"Alexander Hamilton Essays"

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Hamilton Economics Essay

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70631430

Hamilton's Economic Plan

Alexander Hamilton was one of the Founding Fathers, and was the first Secretary of the Treasury. His economic plan was contained in a series of written works that provided the framework for the nation's economic governance. The underlying objectives of Hamilton's economic plan were to provide the nation with the financial stability it would need in case of war, and was also driven by his Federalist viewpoint, in direct contrast to the many anti-Federalists of the time (SparkNotes, 2015).

The first element of Hamilton's plan was with respect to the pending credit crisis that the new country was to have. As a new country, America had no reputation to draw on with respect to credit. The nation's debts were large and largely unpaid. Roughly half of this debt was owed by the states. Hamilton suggested public bonds as a means of financing wars in particular, but as a means in general of consolidating these debts in order to maintain the nation's good credit standing. He recognized the necessity for this structure because at the time America "is possessed of little active wealth, or in other words little monied capital." Thus, he continued "to be able to borrow upon good terms, it is essential that the credit of a nation should be well-established" ("First Report on the Public Credit," 1790). This idea was met with resistance, because while the South had generally paid off most of its debts, the north was still heavily indebted, and this sharing of the burden at this time would essentially punish the South for its diligence.

The second component of Hamilton's economic plan, in the Second Report on Public Credit, was to establish a national bank. The objective was to increase the amount of capital for investment, the Bank of the United States. The bank would be 80% owned by private interests, but would take in federal revenue, and issue currency. This bank would also act as a regulatory agent, with respect to all other banks in the country, and would extend credit to…… [Read More]

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Hamilton's Role in Effecting the New Nation of America Essay

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79855396

Revolutionary Character

Alexander Hamilton was the prototypical opportunist of the American Revolution: of obscure and humble origins, he longed for an escape from his lowly rank as accountant and, as Wood (2006) notes, it was "war" that Hamilton believed would provide just such an escape (p. 124). Hamilton's revolutionary character was found in this desire for opportunity out of crisis and displayed the future maxim of Rahm Emmanuel, "Let no good crisis go to waste," in a manner that suggests that Hamilton is indeed the progenitor of a centralized, fascistic government headed by a financial sector that has less interest in democratic ideals than it does in the control and steering of a new empire. This paper will explore the theme set out by Wood (2006) that shows how Alexander Hamilton was a revolutionary character whose special talents lay in the direction of fostering a new nation that could be effectively governed by powerful scions and members of the banking sector.

The overall theme identified by Wood (2006) in the chapter entitled "Alexander Hamilton and the Making of the Fiscal-Military State" is that Hamilton played a particularly useful revolutionary role in terms of connecting the dots between Washington's military leadership and the leadership of the financial elites of Wall Street, where so many memorable historical moments arose, such as Washington's oath of office in 1789 and the vote on the Bill of Rights. Hamilton served as the connecting link between Wall Street influence and the office of the President, playing fast and loose with the legislative body of government in terms of financial and centralizing principles.

As Woods (2006) highlights in one of the more important sub-themes of the chapter, Hamilton was the perfect sort of revolutionary for the upcoming American titans (he married into just such a family): eager, impassioned, skillful in rhetoric, and learned in numbers and Judaic ethics (he attended Hebrew school in the Caribbean), Hamilton represented all the qualities of an aspiring youngster in a new nation coming to terms with itself and the opportunities…… [Read More]

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Hamilton and the Federalists on the Constitution Essay

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13475439

Federalist Papers are important to any analysis of the U.S. Constitution because they provided the philosophical and socio-political justification for the adoption of the Constitution. Prior to the ratification of the Constitution, the states were loosely united under the Articles of Confederation. However, Alexander Hamilton and his group of elites did not like that they could not be part of a federal/central government that oversaw and wielded power over the rest of the states. Thus, Hamilton penned many of the Federalist Papers (including Federalist no. 1) in order to combat the ideas expressed by the Anti-Federalists who condemned the Constitution as an attempt to subjugate states' rights.

The Federalist Papers may be read therefore as a series of a letters and arguments meant to sway the reader as to why the U.S. should adopt the Constitution in place of the Articles of Confederation. It is a body of writing that is centralist in perspective and geared towards illustrating how a Constitution would better help the states to avoid the pitfalls of a union that lacks a central government with considerable power.

In other words, the Federalist Papers were about aligning the public's view with that of the Constitutionalists, who aimed to give the individual states a central government that could have the same kind of authority that the American Revolutionaries had just spent the war fighting. It was a return of the old power in a new form, justified by the rhetoric of Hamilton et al., and opposed by the Anti-Federalists, who believed that the only thing that could keep the country from becoming a totalitarian, authoritarian, tyrannical State was for the individual states to maintain their own authority, their own autonomy, their own governments, their own state constitutions,…… [Read More]

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What Does Hamilton Say in Federalist No 6 Essay

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44590085

Hamilton's "Federalist No. 6"

The purpose of Alexander Hamilton's "Federalist No. 6" is to convince the reader of the dangers of an only partially united group of states. Hamilton urges total centralization under the guise of a ruling Constitution to protect the nation from "ambitious, vindictive, and rapacious" men, which is what men turn into when they are given independence, according to him. (The irony of Hamilton's argument is that he is arguing for that which the American Revolutionaries just threw off!) His thesis is contained in the opening paragraph: "I shall now proceed to delineate dangers of a different and, perhaps, still more alarming kind -- those which will in all probability flow from dissensions between the States themselves, and from domestic factions and convulsions" (Hamilton). His aim is clear: a loose confederation of states, each with its own authority, will not work because men simply cannot get along. Hamilton is no fan of diplomatic skill or neighborliness, apparently. This may be due to his upbringing.

The structure of the essay is set up in epistolary form and is very well organized: it is construed as a letter to the People of the State of New York. Hamilton supports his thesis point by point and his argument takes a logical process, though the soundness of his premise is debatable. He begins by ridiculing the idea of interstate cooperation (without federal oversight) as Utopian and then goes on to list all the possible causes that can serve to make states hostile to one another. Hamilton lists all of men's vices known throughout history and essentially says that these are what will appear (without federal oversight). He uses examples such Pericles, Cardinal Wolsey, women in general, and the "concurring testimony of experience" to show how men just cannot get along (without federal oversight).

The method of organization is straightforward and the letter does not deviate in any way from its purpose, which is to underscore…… [Read More]

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Alexander the Great Books on Essay

Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88216034

Hamilton notes the biographies of Alexander often reflected the backgrounds of authors who wrote about him. For example, Sir William Tarn, a Scottish gentleman of the British imperial era, characterized Alexander as a chivalrous Greek gentleman with a missionary zeal to spread Greek civilization. In contrast, Fritz Schachermeyr, a German historian who had experienced the rise and fall of the Nazi Germany, described Alexander as a ruthless and cruel ruler, indulged "in deceit and treachery to gain his ends, as a 'Titanic' figure aiming at the conquest of the world."

Both Tarn and Schachermeyr are among the great modern historians of Alexander but even they could not escape personal biases.

The irony of Hamilton's book is that, although he is at pains in his discussion of the difficulty of writing about Alexander and is critical of biased historians, the book starts with a straightforward admission of a bias. Rejecting the claim that Alexander was a disseminator of Greek culture to so-called "barbarians," Hamilton writes: "his heredity and his background are more important; he remained, essentially, Macedonian. This explains his hard drinking (denied, significantly, by Tarn) and, where circumstances called for it, the ruthless elimination of rivals."

Now, the question is what does Alexander's hard drinking or his ruthlessness in eliminating rivals have anything to do with him being a Macedonian? Were they essential Macedonian traits? Were not there any hard drinkers or ruthless eliminators of rivals among Greeks? Were Greeks not capable of it? Hamilton's stereotypical characterization of Macedonians and Greeks borders on racism.

Hamilton's main goal is to argue that Alexander lacked any Hellenizing mission and remained essentially a Macedonian with military skills bestowed upon him by his father Philip and other Macedonians. But his attempt to prove a point weakens his thesis. Hamilton ascribes essential characteristics to Greek and Macedonians that do not do justice to human nature. Part of the reason for this problem is Hamilton's uncritical analysis of primary and ancient secondary sources. The story of Alexander is conveyed to us mostly in the Greek and Roman languages. Romans admired the Greeks, so they were not critical enough with Greek sources. The sources in ancient Greek obviously are biased in…… [Read More]

Freeman, Philip. Alexander the Great. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2009.

Hamilton, J.R. Alexander the Great. Pittsburg: The University of Pittsburg Press, 1974.
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Liberal Capitalism Is the Ideology Essay

Words: 1474 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54749738

Flax was a major industry because of the ease of production. The prosaic nature of the homespun ideal led it to be the symbol of the revolution. It also induced progress. Benjamin Franklin referred to it as the "first Ages of the world." But this was linked to European finery, historically made from the animal skins of the Indians, who did not have a cloth-making industry. In his 1787 Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson declared all forms of manufacturing, including household, as a mortal threat to American virtue. As the American president in 1806, he drew the attention of Cherokee chiefs on the civilizing effect of spinning and weaving their own cotton cloths. In 1812, Jefferson and John Adams agreed to a common homespun vision of commercial progress (Zakim).

The overall view is that capitalism threatens or hinders democracy (Muller 2007). Capitalism involves an inequality of reward, while democracy draws from the concept of equality. The inequality and the influence of the wealthy over the politically powerful deter the equality guaranteed by democracy. On the other hand, there is an argument for the compatibility of the two ideologies. Democracy checks on the rough edges of capitalism and renders capitalism more legitimate. The transfer of payments from the rich to the poor and insurance against illness, unemployment and old age are examples. The market is seen as likely to more efficient than representative democracy. Adam Smith explained in his "Wealth of Nations" that productivity would increase with market expansion. Supply and demand, not political assent or will, dictate prices. These prices, in turn, provide monetary incentives to businesses, landlords and workers to place their resources where they will be of the greatest profit for them. Prices and wages also point to where effective demand is greater than supply can be found. These indicate that when the competitive market becomes more productive, efficient and innovative, the standard of living necessarily goes up. And a rising standard of living conduces to democracy (Muller).

A growing economy also discourages…… [Read More]

Anderson, Kim. Liberal Capitalism: the Will to Happiness. Policy: the Centre for Independent Studies, Summer 2007

Lowell National Historical Park. Early American Manufacturing. National Park Services:
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2nd Continental Congress Attempted to Bring Us Essay

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57045704

2nd Continental Congress attempted to bring us through the Revolutionary War, but the members soon realized that we needed a form of central government on a permanent basis. The arguements began between Alexander Hamilton, the Federalist, and Thomas Jefferson, the anti-Federalist, over how much power the central government should actually be given. This assignment will address these issues and has several parts. Make sure you answer all parts of the question and write an essay at least 4 pages in length. 1. Discuss the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the reasons it failed. 2. Describe the makeup of the Constitutional Convention and the priorities of the delegates. 3. Compare Hamilton and Jefferson in their political and economic philosophies and their concept of Federalism. Do you feel Hamilton had too much influence under the administrations of Washington and Adams? I want you to give an assessment as to the success or failure of Hamilton and his policies and the effect they would have on the future of the United States. You need to read chapters 6 and 7 for this essay.

The Second Continental Congress

The Second Continental Congress is virtually the most important congress in the history of the United States of America, representing the very formation of the country. The Congress had initially met to deal with the American Revolutionary War, but ended up adopting the Declaration of Independence and forming the government of the United States.

Two of the more notable participants in the Congress were Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. Jefferson was an anti-federalist and Alexander Hamilton was a declared federalist, and conflicts rose between the two relative to the degree of the power that should be granted to the government.

Overall, the Second Continental Congress was a successful process which resulted in the formation of the United States. But the process was also tedious and complex and it involved several problems. For instance, the Confederation created several articles, yet these revealed several weaknesses, and they as such failed. Then, issues were also observed at the level of the makeup of the Constitutional Convention and the priorities of the delegates. Last, there was the already mentioned ideological conflict between Jefferson and Hamilton. In order to better understand the Second Continental Congress, each of these issues would be addressed throughout the following lines.

The…… [Read More]

Kelly, M. Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? About. http://americanhistory.about.com/od/governmentandpolitics/f/articles_of_confederation_fails.htm accessed on October 4, 2012

(2012). The world factbook -- United States. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html accessed on October 4, 2012
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Republicans and Federalists Differences the Essay

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85927240

The Hartford Convention was a gathering of Federalist Party delegates from five New England states that met in Hartford, Connecticut, between December 15, 1814, and January 5, 1815. Its members convened to discuss their long-held grievances against the policies of the successive Democratic-

Republican administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.

After that, the party never regained a national following. Its beliefs and actions during the War of 1812 helped seal its fate. By 1828 the Federalists became the first American political party to die out because it could not adjust to an increasingly democratic national spirit, especially in the nation's towns and cities. And among most Americans, mainly farmers suspicious of government, its policies of strong federal involvement in the economy kept it un-popular. Inconsistency in its stance toward military action (first undertaking a naval war with France, then treating for peace with that same nation, then actively opposing war with Britain) made the Federalist Party's true intentions suspect and laid it open to charges that it had no polices of its own and was not willing to defend the country's interests (Federalist party, n.d.).

The Role of the War of 1812 and for Madison's Presidency

National pride and patriotism were probably the most important results of the War of 1812. The Federalist's initial opposition to the war, and their hints of secession were viewed, after the war, as disloyal and unpatriotic. This contributed to the dissolution of the party.

Madison did not want the war at all, and his acumen as a war leader was amateurish compared to George Washington. The burning of the White House in 1814 by the British caused Madison's reputation to collapse. His performance after that, however, actually earned him approval from both parties and the public. And the inspiring battle at Fort McHenry helped.

Four months later, General Andrew Jackson struck the final blow with his smashing victory at the Battle of New Orleans, and everyone, including Madison, was a hero. His previously shaky reputation as a war leader was forgotten.

The impact of the war on Madison's presidency was that it, ultimately, made him quite popular. His final two years in office were quiet and peaceful for the country, and for him.… [Read More]

Alexander Hamilton's Anglo-American vision. (2008, July 26). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from American Founding: http://americanfounding.blogspot.com/2008/07/alexander-hamiltons-anglo-american.html

Corps of discovery: President Jefferson's vision. (2003, October 10). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Center of Military History - U.S. Army: http://www.history.army.mil/LC/the%20Mission/Expedition/page_2.htm
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Macro Vision of Jefferson vs Essay

Words: 2374 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12612725

Hamilton's Arguments in Favor of the Debt and the Bank

Jefferson would have no position against witch to argue had not Hamilton made the argument for the national debt so eloquently and so forcefully. Essentially, Hamilton and Jefferson entirely disagreed on the proper course to put the nation on a prosperous track. The greatest issue was whether the multitudinous colonial debts piled up by the individual colonies during and since the war with England should, in the spirit of e pluribus unum, be taken on by the federal government.

Hamilton postulated that the assumption of these colonies' - now states' - debts was essential to make the nation a credible, operating reality, deserving of trust in seeking credit from other countries. Also, Hamilton felt that "monied men" - those wealthy Americans who had made the loans to the state governments and how had in many instances not been paid yet would have further support for the federal government as a direct result.

Hamilton's view of debt on a national scale was far from negative: he held the then radical opinion that it actually could be a very good thing. 'A national debt,' he wrote, 'if it is not extreme, will be to us a national blessing. It will be a powerful cement of our Union. It will also create a necessity for keeping up taxation to a degree, which, without being oppressive, will be a spur to industry.' Together with the establishment of a national bank, which he also vigorously recommended, it would 'erect a mass of credit that will supply the defect of monied capital, and answer all the purposes of cash... offer adventurers [that is, investors] immediate advantages, analogous to those they receive by employing their money in trade... not only advance their own interest and secure the independence of their country; but, in its progress, have the most beneficial influence upon its future commerce, and be a source of national wealth and strength.'"

Contrary to popular belief, it was not at all Hamilton's idea at first to plan for the public credit. Rather, 10 days after he took office as the secretary of the treasury on Sept. 11, 1789, the House of Representatives passed a resolution calling for him to report to it a plan for the "adequate support of the public credit."

It was quite evident at the time…… [Read More]

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Establishment of a Nation Discuss Essay

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53425036

Delegates' top priorities include the following. First, the delegates set out to revise the Articles of Confederation to weaken the power of the state legislatures and increase the powers of the central government. Delegates also sought changes in the ways states were represented in the federal government and introduced the concept of separation of powers to create a system of checks and balances. Debates between federalism and republicanism brewed during the Constitutional Convention, as delegates like Alexander Hamilton favored an exceedingly strong executive branch whereas traditional republicans hoped for term limits for elected officials. Compromise was a must and the Constitution of the United States reflects the confluence of republican and federalist values.

Second, the delegates heatedly debated the question of how to deal with slavery. An abolitionist movement had taken root in Europe and delegates were forced to address concerns about the international and inter-state slave trade. Once again, delegates were forced to reach compromise over the slavery issue.

Third, delegates outlined the means by which to elect the President. The Connecticut Compromise put off having to decide term limits for the president just as the Constitutional Convention also failed to clarify a stance on slavery.

3. Compare Hamilton and Jefferson in their political and economic philosophies and their concept of federalism.

Alexander Hamilton favored a strong central government that would efficiently regulate trade in the best economic interests of the nation. He argued that the national debt could not possibly be paid off without the aid of a strong central government, because the weak Articles of Confederation failed to provide impetus for state contributions to federal coffers. The economic and industrial development of the United States depended on a centralized system of taxation and trade regulation, according to Hamilton. Hamilton also advocated the creation of a federal banking system and a unified system of credit for investors.

Hamilton's Federalist views were denounced by Thomas Jefferson, an avowed agrarian and populist. Jefferson's anti-federalist views were inspired by a deep mistrust of elitist governmental authority, which can too easily lead to oppressive state regimes. Keeping with his beliefs, Jefferson opposed a national banking system and his refusal to take part in the Constitutional Convention was in part due to his belief…… [Read More]

Articles of Confederation." MSN Encarta. Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761567227

Hamilton vs. Jefferson." Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-41.htm
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Founding Brothers- the Duel The Interview Essay

Words: 825 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33334100

S. - disposed to create secession in the union in order to accomplish his personal goals, it becomes clear that this was an unprincipled man. This is certainly surprising, given that Burr was to a certain degree responsible for the creation of the United States. All things considered, Burr was a man who considered his personal gains to be more important than morality.

Hamilton's article came as a blow to Burr, especially given that he had lost the gubernatorial elections. He could not accept being publicly insulted and demanded for the article's author to come forth with an apology. Hamilton's response only caused more stress on Burr, as the former claimed that he did not even remember insulting him.

One can also consider the duel to be the physical materialization of the long history of divergences between the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists. One of the first instances to raise tensions between Burr and Hamilton went back to 1791, when the former took a Senate seat from the latter's father-in-law.

When all's said and done, both men involved in the duel lost in their own way, as Hamilton lost his life while Burr's political career was ended. Hamilton was "safely buried and assuming legendary proportions as a martyr" (Ellis, 26) whereas Burr was "out of town, eventually headed toward bizarre adventures in the American West, but already consigned to political oblivion" (Ellis, 26).

Even with the fact that the duel can easily be attributed to Burr feeling that his dignity was hurt by Hamilton's article, there are probably a series of reasons leading to the clash between the two men, with the masses being left to speculate on the incident. Burr's determination to have the duel happen is not typical for him, given that his past proves how he put his interest before his honor. Moreover, if one were to consider Hamilton's higher military rank, it would seem more probable for Burr to lose the duel. The fact that Hamilton was devastated by the recent loss of his son in a duel and that he chose to use pistols recognized for their lack of precision increased Burr's confidence, making him feel that he had all the chances to get out of the duel in…… [Read More]

1. Ellis, Joseph. "Founding Brothers." Alfred A. Knopf, 2001.
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Abortion Is Illegal Legally and Essay

Words: 873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64522699


In this case, according to Alexander Hamilton, the court would have had the right to interfere and it would have had the superior power to declare the Texas statue void on its face.

However, Hamilton aside, our natural law and natural rights also prohibit first trimester abortion. Derived from Locke, Natural law and natural rights follow from the nature of man and the world. For instance, we have the right to defend ourselves and our property, because of our nature, because of the kind of creatures that we are. True law derives from this right, not from the arbitrary power of the omnipotent state.

Natural law has an objective, extrinsic existence. The ability to make moral judgment - or in other words, the capacity to know good and evil -- has immediate evolutionary benefits: just as the capacity to perceive three dimensionally tells one when one is standing on the edge of a precipice, so the capacity to know good and evil tells one if one's companions are liable to slit one throat. In this same way, natural law enthusiasts declare, we learned how to throw rocks: It came naturally to us.

Under natural law theories, abortion is tantamount to murder. How can we blithely kill a living, breathing organism? It makes as much sense as Pol Pot's genocide: Natural law simply dictates that it is wrong. No amount of legal or constitutional justification (although we have already established that these theories do not hold water either) can justify breaking the purely logical and second-nature tenets of natural law. Just as we breathe, we cannot kill a fetus.

Every state, also, has had statutes banning abortion. The anti-abortion sentiment is not just something that evolved through fungible case law. It is a clear-cut, clearly defined and articulated, and delineated law that has been passed down in state constitutions. It was clearly discussed, thought out, and the state legislative histories dictate that the anti-abortion sentiment is not just a passing whim or fancy; it is integral to the fabric of our states and our states' constitutions.

Also, in the Eisenstadt case, a woman was arrested for handing out contraceptives at the end of her lecture. This case truly represents the sentiment in America…… [Read More]

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Gaining Their Independence What Were the Principal Essay

Words: 1523 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43217925

gaining their independence, what were the principal concerns Americans had about constructing a frame of government, and how were these concerns addressed in the structure of the Constitution?

After Americans gained their independence from England the next step was to structure the frame of a new government. In 1787 it was determined that the Articles of Confederation would be tossed out and an entirely new government frame would be constructed which would reflect the new views of the nation. The delegates from each state argued and debated behind closed doors about what the framework of the new government would include (The Constitution of the United States (http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/charters_of_freedom/constitution/constitution.html).There were several chief points of concern to those who were developing the frame. One of the most important aspects of the debate was how much power each state should be allowed to have. This included debates on how many members each state should have in Congress. In addition there was concern about how much power the central government should have. Once the numbers were agreed upon a new concern took shape. The argument turned to how these representatives should be elected. Some wanted the representatives to be elected by the public and others felt the state legislators should have the ability to elect the representatives (The Constitution of the United States (http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/charters_of_freedom/constitution/constitution.html).

As history has revealed the decision was made that the public would elect those that they wanted to represent them in the various political offices. These were extremely important issues to be decided because it would set the stage for the entire future of the nation. Today, the framework that was decided upon then is still in operation today.

2.- What was the process for ratification of the Constitution, and what major addition was required for its final approval?

After the constitution of the United States was penned it still had to be accepted, or ratified by the various states that it would govern. The ratification process was not a simple one because there were many concerns and disagreements…… [Read More]

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History Colonial America Samuel Adams and the Founding Brothers Essay

Words: 1759 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88460965

Ellis holds that America, at its outset, was plagued by an identity crisis: Americans who asserted an essentially 'Republican' identity and revolted against Britain for certain reasons were at ends with Americans who asserted an essentially 'Federal' identity and revolted against Britain for other reasons. In textbooks these are associated with the persons of Jefferson and Hamilton, two of the first cabinet members. They are also associated with Sam Adams, ale aficionado and radical leader of the Sons of Liberty and the second cousin of the second President of the United States.

However, Adams' dislike of the government had financial roots. Adams was born in 1722, over thirty years after a Royal attempt to consolidate power in New England by consolidating its authority under a dominion. The overthrow of the short-lived dominion might have resulted in an early schism with the crown, had Dutch protestant William and Mary not succeeded Catholic sympathizer Charles II in the Glorious Revolution. Like the Whig party of England, Bostonians shared a puritan heritage and a commercial economy that was predicated on income derived from shipping. By comparison, Tories had an agricultural power base that was mercantilist (supported the strict government control of shipping,) amenable to an Anglican church that mirrored Catholicism, and aristocratic. Adams attended Harvard College where he received a bachelor's degree in 1740 and a Master of Arts degree in 1743; the title of his master's thesis was "Whether it be lawful to resist the supreme magistrate if the commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved."

Adams became further embittered with English rule the year after he obtained his Masters' when Parliament forbid the establishment of private paper currencies; his family had helped spearhead such a commercial venture and lost a considerable amount of money.

Adams was considered more traditional and at the same time more extremist than his contemporaries: his commercial failings did not cause him to hate England, but rather…… [Read More]

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Business -- Political Science the Essay

Words: 6973 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39808881

Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can collect information. "If a candidate asks each voter what issue is most important to them, they can not only find out the answers that correspond to 100,000 individual voters but they can then change the way they communicate with those voters based on their answers" (Teal, n.d.).

In September 1998 two California-based entrepreneurs, Joan Blades and Wes Boyd, became frustrated with the political mess they saw going on in D.C. Feeling very American, they decided to do something about it and launched an online petition. Within a few days they had gathered hundreds of thousands of signatures. What they found people needed was a sense of empowerment, a way to have their voices heard. Blades and Boyd moved on to form the MoveOn.org Political Action Committee, an online organization which now boasts over 3.3 million members (Housley, 2011). Almost by accidentally, Blades and Boyd caught the attention of the media, as well as campaign organizers, who sent out bulk emails and created flashy fundraising websites faster than one can say donation. The effect that this had is still being realized today.

With the augment in cable channels and Internet usage, a recent tendency has been…… [Read More]

Bimber, B., and Davis, R. 2003. Campaigning Online: TheInternet in U.S. Elections, New

York: Oxford University Press.
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American Political Philosophy Essay

Words: 2528 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65411386

American Political Philosophy: Republicanism

Within this paper, the general theory of republicanism will be presented. The conceptualization of republicanism discussed within the paper as an American political philosophy will be based on The Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison in 1787. Initially, a brief overview of relevant background information on The Federalist Papers will be provided. This will be followed by a discussion of the primary components of republicanism as set forth within the works of Hamilton, Jay and Madison. A summary and conclusions will then be provided.

Overview of The Federalist Papers

The Federalist Papers have been suggested as representing one of the most important writing in American political thought (Yarbrough, 1986). It represents a collection of 85 letters written by Hamilton, Jay and Madison under the pseudonym of Publius. The letters were written to the American public and were initially published in a series fashion in the newspapers of New York City. As explained by Rossiter (1961), the papers were written by the three authors for the purposes of influencing the ratification of the Constitution. Yarbrough further clarified that the motivation for the papers emerged after the Federal Convention concluded its session on September 17, 1787 after deliberating and compromising for a period of four months on the Constitution. At the closing of its session, the Federal Convention forwarded the proposed Constitution to Congress with the stipulation that nine states would need to ratify it before it could go into effect. As noted by Yarbrough, Alexander Hamilton who was a New York delegate to the Convention and represented one of the Constitution's most ardent advocates recognized the importance of New York in securing the ratification of the Constitution. New York was the seat of the Articles of Confederation and was believed to have a pivotal influence in relation to the New England states as well as to other states. He sought out the assistance of Jay and Madison in pursuing the hurried writing of The Federalist Papers as a means of gaining the support of the people of New York in ratifying the Constitution while educating them as to the significance and meaning of the Constitution…… [Read More]

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Federal Antifederal the Framing of Essay

Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36347727

45, for instance, where he argues that "the State governments may be regarded as constituent and essential parts of the federal government; whilst the latter is nowise essential to the operation or organization of the former. Without the intervention of the State legislatures, the President of the United States cannot be elected at all." (Rossiter, 287) This is a position which suggests not only that the Federalists felt that significant power had already been entrusted to leaders at the state level, but also that this power is seen primarily as a function of the power of the federal government. Thus, we are given further confirmation that the Constitution was inherently a federal document.

In key segments of the debate such as that shown in the Anti-Federalist Paper No. 17, we can see that those who stood in opposition to the empowerment of federal authority derived from the Constitution were a counterpoint to a debate that truly centered on how best to achieve the Federalist aims of the Constitution. In the perception of Hamilton, Madison and other key Federalists, the debate waged here centered not on the form of government being developed, which was clearly of a Federalist disposition, but more it centered on the extent to which compromise would be made to meet the criticisms of the Anti-Federalists.

Works… [Read More]

Mansfield, Harvey C. Jr., (1979). Selected Writings Jefferson. Harlan Davidson Press.

Rossiter, Clinton. (1961). The Federalist Papers. Signet Classics.
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Library Filters Essay

Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37563122

Library Filters

Why Libraries Must Not Use Software Filters to Censor Speech: One Person's Hate is Another Person's Political Philosophy

The French 17th century freethinking philosopher Voltaire said one of the most famous quotations in regards to the freedom of speech. He said that he would, though he disagreed with every word out of his colleague's mouth, defend to the death the man's right to say such terrible things. Perhaps the 21st definition of Voltaire's remark might be, 'though I disagree with every word upon you pet causes' local URL, I will defend to the death your right to point and click to this website on the Internet, lest my own right be similarly threatened.'

Recently, the idea of 'hate crimes' became codified in the American legal system, and thus the idea of similarly correlated 'hate speech' was formed. 'Hate speech' is usually defined as speech that attempts to create hatred against a group of individuals of a particular gender, race, religious, or ethnic group. This form of speech is increasingly the target of legislators and activists who wish to make it an object of legislation, banning this form of expression, analogizing it to libelous slurs, 'fighting words,' and general verbal harassment. In an effort to curtail hate speech, libraries have even tried to install filters to prevent individuals using public Internet access to examine the manifestos of groups that promote so-called hate speech.

Simply on a level of technological capabilities, this is problematic, given that groups that advocate hate might not be recognized currently, and might not be screened, and groups that do not advocate hate might be incorrectly identified in this ongoing process of identification and unjustly blocked by the software, and tarred with the label of hate. Also, if an individual is conducting research upon, for instance, the American Nazi Party, he or she would be unable to examine the evils of this group, in their own words, and thus open his or her research up to charges of bias and inaccuracy.

Alan Dershowitz offers another, more rights-based reason to reject such software filters in libraries. He would state that any ban upon speech leaves the individual conducting the ban open to his or her…… [Read More]