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According to Kenney, it is the responsibility of clinicians to use their sensory processes to determine how these communications are articulated and to then to reflect them back to the communication system that is experiencing difficulties. This recursive mirroring process is described by Kenney as being "sociofeedback" that people can use to help readjust their relationships with their environment. In sum, the author maintains that it is the clinician's mirroring or articulation of the different communications of a troubled family environment allows the system to readjust how it regulates its organization to ensure its survival.
From an alternative worldview perspective, this intimate connection between an individual and the environment offered by Kenney is, in fact, at the heart of the Daoism tradition. For example, Daoists reject simplicity in favor of a more complex analysis of how people relate to the world around them to develop explanations for the relationship between…… [Read More]
Now, turn to Arizona Green Tea with Ginseng. The packaging for the single serving uses the label that is mint green with an oriental flavor, suggesting the benefits of Zen and the addition of ginseng and honey. Now contrast that with the Family One Gallon size, in a clear plastic, industrial container that looks more like detergent or motor oil than a delicious health beverage. Are the products identical -- more likely yes. Is the family size more economical -- yes, from a price point-of-view? But when asked which one would be chosen based on "packaging design and looks" it is easy to see that the Fuze or the single serving tea would be more appealing.
Finally, we move into the idea of function and sustainability in design. ith the advent of globalism, consumers are more and more aware that their purchasing choice reflects their political and cultural views. They…… [Read More]
..]. Furthermore, studies indicate that between 60 and 80% of college women engage in regular binge eating and other abnormal behaviours that fall short of the criteria set by clinical scales. Many college women who are at normal weights continue to express a strong desire to be thinner and to hold beliefs about food and body image that are similar to those of women who have actual eating disorders" (Hesse-Biber et.al., 1999; 385-6)
One possible explanation for the increased presence of eating disorders among young college students is given by the amount of stress, in terms of having to face some important challenges and take some major decisions (or at least perceived as such) and there might be a negative correlation between the level of self-satisfaction (as academic performance and as correct decisions) and the occurence of eating disorders, as some studies suggest (Hesse-Biber et.al., 1999)
The therapy will be…… [Read More]
Luckily, Medicis Aesthetics' capital position as a subsidiary of Medicis Pharmaceutical Corporation also enables it to better weather external threats to the company, which certainly exists for the industry as a whole. Threats of litigation are a very real factor of how this industry does business, especially with certain product lines. In addition, the industry is now facing the threat of a prolonged recession, which many analysts claim we are only in the beginnings of. If this proves to be the case, Medicis Aesthetics and its competitors will be faced with an ever-shrinking consumer pool. This will make competition fiercer and make profitability highly dependent on materials and labor costs.
Two of Medici Aesthetics' most popular and currently profitable products are Restylane and Perlane, both of which are dermal fillers (non-surgical wrinkle removers) composed of hyaluronic acid. Though patented and using a relatively unique mechanism to achieve…… [Read More]
psychoanalytic as portrayed by H. egal. It has sources.
Psychoanalytic approach to aesthetics can best be understood by understanding the theory/ies that guide us on the study of this particularly complex discipline. The theory and guidelines of psychoanalytic approach enable us to offer some insight into the worlds of literature, art and music, and on the other hand, it also allows us to better understand artists' perception and inner approaches as he applies them to portray his feelings. Psychoanalytic approach also enables us to understand the artists' aesthetic experiences as he or she conjures up his perception and response thereof, interpretation and meaning, and his or her thoughts and feelings. Primarily divided into applied psychoanalysis and clinical psychoanalysis, the discipline of psychoanalytic aesthetics has been studied and commented upon by famous names including Melaine Klein, Hanna egal, Wilfred Brion, Donald Meltzer, Donald Winnicott and Marion Milner on the clinical aspects.…… [Read More]
Artefacts from Africa exhibit their cultural context. Indeed, there is value in emphasizing formal aesthetics of objects and their expression of the religious and moral values (Ray, 1993)
There is a moral basis in African aesthetics. One term that epitomises such truth is that in many African languages, there is a common usage of the same word that means good and beautiful. This is in line with the meaning of African Art that is meant to be good and beautiful too. Ideally, it is attractive to the eye and emphatic on morals. The religious and ethical basis of African art explains why the central subject is the figure of a human being. The art usually appears in ritualistic contexts that have to do with the spiritual and moral ideals of humans (Ray, 1993)
It is of essence to show African sculpture such as head dresses and masks at…… [Read More]
e may know an era by its poetry - or at least those eras for which poetry was still important. It might be difficult indeed to draw any conclusions about our own days from poetry because it has become so marginal to the lives and experiences of most 21st-century denizens. But for the Victorians, who still read poetry as if it had ability to change the world, poetry was a vibrant expression of the era's values - and its fears. e can see, for example, the era's intense occupation with status and social hierarchy in Robert Browning's "The Bishop Orders His Tomb at Saint Praxed's Church," a poem that demonstrates how this obsession with people's position in the world merged into an obsession with death and the dead, with death as a force that erased the status that people strove so hard to create and uphold in life.…… [Read More]
ed for omance
The author of this response was given the task of reviewing a journal article. The article chosen for this summary asserts that red is a color that spurs feelings of romance and attraction in men. The hypothesis of the article, as authored and offered by Andrew Elliot and Daniela Nuestra, will be described as well as the variables, sample and methods used. There will also be a summary of the results or findings of the research in question. Lastly, there will be an opinion about the work offered by the author of this report and summary as to the validity and applicability of this research. While color is often looked at through simple and basic prisms, colors absolutely mean much more than some give credit for when used and displayed in certain ways (Elliot & Niesta, 2008).
As noted in the introduction, red is a color…… [Read More]
Good vs. Bad
The idea of a "good guy" versus a "bad guy" (or either type of girl in many stories" is an idea that is firmly defined and used in many stories. Beyond that, there are some fairly common themes about who tends to be good and who tends to be bad just based on demographical and other similar information such as gender, race, sexuality, class and so forth. On top of that, there are many characters that portend to be good but they are really bad and there yet other characters that can be deemed good or bad (potentially or in actuality) based on the same traits that are known to all people that can end up making either assessment. Indeed, stories like Robin Hood and others lead to exceedingly different conclusions about the motivations and moral code of the characters involved. This brief essay shall focus on…… [Read More]
The Trade Center/Royal Residence of the Great Zimbabwe
ithin the jungles of Southern Africa is a palace that has been standing there for more than seven centuries. This group of walls and buildings whose "beautifully coursed walls curved and undulated sinuously over the landscape, blending into the boulder-strewn terrain as if having arisen there naturally" (Tyson). Of course this was not a naturally occurring site, but the people who built it were in doubt for many years because archeologist and others refused to believe that it could have been constructed by indigenous people. The site is called The Great Zimbabwe because it is the largest of more than 200 (Trade) which exist in different Southern African nations. It is believed to be a palace and trade center from which kings and shaman controlled a great amount of surrounding land. This paper looks at the history of the area,…… [Read More]
Coolness vs. Passion:
Frank Stella's Abstract Designs and Dana Schutz's Narrative Frenzy of Color
Frank Stella's massive 1967 painting entitled Haran II takes the form of a geometric design that seems deceptively simple at first but becomes more and more complex as the viewer gazes upon it. The work is a series of rectangles and half-circles fused together with bright rainbows of colors embedded within them. The painting is childish in its brightness. The color palette strikes the modern viewer as very much of the 1960s and 70s with its garish orange and blue shades counterpoised against brown and red earth tones. Dana Schutz's 2015 Fight in an Elevator is similarly arresting in its brightness but in contrast to Stella's use of abstraction, Schutz's Cubist-Futurist approach has a narrative sense of form. The work depicts a swirl of fists and legs. A brown-skinned woman in high heels fights with a…… [Read More]
In amachandran's exemplar case for many of his laws, the Chola bronze sculpture of Parvathi is a metaphor for live, human women. She represents the appearance and virtues that mortal women may have, by virtue of her appearance being shifted away from that of the average woman; her appearance is a metaphor for her divine perfection.
The scientific basis for amachandran's claims comes from behavioral studies of rats and herring-gull chicks, and from neural recordings of monkeys. In the case of herring-gull chicks, his description of the connection between peak shift in newborn herring-gulls towards an extreme visual exemplar of their food source and the aesthetic response to representational peak shifts in human art is a bit lacking. Gulls, he claims, have "hard-wired" neural circuitry that predisposes them to peck at elongated yellow objects with focal red spots when they are young. Presumably, this circuitry does not decay when gulls…… [Read More]
The second stage was of the Ionic order and with windows, rising to the level of the first apartments of the papal palace and of those of the Belvedere; to form subsequently a loggia more than four hundred paces on the side towards ome and another towards the wood, with the valley between, so that it was necessary to bring all the water of the Belvedere and to erect a beautiful fountain" (Vasari, 2006, Donato Bramante).
The work combined elements of a variety of sacred and secular oman architecture in its inspiration and design. Its "axiality recalled the ancient temple complex at Palestrina, the symbolism of the Cortile del Belvedere (1507-7) combined overtones of oman villa and theatre" (Donato Bramante, 2011, Encyclopedia of Art). Unlike the anonymous artists of the Gothic era, Bramante proudly created a frieze on the front of the Belvedere which bore the name of his patron…… [Read More]
" (4) it is unclear how to understand "things are because we see them." Traditionally perception is conceived as a passive process: we open our eyes and receive input from the world. Kant suggests that perhaps it is not so passive: we "organize" the world into temporal and spatial dimensions, attribute cause and effect, etc. But what Wilde suggests here is even more radical. The "things are because" suggests a causal relationship, such that what we see exists as an effect of seeing. It would be as if looking "paints" the world. But this is completely absurd. Onto what would seeing "paint" the world? and, even weirder, notice that it wouldn't be that seeing paints the world so that we could then look at what was painted. Rather, it would be that seeing is painting, so that we always see and paint simultaneously, always just "creating" whatever we see, under…… [Read More]
Pervasive Video Games as Art
The form and function of art has evolved and changed quite a bit over the years, decades and millennia. Paintings and sculpture have been artistic mainstays for much to most of the world of the civilized human race. However, with the technological revolution that has roared up over the last fifty years or so, new forms of art have bubbled to the proverbial surface. Digital technology has enhanced prior forms of art e such as photography. Beyond that, completely brand new forms have art have been created and the latter is what this report is assessing in the form of pervasive video games. The depth and breadth of this art and the effects it has on its users and fans when done will are worthy of massive study and analysis both in this report and elsewhere.
Chapter I - Introduction
Video games, at this point…… [Read More]
Advances in title-production have also made customization an option in tiles that are at the high-end of the market (House Building, 2007). oof tiles are also known for their sustainability or environmentally friendly characteristics and low cost of ownership (TCO) over time (House Building, 2007). In addition to all of these attributes, tiles are known for being self-cleaning and having a very high resiliency to weather extremes.
The second option fo installing premium tiles at $50 per square foot meets with the aesthetic, branding and customer service requirements for the roof replacement. The opportunity cost of the installed however is very high at 3 weeks or $30,000 yet the tile is prospected to last 40 years. There is also an $875 per year amortization cost to this option assuming there is no incremental maintenance to be done. At $35,000 this is also the priciest option there is and needs to…… [Read More]
hereas Plato believes that art is by definition imitation of life, Cezanne believed that the role of art was not to imitate or copy life but to enhance it, contribute to it, and comment on it. Cezanne said that art was a "harmony running parallel to nature," not a method of imitating nature (Art Institute of Chicago). Cezanne assumed a deconstructionist approach to art, which would eventually inspire the all-out shift towards cubism and abstraction. This can be seen in paintings like "Mont Sainte-Victoire," in which the landscape is constructed of various shapes that come together to form a cohesive whole: there are distinct triangles forming the roofs of the houses, showcasing the triangular yet curvilinear shape of the hill beyond, the titular Mont Sainte-Victoire.
Although he was not visual artist aesthetics were central to Plato's philosophy, and that philosophy would end up having a strong impact on the evolution…… [Read More]
Carnal teachings: raunch aesthetics as queer feminist pedagogies in Yo! Majesty's hip hop practice" by Jilian Hernandez, the essay explores the concept of 'raunch aesthetics' in the video for the song, "Don't Let Go." Hernandez also explore the notions of community cultural capital, color blind/new racism, and postfeminism through the performance of the women in the video. Hernandez's interpretation of queer and feminist teachings via these four concepts and through the music video provides a unique look, into analysis of text and visuals to gather and form ideas and theory.
The first concept to analyze is 'raunch aesthetics'. A term see in feminist theory, 'raunch aesthetics' describes the women in hip hop and the various ways they express sexuality via staging, choreography, and performance of lyrics. Women in hip hop that participate in 'raunch aesthetics' are thought to attempt to own their sexual identities as well as their bodies by…… [Read More]
(108-109) This would seem to indicate that when it came to older women, particularly family or other close personal acquaintances, it was proper to show respect, and even emotions for such persons regardless of their social class.
Heian society was highly regulated and hierarchical, and from this it can be concluded that the government was highly regulated and hierarchical. It is clear from the text that the Heian Japan was ruled by an Imperial government with an Emperor at the head. It would also seem clear that many of the official posts of the government are filled with aristocratic men. Prince Genji himself, the son of the Emperor by a lower concubine, held a government post. It is also clear that Heian Japan's dominant religious belief was Buddhism. There are many examples of Buddhist rites and traditions throughout the text. For example, it was described that in the depths of…… [Read More]
Even so, the rate of such situations is rather limited and parents fully trust the organization's capabilities and consider it a highly reliable institution that is most likely to retrieve the desired results.
Girl Scouts operates in full accordance with all pre-established national, international and organizational standards. They respect and protect all human and children's rights. The organization is committed to respecting all regulations and is even working on developing new ones that offer better protection for children and girls across the globe.
Most programs initiated by Girl Scouts have life time durability. This length can easily be explained by the fact that these programs are so created as to leave an eternal mark. They are useful lessons for life and they aid to the building and formation of the girls' characters. Girls who learn to be independent and kind to those in need are prone…… [Read More]
'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this head have almost been given up"
illiam Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, (1753)
Not very encouraging words, but if the great artist illiam Hogarth felt himself up to the task, we can attempt at least to follow his lead. That beauty is enigmatic goes almost without saying. Different ages, different cultures, and even different individuals, will have their own definitions of "beauty." The problem is more than skin deep. Any term that can be so widely and irregularly employed is bound to trap the casual researcher ... Or reader ... Or viewer ... Or for that matter, any other human being who attempts to define what is and what is not "beauty." People, places, things -- even ideas dreams -- can…… [Read More]
Fleda has no artifice about her: she is frank, honest, and acts with an unwavering sense of ethical commitment that is almost as single-minded -- though naturally more varied and nuanced -- as Mrs. Gereth's sense of artistic appreciation. She is a woman of ideas just as much as Mrs. Gereth is a woman consumed by her passion with things. In fact, the dichotomy that these two women represent can be seen in the opening chapter of the novel, when Mrs. Gereth "thingifies" Fleda by saying (or rather, with the narrator saying, though seeming to deliver Mrs. Gereth's inner thoughts), "Fleda Vetch was dressed with an idea, though perhaps not with much else" (Ch. I, par. 2). The near-nakedness of Fleda's ideas and ideals is seen time and time again throughout the Spoils of Poynton, as she attempts to manipulate Owen and Mrs. Gereth, by turns and one at the…… [Read More]
Touki Bouki & Black Girl are experimental films from the late 20th century. The paper aims to offer a comparative analysis of the films in regards to many aspects, including the politics within each film and the aesthetics of each film. The films were released within ten years of each other and illustrate two distinct yet related styles of filmmaking and narrative structure. Both films pursue issues of freedom and bondage; the urban vs. The rural; and differences among gender roles. The paper describes and explores the content of the narratives as well as filmmaking aspects such as editing, cinematography, soundtrack, and message(s) to the viewer.
There exists a primary dichotomy in both films where Africa is on one end of a spectrum and France, specifically Paris, is on the opposite end of the spectrum, serving as a dreamland or wonderland. Both films explore the dreams of young…… [Read More]
Apocalypse of Art in the Tech Era
Modern Apocalypse Art and Technological Aspects
The purpose of this paper is to examine modern art, in particular that which is referred to as "apocalypse art" and further to examine the interactions between art and technology. Specifically this paper will look at the new dimensions that technology has contributed to the rendering of art as well as what contribution or impact that art has rendered to technology.
The methodology for this study is through examination of several of the artists as well as scholars who are in some way interconnected in this process of producing apocalypse art.
The question that seems to weigh on the minds of those who view the modern "apocalypse" art exhibits asks:
Has this artist attempted to achieve the effect of shock or is the artist attempting to convey some deeper truth?"
London's Art Gallery featured an exhibit entitled…… [Read More]
Texas Chainsaw Massacre and Pink Flamingos belong to utterly different genres, they share in common aesthetic sensibilities that celebrate the macabre, fetish, and even the grotesque. As such, both films encapsulate the punk aesthetic and its complete disregard for, and subversion of, the manufactured "beauty" packaged by the dominant culture. Both these films were released in the early years of the 1970s, Pink Flamingos in 1972 and The Texas Chainsaw Massacre in 1974. In many ways, both films capture the disillusionment with popular culture and with establishment norms and values. The early years of the 1970s arrived at the tail end of the counterculture movement of the late 1960s, during which sexual norms and gender norms, as well as norms related to race and class were being systematically challenged. As the Vietnam War wound to a bitter end, many Americans confronted deep and even existential questions about their own society…… [Read More]
Socrates and Plotinus also have very similar ideas on how Beauty is recognized, which though intimately related to their ideas on the nature of Beauty are somewhat different, also. For both men, Beauty was connected to the eternal. Socrates, being at least somewhat (and perhaps completely) atheistic, does not immediately or necessarily connect the concept of the eternal with the concept of the divine, however, but rather recognizes the inherent Beauty in the only act of immortality that mortals can engage in -- procreation and generation, which leads to "beauty in birth." The physical act of love between a man and a woman is described by Socrates -- through the voice of Diotima -- as an act of supreme beauty, and its effects are equally beautiful, as it causes immortality and hence touches upon the eternal. Beauty is also connected to love because love cannot occur with deformity; the closer…… [Read More]
Though Umberto Giordano's work has often been overshadowed by that of his rather more famous contemporary Giacomo Puccini, Giordano's Andrea Chenier offers the ideal site for one to engage in a critical examination of nineteenth century opera and the various thematic and stylistic strains popularized at the time, as well as the complications which arise from modern interpretation and performance. In particular, examining the critical history of verismo alongside the historical context of Andrea Chenier serves to demonstrate how fully a modern performance of the opera seemingly subsumes and dissolves any revolutionary character that might have been present in the original text by reproducing the story of doomed love during the French evolution in a gaudy, ahistorical performance.
Before conducting an analysis of a modern performance of Andrea Chenier, there are a few key topics one must investigate further in order to place the subsequent analysis in its…… [Read More]
Why does Greenough object to American architects borrowing styles from Europe? Which of his reasons do you consider valid, and which are unconvincing?
The main objection Greenough has to American architects borrowing styles from Europe is that these styles are unsuited for the American background which is vast, open and different from Europe in terms of climate. Furthermore, unlike the religiously homogenous states in Europe, America is very diverse and therefore much of ecclesiastical architecture has no application. Furthermore the author sees the misappropriation of designs for purposes other than their original purpose as the surest sign of decline. I am not convinced that the issue of appropriateness of a certain kind of architecture to its purpose is a legitimate objection. Consider for example the rotunda of the Capitol Hill and compare it to the Vatican City's architecture.
Why does Fathy consider the plant is a good analogy for…… [Read More]
(Pendola) ("Radio Shack") ("Radio Shack Profits from Mobiles")
This helped us to understand how everything works and it allowed us to see the benefits of the Android over competitors. For instance, the Radio Shack salesperson helped us to transfer the settings from our old phone over to the new one. This made it easier to customize the device and select applications that were the most beneficial to us. (Pendola) ("Radio Shack") ("Radio Shack Profits from Mobiles")
The criterion that was used to prove if one location was better than the other was based upon a number of factors. To include: the response time, product knowledge and ability to meet our needs. In the case of response time, Radio Shack was quicker in welcoming us to the location and helping to select the best phone. Moreover, they had superior product knowledge and the ability to meet our needs when it comes…… [Read More]
Mannoni's belief that colonial racism is different than other kinds of racism Fanon dismisses as utterly naive: "All forms of exploitation are identical because all of them are applied against the same 'object': man" (88). He next turns to Mannoni's statement that a minority can only have experiences of dependency or inferiority toward the majority (92-93). Fanon spends the remainder of the chapter disproving this claim by engaging with various aspects of Mannoni's argument. He concludes that Mannoni's lacks foundation for his claims.
Fanon focuses this chapter on the observation that only in interaction with the white man is the black man compelled to "experience his being" (109). He argues that, contrary to other claims, this condition is not reciprocal; only the black man suffers from a 3rd person view of himself. Fanon strives to find an identity for the black man outside the parameters of the white man's view.…… [Read More]
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]
For example, the scene in which Andrea stands before the statue of Marat and sings "Credi al destino" fails to evoke for me any real sensation. Perhaps it is because, as Grout suggests, the opera is "laden with harmonies that are heavy and oldfashioned [and] has little of special interest" (p. 495). Such could explain why the scenes feel at time clunky and abysmally lacking in flair. Still, at other times, they are vibrant and alive with life -- and those times are when the drama calls for gaity (not for fatalism or idealism).
The opera may, therefore, be interpreted as a political piece -- but I do not wish to convey that interpretation, for I think there is already too much omanticism in contemporary politics today. I think Andrea fits better as a period piece that should be left in the period for which it was written: one that…… [Read More]
A fact of history is that enaissance marked a new emerging base towards the already established architecture of antiquity that was rooted in thorough recovery of the past and new inventiveness, but it was because of this that the great cities of Europe gathered much of their form that is admired by the world today. The word renaissance has entered the minds of people with dominant positive connotations of pure genius and renewal. (Campbell, 2004)
enaissance architecture is the architecture of the early 15th to 17th centuries in different areas of Europe which demonstrated a revival of elements of the ancient Greek and oman thought and culture. First established in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, the renaissance spread like wild fire to other parts of Italy as well and from there the style was carried to France, England, ussia, Germany and other parts of Europe. (Gromort)
During the enaissance,…… [Read More]
Describe where you would locate your urban forest and explain why you would locate it there. emember to take into account major features, waterways, elevations, roads, etc. As well as climate and soils of the location. You can describe the area by noting bordering roads and features.
The devastation created by Hurricane Katrina was at least partially due to the decision to build homes in areas highly prone to flooding during frequent storms. Given the likelihood of another catastrophic hurricane, 'locating' an urban forest as inland as possible on elevated ground would be essential. "New Orleans offers an opportunity to study an urban forest in a subtropical environment…The city has been built on the natural levees of the Mississippi iver, backswamps, marshes, and reclaimed land along Lake Pontchartrain. Little of the natural vegetative cover of the site remains; today's urban forest is anthropogenic" (Talarchek 1987: 217). This means…… [Read More]
Apple Inc. -- Management Strategy
Vision, Mission, and SMART Objectives
Apple Inc. has had a long history of reinventing itself. The first Apple computers were built in a garage without any type of case, monitor, or keyboard. Despite these modest origins, there was still demand for Apple grew exponentially. It wasn't long before Apple introduced the trademark Macintosh and then the Mac OS X which revolutionized the company. It was also at this time also dedicated much of the company's resources to aesthetics and further developing the Apple brand image through distinctive designs and intuitive features. This dedication to user friendly designs created generations of loyal customers who have fully embraced the Apple brand and champion the Apple products. The digital hub strategy which was responsible for the iPod, iPhone, and iPad completely revolutionized the industry. Make no mistake, Apple's competitive…… [Read More]
In what ways are the form and function of the Buddhist stupa and Hindu temple similar to or different from the Islamic mosque?
The Buddhist Stupa, the Hindu Temple, and the Islamic Mosque all have social, cultural, and religious functions. Their physical forms are more similar than they are different, in that each boasts tapered and often rounded edifices. However, Hindu temples are more likely to have angular features and involve the use of straight lines and parallel planes; both stupas and mosques prefer curvilinear elements and bulbous forms. Hindu temples and Muslim mosques will also have larger interior spaces devote to personal prayer.
In what ways may the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi be considered an Islamic (ate) building and an Indic one in terms of its construction and its design?
The Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi is clearly Islamic because of the minaret, as well as…… [Read More]
The religious architecture of Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence in the early 1400s established a new Renaissance aesthetic by blending religious symbolism with mathematical and classical principles that he drew from visits to ancient ruins of Rome as well as from Vitruvius' De Architectura. This paper will describe how Brunelleschi's unique blend inspired a new movement in Renaissance architecture -- a movement that began with the Dome of the Florence Cathedral and stretched through to the production of the Dome of St. Peter's Basilica under Michelangelo, whose plan was a kind of compromise between the Brunelleschi-inspired plan of Bramante and the more crux-like design of Raphael (Johnson). The Basilica's dome was meant to rival that of the wonder of Florence, created by Brunelleschi, which had essentially pushed the boundaries of Italian architecture into the next phase of greatness.
The phase of grandeur that Brunelleschi heralded with his Dome of…… [Read More]
Industrial Revolution and Beyond
It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…… [Read More]
London has a rich architectural history. Some of the most popular buildings today come from the 19th century when Victorian Gothic architecture was popular. St. Pancras New Church offers a take at Greek revival style with a brick build, faced with Portland stone. Another Victorian style building, Manchester Town Hall, while built in the same century as St. Pancras, has its differences thanks to the rapid expansion and accompanying pollution so frequently seen in Victorian cities. Both structures hallmarks of British Victorian architecture, but also indelibly varied and indicative of the skill and engineering of the architects of the era.
Pancras Paris Church, also called St. Pancras New Church is a Greek evival church located in St. Pancras, London. The structure was constructed in three years from 1819-1822 and designed by Henry William and William Inwood. Placed along the south side of Euston oad and the northern boundary of Bloomsbury,…… [Read More]
This specific example is also indicative of some of the general ways in which the building was modified and updated. In his restoration of Castelvecchio, Carlo Scarpa uses the basic geometric designs and patterns of the original medieval castle, but accentuates, develops, and emphasizes these geometric expressions in a very modern way. The concrete beam in the example above compliments the angularity of the room at large, but is almost an exaggeration of it. The beam itself s composed of three slabs of concrete at right angles to each other, forming three sides of a square or a sort of sideways "c," with the bottom open to the floor. Not only does the beams itself represent an intrusion of modern geometric appreciation into the castle, but even the construction of the beam itself reflects Scarpa's extreme devotion to geometry and geometric expression. This amplifies the geometry that is such an…… [Read More]
Theatrical performances of any kind are uniquely poised to evoke a myriad of audience responses. Unlike many other forms of artistic expression, theatre involves the visual, auditory, and emotional -- in short, a wide range of the human aesthetic experience is evoked in the performance. Thus, especially when the subject matter is of a particular novelty or controversial nature, one can virtually count on a strong aesthetic response in the viewer.
hen one considers the nature of "aesthetics," one must consider not only the "nature" but the "value" of a form of artistic expression (ArtLex, 2005). This means that, philosophically, the human is supposed capable of reading "clues" in the work itself that can allow one to interpret/understand, as well as "judge" the work according to "beauty, taste ... function, nature, ontology, purpose, and so on (ArtLex)." Further, in the postmodern world, a great deal of…… [Read More]
Like most western philosophers, Plato focused a substantial amount of energy on aesthetics. Aesthetics is the philosophical inquiry into beauty. For many philosophers, the concept of beauty was synonymous with the concept of art. However, Plato made a substantial distinction between beauty and art. Not only did he consider art a poor imitation of beauty, in fact labeling it an imitation of an imitation, but he thought that this imitation was somehow dangerous. It leads to one of the most interesting almost paradoxes in all of Plato’s philosophy. While Plato appeared to consider beauty inherently good, he viewed art as not only inferior to natural beauty, but also dangerous. A further exploration of Plato’s philosophy, and its place in the development of Western philosophy, reveals that Plato’s concept of aesthetics was more about establishing the philosophical rules to discuss beauty and art than it was about placing value on…… [Read More]
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]
3. Curriculum or Method of the Study
The research methodology that was applied in this study was essentially an inclusive, extensive and comparative overview of the literature on the subject. Various sources were consulted, which included books and scholarly articles on the column in architectural history. Also included in the literature survey was information and data from online databases and verified websites.
The information gleaned about columns and their historical context was extrapolated and then entered into a free-from database for further analysis. This resulted in an overall survey of the progression and evolution of various forms and types of columns, from the Egyptian column to the present day. A comparative method of analysis was employed in order to ascertain the commonalities as well as the differences between the various types and forms of this architectural structure.
What should also be mentioned is that the focus of the research, and…… [Read More]
designing tools to be used by consumers or workers, it is widely assumed that the product must be both visually appealing as well as ergonomically functional. In certain workplace applications, if specific tools are not used, injuries may occur. Previous research on hand tools required in factory work, such as gripping tongs, have found that the product may be ignored if it is perceived to be cumbersome to use. According to the article, "The influence of different hand tool designs on the perception of aesthetics, ergonomics and usability," a "hand tool must be perceived to be usable, ergonomic and visually appealing in order for the users to benefit from the tools" and knowledge of how to enhance the perception of the user of the product's value is an essential component in ensuring that the tool is used properly (Syed 2012: 241)
A statement of the research problem
"It has been…… [Read More]
Adorno correct in charging that "art as commodity" has no redeeming aesthetic value?
As frequently stated by Adorno, the 'aesthetic' element has failed to keep up with progresses in the art field. Ever since its expression as an area of examination, aesthetics has typically failed to achieve its goal of explaining, identifying or evaluating its object that, chiefly, continues to be art. Moreover, frequently, artists who doubted aesthetics' contribution raised the question of why some people waste their and others' time aiming at getting value judgments, not realizing that value judgments are all they ultimately receive (Bernstein, 185).
Art as a concept hesitates when it comes to getting defined, as it is traditionally an evolving collection of moments. Also, its nature can't be determined by retracing one's path to its origins, seeking a basic, initial layer reinforcing all else. The latter age romantics considered ancient art as pure and supreme.…… [Read More]
By losing touch with the natural world, we live only within our own bodies, where the soul is stifled because it needs anima mundi to exist. There is a danger in not connecting to the environment around us. There is a danger in not allowing our hearts to have thoughts. We become closed off to the entire world and our entire existence by ignoring nature; we become shells of people.
Hillman (1997) discusses the calling of individuals in his book The soul's code: In search of character and calling. The book talks about how we are all subject to fate at some point when we get this idea about what we want to do with our lives. He claims that these kinds of "annunciations and recollections determine biography as strongly as memories or abusive horror" (1997). And though we all have some sort of trauma from our earlier years, from…… [Read More]
If one were to dedicate their lives to examining the concept of aesthetics, they would most probably feel sorry when looking back finding that they did not have the chance to actually enjoy what they were studying about. Certain people who actually knew how to enjoy beauty to its full potential motivated their feelings by claiming that they felt something divine. Such a statement is direct proof that these people did not want to concentrate on knowing what they felt, as they simply admitted that it was something heavenly. Relating to a divine concept means that every analytical theory is removed, given the fact that a person likes to believe in a godly being without standing to think about how that respective being looks like, or what kind of character he or she has. Surely, believers know that questioning the existence of the divine or simply trying to learn more…… [Read More]
When we look at Starkey's works we appear to be looking at moments captured from everyday life, in particular the everyday life of women. In fact Starkey's photographs are constructed, the people we are looking at are actors.
Her images of modern banality also suggest ennui, despair, depression and listlessness, which are conveyed as central facets of the reality of life for women in society. As one critic describes her images; "apathetic teenagers, usually girls, languish, slack-limbed and expressionless, in dimly lit cafes, nondescript interiors, and anonymous shopping malls."
Furthermore, the images also emphasize the sense of loneliness and isolation that she considers to be the existential situation of working women in the city.
In these images and others like them, individuals stand apart from the world, separated from it by a screen of indifference. It is not that they actively refuse to invest in their surroundings; they simply do…… [Read More]
To further support his theory, Kant puts forward the example of objects being positively valued and assessed using words and analogies which seem to have moral origins in the sense that they belong to the perimeter of morality, and not beauty. On the other hand, the empirical evaluation of things which is employed in the case of aesthetics is not employed in the case of judgment that is not subjected to the laws of experience. Aesthetics are evaluated through subjective means and generate pleasure or its opposite, whereas morals can only be judged objectively as they apply to everyone. Aesthetics is conceived as an analysis of the faculty that is destined to the assessment of the feeling of pleasure and results from the harmony between intellect and imagination related to a particular object. Kant argues that this judgment of beauty does not bring anything new to the realm of knowledge,…… [Read More]
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…… [Read More]
The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.
A Rose Grows From Concrete
One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:
Things that make hearts break.
And people who dream with their eyes open
Unanswered…… [Read More]
Power Politics and Glory
Example 1: The Great Wall Of China
It is a common phenomenon for an object to be associated with the ruler or the country in question. The Great Wall of China, where not only served as a defense system, but also consolidated the image of China as a mighty power for many years. The Wall -- acted more as a psychological defense mechanism -- giving the image of China as a united nation.
The design and the emergence of the wall was only possible in the then current prevailing Political Condition of the country, when the country needed to defend itself from foreign attacks by the Mongols.
The design of the Wall was used as a medium to inspire fear and an image of a strong state -- depicted by the strong wall itself. Aesthetic consideration was not point or considering factor, as the main point…… [Read More]
Perotin's "Viderunt Omnes"
My fascination with Perotin's "Viderunt Omnes" -- the aspect of the piece which intrigued me enough to select it for this exercise -- begins and ends with one name -- not that of Perotinus Magnus (as you might suspect) but that of contemporary composer Steve Reich.[footnoteRef:0] My own interest in musical analysis very often involves the question of what composers are doing now. If we approach the aesthetics of music from a perspective that is informed by Harold Bloom's approach to the aesthetics of literature, a critical approach that has been exemplified by (for example) John Fallas suggesting that the creation of Schoenberg's Serial Technique was a sort of Modernist revolutionary break with past aesthetics[footnoteRef:1], on the order of Bloom's description of the invention of "Romanticism" in literature, whereby we analyze any composer by means of his sense of "the burden of the past" and his own…… [Read More]
Live Concet Analysis
How Doing Good Makes Us Feel Poweful and Poweless at the Same Time
Design Activism vs. Design fo Social Change
The Awakening Consciousness of Designes 1960's
Thee has been lukewam inteest in public sevice design, social impact and design activism. But in most convesations, all othe designs wok to enhance the standad of living of the people; some of it must be activism. The agument is seldom boosted by the notion that achitectue has been impacted by intellectual movements and ats fo instance, modenism which fuels an idea of a evolutionay society. These movements had ideal poposals fo society's efoms. They wee elated deeply to commece and aesthetics as well (Jose et al., 2008). Conside the diffeence between modenism and activism fo that matte. The modenism idea states that people stand equals to each othe, while society became united in evey aspect fo instance uniting laboes,…… [Read More]
The person taking the test must rank the questions in part one from best to worst with 1 being the best and 18 being the worst. In the second part, the questions are ranked from most agree to least agree. Supposedly, there is no right or wrong answer and the profile can be used to discover strengths and weaknesses as well as help a person choose a career path (http://www.hartmaninstitute.org).
After finding out the information that I did on this subject, I cannot say that I am wholly convinced on the concept of axiology. Dr. Hartman has shown us that the questions on his profile can be manipulated mathematically, but I still have trouble with the issue of the questions themselves. They were developed by Dr. Hartman so they are based on what he values and what his personal ethics are. Most of us would agree that some of the…… [Read More]
Jacques Derrida has been accused of writing in a deliberately obtuse and obfuscated manner, so the relationship between his work and that of Plato's might not be immediately discernible. Perhaps the clearest connection between the two can be derived from Derrida's of Grammatology, especially as it compares to Plato's aesthetics and view of reality. In this rather dense treatise, Derrida first outlines the phenomenon of what he calls logocentrism -- the attitude that speech (logos in Greek) is the most basic and essential form of language, while writing is secondary in development and its ability to reflect meaning. Derrida claims that logocentrism has long been a silent and foundational part of Western thought, even from the time of Plato.
Plato believed that truth and meaning existed in a pure state somewhere, with the shadows of meanings existing in our own world. Derrida sees this as a flawed worldview, though not…… [Read More]
Images of war, homelessness, and poverty also convey poignant messages that can be construed differently by different people. The photographer presents the image but the viewer deciphers it. When photographs like those from Walker Evans are used as journalistic content, they can become imbued with meaning and political ideology. Other images are less equivocal. For example, a shot of a homeless man sleeping on a bench in Beverly Hills would immediately connote income disparity in the United States.
Another issue Nickel raises in "American Photographs Revisited" is the confluence of art and science in the medium of photography. Evans and other professional photographers and photojournalists craft their images, painstakingly addressing variables like lighting and atmospheric conditions with tweaks to their camera techniques. New technology including digital photography and editing software has expanded the range of possibilities for photographers. The art of photography is extended to book layout in works like…… [Read More]
His belief, of course, was that the Unity was of primary importance -- which was a departure from Sullivan's sense that beauty and transcendent forms (reflections of the human spirit) were central to the idea of all forms. Wright's anti-verticality was no more in tune to Sullivan's sense of the soul than the reuer's "functional" brutalism. Sullivan alone had the sense to achieve some sort of aesthetic standard while achieving the function so desired by his contractors.
In conclusion, Sullivan announced at the end of the 19th century that "form ever follows function" -- but that did not imply that form had to be as mechanical as function. In fact, it meant for Sullivan quite the opposite. The Guaranty uilding is a perfect example of how he saw architecture as an art: its purpose was to provide the space necessary for offices and retailers but also to make…… [Read More]
g., the finding last year at Athens of the hand of Zeus of the east pediment)" the Parthenon continues to yield intellectual fruit through archeological excavation and discovery (Bruno xiv). As age replaces age with new speculations, scholars reappraise this epic piece of architecture, for "speculations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are already mostly out of date, and original source materials are rare" (Bruno xiv). hat historians do, as a rule, have to go on are the stories preserved by Plutarch, who reflects a "spirit that undoubtedly prevailed at Athens as a plan took shape to reconstruct the sanctuary which had been left in ruins by the Persians" (Bruno xiv). This plan was so Athenian to the core that even (as Plutarch mentions) the animals seemed to throw their very being into the operation.
In conclusion, Greek architecture has produced some of the world's finest marvels, and was…… [Read More]