Aesthetics Essays (Examples)

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Widdowson's Claim That Television and Film Cannot Produce an Aesthetic Effect

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43863977


Widdowson claims that television and film do not fit the definition of "literary" objects. For one, a script for film or television production has no autonomy. As Widdowson points out, "while there is always a script on which the finished product is based, the script is granted little status or autonomy as an object of reading in and for itself" (124). Of course, an interested party can seek out the script for study but scripts are rarely encountered for their literally literary function: as pieces of writing that exist for the sole purpose of being read as texts.

Moreover, Widdowson notes that the finished product in film or television is "always already mediated/interpreted" in order to become a motion picture. In other words, the director, actors, and cinematographers alter the original script in fundamental ways. These fundamental means of altering the original (or, as Widdowson calls it, "originary") product,…… [Read More]

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High Renaissance Bramante and the

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4871289

The second stage was of the Ionic order and with windows, rising to the level of the first apartments of the papal palace and of those of the Belvedere; to form subsequently a loggia more than four hundred paces on the side towards ome and another towards the wood, with the valley between, so that it was necessary to bring all the water of the Belvedere and to erect a beautiful fountain" (Vasari, 2006, Donato Bramante).

The work combined elements of a variety of sacred and secular oman architecture in its inspiration and design. Its "axiality recalled the ancient temple complex at Palestrina, the symbolism of the Cortile del Belvedere (1507-7) combined overtones of oman villa and theatre" (Donato Bramante, 2011, Encyclopedia of Art). Unlike the anonymous artists of the Gothic era, Bramante proudly created a frieze on the front of the Belvedere which bore the name of his patron…… [Read More]


Catt, Kasey. (2011). Donato Bramante. PSU. Retrieved September 6, 2011 at

Chilvers, Ian. (2004). Bramante, Donato. The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford University

Press. Retrieved September 6, 2011 at / bramante-donato

Donato Bramante. (2011). All About. Retrieved September 6, 2011 at
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Nature Imitates Art Imitating Nature

Words: 3164 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72376537

" (4) it is unclear how to understand "things are because we see them." Traditionally perception is conceived as a passive process: we open our eyes and receive input from the world. Kant suggests that perhaps it is not so passive: we "organize" the world into temporal and spatial dimensions, attribute cause and effect, etc. But what Wilde suggests here is even more radical. The "things are because" suggests a causal relationship, such that what we see exists as an effect of seeing. It would be as if looking "paints" the world. But this is completely absurd. Onto what would seeing "paint" the world? and, even weirder, notice that it wouldn't be that seeing paints the world so that we could then look at what was painted. Rather, it would be that seeing is painting, so that we always see and paint simultaneously, always just "creating" whatever we see, under…… [Read More]

1. Wilde, Oscar. Intentions. New York: Prometheus Books, 2004. 1-55. Print.

2. Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray and Other Writings. New York: Pocket Books, 2005. 241-365. Print.

The Decay of Lying was first published in 1889; the Golden Stair is from 1880.
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Are Video Games Art

Words: 8319 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81588196

Pervasive Video Games as Art

The form and function of art has evolved and changed quite a bit over the years, decades and millennia. Paintings and sculpture have been artistic mainstays for much to most of the world of the civilized human race. However, with the technological revolution that has roared up over the last fifty years or so, new forms of art have bubbled to the proverbial surface. Digital technology has enhanced prior forms of art e such as photography. Beyond that, completely brand new forms have art have been created and the latter is what this report is assessing in the form of pervasive video games. The depth and breadth of this art and the effects it has on its users and fans when done will are worthy of massive study and analysis both in this report and elsewhere.

Chapter I - Introduction

Video games, at this point…… [Read More]


Blizzard. "World of Warcraft." World of Warcraft. / (accessed

May 29, 2014).

Bogost, Ian. Persuasive games: the expressive power of videogames. Cambridge, MA:

MIT Press, 2007.
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Baderman Island Shingle Replacement Replacing

Words: 1046 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93039436

Advances in title-production have also made customization an option in tiles that are at the high-end of the market (House Building, 2007). oof tiles are also known for their sustainability or environmentally friendly characteristics and low cost of ownership (TCO) over time (House Building, 2007). In addition to all of these attributes, tiles are known for being self-cleaning and having a very high resiliency to weather extremes.

The second option fo installing premium tiles at $50 per square foot meets with the aesthetic, branding and customer service requirements for the roof replacement. The opportunity cost of the installed however is very high at 3 weeks or $30,000 yet the tile is prospected to last 40 years. There is also an $875 per year amortization cost to this option assuming there is no incremental maintenance to be done. At $35,000 this is also the priciest option there is and needs to…… [Read More]


Bullock, J.H. (1979). Maintenance planning and control. Strategic Finance, 60(10), 53-53.

Engebretson, G.A., & Skokan, B. (1997). Facilities management benchmarks: Lessons learned. AACE International Transactions, (15287106), 7-11.

HOUSE BUILDING: Roof tiles are self-cleaning. (2007). What's New in Building, (01429094), 59-59.

Pheng, L.S., & Lee, S.H.S. (1993). Effectiveness of the managing agent: Property management and maintenance. Facilities, 11(9), 5-5.
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Video Games Interactivity

Words: 9740 Length: 31 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66772662

Interactivity in Video Games and Movies

Information technology has changed the way we live in today's world. Everything from our television to our cell phones are connected through network medium. Computers define the way we do many of the things in our lives, such as, how we maintain our bills and expenses to even conducting business activities online. Therefore, it comes as no surprise to know that the gaming industry is worth over nine billion dollars worldwide. This paper is a dissertation, which aims to compare the interactivity of games to movies and how their consumers view them.

Chapter I The ise of Video Games

Chapter II Games as a Major Form of Entertainment in Today's World

Chapter III Studying Games

Chapter IV Games, Media and Interactivity

Chapter V Exploring interactivity in video games and movies

Chapter VI Home Entertainment Networks

Chapter VII Violence in Games

Chapter VIII Are Games…… [Read More]


Story of Virtual Creation, available at,24195,3372818,00.htm, accessed on: February 28, 2003

Bill Robertie: backgammon genius or stylistic hustler?, available at, Accessed February 28, 2003

But in the end, they're still nothing more than video games by Jewels, available at,accessed on: March 1, 2003

Celluloid heroes: Some video games are more fun than the movie, available at, accessed on: February 28, 2003 fe - new digital media, available at, accessed on: March 1, 2003
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cezanne and plato the compare contrast

Words: 793 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65100140

hereas Plato believes that art is by definition imitation of life, Cezanne believed that the role of art was not to imitate or copy life but to enhance it, contribute to it, and comment on it. Cezanne said that art was a "harmony running parallel to nature," not a method of imitating nature (Art Institute of Chicago). Cezanne assumed a deconstructionist approach to art, which would eventually inspire the all-out shift towards cubism and abstraction. This can be seen in paintings like "Mont Sainte-Victoire," in which the landscape is constructed of various shapes that come together to form a cohesive whole: there are distinct triangles forming the roofs of the houses, showcasing the triangular yet curvilinear shape of the hill beyond, the titular Mont Sainte-Victoire.

Although he was not visual artist aesthetics were central to Plato's philosophy, and that philosophy would end up having a strong impact on the evolution…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Art Institute of Chicago. About this artwork, n.d.. Retrieved online:

Cezanne, Paul. "Mont Sainte Victoire." Retrieved online:

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. "Cezanne's Doubt." Painting: Powers of Observation. Retrieved online:

"Paul Cezanne." The Art Story. N.d. Retrieved online:
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Yuago From the Tale of

Words: 837 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46038993

(108-109) This would seem to indicate that when it came to older women, particularly family or other close personal acquaintances, it was proper to show respect, and even emotions for such persons regardless of their social class.

Heian society was highly regulated and hierarchical, and from this it can be concluded that the government was highly regulated and hierarchical. It is clear from the text that the Heian Japan was ruled by an Imperial government with an Emperor at the head. It would also seem clear that many of the official posts of the government are filled with aristocratic men. Prince Genji himself, the son of the Emperor by a lower concubine, held a government post. It is also clear that Heian Japan's dominant religious belief was Buddhism. There are many examples of Buddhist rites and traditions throughout the text. For example, it was described that in the depths of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Keene, Donald. Anthology of Japanese Literature, from the Earliest Era to the Mid-nineteenth Century. New York, Grove, 1955. Print.
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Girl Scouts and the Eight

Words: 879 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32428845

Even so, the rate of such situations is rather limited and parents fully trust the organization's capabilities and consider it a highly reliable institution that is most likely to retrieve the desired results.

4. Conformance

Girl Scouts operates in full accordance with all pre-established national, international and organizational standards. They respect and protect all human and children's rights. The organization is committed to respecting all regulations and is even working on developing new ones that offer better protection for children and girls across the globe.

5. Durability

Most programs initiated by Girl Scouts have life time durability. This length can easily be explained by the fact that these programs are so created as to leave an eternal mark. They are useful lessons for life and they aid to the building and formation of the girls' characters. Girls who learn to be independent and kind to those in need are prone…… [Read More]


2007, Official Website of Girl Scouts of the U.S.A.,,last accessed on November 20, 2007

2007, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts,, last accessed on November 20, 2007

2007, the Girl Scout Council of Greater New York,, last accessed on November 20, 2007
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Price Beauty 'For Though Beauty Is Seen

Words: 6265 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40095914

Price Beauty?

'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this head have almost been given up"

illiam Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, (1753)

Not very encouraging words, but if the great artist illiam Hogarth felt himself up to the task, we can attempt at least to follow his lead. That beauty is enigmatic goes almost without saying. Different ages, different cultures, and even different individuals, will have their own definitions of "beauty." The problem is more than skin deep. Any term that can be so widely and irregularly employed is bound to trap the casual researcher ... Or reader ... Or viewer ... Or for that matter, any other human being who attempts to define what is and what is not "beauty." People, places, things -- even ideas dreams -- can…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Braizat, Fares. "Muslims and Democracy: An Empirical Critique of Fukuyama's Culturalist Approach." International Journal of Comparative Sociology (2002): 269+.

Browne, Stephen H. "EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797)." Eighteenth-Century British and American Rhetorics and Rhetoricians: Critical Studies and Sources. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. 42-50.

Callaghan, Karen A., ed. Ideals of Feminine Beauty: Philosophical, Social, and Cultural Dimensions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

"The Eighteenth-Century Beauty Contest." Eighteenth-Century Literary History: An MLQ Reader. Ed. Brown, Marshall. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999. 204-234.
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James Spoils People Things and

Words: 2590 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48459477

Fleda has no artifice about her: she is frank, honest, and acts with an unwavering sense of ethical commitment that is almost as single-minded -- though naturally more varied and nuanced -- as Mrs. Gereth's sense of artistic appreciation. She is a woman of ideas just as much as Mrs. Gereth is a woman consumed by her passion with things. In fact, the dichotomy that these two women represent can be seen in the opening chapter of the novel, when Mrs. Gereth "thingifies" Fleda by saying (or rather, with the narrator saying, though seeming to deliver Mrs. Gereth's inner thoughts), "Fleda Vetch was dressed with an idea, though perhaps not with much else" (Ch. I, par. 2). The near-nakedness of Fleda's ideas and ideals is seen time and time again throughout the Spoils of Poynton, as she attempts to manipulate Owen and Mrs. Gereth, by turns and one at the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baym, Nina. Fleda Vetch and the Plot of the Spoils of Poynton. PMLA 84(1): 102-11.

Broderick, John C. Nature, Art, and Imagination in the Spoils of Poynton. Nineteenth Century Fiction 13(4): 295-312.

Brown, Bill. Thing Theory. Critical Inquiry 28(1): 1-22.

Gargano, James W. The Spoils of Poynton: Action and Responsibility. The Sewanee Review 69(4): 650-60.
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Experimental African Films

Words: 2481 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56219805

Experimental/African Films

Touki Bouki & Black Girl are experimental films from the late 20th century. The paper aims to offer a comparative analysis of the films in regards to many aspects, including the politics within each film and the aesthetics of each film. The films were released within ten years of each other and illustrate two distinct yet related styles of filmmaking and narrative structure. Both films pursue issues of freedom and bondage; the urban vs. The rural; and differences among gender roles. The paper describes and explores the content of the narratives as well as filmmaking aspects such as editing, cinematography, soundtrack, and message(s) to the viewer.

There exists a primary dichotomy in both films where Africa is on one end of a spectrum and France, specifically Paris, is on the opposite end of the spectrum, serving as a dreamland or wonderland. Both films explore the dreams of young…… [Read More]


Internet Movie Database. (2012) Touki Bouki & Black Girl. Available from 2012 March 26.
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Apocalypse Concerning the Apocalypse in Art of the Technological Era

Words: 4255 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44389119

Apocalypse of Art in the Tech Era

Modern Apocalypse Art and Technological Aspects

The purpose of this paper is to examine modern art, in particular that which is referred to as "apocalypse art" and further to examine the interactions between art and technology. Specifically this paper will look at the new dimensions that technology has contributed to the rendering of art as well as what contribution or impact that art has rendered to technology.

The methodology for this study is through examination of several of the artists as well as scholars who are in some way interconnected in this process of producing apocalypse art.

The question that seems to weigh on the minds of those who view the modern "apocalypse" art exhibits asks:

Has this artist attempted to achieve the effect of shock or is the artist attempting to convey some deeper truth?"

London's Art Gallery featured an exhibit entitled…… [Read More]

Bibliography 3 of 3

28. UNSW (nd) "Anna Munster" [Online] available at

29. Vesna, Victoria (1999) "Fear of Deletion and the Eternal Trace" [Online] available at

30. Wilson, Cintra (2000) "Joel-Peter Witkin" Salon [Online] available at

Reuters News (3 May 2000) "London Gallery's Apocalypse Could Rival Controversial Sensation" [Online] available at
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Texas Chainsaw and Pink Flamingos

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88655551

Texas Chainsaw Massacre and Pink Flamingos belong to utterly different genres, they share in common aesthetic sensibilities that celebrate the macabre, fetish, and even the grotesque. As such, both films encapsulate the punk aesthetic and its complete disregard for, and subversion of, the manufactured "beauty" packaged by the dominant culture. Both these films were released in the early years of the 1970s, Pink Flamingos in 1972 and The Texas Chainsaw Massacre in 1974. In many ways, both films capture the disillusionment with popular culture and with establishment norms and values. The early years of the 1970s arrived at the tail end of the counterculture movement of the late 1960s, during which sexual norms and gender norms, as well as norms related to race and class were being systematically challenged. As the Vietnam War wound to a bitter end, many Americans confronted deep and even existential questions about their own society…… [Read More]

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Beauty the Nature and Principles

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90777667

Socrates and Plotinus also have very similar ideas on how Beauty is recognized, which though intimately related to their ideas on the nature of Beauty are somewhat different, also. For both men, Beauty was connected to the eternal. Socrates, being at least somewhat (and perhaps completely) atheistic, does not immediately or necessarily connect the concept of the eternal with the concept of the divine, however, but rather recognizes the inherent Beauty in the only act of immortality that mortals can engage in -- procreation and generation, which leads to "beauty in birth." The physical act of love between a man and a woman is described by Socrates -- through the voice of Diotima -- as an act of supreme beauty, and its effects are equally beautiful, as it causes immortality and hence touches upon the eternal. Beauty is also connected to love because love cannot occur with deformity; the closer…… [Read More]

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Dramatic Performance Andrea Chenier

Words: 3388 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29738655

Andrea Chenier

Though Umberto Giordano's work has often been overshadowed by that of his rather more famous contemporary Giacomo Puccini, Giordano's Andrea Chenier offers the ideal site for one to engage in a critical examination of nineteenth century opera and the various thematic and stylistic strains popularized at the time, as well as the complications which arise from modern interpretation and performance. In particular, examining the critical history of verismo alongside the historical context of Andrea Chenier serves to demonstrate how fully a modern performance of the opera seemingly subsumes and dissolves any revolutionary character that might have been present in the original text by reproducing the story of doomed love during the French evolution in a gaudy, ahistorical performance.

Before conducting an analysis of a modern performance of Andrea Chenier, there are a few key topics one must investigate further in order to place the subsequent analysis in its…… [Read More]


Giger, A. (2008). Landscape and gender in italian opera: The alpine virgin from bellini to puccini. Journal of the American Musicological Society, 61(2), 431-438, 454.

Giger, A. (2007). Verismo: Origin, corruption, and redemption of an operatic term. Journal of the American Musicological Society, 60(2), 271-315, 472.

Gilman, L. (1915). Drama and music. The North American Review (1821-1940), OL. CCI., 439-

Giordano, U. (1896). Andrea chenier [Theater].
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Laugier What Is Laugier's Justification

Words: 1064 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16492122

Why does Greenough object to American architects borrowing styles from Europe? Which of his reasons do you consider valid, and which are unconvincing?

The main objection Greenough has to American architects borrowing styles from Europe is that these styles are unsuited for the American background which is vast, open and different from Europe in terms of climate. Furthermore, unlike the religiously homogenous states in Europe, America is very diverse and therefore much of ecclesiastical architecture has no application. Furthermore the author sees the misappropriation of designs for purposes other than their original purpose as the surest sign of decline. I am not convinced that the issue of appropriateness of a certain kind of architecture to its purpose is a legitimate objection. Consider for example the rotunda of the Capitol Hill and compare it to the Vatican City's architecture.


Why does Fathy consider the plant is a good analogy for…… [Read More]

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Agreement the Last Time You

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82303548

(Pendola) ("Radio Shack") ("Radio Shack Profits from Mobiles")

This helped us to understand how everything works and it allowed us to see the benefits of the Android over competitors. For instance, the Radio Shack salesperson helped us to transfer the settings from our old phone over to the new one. This made it easier to customize the device and select applications that were the most beneficial to us. (Pendola) ("Radio Shack") ("Radio Shack Profits from Mobiles")

The criterion that was used to prove if one location was better than the other was based upon a number of factors. To include: the response time, product knowledge and ability to meet our needs. In the case of response time, Radio Shack was quicker in welcoming us to the location and helping to select the best phone. Moreover, they had superior product knowledge and the ability to meet our needs when it comes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Evaluation Arguments, n.d.

"Radio Shack." Radio Shack, 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013.

"Radio Shack Profits from Mobiles." CBS News, 2010. Web. 15 Mar. 2013.

Pendola, Rocco. "3 Reason for the Radio Shack." Seeking Alpha, 2012. Web. 15 Mar. 2013.
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Fanon Frantz Black Skin White

Words: 1466 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15879983

Mannoni's belief that colonial racism is different than other kinds of racism Fanon dismisses as utterly naive: "All forms of exploitation are identical because all of them are applied against the same 'object': man" (88). He next turns to Mannoni's statement that a minority can only have experiences of dependency or inferiority toward the majority (92-93). Fanon spends the remainder of the chapter disproving this claim by engaging with various aspects of Mannoni's argument. He concludes that Mannoni's lacks foundation for his claims.

Fanon focuses this chapter on the observation that only in interaction with the white man is the black man compelled to "experience his being" (109). He argues that, contrary to other claims, this condition is not reciprocal; only the black man suffers from a 3rd person view of himself. Fanon strives to find an identity for the black man outside the parameters of the white man's view.…… [Read More]

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Vindication of the Rights of

Words: 12319 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94246949

Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:

Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)

Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.

Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.

Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
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Andrea Chenier an Analysis of

Words: 3389 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61609133

For example, the scene in which Andrea stands before the statue of Marat and sings "Credi al destino" fails to evoke for me any real sensation. Perhaps it is because, as Grout suggests, the opera is "laden with harmonies that are heavy and oldfashioned [and] has little of special interest" (p. 495). Such could explain why the scenes feel at time clunky and abysmally lacking in flair. Still, at other times, they are vibrant and alive with life -- and those times are when the drama calls for gaity (not for fatalism or idealism).

The opera may, therefore, be interpreted as a political piece -- but I do not wish to convey that interpretation, for I think there is already too much omanticism in contemporary politics today. I think Andrea fits better as a period piece that should be left in the period for which it was written: one that…… [Read More]

Reference List

Andre Chenier. (2011). YouTube. Retrieved from

Badaire, J. (1926). Review of French Literature. DC: Heath and Co.

Beacham, R. (1996). The Roman Theatre and Its Audience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard

Bregenzer Festspiele. (2011). Retrieved from
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Bramante Architecture a Fact of History Is

Words: 1151 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52011850

Bramante Architecture

A fact of history is that enaissance marked a new emerging base towards the already established architecture of antiquity that was rooted in thorough recovery of the past and new inventiveness, but it was because of this that the great cities of Europe gathered much of their form that is admired by the world today. The word renaissance has entered the minds of people with dominant positive connotations of pure genius and renewal. (Campbell, 2004)

enaissance architecture is the architecture of the early 15th to 17th centuries in different areas of Europe which demonstrated a revival of elements of the ancient Greek and oman thought and culture. First established in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, the renaissance spread like wild fire to other parts of Italy as well and from there the style was carried to France, England, ussia, Germany and other parts of Europe. (Gromort)

During the enaissance,…… [Read More]


Campbell, G. (2004). Renaissance art and architecture . (1 ed., p. 318). Oxford University

Press, USA.

Gromort, G. Italian renaissance architecture: A short historical and descriptive account.

Hersey, G.L., &, F. (1993). High renaissance art in st. peter's and the vatican, an interpretive guide. University Of Chicago Press.
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Urban Forestry

Words: 1033 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51903840

Urban Forestry

Describe where you would locate your urban forest and explain why you would locate it there. emember to take into account major features, waterways, elevations, roads, etc. As well as climate and soils of the location. You can describe the area by noting bordering roads and features.

The devastation created by Hurricane Katrina was at least partially due to the decision to build homes in areas highly prone to flooding during frequent storms. Given the likelihood of another catastrophic hurricane, 'locating' an urban forest as inland as possible on elevated ground would be essential. "New Orleans offers an opportunity to study an urban forest in a subtropical environment…The city has been built on the natural levees of the Mississippi iver, backswamps, marshes, and reclaimed land along Lake Pontchartrain. Little of the natural vegetative cover of the site remains; today's urban forest is anthropogenic" (Talarchek 1987: 217). This means…… [Read More]


Gill, Dan. (2012). Fruit trees provide sweet harvest for your landscape. Times Picayune.


New Orleans' urban forests survived Katrina. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved:
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Management Strategy Apple Inc -- Management Strategy

Words: 2370 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38943658

Management Strategy

Apple Inc. -- Management Strategy

Vision, Mission, and SMART Objectives


SMART Analysis

Strategy Implementation

Management Strategy

Apple Inc. has had a long history of reinventing itself. The first Apple computers were built in a garage without any type of case, monitor, or keyboard. Despite these modest origins, there was still demand for Apple grew exponentially. It wasn't long before Apple introduced the trademark Macintosh and then the Mac OS X which revolutionized the company. It was also at this time also dedicated much of the company's resources to aesthetics and further developing the Apple brand image through distinctive designs and intuitive features. This dedication to user friendly designs created generations of loyal customers who have fully embraced the Apple brand and champion the Apple products. The digital hub strategy which was responsible for the iPod, iPhone, and iPad completely revolutionized the industry. Make no mistake, Apple's competitive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

HP, 2012. A Creative Outlet for Mac's Digital Hub. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 11 February 2012].

Meyer, D., 2011. Can Apple Redeem Itself on Supply Chain Sustainability? Taking a Cue on Accountability from Nike's Playbook. [Online]
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Indian Art

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43859409

Indian Art

In what ways are the form and function of the Buddhist stupa and Hindu temple similar to or different from the Islamic mosque?

The Buddhist Stupa, the Hindu Temple, and the Islamic Mosque all have social, cultural, and religious functions. Their physical forms are more similar than they are different, in that each boasts tapered and often rounded edifices. However, Hindu temples are more likely to have angular features and involve the use of straight lines and parallel planes; both stupas and mosques prefer curvilinear elements and bulbous forms. Hindu temples and Muslim mosques will also have larger interior spaces devote to personal prayer.

In what ways may the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi be considered an Islamic (ate) building and an Indic one in terms of its construction and its design?

The Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi is clearly Islamic because of the minaret, as well as…… [Read More]

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Industrial Revolution and Beyond it Is Difficult

Words: 4904 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64200298

Industrial Revolution and Beyond

It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atkins, Robert. Artspeak. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.

Atkins, Robert. Artspoke. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.

Banham, P. Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge: MIT, 1980.

Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.
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Manchester Town Hall and St Pancras New Church

Words: 1609 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20096353

London has a rich architectural history. Some of the most popular buildings today come from the 19th century when Victorian Gothic architecture was popular. St. Pancras New Church offers a take at Greek revival style with a brick build, faced with Portland stone. Another Victorian style building, Manchester Town Hall, while built in the same century as St. Pancras, has its differences thanks to the rapid expansion and accompanying pollution so frequently seen in Victorian cities. Both structures hallmarks of British Victorian architecture, but also indelibly varied and indicative of the skill and engineering of the architects of the era.

Pancras Paris Church, also called St. Pancras New Church is a Greek evival church located in St. Pancras, London. The structure was constructed in three years from 1819-1822 and designed by Henry William and William Inwood. Placed along the south side of Euston oad and the northern boundary of Bloomsbury,…… [Read More]


HARTWELL, C. (2001). Manchester. London: Penguin Books.

Historic England, (2016). CHURCH OF ST. PANCRAS - 1379062 -- Historic England. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Apr. 2016].

Parkinson-Bailey, J. (2000). Manchester. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Richardson, J. (1991). Camden Town and Primrose Hill past. London: Historical Publications.
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Castelvecchio Mixing Old and New

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32186187

This specific example is also indicative of some of the general ways in which the building was modified and updated. In his restoration of Castelvecchio, Carlo Scarpa uses the basic geometric designs and patterns of the original medieval castle, but accentuates, develops, and emphasizes these geometric expressions in a very modern way. The concrete beam in the example above compliments the angularity of the room at large, but is almost an exaggeration of it. The beam itself s composed of three slabs of concrete at right angles to each other, forming three sides of a square or a sort of sideways "c," with the bottom open to the floor. Not only does the beams itself represent an intrusion of modern geometric appreciation into the castle, but even the construction of the beam itself reflects Scarpa's extreme devotion to geometry and geometric expression. This amplifies the geometry that is such an…… [Read More]

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Vagina Monologues

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99133885

Vagina Monologues:

A Response

Theatrical performances of any kind are uniquely poised to evoke a myriad of audience responses. Unlike many other forms of artistic expression, theatre involves the visual, auditory, and emotional -- in short, a wide range of the human aesthetic experience is evoked in the performance. Thus, especially when the subject matter is of a particular novelty or controversial nature, one can virtually count on a strong aesthetic response in the viewer.

hen one considers the nature of "aesthetics," one must consider not only the "nature" but the "value" of a form of artistic expression (ArtLex, 2005). This means that, philosophically, the human is supposed capable of reading "clues" in the work itself that can allow one to interpret/understand, as well as "judge" the work according to "beauty, taste ... function, nature, ontology, purpose, and so on (ArtLex)." Further, in the postmodern world, a great deal of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ArtLex. "Aesthetics." Web site. 2005. Retrieved from Web site on February 20, 2005, from
Shuttleworth, Ian. "The Vagina Monologues." The Financial Times. 10 May 2001. Retrieved from Web site on February 20, 2005, from
Steve Giardina, Steve. "The Classical Aesthetics of Plato and Aristotle." Objectivism Online. Web site. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on February 20, 2005, from
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History of Construction Technology of

Words: 9139 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54599726

Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).

A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]


Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.

Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.

Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .

Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
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Oif Columns in Architecture Extends

Words: 6600 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68072807

3. Curriculum or Method of the Study

The research methodology that was applied in this study was essentially an inclusive, extensive and comparative overview of the literature on the subject. Various sources were consulted, which included books and scholarly articles on the column in architectural history. Also included in the literature survey was information and data from online databases and verified websites.

The information gleaned about columns and their historical context was extrapolated and then entered into a free-from database for further analysis. This resulted in an overall survey of the progression and evolution of various forms and types of columns, from the Egyptian column to the present day. A comparative method of analysis was employed in order to ascertain the commonalities as well as the differences between the various types and forms of this architectural structure.

What should also be mentioned is that the focus of the research, and…… [Read More]


Ancient Roman Architecture. Retrieved from  

Architecture of ancient Greece. Retrieved from        

Barry C. What Are the Types of Architectural Columns? Retrieved from

Column: New World Encyclopaedia. Retrieved from
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Designing Tools to Be Used by Consumers

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25627840

designing tools to be used by consumers or workers, it is widely assumed that the product must be both visually appealing as well as ergonomically functional. In certain workplace applications, if specific tools are not used, injuries may occur. Previous research on hand tools required in factory work, such as gripping tongs, have found that the product may be ignored if it is perceived to be cumbersome to use. According to the article, "The influence of different hand tool designs on the perception of aesthetics, ergonomics and usability," a "hand tool must be perceived to be usable, ergonomic and visually appealing in order for the users to benefit from the tools" and knowledge of how to enhance the perception of the user of the product's value is an essential component in ensuring that the tool is used properly (Syed 2012: 241)

A statement of the research problem

"It has been…… [Read More]


Syed Mohamed, M.S. (2012). The influence of different hand tool designs on the perception of aesthetics, ergonomics and usability. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(3), n/a. Retrieved from
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Art as Commodity

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99121593

Adorno correct in charging that "art as commodity" has no redeeming aesthetic value?

As frequently stated by Adorno, the 'aesthetic' element has failed to keep up with progresses in the art field. Ever since its expression as an area of examination, aesthetics has typically failed to achieve its goal of explaining, identifying or evaluating its object that, chiefly, continues to be art. Moreover, frequently, artists who doubted aesthetics' contribution raised the question of why some people waste their and others' time aiming at getting value judgments, not realizing that value judgments are all they ultimately receive (Bernstein, 185).

Art as a concept hesitates when it comes to getting defined, as it is traditionally an evolving collection of moments. Also, its nature can't be determined by retracing one's path to its origins, seeking a basic, initial layer reinforcing all else. The latter age romantics considered ancient art as pure and supreme.…… [Read More]

Works cited

Adorno, Theodor W. "Aesthetic theory, trans." Robert Hullot-Kentor (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997) 329 (1997). Web. 31 December 2016

Bernstein, Jay M., et al. "Art and Aesthetics after Adorno." Townsend Center for the Humanities (2010). Web. 31 December 2016.

Hohendahl, Peter Uwe. The fleeting promise of art: Adorno's aesthetic theory revisited. Cornell University Press, 2013. Print.
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Archetypal Psychology a Myth Is

Words: 2040 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76131349

By losing touch with the natural world, we live only within our own bodies, where the soul is stifled because it needs anima mundi to exist. There is a danger in not connecting to the environment around us. There is a danger in not allowing our hearts to have thoughts. We become closed off to the entire world and our entire existence by ignoring nature; we become shells of people.

Hillman (1997) discusses the calling of individuals in his book The soul's code: In search of character and calling. The book talks about how we are all subject to fate at some point when we get this idea about what we want to do with our lives. He claims that these kinds of "annunciations and recollections determine biography as strongly as memories or abusive horror" (1997). And though we all have some sort of trauma from our earlier years, from…… [Read More]


Hillman, James. (1977). Re-visioning psychology. New York: Harper Paperbacks.

Hillman, James., Moore, Thomas. (1990). The essential James Hillman: A blue fire. New York: Routledge; 1st edition.

Hillman, James. (1997). The soul's code: In search of character and calling. New York:

Grand Central Publishing; 1st edition.
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Beauty Being the Outline of

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22616955

If one were to dedicate their lives to examining the concept of aesthetics, they would most probably feel sorry when looking back finding that they did not have the chance to actually enjoy what they were studying about. Certain people who actually knew how to enjoy beauty to its full potential motivated their feelings by claiming that they felt something divine. Such a statement is direct proof that these people did not want to concentrate on knowing what they felt, as they simply admitted that it was something heavenly. Relating to a divine concept means that every analytical theory is removed, given the fact that a person likes to believe in a godly being without standing to think about how that respective being looks like, or what kind of character he or she has. Surely, believers know that questioning the existence of the divine or simply trying to learn more…… [Read More]

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Female Identity in Photography Construction

Words: 3888 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14963605

When we look at Starkey's works we appear to be looking at moments captured from everyday life, in particular the everyday life of women. In fact Starkey's photographs are constructed, the people we are looking at are actors.

Her images of modern banality also suggest ennui, despair, depression and listlessness, which are conveyed as central facets of the reality of life for women in society. As one critic describes her images; "apathetic teenagers, usually girls, languish, slack-limbed and expressionless, in dimly lit cafes, nondescript interiors, and anonymous shopping malls."

Furthermore, the images also emphasize the sense of loneliness and isolation that she considers to be the existential situation of working women in the city.

In these images and others like them, individuals stand apart from the world, separated from it by a screen of indifference. It is not that they actively refuse to invest in their surroundings; they simply do…… [Read More]


Berger, P and Luckmann T. The social construction of reality: A

treatise in the sociology of knowledge, Garden City, NY; Doubleday. 1966.

Delamater, J.D., & Hyde, J.S. "Essentialism vs. Social Constructionism in the Study of Human Sexuality," The Journal of Sex Research, 35, no. 3(1998): 10.

Fuku Noriko. "A woman of parts." Art in America, June, 1997. November 30, 2009.
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Kant Beauty Is the Symbol

Words: 362 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60438811

To further support his theory, Kant puts forward the example of objects being positively valued and assessed using words and analogies which seem to have moral origins in the sense that they belong to the perimeter of morality, and not beauty. On the other hand, the empirical evaluation of things which is employed in the case of aesthetics is not employed in the case of judgment that is not subjected to the laws of experience. Aesthetics are evaluated through subjective means and generate pleasure or its opposite, whereas morals can only be judged objectively as they apply to everyone. Aesthetics is conceived as an analysis of the faculty that is destined to the assessment of the feeling of pleasure and results from the harmony between intellect and imagination related to a particular object. Kant argues that this judgment of beauty does not bring anything new to the realm of knowledge,…… [Read More]

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Media Critical Analysis Hamlet Hamlet

Words: 4649 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32409674

Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)

Hemlet and Postcolonial theory

Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…… [Read More]


Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.

Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.

Baetens, Jan. 2007. "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent." The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Ed. Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p226-38.

Balides, Constance. 2000. "Jurassic Post-Fordism: Tall Tales of Economics in the Theme Park." Screen 4 I .2: p139-60.
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Multi Ethnic Literature

Words: 3326 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33967127

Multi-Ethnic Literature

The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.

A Rose Grows From Concrete

One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:

Things that make hearts break.

Pretty smiles

Deceiving laughs

And people who dream with their eyes open

Lonely children

Unanswered…… [Read More]


Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from:,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+(1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008

Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from:

Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from:
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Rt Appreciation Analysis

Words: 2513 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96390706

Power Politics and Glory

Example 1: The Great Wall Of China

It is a common phenomenon for an object to be associated with the ruler or the country in question. The Great Wall of China, where not only served as a defense system, but also consolidated the image of China as a mighty power for many years. The Wall -- acted more as a psychological defense mechanism -- giving the image of China as a united nation.

The design and the emergence of the wall was only possible in the then current prevailing Political Condition of the country, when the country needed to defend itself from foreign attacks by the Mongols.

The design of the Wall was used as a medium to inspire fear and an image of a strong state -- depicted by the strong wall itself. Aesthetic consideration was not point or considering factor, as the main point…… [Read More]


Carlisle, Lyndsay. "Walls and their impacts in a worldwide historical Context." Mexico: National Institute Of Ecology, n.d.Web. 27th Aug 2011

Ecotourism & Adventure Specialists . "The Palace at Paleanque National Park." n.d. Web. 28th Aug 2011.

Great Wall of China. n.d. Web. 27th Aug 2011.

Iliana Papadopoulou, Anastasia Veneti. "Committed Art and Propaganda." Annual PSA Conference. Leeds: Political Studies Association, 2005: 1-16.Web. 28th Aug 2011
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Viderunt Omnes by Protin

Words: 1850 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43658983

Perotin's "Viderunt Omnes"

My fascination with Perotin's "Viderunt Omnes" -- the aspect of the piece which intrigued me enough to select it for this exercise -- begins and ends with one name -- not that of Perotinus Magnus (as you might suspect) but that of contemporary composer Steve Reich.[footnoteRef:0] My own interest in musical analysis very often involves the question of what composers are doing now. If we approach the aesthetics of music from a perspective that is informed by Harold Bloom's approach to the aesthetics of literature, a critical approach that has been exemplified by (for example) John Fallas suggesting that the creation of Schoenberg's Serial Technique was a sort of Modernist revolutionary break with past aesthetics[footnoteRef:1], on the order of Bloom's description of the invention of "Romanticism" in literature, whereby we analyze any composer by means of his sense of "the burden of the past" and his own…… [Read More]

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Live Concert Analysis How Doing Good Makes

Words: 6286 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68417534

Live Concet Analysis

How Doing Good Makes Us Feel Poweful and Poweless at the Same Time

Design Activism vs. Design fo Social Change

The Awakening Consciousness of Designes 1960's


Thee has been lukewam inteest in public sevice design, social impact and design activism. But in most convesations, all othe designs wok to enhance the standad of living of the people; some of it must be activism. The agument is seldom boosted by the notion that achitectue has been impacted by intellectual movements and ats fo instance, modenism which fuels an idea of a evolutionay society. These movements had ideal poposals fo society's efoms. They wee elated deeply to commece and aesthetics as well (Jose et al., 2008). Conside the diffeence between modenism and activism fo that matte. The modenism idea states that people stand equals to each othe, while society became united in evey aspect fo instance uniting laboes,…… [Read More]

references and charitable habits of Generation Y, Generation X, Baby Boomers and Matures. Convio and Edge Research. (2010).

Boehnert, J. "In the Front Line," Creative Review, October 2008.

Borasi, G., & Zardini, M. (Eds.). Actions: What you can do with the city. Canadian Centre for Architecture. (2008).

Brown, T., Sklar, A., Speicher, S., Solomon D. And Wyatt, J. "Design For Social Impact," (New York: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2009), 80-81.

Cowan, G. "Street Protest Architecture," Bad Subjects, January 2004.
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Axiology Has to Do With

Words: 1140 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95456951

The person taking the test must rank the questions in part one from best to worst with 1 being the best and 18 being the worst. In the second part, the questions are ranked from most agree to least agree. Supposedly, there is no right or wrong answer and the profile can be used to discover strengths and weaknesses as well as help a person choose a career path (

After finding out the information that I did on this subject, I cannot say that I am wholly convinced on the concept of axiology. Dr. Hartman has shown us that the questions on his profile can be manipulated mathematically, but I still have trouble with the issue of the questions themselves. They were developed by Dr. Hartman so they are based on what he values and what his personal ethics are. Most of us would agree that some of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited /docs/axiology.asp (Accessed on July 18, 2010). /html/HartmanValueProfile.html (Accessed on July 18, 2010). /axiology3.html (Accessed on July 18, 2010).
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Philosophy Opposing Philosophical Views Philosophy

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6923433

Jacques Derrida has been accused of writing in a deliberately obtuse and obfuscated manner, so the relationship between his work and that of Plato's might not be immediately discernible. Perhaps the clearest connection between the two can be derived from Derrida's of Grammatology, especially as it compares to Plato's aesthetics and view of reality. In this rather dense treatise, Derrida first outlines the phenomenon of what he calls logocentrism -- the attitude that speech (logos in Greek) is the most basic and essential form of language, while writing is secondary in development and its ability to reflect meaning. Derrida claims that logocentrism has long been a silent and foundational part of Western thought, even from the time of Plato.

Plato believed that truth and meaning existed in a pure state somewhere, with the shadows of meanings existing in our own world. Derrida sees this as a flawed worldview, though not…… [Read More]

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American Photographs Revisited Douglas R

Words: 1107 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56979970

Images of war, homelessness, and poverty also convey poignant messages that can be construed differently by different people. The photographer presents the image but the viewer deciphers it. When photographs like those from Walker Evans are used as journalistic content, they can become imbued with meaning and political ideology. Other images are less equivocal. For example, a shot of a homeless man sleeping on a bench in Beverly Hills would immediately connote income disparity in the United States.

Another issue Nickel raises in "American Photographs Revisited" is the confluence of art and science in the medium of photography. Evans and other professional photographers and photojournalists craft their images, painstakingly addressing variables like lighting and atmospheric conditions with tweaks to their camera techniques. New technology including digital photography and editing software has expanded the range of possibilities for photographers. The art of photography is extended to book layout in works like…… [Read More]

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Aesthetic Life in Either Or the

Words: 2593 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93841417

It only remains to see how this goal may be reached -- and Kierkagaard's book on aesthetics ends with the love letter from Climacus to Cordelia, in which we learn the true approximation of life and the simple path to the aesthetic goal (a path which Don Giovanni misses): "love is everything" (p. 407).

Kierkagaard states, "For one who loves everything ceases to have intrinsic meaning and has meaning only through the interpretation love gives to it" (p. 407). Cordelia is the object of Climacus' romantic love -- but this constitutive norm may also be applied to spiritual or religious love. At any rate, it is the latter that is only briefly touched upon in Either/Or -- and yet it is this that makes either the aesthetic life or the ethical life insufficient in and of themselves. In fact, even though the two ways must necessarily be coupled together, it…… [Read More]

Reference List

Kierkagaard, S. (1987). Either/Or. Princeton University Press.
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Louis Sullivan Form Follows Function

Words: 1931 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1054199


His belief, of course, was that the Unity was of primary importance -- which was a departure from Sullivan's sense that beauty and transcendent forms (reflections of the human spirit) were central to the idea of all forms. Wright's anti-verticality was no more in tune to Sullivan's sense of the soul than the reuer's "functional" brutalism. Sullivan alone had the sense to achieve some sort of aesthetic standard while achieving the function so desired by his contractors.


In conclusion, Sullivan announced at the end of the 19th century that "form ever follows function" -- but that did not imply that form had to be as mechanical as function. In fact, it meant for Sullivan quite the opposite. The Guaranty uilding is a perfect example of how he saw architecture as an art: its purpose was to provide the space necessary for offices and retailers but also to make…… [Read More]


Kaufman, Mervyn. Father of Skyscrapers: A Biography of Louis Sullivan. Boston:

Little, Brown, 1969.

Korom, Joseph. The American Skyscraper, 1850-1940: a celebration of height. Boston:

Branden Books, 2008.
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Parthenon Was an Architectural Achievement

Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53532653

g., the finding last year at Athens of the hand of Zeus of the east pediment)" the Parthenon continues to yield intellectual fruit through archeological excavation and discovery (Bruno xiv). As age replaces age with new speculations, scholars reappraise this epic piece of architecture, for "speculations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are already mostly out of date, and original source materials are rare" (Bruno xiv). hat historians do, as a rule, have to go on are the stories preserved by Plutarch, who reflects a "spirit that undoubtedly prevailed at Athens as a plan took shape to reconstruct the sanctuary which had been left in ruins by the Persians" (Bruno xiv). This plan was so Athenian to the core that even (as Plutarch mentions) the animals seemed to throw their very being into the operation.


In conclusion, Greek architecture has produced some of the world's finest marvels, and was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruno, Vincent. The Parthenon. NY W.W. Norton & Company, 1996. Print.

Fergusson, James. The Parthenon. London: William Clowes and Sons, Limited, 1883.


"The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization." PBS. Web. 28 Nov 2011.
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Richard Wollheim in His Well-Known

Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74911581

Not all differentiated surfaces will have this effect, but I doubt that anything significant can be said about what exactly a surface must be like for it to have this effect. When the surface is right, then an experience with a certain phenomenology will occur, and it is this phenomenology that is distinctive about seeing-in. This distinctive phenomenological feature I call 'twofoldness' because when seeing-in occurs, two things happen: I am visually aware of the surface I look at, and I discern something standing out in front of, or (in certain cases), receding behind something else. (Wollheim: Painting as an Art, p. 46)

The above quote also provides a basis for understanding the view of type and token that he developed.

From the above understanding of artistic perception, Wollheim goes on to explain his solution to the main objection to subjectivist views of art; namely his thesis of artistic intentionality.…… [Read More]



Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 2004. Retrieved: April23, 2005.

Alpers Svetlana Artful mind: Svetlana Alpers on Richard Wollheim. ArtForum, May, 2004 Retrieved April 23, 2005.

Ayer, a.J., et al. The Revolution in Philosophy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1956.
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Leo Tolstoy to Leon Tolstoy

Words: 1293 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91799242

So art is not necessarily a means of throwing light upon reality, but even a means that will intentionally make things more obscure to our perceptions, so that we might understand the truth beyond the immediate reality. Truth may very well reside therefore in the confusion or the unfamiliarity of perception that modern art puts forth.

Also, it is obvious that art should be first of all free, and not submitted to rules that will constrain its form and content, and that will make it express not the truth but something that "should be." I think that the ideas about art that you express are about what good art should be like, but this is exactly what will drive us farther away from an understanding and a definition of art, because we should search for its essence in its sources and in the things that make artistic creation possible.

In…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hofstader, Albert Philosophies of Art and Beauty, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1976

Sukla, Ananta Ch. Art and Representation: Contributions to Contemporary Aesthetics, Praeger, 2001

Tolstoy, Leo What is Art?, Indiana: The Bobbs- Merril Company, 1980
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Cultural Aspects of Consumer Behavior

Words: 2508 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22457159

7% in Shanghai, 24.5% in Taipei and 46.2% in Hong Kong., the average income of respondents in Taipei was at the maximum income level and in Hong Kong, at the median level overall. The entire sample was highly educated with 80.2% of Shanghai respondents, 79.5% of Taipei respondents and 43.8% of Hong Kong respondents having a university education. The majority of respondent sin Shanghai and Taipei were 18 to 25 and 26 -- 30 in Hong Kong.

The study found that each respondent base scored high on the self-expectation dimensions as shown in Table III of the report with many having a strong sense of self-esteem and seeing the value of true friendship and inner harmony. There is also a strong belief in freedom in the orientation towards life dimension of the ANOVA analysis completed, just short of true friendship as a fundamental value in the analysis (Tai, 2008). The…… [Read More]


Jap, W. (2010). Confucius face culture on Chinese consumer consumption values toward global brands. Journal of International Management Studies, 5(1), 183-192.

Lin, Y., & Lai, C.Y. (2010). A study of the attitudes of Chinese consumers to aesthetic product designs. International Journal of Management, 27(1), 177-184,201.

Susan H.C. Tai. (2008). Relationship between the personal values and shopping orientation of Chinese consumers. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(4), 381-395.

Teimourpour, B., & Kambiz, H.H. (2011). The impact of culture on luxury consumption behaviour among Iranian consumers. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 2(3), 309-328.
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What Is Post Modernism

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63809302

Accounting Theory

Lyotardian Post Modernism

Jean-Francois Lyotard's "What is Post Modernism?" begins like a Homeric, epic poem -- in medias res. The piece commences with descriptions of the times in which Lyotard lives, works, and the times on which he reflects and bases his assertions. Lyotard projects the reader into his critical, philosophical, and artistic context with descriptions of the practices and attitudes within the thinking and creative communities. He expresses exasperation and a rejuvenation to critical perspective. Enter post modernism and Habermas.

Lyotard's aim is to locate and interpret changes in perception and experience as described by Habermas regarding aesthetics, experience, quantifiable reality, and the value of reality. Specifically, what concerns Lyotard is Habermas' contention that the unity of the sociocultural experience of life wherein various elements of thought and life integrate organically as a whole. This unity would bridge gaps among cognitive, ethical, and political discourses and this…… [Read More]

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Quality of Life Indicators -- City of

Words: 4596 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55963053

Quality of Life Indicators -- City of Alexandria

esearch Indicators Analysis

Alexandria Quality of Life Initiative

The purpose of this paper is to provide details about the articulation and measurement of four select indicators from the Quality of Life Study for the City of Alexandria. A brief overview of the survey constructs, conceptual framework, data sources, and data analysis is provided as introduction to the discussion of the specific indicators.

Quality of life is a concept that takes on as many meanings as there are individuals living in a community. Individual perceptions are key in any definition of quality of life, but generally the concept has to do with positive feelings of well-being and a sense that one is living "the good life." The word good, and the mental images and emotional feelings associated with the concept of goodness, are generally agreed by psychologists to be fundamental to a concept…… [Read More]

References 10

2006 Content Test. Retrieved / acs/www/methodology/2006_content_test/

ACS Report 2005, Puerto Rico. Retrieved  acs/www/Downloads/


Sourcebook. Retrieved
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Designing a Website for a Non-Profit Organization

Words: 1293 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66939840

Redesigning a Website fo a non-Pofit oganization

In this bief document, the designing citeia fo a non-pofit web page ae going to be discussed. The example chosen is http://www.keepbandeabeautiful.og/climatechange.html which is vey complicated, difficult to bowse and does not give a good sense of the aim of the site. The webpage is belonging to a climate change non-pofit oganization. Theefoe, the taget goup should be vey boad fom students to eldely people, scientist to wokes. In this context, the usability and functionality of the pospective web page will be descibed with examples.

Nowadays, as a esult of apid gowing intenet technology, the intenet is eachable to eveyone. The easonable pice, bundled sevices with cable TV and telephone bought the intenet to almost evey house. Most people use intenet to deal with thei daily eands fom banking opeations to eading news. The latte bings big esponsibility and completion to the web…… [Read More]

references. The design suggested is only a start that needs to be evaluated by users and also the people preparing the context.


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Freak Show in From Stage to Page

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35211219

Freak Show

In "From Stage to Page: Franz Kafka, Djuna Barnes, and Modernism's Freak Fictions," Blyn argues, "we can find direct links between Kafka's and Barnes's notoriously opaque fictions and the premier low culture form of their era, the freak show or display of human curiosities," (135). Moreover, the authors' respective engagement with the trope of the freak show serves a distinct political motive: to subvert modernist aesthetics and to ironically predict the twisted horrors of fascism and Nazism. Written prior to the emergence of fascism and Nazism on the world stage, Kafka's body of work and Barnes's too seem prescient in light of their mocking the carnevalesque. Central to Blyn's argument is an understanding of the difference between the carnival and the freak show. The freak show was, for one, a side attraction at a carnival and thus deviant even within the spectacle of the carnival. The freak show…… [Read More]

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De Stijl With Examples From the Original Movement

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53105330

World War One and World War Two, artists pondered their role in the world. "Largely in response to the horrors of World War I and the wish to remake society in its aftermath," artists, architects, and designers began to view art "as a means of social and spiritual redemption," ("De Stijl," n.d.). The result was a utopian and yet ironically pragmatic and functionalistic movement known by its Dutch name De Stijl, or The Style. De Stijl was also the name of the printed journal chronicling the ideas and aesthetics of the movement. Architect Theo van Doesburg is credited with founding De Stijl, but Gerrit ietveld and Piet Mondrian were also key figures in the movement.

De Stijl is characterized by the "machine aesthetics of the new industrial age," abstraction, simplicity, and the absence of surface decorations ("Art, Design, and Visual Thinking: De Stijl," n.d.). Taking its cue from cubism and…… [Read More]


"Art, Design, and Visual Thinking: De Stijl," (n.d.). Retrieved online:

"De Stijl," (n.d.). The Art Story. Retrieved online:

"Orientation in Art Deco & de Stijl," (n.d.). Retrieved online:
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Modernism Art Photography and Architecture

Words: 1030 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78213349

City of Ambitions.

Alfred Stieglitz

Modernist Photography


By the early 20th century, photography had established itself as more than a means of documentary evidence. The medium had the potential to convey the artist's impressions as well as political content. Photographers like Alfred Stieglitz capitalized on the power of the medium to depict social and political realities without sacrificing aesthetics. "The City of Ambitions" is one example of Stieglitz's early work, a large portion of which uses urban life as its focus.

"The City of Ambitions" is New York, the American -- even global -- hub of capitalist enterprise. Stieglitz captures New York's industrial side. Not only does the photographer wait for the time of day during which factory smoke is at its most visible, but Stieglitz also includes in the composition multiple features of urban architecture including the river dock and the burgeoning high rises sprouting up around it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Bauhaus." The Art Story. Retrieved online:

Duchamp, Marcel. "Fountain." Sculpture. 1917.

"Early Documentary Photography." The Met. Retrieved online:

Gropius, Walter. "Bauhaus Building in Dessau." [Building]. 1926
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Modernist Features in Heart of

Words: 2501 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22201765

" In more general terms, Conrad uses Marlow to give his tale, neither the full close of the plot of earlier fiction, nor James' more limited completeness in the formal structure, but a radical and continuing exposure to the incompleteness of experience and the impossibility of fully understanding it." (Watt, 1978)

The strength of subjectivity as far as perception was concerned is another modern theme. It is safe to state that Conrad managed to prove the profound importance of the subjective dimension in a very complex manner. The stream of consciousness and first person technique which he applied had as a result a process through which the reader completely identified with the inner life of the character.

Naturally all certainty and objectivity is lost in the process and not only does the reader not know where he is going, but he embraces the upcoming transformations as exciting surprises. From this…… [Read More]


Conrad, J. Heart of Darkness. Norton Critical Edition. Norton and Company Press. 2006

Levenson, M. "The value of facts in the Heart of Darkness." Nineteenth century fiction, vol 40. no. 3. Dec, 1985. pp. 261-280. University of California Press.

Watt, I. "Marlow, Henry James, and "Heart of Darkness." Nineteenth century fiction, vol. 33, no.2, sep. 1978, pp.159-174. University of California Press

Watt, I. "Impressionism and symbolism in Heart of Darkness." Conrad in the nineteenth century. Berkeley. University of California Press. 1979
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Bat Nagel Claims That it

Words: 1560 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66521473

Nagel is telling us that if the one universal thing in imagining something is you, complete with all the character that make up you, and if one were to take those things away to try to imagine what it would be like to be something else, you would no longer exist.

orks Cited

Bechtel, illiam. & Graham, George. A Companion to Cognitive Science. iley-

Blackwell, 1999.

Conscious Entities. "Bats." Conscious Entities. 2004. Accessed on December 7, 2010:

Fost, Joshua. If Not God, Then hat? Neuroscience, Aesthetics, and the Origins of Transcendent. Clearhead Studios, Inc., 2007.

Hacker, P.M.S. "Is There Anything it is like to be a Bat?" The Royal Institute of Philosophy, 77. Cambridge University Press, 2002, 157-174.

Nagel, Thomas. "hat is it like to be a Bat?" The Philosophical Review: XXXIII, 4,

1974, pp. 435-50.

Conscious Entities. "Bats." Conscious Entities. 2004. Accessed on December 7, 2010:

Bechtel,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bechtel, William. & Graham, George. A Companion to Cognitive Science. Wiley-

Blackwell, 1999.

Conscious Entities. "Bats." Conscious Entities. 2004. Accessed on December 7, 2010:

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Philosophy Personal Worldview Out of

Words: 1168 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62832454

In terms of ethics, I believe we feel happiest when we are acting and behaving in ways that will promote our survival and the survival of our offspring. This does not mean we feel best when we act selfishly, because I believe there is a universal spiritual dimension (also part of the metaphysics of the world) which makes all living creatures feel connected. Therefore, we cannot feel truly happy unless we are behaving in ways that promote the health and prosperity of all of life in general. As human beings with a developed conscience, we cannot ignore our own unethical actions; they will always affect our own well-being in one way or another (less restful sleep, mental or emotional disorders, difficulty learning, lack of achievement, low self-esteem, etc.).

Dominant Worldview in America Today: My Perception

I believe the dominant worldview in America is axiology-based and influenced heavily by modern technology…… [Read More]


Archie, L., & Archie, J.G. (2004). Reading for Philosophical Inquiry: A Brief Introduction to Philosophical Thinking.

Lowe, E. (1998). The Possibility of Metaphysics: Substance, Identity, and Time. Oxford: Clarendon.

Steup, M. (2010). Epistemology. Retrieved 01-26, 2011, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition):
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Paleolithic Art a Great Deal

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93255369

The animals people in the Upper Paleolithic used in their paintings were apparently chosen on account of the period they were living in. Animals such as red deer and reindeer were apparently predominant in colder eras whereas horses and bison were more frequently portrayed in warmer periods (Mithen 672). Art was most probably adapted to the circumstance people found themselves in at the time when they put across their artistic talents.

The Lascaux painting showing a falling man facing a wounded bison and what appears to be a dart next piercing through the bison is intriguing through the detail used in it. Although the man is poorly drawn (as most human characters in cave paintings), the audience is marked by the prehistoric episode for the great intensity that it expresses.

In spite of the fact that everyone would expect the animal to appear more interested in physically harming the human,…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Lyons Joseph, "Paleolithic Aesthetics: The Psychology of Cave Art," The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 107-114, (Autumn, 1967).

2. Mithen, Steven J. "To Hunt or to Paint: Animals and Art in the Upper Palaeolithic," Man New Series, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 671-695, (Dec., 1988).

3. White, Randall, "Beyond Art: Toward an Understanding of the Origins of Material Representation in Europe" Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 21, pp. 537-564, (1992).
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Fire Protection Systems as Required

Words: 1425 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50450674

Other types of systems include carbon dioxide systems. This is ideal for electrical hazard areas; however, it's more expensive than sprinkler systems. Foam extinguishing systems use a foam producing solution. it's effective for combustible liquids; however, again, it is not cost effective for most applications ("Chapter 31").

Determination of ater Amount and How it Can be Provided:

The problems encountered regarding the determination of the amount of water required on premises for a system and how that amount of water can be provided begin with the layout of the system. So many factors come into play, from the length of the piping run, to the size of pipe, to the elevation of the floor on which the system is installed, to the number of sprinklers included in the system. Each of these affects the pressure at each of the sprinkler head, and the amount of water needed to meet the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Below Ground Smoke Control Systems." Europe's Leading Supplier of Ventilation Systems. n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. .

"Chapter 31 - Fire Protection." Army TM Manuals. n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. < >.

Fischer, D. "How Fire Sprinkler Systems Work." How Stuff Works. n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. .

"HFD: All You Ever Wanted to Know About Fire Extinguishers ." Hanford Site. 5 Mar. 2001. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. .
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Cistercian Abbeys Simplicity of Life

Words: 838 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8102132

They always stand on the border of a stream…These valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a very different aspect when the brethren first chose them as the place of their retirement. ide swamps, deep morasses, tangled thickets, wild impassable forests, were their prevailing features" (Snell "Cistercian," 2009, p.1). It is a tribute to the craftsmanship of early monks that the extant monasteries became so hospitable.

One of the most famous abbeys, Clairvaux, even had fish ponds as well as orchards to provide food for the monks. Clairvaux was to provide the template for most abbeys to come. It was surrounded by a high wall, "nearly encircled by a stream of water, artificially diverted from the small rivulets which flow through the precincts, furnishing the establishment with an abundant supply in every part, for the litigation of the gardens and orchards, the sanitary requirements of the brotherhood and for the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fletcher, Adrian. "Cistercian: The Early Years." 2008. May 22, 2009.


Snell, Melissa. "Cistercian." From the 1911 Encyclopedia entry on the "Abbey."

May 23, 2009