Through these three main measures, Alexander Hamilton ensured the main instruments with which a young economy could be built and become competitive in the future: strong public credit, corroborated with a central financial and monetary institution which would regulate monetary policies and with protectionist tariffs that would defend the manufacturing industry against the cheaper imports from Europe.
1. Digital History - Online American History Textbook. On the Internet at http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=6.Lastretrieved on February 18, 2009
2. 18b. Hamilton's Financial Plan. On the Internet at http://www.ushistory.org/us/18b.asp.Lastretrieved on February 18, 2009
. Hamilton and the U.S. Constitution. 2000. On the Internet at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/duel/sfeature/hamiltonusconstituion.html.Lastretrieved on February 18, 2009
Digital History - Online American History Textbook. On the Internet at http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=6.Lastretrieved on February 18, 2009
18b. Hamilton's Financial Plan. On the Internet at http://www.ushistory.org/us/18b.asp.Lastretrieved on February 18, 2009… [Read More]
Founding fathers were primarily oriented towards weak central government. The approach to government that was advocated by Hamilton, Madison and Jay, were particularly interested in a republican form of government that fractured the power structure of the United States in such a way that no one branch of government could exercise unilateral control over the others. They sought to create a system of government that would avoid the parliamentary model, wherein the leader would create the government. Their views would ultimately lead to the separation of the three branches of government. They also looked to maintain a high level of power within the individual states, which further served as a check on the powers of the central government.
The idea of a fractured power structure is favored by both major political parties. It is not, as near as can be determined, within the stated aims of either party to…… [Read More]
Hamilton's Economic Plan
Alexander Hamilton was one of the Founding Fathers, and was the first Secretary of the Treasury. His economic plan was contained in a series of written works that provided the framework for the nation's economic governance. The underlying objectives of Hamilton's economic plan were to provide the nation with the financial stability it would need in case of war, and was also driven by his Federalist viewpoint, in direct contrast to the many anti-Federalists of the time (SparkNotes, 2015).
The first element of Hamilton's plan was with respect to the pending credit crisis that the new country was to have. As a new country, America had no reputation to draw on with respect to credit. The nation's debts were large and largely unpaid. oughly half of this debt was owed by the states. Hamilton suggested public bonds as a means of financing wars in particular, but as…… [Read More]
Alexander Hamilton was the prototypical opportunist of the American evolution: of obscure and humble origins, he longed for an escape from his lowly rank as accountant and, as Wood (2006) notes, it was "war" that Hamilton believed would provide just such an escape (p. 124). Hamilton's revolutionary character was found in this desire for opportunity out of crisis and displayed the future maxim of ahm Emmanuel, "Let no good crisis go to waste," in a manner that suggests that Hamilton is indeed the progenitor of a centralized, fascistic government headed by a financial sector that has less interest in democratic ideals than it does in the control and steering of a new empire. This paper will explore the theme set out by Wood (2006) that shows how Alexander Hamilton was a revolutionary character whose special talents lay in the direction of fostering a new nation that could be…… [Read More]
Federalist Papers are important to any analysis of the U.S. Constitution because they provided the philosophical and socio-political justification for the adoption of the Constitution. Prior to the ratification of the Constitution, the states were loosely united under the Articles of Confederation. However, Alexander Hamilton and his group of elites did not like that they could not be part of a federal/central government that oversaw and wielded power over the rest of the states. Thus, Hamilton penned many of the Federalist Papers (including Federalist no. 1) in order to combat the ideas expressed by the Anti-Federalists who condemned the Constitution as an attempt to subjugate states' rights.
The Federalist Papers may be read therefore as a series of a letters and arguments meant to sway the reader as to why the U.S. should adopt the Constitution in place of the Articles of Confederation. It is a body of writing that…… [Read More]
Hamilton's "Federalist No. 6"
The purpose of Alexander Hamilton's "Federalist No. 6" is to convince the reader of the dangers of an only partially united group of states. Hamilton urges total centralization under the guise of a ruling Constitution to protect the nation from "ambitious, vindictive, and rapacious" men, which is what men turn into when they are given independence, according to him. (The irony of Hamilton's argument is that he is arguing for that which the American Revolutionaries just threw off!) His thesis is contained in the opening paragraph: "I shall now proceed to delineate dangers of a different and, perhaps, still more alarming kind -- those which will in all probability flow from dissensions between the States themselves, and from domestic factions and convulsions" (Hamilton). His aim is clear: a loose confederation of states, each with its own authority, will not work because men simply cannot get along.…… [Read More]
Hamilton notes the biographies of Alexander often reflected the backgrounds of authors who wrote about him. For example, Sir William Tarn, a Scottish gentleman of the ritish imperial era, characterized Alexander as a chivalrous Greek gentleman with a missionary zeal to spread Greek civilization. In contrast, Fritz Schachermeyr, a German historian who had experienced the rise and fall of the Nazi Germany, described Alexander as a ruthless and cruel ruler, indulged "in deceit and treachery to gain his ends, as a 'Titanic' figure aiming at the conquest of the world."
oth Tarn and Schachermeyr are among the great modern historians of Alexander but even they could not escape personal biases.
The irony of Hamilton's book is that, although he is at pains in his discussion of the difficulty of writing about Alexander and is critical of biased historians, the book starts with a straightforward admission of a bias. Rejecting the…… [Read More]
All of the founding fathers of the United States were great because they acted on their values and beliefs, helping to sow the seeds of a new nation. The work of the founding fathers became instrumental for independence from the British Crown. Being willing to stand up to Britain was no small feat, making the deeds of the founding fathers even more admirable. The founding fathers will be celebrated throughout history for their contribution not just to America but to the world. Although many men and women can be considered instrumental to founding the nation, there are seven key players that most historians identify as being the founding fathers. Those seven include George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, James Monroe, and Ben Franklin. All seven of the founding fathers and their contributions are important. Therefore, it can be helpful to compare and contrast three of them—such…… [Read More]
Flax was a major industry because of the ease of production. The prosaic nature of the homespun ideal led it to be the symbol of the revolution. It also induced progress. enjamin Franklin referred to it as the "first Ages of the world." ut this was linked to European finery, historically made from the animal skins of the Indians, who did not have a cloth-making industry. In his 1787 Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson declared all forms of manufacturing, including household, as a mortal threat to American virtue. As the American president in 1806, he drew the attention of Cherokee chiefs on the civilizing effect of spinning and weaving their own cotton cloths. In 1812, Jefferson and John Adams agreed to a common homespun vision of commercial progress (Zakim).
The overall view is that capitalism threatens or hinders democracy (Muller 2007). Capitalism involves an inequality of reward,…… [Read More]
The Hartford Convention was a gathering of Federalist Party delegates from five New England states that met in Hartford, Connecticut, between December 15, 1814, and January 5, 1815. Its members convened to discuss their long-held grievances against the policies of the successive Democratic-
Republican administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
After that, the party never regained a national following. Its beliefs and actions during the War of 1812 helped seal its fate. y 1828 the Federalists became the first American political party to die out because it could not adjust to an increasingly democratic national spirit, especially in the nation's towns and cities. And among most Americans, mainly farmers suspicious of government, its policies of strong federal involvement in the economy kept it un-popular. Inconsistency in its stance toward military action (first undertaking a naval war with France, then treating for peace with that same nation, then actively opposing…… [Read More]
Hamilton's Arguments in Favor of the Debt and the Bank
Jefferson would have no position against witch to argue had not Hamilton made the argument for the national debt so eloquently and so forcefully. Essentially, Hamilton and Jefferson entirely disagreed on the proper course to put the nation on a prosperous track. The greatest issue was whether the multitudinous colonial debts piled up by the individual colonies during and since the war with England should, in the spirit of e pluribus unum, be taken on by the federal government.
Hamilton postulated that the assumption of these colonies' - now states' - debts was essential to make the nation a credible, operating reality, deserving of trust in seeking credit from other countries. Also, Hamilton felt that "monied men" - those wealthy Americans who had made the loans to the state governments and how had in many instances not been paid yet…… [Read More]
Delegates' top priorities include the following. First, the delegates set out to revise the Articles of Confederation to weaken the power of the state legislatures and increase the powers of the central government. Delegates also sought changes in the ways states were represented in the federal government and introduced the concept of separation of powers to create a system of checks and balances. Debates between federalism and republicanism brewed during the Constitutional Convention, as delegates like Alexander Hamilton favored an exceedingly strong executive branch whereas traditional republicans hoped for term limits for elected officials. Compromise was a must and the Constitution of the United States reflects the confluence of republican and federalist values.
Second, the delegates heatedly debated the question of how to deal with slavery. An abolitionist movement had taken root in Europe and delegates were forced to address concerns about the international and inter-state slave trade. Once again,…… [Read More]
In this case, according to Alexander Hamilton, the court would have had the right to interfere and it would have had the superior power to declare the Texas statue void on its face.
However, Hamilton aside, our natural law and natural rights also prohibit first trimester abortion. Derived from Locke, Natural law and natural rights follow from the nature of man and the world. For instance, we have the right to defend ourselves and our property, because of our nature, because of the kind of creatures that we are. True law derives from this right, not from the arbitrary power of the omnipotent state.
Natural law has an objective, extrinsic existence. The ability to make moral judgment - or in other words, the capacity to know good and evil -- has immediate evolutionary benefits: just as the capacity to perceive three dimensionally tells one when one is standing on…… [Read More]
gaining their independence, what were the principal concerns Americans had about constructing a frame of government, and how were these concerns addressed in the structure of the Constitution?
After Americans gained their independence from England the next step was to structure the frame of a new government. In 1787 it was determined that the Articles of Confederation would be tossed out and an entirely new government frame would be constructed which would reflect the new views of the nation. he delegates from each state argued and debated behind closed doors about what the framework of the new government would include (he Constitution of the United States (http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/charters_of_freedom/constitution/constitution.html).here were several chief points of concern to those who were developing the frame. One of the most important aspects of the debate was how much power each state should be allowed to have. his included debates on how many members each state should…… [Read More]
Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can…… [Read More]
American Political Philosophy: epublicanism
Within this paper, the general theory of republicanism will be presented. The conceptualization of republicanism discussed within the paper as an American political philosophy will be based on The Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison in 1787. Initially, a brief overview of relevant background information on The Federalist Papers will be provided. This will be followed by a discussion of the primary components of republicanism as set forth within the works of Hamilton, Jay and Madison. A summary and conclusions will then be provided.
Overview of The Federalist Papers
The Federalist Papers have been suggested as representing one of the most important writing in American political thought (Yarbrough, 1986). It represents a collection of 85 letters written by Hamilton, Jay and Madison under the pseudonym of Publius. The letters were written to the American public and were initially published in a…… [Read More]
45, for instance, where he argues that "the State governments may be regarded as constituent and essential parts of the federal government; whilst the latter is nowise essential to the operation or organization of the former. ithout the intervention of the State legislatures, the President of the United States cannot be elected at all." (Rossiter, 287) This is a position which suggests not only that the Federalists felt that significant power had already been entrusted to leaders at the state level, but also that this power is seen primarily as a function of the power of the federal government. Thus, we are given further confirmation that the Constitution was inherently a federal document.
In key segments of the debate such as that shown in the Anti-Federalist Paper No. 17, we can see that those who stood in opposition to the empowerment of federal authority derived from the Constitution were a…… [Read More]
Language of Ordinary People
The American evolution could not have been as strong as it was if it were not for one man, Thomas Paine. He was the one who supported and fought for it with all his synergies, combined in the written form of most celebrated and valued book and pamphlet Common Sense and The American Crisis, which turned the tables for revolution and brought a vibrant change in the history of America. Thomas Paine spoke the language of common people through his words. This assisted them in being able to rise up for their individual rights. He believed that ordinary people should defend their liberty and this concept was written strongly in his top works of eighteenth century, which is still remembered and read throughout the America as an inspiring piece of inscription to raise the most necessary revolution to change America. This thesis tends to explain how…… [Read More]
S. Congress' prohibition of the practice and the Court's refusal to allow the practice, conflicted with the rights of individuals engaged in such practice. The actions of a religious group which are normally protected under the First Amendment and the laws of states like Utah that might wish to turn a blind eye to the practice were not allowed.
The states claim the social contract has been broken because the U.S. government has infringed upon individuals' liberty to marry more than one person and the states' rights to regulate matters not specifically delineated in the Bill of Rights. However, if this were the case that a state could secede every time the federal government disagreed with a state's definition of individual liberties. Virtually every constitutional dispute in the history of the nation, regarding the Bill of Rights, from abortion, to affirmative action, to gay marriage, to free speech, could justify…… [Read More]
Factions: Help or Hindrance
James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, aided by John Jay, were responsible for writing eighty-five anonymous essays for the New York Journal in 1787 and 1788. These articles were known as The Federalist Papers, and they were intended to persuade people into ratifying the proposed Constitution. In The Federalist Paper Number 10, Madison responded to critics who had argued that the United States was too large, and had too many groups, or "factions," to be ruled democratically by a single government. Madison acknowledged the importance of factions in the opening paragraph, stating that, "Among the numerous advantages promised by a well constructed Union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence of faction" (Rossiter, 1961). In prescribing how to rule and control the effects of factions, Madison detailed their relationships with other important concepts, such as liberty and property,…… [Read More]
Mill and U.S. Constitution
None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy all Street (OS) movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States. At the time the Constitution was written in 1787, human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification. In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in 1859 much less 1789. He insisted that individuals should be left…… [Read More]
Special Identifications in History; Person, Event and Place
Transition from New Amsterdam to New York (1664)
New York City is located right at the mouth of the Hudson iver. The first European power to visit New York was the Dutch in 1624. The land caught the attention of the administration in Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company hoped to explore the region's fur trade. Peter Minuit purchased a major real estate. Peter traded trinkets with natives for the island of Manhattan in 1626. A new town was set up there and was called New Amsterdam. The colony sought to enrich the stockholders from the Netherlands. The first governor of New Amsterdam (Peter Stuyvesant) ruled it with decree and dictatorship. The Dutch West India Company thrived in slave trade.
The English focused their eyes on the Dutch holding after Charles II assumed the throne. Charles gave the land to his brother…… [Read More]
When studying the history of the formation of the United States, one usually thinks in terms of separate events and individuals. However, the American republic was established, instead, by a series of important decisions and the joint efforts of some of the most prominent men of all time. In a matter of ten years, these critical interactions among the eight leading figures of John Adams, Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington formed a nation that to this day remains one of the most successful "experiments" of democratic governments. As Joseph J. Ellis, the author of Founding Brothers: the Revolutionary Generation states:
What in retrospect has the look of a foreordained unfolding of God's will was in reality an improvisational affair ... If hindsight enhances our appreciation for the solidity and stability of the republican legacy, it also blinds us to the…… [Read More]
In his Pulitzer Prize winning biography, His Excellency George ashington, Joseph J. Ellis presents a balanced and comprehensive portrait on the nation's first president that steers a course between hero-worship and debunking. He based his work on the latest edition of the ashington papers, which now include virtually every scrap of written information available except for his last three years as commander of the Continental Army and the second presidential term in 1793-97. For many modern readers, ashington comes across as a cold, distant, patriarchal figure, an iconic face on Mount Rushmore or the dollar bill, but not exactly a people's president like Abraham Lincoln. At the opposite extreme, Leftist and revisionist writers regard him as the creator of a nation that "was imperialistic, racist, elitist, and patriarchal," and prefer to write social history about women, slaves and common soldiers rather than the dead, white male ruling class (Ellis,…… [Read More]
America went from being a loose union of individual states to being a nation with a central government when the Constitution was ratified. This was more important than the War for Independence, because it dictated the type of government we would have. The Federalists, led by Hamilton, wanted a strong central government. The Anti-Federalists wanted every state to be its own government. The guiding question of this essay is: Should the U.S. have ratified the Constitution or stayed a loose confederation? This paper will show why the U.S. was better off not ratifying the Constitution and remaining a loose confederation of states.
An interesting article at Mises Institute by Gary Galles argued that history has proven that the Anti-Federalists were right in their fears of what would happen should a central government be founded. As Galles notes, the Anti-Federalists were opposed to the ratification of the U.S. Constitution because they…… [Read More]
In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a brief but stirring speech while the country was in the process of tearing itself apart in a civil war. During that speech President Lincoln stated a phrase that has helped to capture what democracy means. Lincoln told the audience that had gathered to dedicate a soldier's cemetery that the government that had been formed "of the people, by the people, for the people" would not "perish from the earth." In that phrase, Lincoln summarized what the founding fathers had hoped to capture in documents that shaped the system of government they believed was essential for prosperity and happiness for all mankind. The fact that the United States has remained in existence for more than 200 years does not necessarily mean that the ideals Lincoln spoke of are in existence today. In fact, many would argue that the concepts Lincoln captured in his…… [Read More]
Harassment, including sexual and other types as well, is also a common type of formal complaint that must be taken very seriously by contemporary businesses. More extensive employee training can help better inform employees of appropriate work behavior, so that there are less incidences of harassment between employees unknowingly.
etter trained employees makes for a more efficient work environment with less complications. Therefore, the research showed that "many organizations within it industries focus on providing "extensive retraining of employees," especially "as reengineering efforts go forward it is important to define and redefine performance goals and objectives, maintain a strong commitment to the vision, break the barriers between the departments, and be flexible as the business environment changes."
More extensive formal training can help with "nipping negativity before it derails morale" by reassuring the proper procedures but also by explaining appropriate company policy more directly and intimately so that all…… [Read More]
limits to democracy in the early republic, as its first president George ashington reflected the elitist view of the federalists in his approach to the executive branch of government. As Patrick Henry stated in 1788, "The Constitution is said to have beautiful features, but when I come to examine these features…they appear to me horridly frightful…it squints towards monarchy," (p. 146). According to Henry, the "President may easily become King," a fact that should "raise indignation in the breast of every American," (p. 146). Henry was himself not concerned with issues related to race, class, or gender, but he did understand the ideals of the democracy when he lamented, "hither is the spirit of America gone? hither is the genius of America fled?" (146). This question can easily be posed to point out the gross hypocrisy in denying Constitutional rights to more than half the population living in the borders…… [Read More]
Constitutional Models and Political Parties
Constitutionalism and noble representative government are concepts and practices that have existed longer than the American epublic. The existence of these concepts provided the foundation for the formation of the American Democratic Experiment through acting as ingredients towards this process. Since the foundation of American epublic, there are various constitutional models that have been established. These different models have been established in attempts to respond to several governance issues that emerge from time to time. Actually, these different models have provided the foundation for governance models and practices for better governance of the society. Some examples of constitutional models include the 18th Century Madisonian and Hamiltonian constitutional models and Barker's normative democratic theory, which differ with regards to their major components.
Madisonian and Hamiltonian Models v. Normative Democratic Theory
The 18th Century constitutional models basically relied on principles introduced by Madison and Hamilton. Madisonian constitutional…… [Read More]
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…… [Read More]
American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.
THE IMPACT OF…… [Read More]
Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…… [Read More]
The second section examines the processes of the Constitutional Convention, the rectification of the weak Articles of Confederation, the ratification of the new Constitution, and the Washington and Jeffersonian Administrations. The first presidents had to try to make sense of the wording of the new document and put the presidency's ideals into practice. The third section examines the evolving role of presidents from Jackson to the present and how they defined the role in relationship to the legislative and judicial branches, public opinion, historical events, and foreign affairs.
McDonald notes that although Democrats today tend to be most critical of so-called imperially styled presidents, it was Republicans who decried the increasingly powerful office of the presidency during the Roosevelt and Johnson administrations, and only later did the two parties flip-flop, after Nixon created what would later be called the imperial presidency by Democrats. This suggests that there is less of…… [Read More]
DUAL FEDEALISM PHASE
The Dual Federalism is the reflection of the ideology that stressed over the balance of powers between the national and state governments, and considers both the governments as 'equal partners with separate and distinct spheres of authority' (Sergio, 2005). Previously, the 'federal or national government was limited in its authority to those powers enumerated in the Constitution', and it was evident that there was partial understanding and correspondence between the national and stat. There existed little collaboration between the national and state governments, which resulted in the 'occasional tensions over the nature of the union and the doctrine of nullification and state sovereignty'.
In 1789, the Constitution was approved by the States; ratification of the conventions convened took place. The period from 1789 to 1801 has been regarded as the Federalist Perios, 'the period takes its name from the dominant political party of the time, which believed…… [Read More]
Peace Agreements and International Intervention
A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process.…… [Read More]
United States Constitution concentrates on. It will address how it treated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the complaints in the Declaration of Independence.
How the Constitution Deals with Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation
One key factor that has helped keep the constitution of the United States alive is the processes involved in its amendment. These processes require 2/3 majority votes from the two houses of Congress or by every state legislature. The Articles of Confederation could not be changed easily because a unanimous vote required from each of the states. As the number of the sates in the United States increased from 13 to 50, it would have been almost impossible to change the articles. No judicial system was provided for the United States by the Articles of Confederation.
In the same way, Congress lacked the legal power to enforce any laws (Morelock, n.d). Each of…… [Read More]
Click the link below to visit the Naturalization page:
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
Complete the following:
In your own words, list the requirements to become a naturalized citizen of the United States.
Review the sample Naturalization Self Test that may be asked on the naturalization exam.
Answer the first twenty questions. Be sure to include the questions in your assignment submission (for your instructor).
Which question(s) did you find to be challenging?
Are the questions asked of those persons wishing to become naturalized citizens fair?
Do you think most U.S. born citizens could answer these questions? Why or why not?
Most of the people in the United States on a permanent basis are born as United States citizens. However, there are many other people that are present in the United States on temporary visas, on permanent resident cards or that have…… [Read More]
ratification of the U.S. Constitution pushed the nation to extremes: on the one hand were the Federalists, led by men like Alexander Hamilton and James Madison -- men who promoted the idea of a central government (the reasons for which they enumerated at length in their "Federalist" papers); on the other hand were the Anti-Federalists, led by men like obert Yates and George Clinton (Yates being the presumptive author of the pseudonymously penned Anti-Federalist papers under the name of "Brutus"). Each side had its own view, not just of government, but of humanity and the way in which political society should be organized. This paper will present the underlying fundamental perspective of each side and show why I would have sided with the Anti-Federalists.
The Federalist plan to organize the federal government was to make it capable of overriding the individual autonomy and authority of the individual states, which the…… [Read More]
Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics
During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…… [Read More]
In fact, many turned to Toryism because they believed that the aim of government was "to place man out of the reach of his own power." Adams strongly disagreed as he believed that the purpose of government was to secure for the citizenry "the greatest quantity of happiness" for the greatest number of people. His strong conviction was that this 'general happiness' could be achieved if the citizenry not only made the laws, but if "an Empire of Laws and not of men" came into being. Furthermore, Adams believed that the American Revolution would enhance individual opportunity. His aim was to destroy the system of elite privileges which existed in both monarchical and aristocratic societies; this wish was based on his belief that power should never be an inherited right because the first objective of the governing elite would be to serve themselves.
Adams contended that private virtue was crucial…… [Read More]
This meant that President was not allowed to encroach upon the rights and powers of other branches. Hamilton further explains in the Federalist Paper # 75:
The essence of the legislative authority is to enact laws, or, in other words, to prescribe rules for the regulation of society; while the execution of the laws, and the employment of the common strength, either for this purpose or for the common defense, seem to comprise all the functions of the executive magistrate.
It was because the framers wanted to limit the powers of the President that his term was fixed at four-years. It was much later that the condition of twice consecutive terms was incorporated in the Constitution to further curtail the powers of the Executive branch. While the framers tried to control all braches of the government by means of limiting powers, they did intend to have a stronger executive branch…… [Read More]
" (McCullough v. Maryland, 1819). Doherty's response to that statement is:
Ah well, the constitution is not a suicide pact, after all; nor is it a shopping list, a condominium agreement, or any number of other things. But it was meant to be a document that defined in a strictly limited way what government could do, and also to a significant degree how it could do it. (Doherty).
Obviously, Doherty recognizes that the Constitution is different than a mere law, but he is concerned that an overly liberal interpretation could give the Federal government too much power over the states and, ultimately, over the people. Such an argument is the prime reason that some people continue to question the doctrine of Federalism as outlined in the case, and why people debate the merits of the decision to this very day.
Atkins, Chris. "Important Tax Cases: McCullough v. Maryland…… [Read More]
Henry Clay gave his famous speech in support of the American System to the House of Representatives in 1824, although Alexander Hamilton had used the same term decades before. It rested "on the idea of harmonizing all the segments of the economy for their mutual benefit and of doing so by active support from an intervening national government" (Baxter 27). Clay's conversion to this policy was surprising since Hamilton had been a member of the Federalist Party while Henry Clay was supposedly a Democratic Republican and a Jeffersonian, opposed to Federal plans for government aid to industry, a national bank, protective tariffs and federal funding for highways, canals, railroads and other internal improvements. After the ar of 1812, however, the first political party system had come to an end and the Federalists were discredited by their opposition to the war and threats of secession in New England. During…… [Read More]
Anti-Federalists and the Constitution in the Development of Political Parties
The Development of Political Parties
The Constitution and Political Parties
The Changing Ideology of Political Parties
Even before the adoption of the Constitution, political parties were beginning to form. Those who favored the Constitution were called Federalists, and were led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. Another group, led by Thomas Jefferson, opposed the adoption of the Constitution and was known as Antifederalists. The Antifederalists broke up after the Constitution was ratified, but they set the stage for the development of other political parties, resulting in the two party system that we have today.
The Development of Political Parties
The debate over the Constitution split people into two groups. Those who favored ratification believed that a strong federal government that would dominate the individual states. Hamilton particularly argued that the future of the country depended on the development of a…… [Read More]
Government & Politics
The arguments contrast two observations. Which of them is the best and why? Give a detailed and substantial response.
Charles eard and John Roche had differing views regarding the American constitution as they hailed from different background. Due to their diverse backgrounds, they have their own views regarding American constitution. A deep study of both authors shows that, John Roche is an optimist and a reformer, while Charles eard attempts to expose the inner intentions of the founding fathers (Thesis Statement, 2014). oth authors give interesting insight into the minds of the founding fathers with rock solid evidence. eard (1913) proposes that founding fathers had huge properties to protect while Roche (1961) argues that constitution united the nation quite effectively.
Those penning the constitution had sold commercial and financial interest of their own (p. 36)
The authors of the constitution were bent on penning a…… [Read More]
S. Constitution; Bertelli & Lynn). The general outline and structure of this paper will build from historical roots of bureaucracies as described in the literature and follow a chronological through-line of administration development through to the modern era.
Discussion of the founding principles of the United States
Conflicting Ideals of Self-eliance/Government protection
Development of Bureaucracies
Examination of Hamilton's views on public administration
Analysis of Madison's administration
General growth of federal government
Different Founding of Public Administration
Initial administration and principles reviewed
Aftermath of Civil War
Franklin D. oosevelt
Shifts in Modern Era
Pull-back in regulations of business, return to laissez faire
Greater emphasis on personal responsibility
Lack of regulation leading to ultimate fallout
Protective/preemptive measures determined to be necessary
Developing ideals behind protection v self-reliance
Bertelli, a. & Lynn, L. (). Madison's managers. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Green, . (2002).…… [Read More]
In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…… [Read More]
Thus, the members of the Convention assumed that, although power was a necessary evil, it was also dangerous, especially when provided to the wrong person who might take advantage of this power for his own gain. In essence, the members attempted to compose a constitution that would insure effective power for the government when needed but that would also place reliable checks and safeguards on the use of that power. Once again, this aim can be traced back to Montesquieu's essay in which he states "to prevent the abuse of power, 'tis necessary that by the very disposition of things (that) power should be checked... " (Leone 37).
ut the members were also much too experienced in the ways of politics to take for granted that conscientious and moral men would always be elected to office. To them, human nature was universally fallible and only built-in safeguards could be…… [Read More]
In fact, during the 1787 Constitutional Convention, Slonim notes that the need for a bill of rights was not even a topic of discussion until Virginian delegate George Mason raised the issue just several days before the Convention was scheduled to rise on September 17; Mason suggested that a bill of rights "would give great quiet to the people." Following this assertion, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts moved that the Convention add a bill of rights to the Constitution and Mason seconded his motion to no avail: "The Convention unanimously rejected the proposal by a vote of 10 to 0, with one state absent. Failure to heed Mason's counsel was to plague the Federalists throughout the ratification campaign" (emphasis added).
The first major confrontation concerning the ratification of the Constitution involving the need for a bill of rights occurred in Pennsylvania several weeks after the close of the Constitutional Convention; at…… [Read More]
At the time the U.S. Constitution was ratified, the new America of the 19th century saw its indigenes with varied political opinions. Those in favor of a powerful central government and therefore, a restraint of the powers the states possessed were part of the Federalist Party; those with the belief that interpretation should be given to the Constitution in order to reduce the powers the national government wields, which would further empower the states, became part of the epublican PartyTherefore, The Federalists adopted a nationalistic opinion; the epublicans, although they would not refute the efficiency of the central government, held the opinion that certain rights ought to be kept for the states. Thus, this essay will explore the aforementioned idea (Writer Thoughts). It will examine how the Federalist philosophy and ideas shaped modern American Society.
Supporters of the Constitution
The proposed American Constitution's advocates labeled themselves as "Federalists."…… [Read More]
The Federalists advocated a strong central government while the Anti-Federalists advocated state governments. The former feared that division would lead to fighting and instability. The latter feared that centralized power would lead to the kind of totalitarianism that the American Revolutionaries had just victoriously opposed in the War for Independence. This paper will describe why I would align myself with the Anti-Federalists because of their aversion for centralized power.
The difference between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists was all about what kind of government the United States would have. The Federalists wanted to ratify the Constitution (which we have today) because it defined the ways in which states would be subject to a federal government and the ways in which they would be free to act on their own. The view of the Federalists was that the Constitution would protect the states from "domestic factions and convulsions" and provide unity…… [Read More]
Revolution, Constitution and Enlightenment
The American Revolution and the ensuing U.S. Constitution put forward by the Federalists were both products of and directly informed by the European Enlightenment. The Founding Fathers were considerably influenced by thinkers like Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu (whose separation of powers served as the model of the three-branched government of the U.S.). This paper will explain how the European Enlightenment set the stage for the American Revolution and U.S. Constitution by putting out the ideas that the Americans would use as the basis of the political and social foundation.
The Enlightenment aka the Age of Reason was an Age in which natural philosophy assumed the vaulted position of guiding light over the preceding Age of Faith, which had served as the socio-political basis in Europe for centuries. The Reformation had upended the Age of Faith and introduced secularization into the political realm (Laux), particularly via…… [Read More]
Human societies within the context of civilization most always are organized into deference periods. The Constitution is a product of worldviews developed within such a limited paradigm, as paradigms tend to be, whether individuals -- including the Founders -- were and are aware of it. This condition, in part, touches on what Heilbroner frames as "The Unresolved Problem of Economic Power." He accepts that the wonderful free market system of Adam Smith is tainted by "giant oligopoly." The logic positing the market economy "as the servant of the consumer," therefore, might as well be null-and-void, but, still, "the emergence of these new attributes," Heilbroner argues, "can be seen as new functional mechanisms for the support of that system." (Heilbroner 18)
To make natural the influence of "giant oligopolies" to the free-market economy, Heilbroner borrows examples from the world of advertising and the manipulation of consumer wants. He admits…… [Read More]
It separates the various forms of government and does not allow one to become more powerful than another, and it ensures that laws are created fairly, that justice is fair, and that the President does not gain too much power. Essentially, it is the backbone of our Democracy, and that assures our freedom and the public good.
Critics of the Constitution and its support of the public good believe that the laws can promote gridlock in legislation, and that it can make it easier for government leaders to not take responsibility for problems. However, the framers of the Constitution had the citizens in mind, and they formed it to create a Democratic country with the good of the public as a foremost concern.
The Virginia Plan was a plan favored by James Madison, and it had three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature chose the executive and judicial branches,…… [Read More]
In an era where the issue of human and civil rights was considered an element that could not be addressed by law, the drafting of the U.S. constitution came as a result of a great democratic endeavor which tried to point out several aspects. On the one hand, it proved the fact that the people are the supreme judges of the way in which the country is developing through the fact that Thus, the most important line for the American democracy is part of the Declaration of Independence which underlines the fact "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" (the Declaration of Independence, n.d.). This aspect certifies the idea that according to the American documents, people have the right to be free in all their respects.
The Constitution comes…… [Read More]
Summary of the three most important leadership lessons learned
What one can and should learn from studying the life and thinking of Thomas Jefferson is that leaders are not necessarily born, but they are also shaped. What is takes to be a leader in those days, is similar to these. One needs constant learning and interest in different fields of activity that will cultivate not only a good understanding of their society but also a way of thinking that results into initiative. One of the features of Jefferson's leadership is the importance of initiative. Also, one should have within his communication skill those of persuasion. Without a convincingly presentation of one's ideas, these cannot become valuable initiatives - support, and later on persons that carry on one's idea, so therefore followers, are won by powerful statements by powerful men. That is what Thomas Jefferson had: initiative, based on a rigorous…… [Read More]
Both large states with a great population, they did not want to lose influence or power to a federal government. In particular, there was great debate in New York as existing political leaders feared a lose of power. The Federalists were those who supported the Constitution and include James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. They were the Federalist Papers that were published in New York and not only helped the Constitution to be ratified, but guided the direction of the new American nation. Those who opposed a strong government were the anti-federalists and they feared America would turn into a corrupt nation like Great Britain.
George Washington, who would be the first President, was a federalist and had great influence and therefore helped the country to go in that direction. A Bill of Rights quelled further fears about the oppression of the federal government. In 1788 the Constitution went into effect.…… [Read More]
One can assume from his writing that he wants his readers to be persuaded with his point-of-view and appreciate the accomplishments of George Washington (Kuegler). It is also believed that his secondary aim of writing the book is to give rebirth to politics of morals and ethics.
Monty Rainey. ook Review. Junto Society.
Thomas Kuegler. Review www.skyline.net.com
All in all, one can say that his book represents dynamism, intellectualism and exceeding pleasure. As mentioned above, his book does not fully cover his life and works, however, it aims to bring alive the politics of those times so as to transform the hearts and minds of all those who read his book (Kuegler).
The most unexpected result of his book is the warmth it provokes amongst those who read it. It is clear that rookhiser does not make an effort to create an acceptable image of Washington to the…… [Read More]
In the study of history, an article like Gordon's is extremely important in a variety of ways. When examining aspects of history in such a linear way, it becomes easy to identify mistakes and problems arising from certain events and actions, for example. In this way, linier history can be used as a lesson for future events and actions, and the cliche that "history repeats itself" might become less likely. On the other hand, the sound decisions and developments made during the examined period can also be used to replicate for future success.
Examining Gordon's article is also interesting in terms of examining sequential events such as the slavery issue. I for example find the question of slavery and the cotton industry intriguing. The possibility of avoiding one of the most terrible wars in American history by a ten-year development delay is certainly food for thought.
Gordon, John Steele.…… [Read More]
ace and evolution
An iconoclastic figure in the study of American History, Gary Nash, who is Director of the National Center for History in the Schools at UCLA, writes from a position of authority as he questions the history that many of us were taught during our primary and secondary educations. In ace and evolution, Nash turns his keen vision toward the matter of slavery at the time our country was founded. A collection of essays based upon his series of Merrill Jensen Lectures in Constitutional Studies at the University of Wisconsin, ace and evolution is an indictment of our country's, primarily northern, founders as they hemmed and hawed and, ultimately, declined the opportunity to create a true, free, racially diverse republic.
ather than focusing on the issue of slavery at its post-independence height, during the antebellum period in the South, ace and evolution examines the issues surrounding slavery during…… [Read More]