Alexander Hamilton Essays Examples

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Hamilton Economics

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70631430

Hamilton's Economic Plan

Alexander Hamilton was one of the Founding Fathers, and was the first Secretary of the Treasury. His economic plan was contained in a series of written works that provided the framework for the nation's economic governance. The underlying objectives of Hamilton's economic plan were to provide the nation with the financial stability it would need in case of war, and was also driven by his Federalist viewpoint, in direct contrast to the many anti-Federalists of the time (SparkNotes, 2015).

The first element of Hamilton's plan was with respect to the pending credit crisis that the new country was to have. As a new country, America had no reputation to draw on with respect to credit. The nation's debts were large and largely unpaid. Roughly half of this debt was owed by the states. Hamilton suggested public bonds as a means of financing wars in particular, but as a means in general of consolidating these debts in order to maintain the nation's good credit standing. He recognized the necessity for this structure because at the time America "is possessed of little active wealth, or in other words little monied capital." Thus, he continued "to be able to borrow…… [Read More]

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Hamilton's Role in Effecting the New Nation of America

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79855396

Revolutionary Character

Alexander Hamilton was the prototypical opportunist of the American Revolution: of obscure and humble origins, he longed for an escape from his lowly rank as accountant and, as Wood (2006) notes, it was "war" that Hamilton believed would provide just such an escape (p. 124). Hamilton's revolutionary character was found in this desire for opportunity out of crisis and displayed the future maxim of Rahm Emmanuel, "Let no good crisis go to waste," in a manner that suggests that Hamilton is indeed the progenitor of a centralized, fascistic government headed by a financial sector that has less interest in democratic ideals than it does in the control and steering of a new empire. This paper will explore the theme set out by Wood (2006) that shows how Alexander Hamilton was a revolutionary character whose special talents lay in the direction of fostering a new nation that could be effectively governed by powerful scions and members of the banking sector.

The overall theme identified by Wood (2006) in the chapter entitled "Alexander Hamilton and the Making of the Fiscal-Military State" is that Hamilton played a particularly useful revolutionary role in terms of connecting the dots between Washington's military leadership…… [Read More]

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Hamilton and the Federalists on the Constitution

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13475439

Federalist Papers are important to any analysis of the U.S. Constitution because they provided the philosophical and socio-political justification for the adoption of the Constitution. Prior to the ratification of the Constitution, the states were loosely united under the Articles of Confederation. However, Alexander Hamilton and his group of elites did not like that they could not be part of a federal/central government that oversaw and wielded power over the rest of the states. Thus, Hamilton penned many of the Federalist Papers (including Federalist no. 1) in order to combat the ideas expressed by the Anti-Federalists who condemned the Constitution as an attempt to subjugate states' rights.

The Federalist Papers may be read therefore as a series of a letters and arguments meant to sway the reader as to why the U.S. should adopt the Constitution in place of the Articles of Confederation. It is a body of writing that is centralist in perspective and geared towards illustrating how a Constitution would better help the states to avoid the pitfalls of a union that lacks a central government with considerable power.

In other words, the Federalist Papers were about aligning the public's view with that of the Constitutionalists, who aimed…… [Read More]

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What Does Hamilton Say in Federalist No 6

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44590085

Hamilton's "Federalist No. 6"

The purpose of Alexander Hamilton's "Federalist No. 6" is to convince the reader of the dangers of an only partially united group of states. Hamilton urges total centralization under the guise of a ruling Constitution to protect the nation from "ambitious, vindictive, and rapacious" men, which is what men turn into when they are given independence, according to him. (The irony of Hamilton's argument is that he is arguing for that which the American Revolutionaries just threw off!) His thesis is contained in the opening paragraph: "I shall now proceed to delineate dangers of a different and, perhaps, still more alarming kind -- those which will in all probability flow from dissensions between the States themselves, and from domestic factions and convulsions" (Hamilton). His aim is clear: a loose confederation of states, each with its own authority, will not work because men simply cannot get along. Hamilton is no fan of diplomatic skill or neighborliness, apparently. This may be due to his upbringing.

The structure of the essay is set up in epistolary form and is very well organized: it is construed as a letter to the People of the State of New York. Hamilton supports…… [Read More]

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Alexander the Great Books on

Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88216034

Hamilton notes the biographies of Alexander often reflected the backgrounds of authors who wrote about him. For example, Sir William Tarn, a Scottish gentleman of the British imperial era, characterized Alexander as a chivalrous Greek gentleman with a missionary zeal to spread Greek civilization. In contrast, Fritz Schachermeyr, a German historian who had experienced the rise and fall of the Nazi Germany, described Alexander as a ruthless and cruel ruler, indulged "in deceit and treachery to gain his ends, as a 'Titanic' figure aiming at the conquest of the world."

Both Tarn and Schachermeyr are among the great modern historians of Alexander but even they could not escape personal biases.

The irony of Hamilton's book is that, although he is at pains in his discussion of the difficulty of writing about Alexander and is critical of biased historians, the book starts with a straightforward admission of a bias. Rejecting the claim that Alexander was a disseminator of Greek culture to so-called "barbarians," Hamilton writes: "his heredity and his background are more important; he remained, essentially, Macedonian. This explains his hard drinking (denied, significantly, by Tarn) and, where circumstances called for it, the ruthless elimination of rivals."

Now, the question is…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Freeman, Philip. Alexander the Great. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2009.

Hamilton, J.R. Alexander the Great. Pittsburg: The University of Pittsburg Press, 1974.
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Liberal Capitalism Is the Ideology

Words: 1474 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54749738

Flax was a major industry because of the ease of production. The prosaic nature of the homespun ideal led it to be the symbol of the revolution. It also induced progress. Benjamin Franklin referred to it as the "first Ages of the world." But this was linked to European finery, historically made from the animal skins of the Indians, who did not have a cloth-making industry. In his 1787 Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson declared all forms of manufacturing, including household, as a mortal threat to American virtue. As the American president in 1806, he drew the attention of Cherokee chiefs on the civilizing effect of spinning and weaving their own cotton cloths. In 1812, Jefferson and John Adams agreed to a common homespun vision of commercial progress (Zakim).

The overall view is that capitalism threatens or hinders democracy (Muller 2007). Capitalism involves an inequality of reward, while democracy draws from the concept of equality. The inequality and the influence of the wealthy over the politically powerful deter the equality guaranteed by democracy. On the other hand, there is an argument for the compatibility of the two ideologies. Democracy checks on the rough edges of capitalism and…… [Read More]

References:
Anderson, Kim. Liberal Capitalism: the Will to Happiness. Policy: the Centre for Independent Studies, Summer 2007

Lowell National Historical Park. Early American Manufacturing. National Park Services:
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2nd Continental Congress Attempted to Bring Us

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57045704

2nd Continental Congress attempted to bring us through the Revolutionary War, but the members soon realized that we needed a form of central government on a permanent basis. The arguements began between Alexander Hamilton, the Federalist, and Thomas Jefferson, the anti-Federalist, over how much power the central government should actually be given. This assignment will address these issues and has several parts. Make sure you answer all parts of the question and write an essay at least 4 pages in length. 1. Discuss the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the reasons it failed. 2. Describe the makeup of the Constitutional Convention and the priorities of the delegates. 3. Compare Hamilton and Jefferson in their political and economic philosophies and their concept of Federalism. Do you feel Hamilton had too much influence under the administrations of Washington and Adams? I want you to give an assessment as to the success or failure of Hamilton and his policies and the effect they would have on the future of the United States. You need to read chapters 6 and 7 for this essay.

The Second Continental Congress

The Second Continental Congress is virtually the most important congress in the history of…… [Read More]

Sources:
Kelly, M. Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? About. http://americanhistory.about.com/od/governmentandpolitics/f/articles_of_confederation_fails.htm accessed on October 4, 2012

(2012). The world factbook -- United States. Central Intelligence Agency.  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html  accessed on October 4, 2012
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Republicans and Federalists Differences the

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85927240

The Hartford Convention was a gathering of Federalist Party delegates from five New England states that met in Hartford, Connecticut, between December 15, 1814, and January 5, 1815. Its members convened to discuss their long-held grievances against the policies of the successive Democratic-

Republican administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.

After that, the party never regained a national following. Its beliefs and actions during the War of 1812 helped seal its fate. By 1828 the Federalists became the first American political party to die out because it could not adjust to an increasingly democratic national spirit, especially in the nation's towns and cities. And among most Americans, mainly farmers suspicious of government, its policies of strong federal involvement in the economy kept it un-popular. Inconsistency in its stance toward military action (first undertaking a naval war with France, then treating for peace with that same nation, then actively opposing war with Britain) made the Federalist Party's true intentions suspect and laid it open to charges that it had no polices of its own and was not willing to defend the country's interests (Federalist party, n.d.).

The Role of the War of 1812 and for Madison's Presidency

National pride and…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Alexander Hamilton's Anglo-American vision. (2008, July 26). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from American Founding:  http://americanfounding.blogspot.com/2008/07/alexander-hamiltons-anglo-american.html 

Corps of discovery: President Jefferson's vision. (2003, October 10). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Center of Military History - U.S. Army: http://www.history.army.mil/LC/the%20Mission/Expedition/page_2.htm
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Macro Vision of Jefferson vs

Words: 2374 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12612725



Hamilton's Arguments in Favor of the Debt and the Bank

Jefferson would have no position against witch to argue had not Hamilton made the argument for the national debt so eloquently and so forcefully. Essentially, Hamilton and Jefferson entirely disagreed on the proper course to put the nation on a prosperous track. The greatest issue was whether the multitudinous colonial debts piled up by the individual colonies during and since the war with England should, in the spirit of e pluribus unum, be taken on by the federal government.

Hamilton postulated that the assumption of these colonies' - now states' - debts was essential to make the nation a credible, operating reality, deserving of trust in seeking credit from other countries. Also, Hamilton felt that "monied men" - those wealthy Americans who had made the loans to the state governments and how had in many instances not been paid yet would have further support for the federal government as a direct result.

Hamilton's view of debt on a national scale was far from negative: he held the then radical opinion that it actually could be a very good thing. 'A national debt,' he wrote, 'if it is not extreme, will…… [Read More]

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Establishment of a Nation Discuss

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53425036



Delegates' top priorities include the following. First, the delegates set out to revise the Articles of Confederation to weaken the power of the state legislatures and increase the powers of the central government. Delegates also sought changes in the ways states were represented in the federal government and introduced the concept of separation of powers to create a system of checks and balances. Debates between federalism and republicanism brewed during the Constitutional Convention, as delegates like Alexander Hamilton favored an exceedingly strong executive branch whereas traditional republicans hoped for term limits for elected officials. Compromise was a must and the Constitution of the United States reflects the confluence of republican and federalist values.

Second, the delegates heatedly debated the question of how to deal with slavery. An abolitionist movement had taken root in Europe and delegates were forced to address concerns about the international and inter-state slave trade. Once again, delegates were forced to reach compromise over the slavery issue.

Third, delegates outlined the means by which to elect the President. The Connecticut Compromise put off having to decide term limits for the president just as the Constitutional Convention also failed to clarify a stance on slavery.

3. Compare Hamilton…… [Read More]

References:
Articles of Confederation." MSN Encarta. Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761567227

Hamilton vs. Jefferson." Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at  http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-41.htm 
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Founding Brothers- the Duel The Interview

Words: 825 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33334100

S. - disposed to create secession in the union in order to accomplish his personal goals, it becomes clear that this was an unprincipled man. This is certainly surprising, given that Burr was to a certain degree responsible for the creation of the United States. All things considered, Burr was a man who considered his personal gains to be more important than morality.

Hamilton's article came as a blow to Burr, especially given that he had lost the gubernatorial elections. He could not accept being publicly insulted and demanded for the article's author to come forth with an apology. Hamilton's response only caused more stress on Burr, as the former claimed that he did not even remember insulting him.

One can also consider the duel to be the physical materialization of the long history of divergences between the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists. One of the first instances to raise tensions between Burr and Hamilton went back to 1791, when the former took a Senate seat from the latter's father-in-law.

When all's said and done, both men involved in the duel lost in their own way, as Hamilton lost his life while Burr's political career was ended. Hamilton was "safely buried…… [Read More]

Sources:
1. Ellis, Joseph. "Founding Brothers." Alfred A. Knopf, 2001.
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Abortion Is Illegal Legally and

Words: 873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64522699

"

In this case, according to Alexander Hamilton, the court would have had the right to interfere and it would have had the superior power to declare the Texas statue void on its face.

However, Hamilton aside, our natural law and natural rights also prohibit first trimester abortion. Derived from Locke, Natural law and natural rights follow from the nature of man and the world. For instance, we have the right to defend ourselves and our property, because of our nature, because of the kind of creatures that we are. True law derives from this right, not from the arbitrary power of the omnipotent state.

Natural law has an objective, extrinsic existence. The ability to make moral judgment - or in other words, the capacity to know good and evil -- has immediate evolutionary benefits: just as the capacity to perceive three dimensionally tells one when one is standing on the edge of a precipice, so the capacity to know good and evil tells one if one's companions are liable to slit one throat. In this same way, natural law enthusiasts declare, we learned how to throw rocks: It came naturally to us.

Under natural law theories, abortion is tantamount…… [Read More]

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Gaining Their Independence What Were the Principal

Words: 1523 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43217925

gaining their independence, what were the principal concerns Americans had about constructing a frame of government, and how were these concerns addressed in the structure of the Constitution?

After Americans gained their independence from England the next step was to structure the frame of a new government. In 1787 it was determined that the Articles of Confederation would be tossed out and an entirely new government frame would be constructed which would reflect the new views of the nation. The delegates from each state argued and debated behind closed doors about what the framework of the new government would include (The Constitution of the United States (http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/charters_of_freedom/constitution/constitution.html).There were several chief points of concern to those who were developing the frame. One of the most important aspects of the debate was how much power each state should be allowed to have. This included debates on how many members each state should have in Congress. In addition there was concern about how much power the central government should have. Once the numbers were agreed upon a new concern took shape. The argument turned to how these representatives should be elected. Some wanted the representatives to be elected by the public and others…… [Read More]

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History Colonial America Samuel Adams and the Founding Brothers

Words: 1759 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88460965

Ellis holds that America, at its outset, was plagued by an identity crisis: Americans who asserted an essentially 'Republican' identity and revolted against Britain for certain reasons were at ends with Americans who asserted an essentially 'Federal' identity and revolted against Britain for other reasons. In textbooks these are associated with the persons of Jefferson and Hamilton, two of the first cabinet members. They are also associated with Sam Adams, ale aficionado and radical leader of the Sons of Liberty and the second cousin of the second President of the United States.

However, Adams' dislike of the government had financial roots. Adams was born in 1722, over thirty years after a Royal attempt to consolidate power in New England by consolidating its authority under a dominion. The overthrow of the short-lived dominion might have resulted in an early schism with the crown, had Dutch protestant William and Mary not succeeded Catholic sympathizer Charles II in the Glorious Revolution. Like the Whig party of England, Bostonians shared a puritan heritage and a commercial economy that was predicated on income derived from shipping. By comparison, Tories had an agricultural power base that was mercantilist (supported the strict government control of shipping,) amenable…… [Read More]

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Business -- Political Science the

Words: 6973 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39808881



Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can collect information. "If a candidate asks each voter what issue is most important to them, they can not only find out the answers that correspond to 100,000 individual voters but they can then change the way they communicate with those voters based on their answers" (Teal, n.d.).

In September 1998…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bimber, B., and Davis, R. 2003. Campaigning Online: TheInternet in U.S. Elections, New

York: Oxford University Press.
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American Political Philosophy

Words: 2528 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65411386

American Political Philosophy: Republicanism

Within this paper, the general theory of republicanism will be presented. The conceptualization of republicanism discussed within the paper as an American political philosophy will be based on The Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison in 1787. Initially, a brief overview of relevant background information on The Federalist Papers will be provided. This will be followed by a discussion of the primary components of republicanism as set forth within the works of Hamilton, Jay and Madison. A summary and conclusions will then be provided.

Overview of The Federalist Papers

The Federalist Papers have been suggested as representing one of the most important writing in American political thought (Yarbrough, 1986). It represents a collection of 85 letters written by Hamilton, Jay and Madison under the pseudonym of Publius. The letters were written to the American public and were initially published in a series fashion in the newspapers of New York City. As explained by Rossiter (1961), the papers were written by the three authors for the purposes of influencing the ratification of the Constitution. Yarbrough further clarified that the motivation for the papers emerged after the Federal Convention concluded its session on…… [Read More]

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Federal Antifederal the Framing of

Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36347727

45, for instance, where he argues that "the State governments may be regarded as constituent and essential parts of the federal government; whilst the latter is nowise essential to the operation or organization of the former. Without the intervention of the State legislatures, the President of the United States cannot be elected at all." (Rossiter, 287) This is a position which suggests not only that the Federalists felt that significant power had already been entrusted to leaders at the state level, but also that this power is seen primarily as a function of the power of the federal government. Thus, we are given further confirmation that the Constitution was inherently a federal document.

In key segments of the debate such as that shown in the Anti-Federalist Paper No. 17, we can see that those who stood in opposition to the empowerment of federal authority derived from the Constitution were a counterpoint to a debate that truly centered on how best to achieve the Federalist aims of the Constitution. In the perception of Hamilton, Madison and other key Federalists, the debate waged here centered not on the form of government being developed, which was clearly of a Federalist disposition, but more…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Mansfield, Harvey C. Jr., (1979). Selected Writings Jefferson. Harlan Davidson Press.

Rossiter, Clinton. (1961). The Federalist Papers. Signet Classics.
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Library Filters

Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37563122

Library Filters

Why Libraries Must Not Use Software Filters to Censor Speech: One Person's Hate is Another Person's Political Philosophy

The French 17th century freethinking philosopher Voltaire said one of the most famous quotations in regards to the freedom of speech. He said that he would, though he disagreed with every word out of his colleague's mouth, defend to the death the man's right to say such terrible things. Perhaps the 21st definition of Voltaire's remark might be, 'though I disagree with every word upon you pet causes' local URL, I will defend to the death your right to point and click to this website on the Internet, lest my own right be similarly threatened.'

Recently, the idea of 'hate crimes' became codified in the American legal system, and thus the idea of similarly correlated 'hate speech' was formed. 'Hate speech' is usually defined as speech that attempts to create hatred against a group of individuals of a particular gender, race, religious, or ethnic group. This form of speech is increasingly the target of legislators and activists who wish to make it an object of legislation, banning this form of expression, analogizing it to libelous slurs, 'fighting words,' and general…… [Read More]

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Polygamous Revolt the Response of

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48514235

S. Congress' prohibition of the practice and the Court's refusal to allow the practice, conflicted with the rights of individuals engaged in such practice. The actions of a religious group which are normally protected under the First Amendment and the laws of states like Utah that might wish to turn a blind eye to the practice were not allowed.

The states claim the social contract has been broken because the U.S. government has infringed upon individuals' liberty to marry more than one person and the states' rights to regulate matters not specifically delineated in the Bill of Rights. However, if this were the case that a state could secede every time the federal government disagreed with a state's definition of individual liberties. Virtually every constitutional dispute in the history of the nation, regarding the Bill of Rights, from abortion, to affirmative action, to gay marriage, to free speech, could justify secession, when the policy of a state conflicted with that of the federal government.

True, in this instance, in contrast to slavery and analogous to same-sex marriage, so long as the union is entered into freely, it could be argued, what is the social harm? Perhaps these individuals are Mormons,…… [Read More]

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American Politics

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79313106

Factions: Help or Hindrance

James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, aided by John Jay, were responsible for writing eighty-five anonymous essays for the New York Journal in 1787 and 1788. These articles were known as The Federalist Papers, and they were intended to persuade people into ratifying the proposed Constitution. In The Federalist Paper Number 10, Madison responded to critics who had argued that the United States was too large, and had too many groups, or "factions," to be ruled democratically by a single government. Madison acknowledged the importance of factions in the opening paragraph, stating that, "Among the numerous advantages promised by a well constructed Union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence of faction" (Rossiter, 1961). In prescribing how to rule and control the effects of factions, Madison detailed their relationships with other important concepts, such as liberty and property, and asserted his belief that factions were both the underlying basis of, and the fundamental problem in, politics.

Madison's definition of a faction was, "a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or…… [Read More]

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On Liberty and the US Constitution

Words: 2791 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1296870

Mill and U.S. Constitution

None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy Wall Street (OWS) movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States. At the time the Constitution was written in 1787, human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification. In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in 1859 much less 1789. He insisted that individuals should be left totally free to do as they pleased so long as they did no harm to others. To that extent, he would have supported the rights of OWS to protest and dissent, and been highly critical of how the authorities were suppressing the movement on the flimsiest of pretexts. As a…… [Read More]

Resources:
Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. University of North Carolina Press, 1989, 2004.

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London, 1859.

Van Cleve, George William. A Slaveholders' Union: Slavery, Politics, and the Constitution in the Early American Republic. University of Chicago Press, 2010.
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Revolutionary Generation

Words: 2378 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39794130

Founding Brothers

When studying the history of the formation of the United States, one usually thinks in terms of separate events and individuals. However, the American republic was established, instead, by a series of important decisions and the joint efforts of some of the most prominent men of all time. In a matter of ten years, these critical interactions among the eight leading figures of John Adams, Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington formed a nation that to this day remains one of the most successful "experiments" of democratic governments. As Joseph J. Ellis, the author of Founding Brothers: the Revolutionary Generation states:

What in retrospect has the look of a foreordained unfolding of God's will was in reality an improvisational affair ... If hindsight enhances our appreciation for the solidity and stability of the republican legacy, it also blinds us to the truly stunning improbability of the achievement itself.

THE INTERVIEW -- The Duel (Chapter 1). In his book, Ellis describes with interest and intrigue several pivotal events occurring at the beginning of American history. The first "story" details the background that led up to the duel in 1804 between Aaron Burr…… [Read More]

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Judicial Review the Most Important American Political

Words: 2917 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53719316

Judicial Review

The most important American political institution is the U.S. Constitution. Of course, this is only a document, but it is also an institution in its own way, for it is the basis of all American political institutions and practices. It is like the DNA of our government: We would have no government without it, no road map to create our form of democracy. Unlike other democracies like Great Britain in which there is no single guiding document or voice, the U.S. government has a central core. This is, of course, sometimes problematic as when courts or other governmental institutions become so wrapped up in the problem of the "original intent" of the Framers of the Constitution - as if anyone could determine after over two centuries what such intent might be, assuming that the Framers themselves would want us necessarily to limit ourselves to their vision of the world. But it does provide an essential coherence to our American political world that is lacking in other countries.

Within the Constitution, the most important elements are the Bill of Rights, especially the First Amendment with its definition of our essential human and civil rights and the Tenth Amendment, with…… [Read More]

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Leaders Are Made Not Born

Words: 1255 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53845448

Leadership

In his Pulitzer Prize winning biography, His Excellency George Washington, Joseph J. Ellis presents a balanced and comprehensive portrait on the nation's first president that steers a course between hero-worship and debunking. He based his work on the latest edition of the Washington papers, which now include virtually every scrap of written information available except for his last three years as commander of the Continental Army and the second presidential term in 1793-97. For many modern readers, Washington comes across as a cold, distant, patriarchal figure, an iconic face on Mount Rushmore or the dollar bill, but not exactly a people's president like Abraham Lincoln. At the opposite extreme, Leftist and revisionist writers regard him as the creator of a nation that "was imperialistic, racist, elitist, and patriarchal," and prefer to write social history about women, slaves and common soldiers rather than the dead, white male ruling class (Ellis, p. xii). Unlike previous biographers such as Douglas Southall Freeman and James Thomas Flexner, contemporary historians have "a keen sense of the intellectual and emotional ingredients that came together to create a revolutionary ideology in colonial America" and "a more robust understanding of the social and economic forces that drove…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency George Washington. NY: Vintage Books, 2005.

Grant, Susan-Mary. Book Review. History Today, Vol. 55, June 2005.

Wesiberger, R, W. Book Review. Pennsylvania History, 2006.
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Political Design and Today

Words: 1939 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57339817

People

In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a brief but stirring speech while the country was in the process of tearing itself apart in a civil war. During that speech President Lincoln stated a phrase that has helped to capture what democracy means. Lincoln told the audience that had gathered to dedicate a soldier's cemetery that the government that had been formed "of the people, by the people, for the people" would not "perish from the earth." In that phrase, Lincoln summarized what the founding fathers had hoped to capture in documents that shaped the system of government they believed was essential for prosperity and happiness for all mankind. The fact that the United States has remained in existence for more than 200 years does not necessarily mean that the ideals Lincoln spoke of are in existence today. In fact, many would argue that the concepts Lincoln captured in his famous speech at Gettysburg are but distant hopes that the country is no closer to achieving now than it was in 1863. The question then becomes one of analysis and reflection about whether that is true. The Constitution enumerates specific requirements for liberty and representative government and defines the methods…… [Read More]

Resources:
Hamilton, Alexander, "Federalist Paper 79," Independent Journal 18 Jun. 1788

Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 37," Daily Advertiser 11 Jan. 1788
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Training Levels and Number of

Words: 3726 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73371699

"

Harassment, including sexual and other types as well, is also a common type of formal complaint that must be taken very seriously by contemporary businesses. More extensive employee training can help better inform employees of appropriate work behavior, so that there are less incidences of harassment between employees unknowingly.

Better trained employees makes for a more efficient work environment with less complications. Therefore, the research showed that "many organizations within it industries focus on providing "extensive retraining of employees," especially "as reengineering efforts go forward it is important to define and redefine performance goals and objectives, maintain a strong commitment to the vision, break the barriers between the departments, and be flexible as the business environment changes."

More extensive formal training can help with "nipping negativity before it derails morale" by reassuring the proper procedures but also by explaining appropriate company policy more directly and intimately so that all employees can better understand and internalize it.

Such training measures better inform employees when a complaint is appropriate to file, but also the options they have in regards to approaching management with their grievances. Examinations in other industries, such as the hospitality industry, shows a clear link between low training…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Alexander Hamilton Institute. "Bad Attitudes & Complaints: Handling Workplace Negativity." Business Management (2012). Web.  http://www.businessmanagementdaily.com/19426/bad-attitudes-complaints-handling-workplace-negativity 

Attaran, Moshen. "Exploring the Relationship between Information Technology and Business Process Reengineering." Information & Management 41 (2004), 585-596.
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Political Philosophy

Words: 1783 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54459358

Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles about the United States Constitution. These are a series of eighty-five letters written to newspapers in 1787-1788 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, urging ratification of the Constitution (Wills, 1981). For many years, historians, jurists, and political scientists share a general consensus that The Federalist is the most important work of political philosophy and pragmatic government ever written in the United States (USDS, 2004). It has been compared to Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics, and Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan, and has been used by many nations as a base for their constitutions.

One of the main parts of the Federalist Papers is the establishment of a system of checks and balances, which is now the root of democracy (USDS, 2004). This idea of checks and balances is based on a profoundly realistic view of human nature. While the Founding Fathers, which include Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton believed that people at their best were capable of reason, self-discipline, and fairness, they also knew that mankind was susceptible to passion, intolerance, and greed. In a famous passage, after introducing the necessary measures required to preserve liberty, Madison wrote: "It may be…… [Read More]

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Limits to Democracy in the Early Republic

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24279584

limits to democracy in the early republic, as its first president George Washington reflected the elitist view of the federalists in his approach to the executive branch of government. As Patrick Henry stated in 1788, "The Constitution is said to have beautiful features, but when I come to examine these features…they appear to me horridly frightful…it squints towards monarchy," (p. 146). According to Henry, the "President may easily become King," a fact that should "raise indignation in the breast of every American," (p. 146). Henry was himself not concerned with issues related to race, class, or gender, but he did understand the ideals of the democracy when he lamented, "Whither is the spirit of America gone? Whither is the genius of America fled?" (146). This question can easily be posed to point out the gross hypocrisy in denying Constitutional rights to more than half the population living in the borders of the new nation -- to all of its people of color and to all of its women. At this stage of the Republic term limits for presidents had yet to be set, which is why Patrick Henry was alarmed. Even without framing the potential pitfalls of American government as…… [Read More]

References:
Bailey, Ronald. "The Other Side of Slavery." Agricultural History. Vol 62, No. 2, 1994.

Hershberger, Mary. "Mobilizing Women, Anticipating Abolition." The Journal of American History. Vol 86, No. 1, June 1999.
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Benefit of Virtue in Liberalism

Words: 1658 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46608317

Virtues and Liberalism

For several decades, many politicians and professors have been promoting the belief that the fate of liberal democracy in America is correlated with the quality of citizens' character (Berkowitz, 1999). President George W. Bush campaigned as a compassionate conservative, promising to restore honor and dignity to the Presidency. In 1992, former President Bill Clinton sought to set a new tone for the Democratic Party, campaigning as a New Democrat -- devoted not only to the protection of individual rights and the promotion of the social and economic bases of equality but also to the principle of personal responsibility. Clinton's campaign was inspired by the ideas of William Galston, a professor of political science and fellow member of the Democratic Leadership Council, whose writings discussed "liberal virtues" and defended the propriety of a liberal state that cultivates qualities of mind and character that form good and decent citizens.

In addition, former Reagan Secretary of Education William Bennett published the best-selling book, A Book of Virtues, which was geared toward the moral education of society's young people (Berkowitz, 1999) Bennett's former Chief of Staff, William Kristol had long argued for the importance to American politics of a "sociology of…… [Read More]

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Federalist Papers Which Was Initially Known as

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16920325

Federalist Papers, which was initially known as the Federalist, were originally published on October 27, 1787. The first publication of these papers was made in New York press under the title The Federalist, which was later renamed The Federalist Papers in the 20th Century. Generally, The Federalist Papers is a term that refers to a group of 85 articles that were published by various authors including James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. They are largely regarded as one of the most significant contributions to the political mindset and process made in the United States ("The Federalist Papers," n.d.). Most of the papers appeared in the form of books in 1788 with an introduction being written by Alexander Hamilton. They were later printed in various editions and translated to various languages and utilized "Publius," a pseudonym for the three men i.e. Hamilton, Madison, and Jay.

The purpose of The Federalist Papers was to promote the endorsement of the American Constitution. These papers sought to achieve this purpose by demonstrating to United States citizens how the Constitution was an expansion of Declaration of Independence principles, especially those related to freedom and equality. The authors sought to also show why it was…… [Read More]

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American History Slave Revolts Although

Words: 6354 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54831518

Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.

Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the War of 1812, which was considered positive, but he married a mulatto, Julia Chinn, which was a negative. Despite this, Van Buren and Johnson were elected to office. John Tyler, who became president upon the death of Harrison, soon began "dating" when his paralyzed wife died during his term, courting the beautiful Julia…… [Read More]

Sources:
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
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American History as it Relates to the

Words: 2191 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2477589

American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.

THE IMPACT OF EARLY LEADERS

GEORGE WASHINGTON

When the electors selected George Washington as the nation's first president in 1789, the office was far different from the presidency today. Washington's presidency began by a vote of presidential electors, not the people. He did not have an official residence; John Adams was the first…… [Read More]

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Catholic Church in Spain and the United States

Words: 19318 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43001444

Catholic church and public policy have remarked that the members of American clergy in general, without even excepting those who do not admit religious liberty, are all in favour of civil freedom; but they do not support any particular political system. They keep aloof from parties, and from public affairs. In the United States religion exercises but little influence upon laws, and upon the details of public opinion; but it directs the manners of the community, and by regulating domestic life, it regulates the state.

Alexis de Tocqueville

In making this statement, Alexis de Tocqueville sought to record religion's influence on American public life in the 1830's. Today, the intimate relations among political culture, political behavior, and church state circumstances that Tocqueville so aptly described are accurate in describing the relationship between politics and religion in the United States, and abroad.

In recent times and throughout history, politics and religion have been the source of much debate. Both religion and politics evoke strong passions. Men and women have been known to "discuss, debate, argue, demonstrate, resist, fight, and kill - or be killed - on behalf of their religious and political beliefs." Much of the debate surrounding political and religious…… [Read More]

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Differences Between Constitutional Models

Words: 1481 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73228007

Constitutional Models and Political Parties

Constitutionalism and noble representative government are concepts and practices that have existed longer than the American Republic. The existence of these concepts provided the foundation for the formation of the American Democratic Experiment through acting as ingredients towards this process. Since the foundation of American Republic, there are various constitutional models that have been established. These different models have been established in attempts to respond to several governance issues that emerge from time to time. Actually, these different models have provided the foundation for governance models and practices for better governance of the society. Some examples of constitutional models include the 18th Century Madisonian and Hamiltonian constitutional models and Barker's normative democratic theory, which differ with regards to their major components.

Madisonian and Hamiltonian Models v. Normative Democratic Theory

The 18th Century constitutional models basically relied on principles introduced by Madison and Hamilton. Madisonian constitutional model emphasized separation of powers and checks and balances while Hamiltonian model emphasized strong, unitary president. In Federalist Papers no. 48-50, James Madison mourned that developing a government and a Constitution to oversee governmental powers is not an adequate protection against intrusions that result in tyrannical concentration of all governmental…… [Read More]

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Founding Brothers Ellis Joseph J Founding Brothers

Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54889516

Founding Brothers

Ellis, Joseph, J. Founding Brothers: the Revolutionary Generation. New York: Knopf, 2000. Print.

The manner the American Republic was established continues to fascinate historians and the lay people alike. For a long time, historians accorded the major role in the formation of the United States to the struggles and virtues of the founding members of the republic. But in the post-Civil Rights era, historians began to pay greater attention to social and cultural history, placing women, minorities, workers, and slaves at the center of their narratives. Ellis Joseph does not see those developments in a negative light but he is nevertheless suspicious of the idea that the character of the nation and its spirit may be recounted through the lives of ordinary folks. He places the lives of the "founding brothers" -- Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, John Adams, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson -- and one sister (Abigail Adams) at the center of the narrative because he believes the personalities and characters of these founding members made the American Republic. They were the "brothers" who knew each other well but also disagreed with each other passionately at times, one of them causing the death of…… [Read More]

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Activity-Based Costing in Today's Global

Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25454611

(Questions that will assist in quantifying the relationship between resources and activities include: How much time is spent performing each activity? What equipment is used to perform activities? Do some activities have dedicated equipment? Do some activities require more space than others?) After the data on resources have been collected, establish cause-and-effect relationships between resources and activities or resources and cost objects. The third step in the process is to calculate activity costs. This is accomplished by assigning specific drivers to the activities based on interviews and logical associations. The forth step in the process is to identify cost objects. The next step is to how activities are related to cost objects in terms of time invested for these cost objects. The last step is to calculate cost object costs.

Traditional and Activity-Based Costing Accounting Methodologies

In the past, armed only with traditional management accounting information, managers were forced to achieve their efficiency goals by engaging in "slash-and-burn" or "cut-and-cope" approaches to cost cutting. Traditional cost accounting methodologies were of little use to organizations in managing unit cost, since they did not provide timely and accurate information on what changes were necessary to reduce cost.

Joseph Naughton-Travers (2001) believes that…… [Read More]

References:
Boyns, T. (2003, June 1) in memoriam: Alexander Hamilton Church's system of 'scientific machine rates' at Hans Renold Ltd., c. 1901 -- c. 1920. The accounting historians journal. In Allbusiness. Retrieved December 1, 2010 from http://www.allbusiness.com/accounting/3581192-1.html

Kaplen, R.S. & Bruns, W.J. (eds.) (1987) Accounting and Management: Field study perspectives. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
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America Without the Constitution Without

Words: 3372 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94195078



Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of Rights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the States. As a position of power, the large, populated States continued to hold the most influence, and rather than centralized authority, tended to favor whatever application was best for their individual State, as opposed to what might be best for the nation as a (Klos, 2004).

Most scholars see the…… [Read More]

Resources:
Tushner, M. (2008). "Political Foundations of Judicial Supremacy: The Presidency, the Supreme

Court, and Constitutional Leadership in U.S. History." The Constitutional Commentary. 25 (2): 343+. (Review)

Whittington, K. (2007). Political Foundations of Judicial Supremacy. Princeton: Princeton
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American Presidency McDonald Forest The

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40527363

The second section examines the processes of the Constitutional Convention, the rectification of the weak Articles of Confederation, the ratification of the new Constitution, and the Washington and Jeffersonian Administrations. The first presidents had to try to make sense of the wording of the new document and put the presidency's ideals into practice. The third section examines the evolving role of presidents from Jackson to the present and how they defined the role in relationship to the legislative and judicial branches, public opinion, historical events, and foreign affairs.

McDonald notes that although Democrats today tend to be most critical of so-called imperially styled presidents, it was Republicans who decried the increasingly powerful office of the presidency during the Roosevelt and Johnson administrations, and only later did the two parties flip-flop, after Nixon created what would later be called the imperial presidency by Democrats. This suggests that there is less of a real dislike of executive authority in America as there is a dislike of specific presidential authority and ideology.

Of all the modern presidents, McDonald approves most enthusiastically of Nixon and Reagan, despite their evasion of congressional approval for many of their actions while in office. He instead criticizes Congress…… [Read More]

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Approval of the Constitution of

Words: 2574 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53645579



DUAL FEDERALISM PHASE

The Dual Federalism is the reflection of the ideology that stressed over the balance of powers between the national and state governments, and considers both the governments as 'equal partners with separate and distinct spheres of authority' (Sergio, 2005). Previously, the 'federal or national government was limited in its authority to those powers enumerated in the Constitution', and it was evident that there was partial understanding and correspondence between the national and stat. There existed little collaboration between the national and state governments, which resulted in the 'occasional tensions over the nature of the union and the doctrine of nullification and state sovereignty'.

In 1789, the Constitution was approved by the States; ratification of the conventions convened took place. The period from 1789 to 1801 has been regarded as the Federalist Perios, 'the period takes its name from the dominant political party of the time, which believed in a strong central government. Its leaders included George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and John Adams. They were opposed by Anti-Federalists or Democratic Republicans, such as Thomas Jefferson, who argued against a strong central government and for state centered governance' (Sergio, 2005). In 1790, the responsibility related to the war debt…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Michael Mcguire. American Federalism and the Search for Models of Management. Public Administration Review. Volume: 61. Issue: 6. 2001. American Society for Public Administration.

Stever, James a. The Growth and Decline of Executive-Centered Intergovernmental Management. Publius: The Journal of Federalism Vol. 23. 1993. pp. 71-84.
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American History Affairs of Honor

Words: 1351 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77283525

She uses primary documents such as diaries, journals, and notes, combined with secondary sources such as biographies, historical articles, and historian's viewpoints of times and individuals in history. She combines a deep understanding of history with the ability to see beyond words to engage the feelings and inner thoughts of individuals in their written words. Normally, this reliance on "feelings" and intuition does not play largely in history, but Freeman feels it is an important aspect of her research. She writes, "Although historians typically dismiss such evidence as personal, idiosyncratic, and trivial - useful for little more than spicing up biographies and historical narratives - feelings are vital passageways to an intuitive level of thought" (Freeman 289-290). Thus, this book is different, not because of the research, but because the author attempted to personalize the research, thus personalizing the individuals for the reader.

If there is anything to criticize about this work, it is her determination to show how mismanaged the American government has always been. She maintains that the strict code of honor is one of the only threads that held the new nation together, and that bickering, shifting loyalties, and personal motives would have destroyed the New Republic…… [Read More]

References:
Freeman, Joanne B. Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.
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Peace Agreements and International Intervention

Words: 3606 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65074896

Peace Agreements and International Intervention

A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process. "Though a wide ocean separates the United States from Europe, yet there are various considerations that warn us against an excess of confidence or security ... Politicians have ever with great reason considered the ties of blood as feeble and precarious links of political connection. These circumstances combined, admonish us…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone, eds. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

Chomsky, Noam. "Peace Process' Prospects." July 27, 2000. June 27, 2005. .
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Electoral College Which Was Written

Words: 1721 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27058410



The Electoral College could easily lead to the election of a President that does not have the popular support of the entire nation (Amar pp). Moreover, many believe that the clauses of the U.S. Constitution that provide for the electoral system should be removed before the country elects a candidate despite the fact that another candidate received more votes (Amar pp). Today, technology allows for an informed national electorate as well as efficient recounts, thus direct national election would be possible, and Federalism is not a sufficient basis for maintaining an out-dated system of voting (Amar pp). The scheme of presidential selection set up by Article II and refined by the 12th Amendment was a brilliant eighteenth century invention that makes no sense today (Amar pp).

Works Cited

Amar, Akhil Reed. "A constitutional accident waiting to happen."

Constitutional Commentary. June 22, 1995. Retrieved September 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/case/3pt/electoral.html#system

Hartke, Jason. "The electoral college and the framers' distrust of democracy." White

House Studies. June 22, 2003. Retrieved September 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

U.S. Electoral College

http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/faq.html#history… [Read More]

References:
Amar, Akhil Reed. "A constitutional accident waiting to happen."

Constitutional Commentary. June 22, 1995. Retrieved September 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
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Innovation Ethic in Chapter 4 Of Perils

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91827397

Innovation Ethic

In Chapter 4 of Perils of Prosperity, John Sarno argues that American industry does not really have an innovation ethic, and as a result it has been very badly damaged by the system of global capitalism and free trade that the U.S. government created after World War II. They were not prepared for the intense foreign competition that began to hit them full force in the 1970s and 1980s. As a result, the social and economic conditions of most American workers have deteriorated over the last thirty years, and this was already clear before the latest recession. As Thomas Jefferson had always feared, the great barons of American industry had turned the country into a nation of employees, and had trained and educated many of them to be dependents and conformists rather than innovators, independent thinkers and creators. Knowledge-based forms now contribute 20% of overall GNP and 40% of real economic growth, and knowledge workers earn 40% more, but most American employees do not fall into this category (Sarno 123). Today and for the foreseeable future "occupations that increasingly require cognitive complexity will continue to pay the biggest rewards as other occupations will pay increasingly less," and the…… [Read More]

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American Politics

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14862477

American Politics

Introduction to Kevin Phillips

Kevin Phillips is a well-known, controversial yet respected writer and political analyst, who writes about the political and social world of contemporary America with a sense of literary style and an "at the bottom of it" substance. His most recent book, American Dynasty: Aristocracy, Fortune, and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush, would seem to give the literary and politically uninitiated all the information needed in terms of where Phillips stands politically - his social and political/philosophical frame of reference. It would be safe to say his investigative, hard-hitting book on George W. Bush's White House would probably not get him an invitation to a Rush Limbaugh insider cocktail party, and yet, Phillips has worked as a Republican strategist, and he was a top political advisor to Richard Nixon during the presidential race in 1968.

In the book this paper reviews, Phillips puts his literary and journalistic microscope on how rich Americans get their wealth, and how they hang onto their wealth. He also brings to light the sometimes subtle and often-times blatant graft and corruption which appears to be a natural offshoot of a culture obsessed with money and with…… [Read More]

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Founding Fathers Principles

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10392479

Founding Fathers: How the Founding Fathers of America would respond to the success or the shortcomings of America's progress in keeping with their principles

America was a nation founded upon the principles of freedom but also upon compromises. One of the most notable compromises was the negotiation between free and slave states in the framing of the U.S. Constitution. The three-fifths compromise was an attempt by the Founding Fathers to determine how to count slaves in terms of population for the purpose of representation totals in the House of Representatives: "The issue of how to count slaves split the delegates into two groups. The northerners regarded slaves as property who should receive no representation. Southerners demanded that Blacks be counted with whites" ("Three-fifths compromise," 2013). Eventually, the external slave trade was abolished in 1807; this, of course, did not end the practice of slavery within the United States ("1807," 2015). These are two stark examples of the contradiction between American ideals and actual practice: although there are some indications that the Founding Fathers believed or at least hoped that slavery would die a natural death (it did not, given that the invention of the cotton gin made the production of…… [Read More]

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How Did the Constitution Satisfy Complaints

Words: 2341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90411351

United States Constitution concentrates on. It will address how it treated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the complaints in the Declaration of Independence.

How the Constitution Deals with Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation

One key factor that has helped keep the constitution of the United States alive is the processes involved in its amendment. These processes require 2/3 majority votes from the two houses of Congress or by every state legislature. The Articles of Confederation could not be changed easily because a unanimous vote required from each of the states. As the number of the sates in the United States increased from 13 to 50, it would have been almost impossible to change the articles. No judicial system was provided for the United States by the Articles of Confederation.

In the same way, Congress lacked the legal power to enforce any laws (Morelock, n.d). Each of the created states had its own interpretation of its own laws and enforced them as it wished. This brought about significant discrepancies and conflicts between the U.S. states with varying policies. As no federal judiciary was in place, no entity had the powers to settle these conflicts that arose between…… [Read More]

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Two Visions of Government Federalist vs Anti Federalist

Words: 727 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73763249

ratification of the U.S. Constitution pushed the nation to extremes: on the one hand were the Federalists, led by men like Alexander Hamilton and James Madison -- men who promoted the idea of a central government (the reasons for which they enumerated at length in their "Federalist" papers); on the other hand were the Anti-Federalists, led by men like Robert Yates and George Clinton (Yates being the presumptive author of the pseudonymously penned Anti-Federalist papers under the name of "Brutus"). Each side had its own view, not just of government, but of humanity and the way in which political society should be organized. This paper will present the underlying fundamental perspective of each side and show why I would have sided with the Anti-Federalists.

The Federalist plan to organize the federal government was to make it capable of overriding the individual autonomy and authority of the individual states, which the Federalists viewed as being potential threats to harmony and unity in the nation. Hamilton, writing in Federalist No. 6 and No. 7, described how states, when left to their own devices, will inevitably produce "dissensions between" themselves and engage in "domestic factions and convulsions" that would cause the unity of…… [Read More]

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Politics Six Questions & Discussion on American

Words: 2113 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20754328

Politics

Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics

Constitutional Convention

During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).

New Jersey Plan advocates, led by Luther Martin from Maryland, continued questioning the validity of such sweeping federalism. Hamilton Plan enthusiasts, under Alexander Hamilton, countered that a strong national republican government was the most ideal form for a new country. The Convention seemed at an impasses between these two divergent…… [Read More]

References:
Burner, David and Rosenfield, Ross. "Polling." Dictionary of American History. 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .

"Evolution of American Political Parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction." 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 < http://everything2.com/title/Evolution+of+American+political+parties+from+the+Revolution+to+the+Reconstruction >.