras New Church is a Greek Revival church located in St. Pancras, London. The structure was constructed in three years from 1819-1822 and designed by Henry William and William Inwood. Placed along the south side of Euston Road and the northern boundary of Bloomsbury, the designers intended for the building to serve as the new principal or main church for the parish of St. Pancras. The old and original parish church existed to the north of what is called New Road.

Because the southern part of the parish expanded, a new church was a…… [Read More]

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Castelvecchio Mixing Old and New

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32186187



This specific example is also indicative of some of the general ways in which the building was modified and updated. In his restoration of Castelvecchio, Carlo Scarpa uses the basic geometric designs and patterns of the original medieval castle, but accentuates, develops, and emphasizes these geometric expressions in a very modern way. The concrete beam in the example above compliments the angularity of the room at large, but is almost an exaggeration of it. The beam itself s composed of three slabs of concrete at right angles to each other, forming three sides of a square or a sort of sideways "c," with the bottom open to the floor. Not only does the beams itself represent an intrusion of modern geometric appreciation into the castle, but even the construction of the beam itself reflects Scarpa's extreme devotion to geometry and geometric expression. This amplifies the geometry that is such an inherent part of the building, updating and reinforcing the original aesthetics of Castelvecchio.

Many of the doorways of the Castelvicchio also bear details that mark them as distinctively Scarpa's. Here, the style seems even more antiquated -- many of the doors are made of wooden grates that reflect medieval portcullises.…… [Read More]

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Vagina Monologues

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99133885

Vagina Monologues:

A Response

Theatrical performances of any kind are uniquely poised to evoke a myriad of audience responses. Unlike many other forms of artistic expression, theatre involves the visual, auditory, and emotional -- in short, a wide range of the human aesthetic experience is evoked in the performance. Thus, especially when the subject matter is of a particular novelty or controversial nature, one can virtually count on a strong aesthetic response in the viewer.

When one considers the nature of "aesthetics," one must consider not only the "nature" but the "value" of a form of artistic expression (ArtLex, 2005). This means that, philosophically, the human is supposed capable of reading "clues" in the work itself that can allow one to interpret/understand, as well as "judge" the work according to "beauty, taste ... function, nature, ontology, purpose, and so on (ArtLex)." Further, in the postmodern world, a great deal of interest goes into the definition of art in that it inhabits " ... A certain imprecise distinction between art and life ... (ArtLex)." In the case of the controversial theatrical/literary piece known as the "Vagina Monologues," the aesthetic experience evoked by the piece is (as in much art) is in…… [Read More]

Resources:
ArtLex. "Aesthetics." Web site. 2005. Retrieved from Web site on February 20, 2005, from< http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/a/aesthetics.html 

Shuttleworth, Ian. "The Vagina Monologues." The Financial Times. 10 May 2001. Retrieved from Web site on February 20, 2005, from
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Oscar Wilde Rebellion of His

Words: 4795 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85814865

" (Eksteins, 1994)

Eksteins writes that Britain had "in the last century...damned her great poets and writers, Byron had been chased out of the country, Shelley forbidden to raise his children, and Oscar Wilde sent to prison." (1994) Pearce (2003) states that Wilde "was a major symbol of the sexual anarchy that threatened the purposive and reproductive modes of the bourgeois family. Algy mocks the utilitarian nature of modern marriage thus: The amount of women in London who flirt with their own husbands is perfectly scandalous. It looks so bad. It is simply washing one's clean linen in public." (Shoewalter, 1992; in Pearce, 2003)

The narratives of this period were realist in nature and such that centered around "marriage and inheritance were giving way to fantastic 'finde siecle' tales about split personalities. (Showalter, 1992: in Pearce, 2003) Many of Wilde's plays were a "critique of the naturalization of bourgeois relations" and these are stated to have been "particularly evidence in the uncertain or hidden heritage, parentage or filiations that forms the crux of many of his plays." (Pearce, 2003) Pearce states that in Wilde's rejection of the bourgeoisie the association is made with the "modernist attempt to force new affiliations…… [Read More]

References:
Clausson, Nils (2003) Culture and Corruption": Paterian Self-Development vs. Gothic Degeneration in Oscar Wilde's the Picture of Dorian Gray. Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville Fall 2003. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3708/is_200310/ai_n9329138/print?tag=artBody;col1

Conen, Simon (2000) Social criticism in Oscar Wilde's Lady Windermere's Fan University of Trier 2000 Archive No.: V17672

McCauley, the Life and Works of Oscar Wilde 30 Dec 2003. www.skoletorget.no.
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History of Construction Technology of

Words: 9139 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54599726

Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).

A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks. Temples are unlike modern churches due to the altars being open to the elements while interior spaces were devoted to storage and treasuries (Penrose).

Greek culture, and eventually Roman, was much more advanced in terms of the structure of a city state with many people living within ancient cities requiring…… [Read More]

Sources:
Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.

Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.
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Oif Columns in Architecture Extends

Words: 6600 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68072807



3. Curriculum or Method of the Study

The research methodology that was applied in this study was essentially an inclusive, extensive and comparative overview of the literature on the subject. Various sources were consulted, which included books and scholarly articles on the column in architectural history. Also included in the literature survey was information and data from online databases and verified websites.

The information gleaned about columns and their historical context was extrapolated and then entered into a free-from database for further analysis. This resulted in an overall survey of the progression and evolution of various forms and types of columns, from the Egyptian column to the present day. A comparative method of analysis was employed in order to ascertain the commonalities as well as the differences between the various types and forms of this architectural structure.

What should also be mentioned is that the focus of the research, and a factor that influenced the selection of resources, was that this study sought to deal with both the functional as well as the aesthetic and decorative significance of the column.

The study was also limited to a certain extent by the fact that space did not allow for an exhaustive…… [Read More]

References:
Ancient Roman Architecture. Retrieved from http://www.crystalinks.com/romearchitecture.html

Architecture of ancient Greece. Retrieved from http://upge.wn.com/?t=ancientgreece/index12.txt