Alexander Hamilton Essays (Examples)

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Hamilton Economics

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70631430

Hamilton's Economic Plan

Alexander Hamilton was one of the Founding Fathers, and was the first Secretary of the Treasury. His economic plan was contained in a series of written works that provided the framework for the nation's economic governance. The underlying objectives of Hamilton's economic plan were to provide the nation with the financial stability it would need in case of war, and was also driven by his Federalist viewpoint, in direct contrast to the many anti-Federalists of the time (SparkNotes, 2015).

The first element of Hamilton's plan was with respect to the pending credit crisis that the new country was to have. As a new country, America had no reputation to draw on with respect to credit. The nation's debts were large and largely unpaid. Roughly half of this debt was owed by the states. Hamilton suggested public bonds as a means of financing wars in particular, but as…… [Read More]

References

SparkNotes (2015). Building the state 1781-1797. SparkNotes. Retrieved May 11, 2015 from http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/statebuilding/section9.rhtml

Hamilton, A. (1790) First report on the public credit.

Hamilton, A. (1790) Second report on the public credit.

Hamilton, A. (1791) Report on manufactures.
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Hamilton's Role in Effecting the New Nation of America

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79855396

Revolutionary Character

Alexander Hamilton was the prototypical opportunist of the American Revolution: of obscure and humble origins, he longed for an escape from his lowly rank as accountant and, as Wood (2006) notes, it was "war" that Hamilton believed would provide just such an escape (p. 124). Hamilton's revolutionary character was found in this desire for opportunity out of crisis and displayed the future maxim of Rahm Emmanuel, "Let no good crisis go to waste," in a manner that suggests that Hamilton is indeed the progenitor of a centralized, fascistic government headed by a financial sector that has less interest in democratic ideals than it does in the control and steering of a new empire. This paper will explore the theme set out by Wood (2006) that shows how Alexander Hamilton was a revolutionary character whose special talents lay in the direction of fostering a new nation that could be…… [Read More]

References

Roark, J., Johnson, M., Cohen, P., Stage, S., Hartmann, S. (2012). The American

Promise. NY: St. Martin's.

Wood, G. (2006). Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different. UK:

Penguin Books.
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Hamilton and the Federalists on the Constitution

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13475439

Federalist Papers are important to any analysis of the U.S. Constitution because they provided the philosophical and socio-political justification for the adoption of the Constitution. Prior to the ratification of the Constitution, the states were loosely united under the Articles of Confederation. However, Alexander Hamilton and his group of elites did not like that they could not be part of a federal/central government that oversaw and wielded power over the rest of the states. Thus, Hamilton penned many of the Federalist Papers (including Federalist no. 1) in order to combat the ideas expressed by the Anti-Federalists who condemned the Constitution as an attempt to subjugate states' rights.

The Federalist Papers may be read therefore as a series of a letters and arguments meant to sway the reader as to why the U.S. should adopt the Constitution in place of the Articles of Confederation. It is a body of writing that…… [Read More]

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What Does Hamilton Say in Federalist No 6

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44590085

Hamilton's "Federalist No. 6"

The purpose of Alexander Hamilton's "Federalist No. 6" is to convince the reader of the dangers of an only partially united group of states. Hamilton urges total centralization under the guise of a ruling Constitution to protect the nation from "ambitious, vindictive, and rapacious" men, which is what men turn into when they are given independence, according to him. (The irony of Hamilton's argument is that he is arguing for that which the American Revolutionaries just threw off!) His thesis is contained in the opening paragraph: "I shall now proceed to delineate dangers of a different and, perhaps, still more alarming kind -- those which will in all probability flow from dissensions between the States themselves, and from domestic factions and convulsions" (Hamilton). His aim is clear: a loose confederation of states, each with its own authority, will not work because men simply cannot get along.…… [Read More]

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Alexander the Great Books on

Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88216034

Hamilton notes the biographies of Alexander often reflected the backgrounds of authors who wrote about him. For example, Sir William Tarn, a Scottish gentleman of the British imperial era, characterized Alexander as a chivalrous Greek gentleman with a missionary zeal to spread Greek civilization. In contrast, Fritz Schachermeyr, a German historian who had experienced the rise and fall of the Nazi Germany, described Alexander as a ruthless and cruel ruler, indulged "in deceit and treachery to gain his ends, as a 'Titanic' figure aiming at the conquest of the world."

Both Tarn and Schachermeyr are among the great modern historians of Alexander but even they could not escape personal biases.

The irony of Hamilton's book is that, although he is at pains in his discussion of the difficulty of writing about Alexander and is critical of biased historians, the book starts with a straightforward admission of a bias. Rejecting the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Freeman, Philip. Alexander the Great. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2009.

Hamilton, J.R. Alexander the Great. Pittsburg: The University of Pittsburg Press, 1974.

Philip Freeman, Alexander the Great (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2009), p. xxii.

Ibid, p. 323.
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Liberal Capitalism Is the Ideology

Words: 1474 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54749738

Flax was a major industry because of the ease of production. The prosaic nature of the homespun ideal led it to be the symbol of the revolution. It also induced progress. Benjamin Franklin referred to it as the "first Ages of the world." But this was linked to European finery, historically made from the animal skins of the Indians, who did not have a cloth-making industry. In his 1787 Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson declared all forms of manufacturing, including household, as a mortal threat to American virtue. As the American president in 1806, he drew the attention of Cherokee chiefs on the civilizing effect of spinning and weaving their own cotton cloths. In 1812, Jefferson and John Adams agreed to a common homespun vision of commercial progress (Zakim).

The overall view is that capitalism threatens or hinders democracy (Muller 2007). Capitalism involves an inequality of reward,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, Kim. Liberal Capitalism: the Will to Happiness. Policy: the Centre for Independent Studies, Summer 2007

Lowell National Historical Park. Early American Manufacturing. National Park Services:

US Department of the Interior, 2002. Retrieved on October 8, 2008 at http://www.nps.gov/archive/lowe/loweweb/Lowell_History/earlyam.htm

Muller, Jerry Z. The Democratic Threat to Capitalism. Daedalus: MIT Press Summer,
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2nd Continental Congress Attempted to Bring Us

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57045704

2nd Continental Congress attempted to bring us through the Revolutionary War, but the members soon realized that we needed a form of central government on a permanent basis. The arguements began between Alexander Hamilton, the Federalist, and Thomas Jefferson, the anti-Federalist, over how much power the central government should actually be given. This assignment will address these issues and has several parts. Make sure you answer all parts of the question and write an essay at least 4 pages in length. 1. Discuss the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the reasons it failed. 2. Describe the makeup of the Constitutional Convention and the priorities of the delegates. 3. Compare Hamilton and Jefferson in their political and economic philosophies and their concept of Federalism. Do you feel Hamilton had too much influence under the administrations of Washington and Adams? I want you to give an assessment as to the…… [Read More]

References:

Kelly, M. Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? About. http://americanhistory.about.com/od/governmentandpolitics/f/articles_of_confederation_fails.htm accessed on October 4, 2012

(2012). The world factbook -- United States. Central Intelligence Agency.  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html  accessed on October 4, 2012

Hamilton vs. Jefferson. Country Studies. http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-41.htm accessed on October 4, 2012
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Republicans and Federalists Differences the

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85927240

The Hartford Convention was a gathering of Federalist Party delegates from five New England states that met in Hartford, Connecticut, between December 15, 1814, and January 5, 1815. Its members convened to discuss their long-held grievances against the policies of the successive Democratic-

Republican administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.

After that, the party never regained a national following. Its beliefs and actions during the War of 1812 helped seal its fate. By 1828 the Federalists became the first American political party to die out because it could not adjust to an increasingly democratic national spirit, especially in the nation's towns and cities. And among most Americans, mainly farmers suspicious of government, its policies of strong federal involvement in the economy kept it un-popular. Inconsistency in its stance toward military action (first undertaking a naval war with France, then treating for peace with that same nation, then actively opposing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alexander Hamilton's Anglo-American vision. (2008, July 26). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from American Founding:  http://americanfounding.blogspot.com/2008/07/alexander-hamiltons-anglo-american.html 

Corps of discovery: President Jefferson's vision. (2003, October 10). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Center of Military History - U.S. Army: http://www.history.army.mil/LC/the%20Mission/Expedition/page_2.htm

Democratic-Republican party. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Law Library - American Law and Legal Information: http://law.jrank.org/pages/6058/Democratic-Republican-Party.html

Federalist party. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Bookrags.com: http://www.bookrags.com/history/federalist-party-aaw-01/
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Macro Vision of Jefferson vs

Words: 2374 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12612725



Hamilton's Arguments in Favor of the Debt and the Bank

Jefferson would have no position against witch to argue had not Hamilton made the argument for the national debt so eloquently and so forcefully. Essentially, Hamilton and Jefferson entirely disagreed on the proper course to put the nation on a prosperous track. The greatest issue was whether the multitudinous colonial debts piled up by the individual colonies during and since the war with England should, in the spirit of e pluribus unum, be taken on by the federal government.

Hamilton postulated that the assumption of these colonies' - now states' - debts was essential to make the nation a credible, operating reality, deserving of trust in seeking credit from other countries. Also, Hamilton felt that "monied men" - those wealthy Americans who had made the loans to the state governments and how had in many instances not been paid yet…… [Read More]

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Establishment of a Nation Discuss

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53425036



Delegates' top priorities include the following. First, the delegates set out to revise the Articles of Confederation to weaken the power of the state legislatures and increase the powers of the central government. Delegates also sought changes in the ways states were represented in the federal government and introduced the concept of separation of powers to create a system of checks and balances. Debates between federalism and republicanism brewed during the Constitutional Convention, as delegates like Alexander Hamilton favored an exceedingly strong executive branch whereas traditional republicans hoped for term limits for elected officials. Compromise was a must and the Constitution of the United States reflects the confluence of republican and federalist values.

Second, the delegates heatedly debated the question of how to deal with slavery. An abolitionist movement had taken root in Europe and delegates were forced to address concerns about the international and inter-state slave trade. Once again,…… [Read More]

References

Articles of Confederation." MSN Encarta. Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761567227

Hamilton vs. Jefferson." Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at  http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-41.htm 

Lloyd, G. (2006). "Introduction to the Constitutional Convention." Teaching American History.org. Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at http://teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/intro.html
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Abortion Is Illegal Legally and

Words: 873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64522699

"

In this case, according to Alexander Hamilton, the court would have had the right to interfere and it would have had the superior power to declare the Texas statue void on its face.

However, Hamilton aside, our natural law and natural rights also prohibit first trimester abortion. Derived from Locke, Natural law and natural rights follow from the nature of man and the world. For instance, we have the right to defend ourselves and our property, because of our nature, because of the kind of creatures that we are. True law derives from this right, not from the arbitrary power of the omnipotent state.

Natural law has an objective, extrinsic existence. The ability to make moral judgment - or in other words, the capacity to know good and evil -- has immediate evolutionary benefits: just as the capacity to perceive three dimensionally tells one when one is standing on…… [Read More]

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Gaining Their Independence What Were the Principal

Words: 1523 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43217925

gaining their independence, what were the principal concerns Americans had about constructing a frame of government, and how were these concerns addressed in the structure of the Constitution?

After Americans gained their independence from England the next step was to structure the frame of a new government. In 1787 it was determined that the Articles of Confederation would be tossed out and an entirely new government frame would be constructed which would reflect the new views of the nation. The delegates from each state argued and debated behind closed doors about what the framework of the new government would include (The Constitution of the United States (http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/charters_of_freedom/constitution/constitution.html).There were several chief points of concern to those who were developing the frame. One of the most important aspects of the debate was how much power each state should be allowed to have. This included debates on how many members each state should…… [Read More]

The Pope of Liberty

http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/96oct/obrien/obrien.htm

The Transportation Revolution http://www.dur.ac.uk/h.j.harris/3MR/mr04.htm
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Business -- Political Science the

Words: 6973 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39808881



Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can…… [Read More]

References

Bimber, B., and Davis, R. 2003. Campaigning Online: TheInternet in U.S. Elections, New

York: Oxford University Press.

Cornfield, M. 2005. Commentary on the Impact of the Internet onthe 2004 Election,

Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project, March 3.
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American Political Philosophy

Words: 2528 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65411386

American Political Philosophy: Republicanism

Within this paper, the general theory of republicanism will be presented. The conceptualization of republicanism discussed within the paper as an American political philosophy will be based on The Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison in 1787. Initially, a brief overview of relevant background information on The Federalist Papers will be provided. This will be followed by a discussion of the primary components of republicanism as set forth within the works of Hamilton, Jay and Madison. A summary and conclusions will then be provided.

Overview of The Federalist Papers

The Federalist Papers have been suggested as representing one of the most important writing in American political thought (Yarbrough, 1986). It represents a collection of 85 letters written by Hamilton, Jay and Madison under the pseudonym of Publius. The letters were written to the American public and were initially published in a…… [Read More]

References

Hamilton, A., Jay, J. & Madison, J. (1961). The Federalist papers. C. Rossiter (ed.). NY: New American Library.

Yarbrough, J. (1986). The Federalist. News for Teachers of Political Science, (Spring 1986). 7 June 2003: http://www.apsanet.org/CENnet/thisconstitution/yarbrough.cfm..
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Federal Antifederal the Framing of

Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36347727

45, for instance, where he argues that "the State governments may be regarded as constituent and essential parts of the federal government; whilst the latter is nowise essential to the operation or organization of the former. Without the intervention of the State legislatures, the President of the United States cannot be elected at all." (Rossiter, 287) This is a position which suggests not only that the Federalists felt that significant power had already been entrusted to leaders at the state level, but also that this power is seen primarily as a function of the power of the federal government. Thus, we are given further confirmation that the Constitution was inherently a federal document.

In key segments of the debate such as that shown in the Anti-Federalist Paper No. 17, we can see that those who stood in opposition to the empowerment of federal authority derived from the Constitution were a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Mansfield, Harvey C. Jr., (1979). Selected Writings Jefferson. Harlan Davidson Press.

Rossiter, Clinton. (1961). The Federalist Papers. Signet Classics.

Storing, Herbert J. (1985). The Anti-Federalist. The University of Chicago Press.

The Nation (TN). (2008). The Antifederalist Papers. This Nation.com.
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Language of Ordinary People Thomas Paine

Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74487215

Language of Ordinary People

The American Revolution could not have been as strong as it was if it were not for one man, Thomas Paine. He was the one who supported and fought for it with all his synergies, combined in the written form of most celebrated and valued book and pamphlet Common Sense and The American Crisis, which turned the tables for revolution and brought a vibrant change in the history of America. Thomas Paine spoke the language of common people through his words. This assisted them in being able to rise up for their individual rights. He believed that ordinary people should defend their liberty and this concept was written strongly in his top works of eighteenth century, which is still remembered and read throughout the America as an inspiring piece of inscription to raise the most necessary revolution to change America. This thesis tends to explain how…… [Read More]

References

"Hope for the Wrongly Accused." Voices for Freedom. 1-21, 2011. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2011/12/21/hope-for-the-wrongly-accused / (accessed 7-6, 2012).

Marin., Lucian E. "Free Women from Domestic Violence." Voices for Freedom. 1-16, 2012. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2012/02/16/free-women-from-domestic-violence / (accessed 7-6, 2012).

"Together We Can Change the World." Voices for Freedom. 12-13, 2011. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2011/11/13/toegther-we-can-change-the-world-volunteer / (accessed 7-6, 2012).

Whittier, John Greenleaf. Voices of Freedom. london: BiblioBazaar, 2011.
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Library Filters

Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37563122

Library Filters

Why Libraries Must Not Use Software Filters to Censor Speech: One Person's Hate is Another Person's Political Philosophy

The French 17th century freethinking philosopher Voltaire said one of the most famous quotations in regards to the freedom of speech. He said that he would, though he disagreed with every word out of his colleague's mouth, defend to the death the man's right to say such terrible things. Perhaps the 21st definition of Voltaire's remark might be, 'though I disagree with every word upon you pet causes' local URL, I will defend to the death your right to point and click to this website on the Internet, lest my own right be similarly threatened.'

Recently, the idea of 'hate crimes' became codified in the American legal system, and thus the idea of similarly correlated 'hate speech' was formed. 'Hate speech' is usually defined as speech that attempts to create…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chiang, Vicki. "Libraries, the Internet, and Freedom of the Press."

Dershowitz, Alan. "What is Hate Speech?"

Hamilton, Alexander. "In Defense of the Freedom of the Press."
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Polygamous Revolt the Response of

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48514235

S. Congress' prohibition of the practice and the Court's refusal to allow the practice, conflicted with the rights of individuals engaged in such practice. The actions of a religious group which are normally protected under the First Amendment and the laws of states like Utah that might wish to turn a blind eye to the practice were not allowed.

The states claim the social contract has been broken because the U.S. government has infringed upon individuals' liberty to marry more than one person and the states' rights to regulate matters not specifically delineated in the Bill of Rights. However, if this were the case that a state could secede every time the federal government disagreed with a state's definition of individual liberties. Virtually every constitutional dispute in the history of the nation, regarding the Bill of Rights, from abortion, to affirmative action, to gay marriage, to free speech, could justify…… [Read More]

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American Politics

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79313106

Factions: Help or Hindrance

James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, aided by John Jay, were responsible for writing eighty-five anonymous essays for the New York Journal in 1787 and 1788. These articles were known as The Federalist Papers, and they were intended to persuade people into ratifying the proposed Constitution. In The Federalist Paper Number 10, Madison responded to critics who had argued that the United States was too large, and had too many groups, or "factions," to be ruled democratically by a single government. Madison acknowledged the importance of factions in the opening paragraph, stating that, "Among the numerous advantages promised by a well constructed Union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence of faction" (Rossiter, 1961). In prescribing how to rule and control the effects of factions, Madison detailed their relationships with other important concepts, such as liberty and property,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rossiter, C. ed. The Federalist Papers. New York: New American Library, 1961.
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On Liberty and the US Constitution

Words: 2791 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1296870

Mill and U.S. Constitution

None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy Wall Street (OWS) movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States. At the time the Constitution was written in 1787, human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification. In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in 1859 much less 1789. He insisted that individuals should be left…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Dahl, Robert Alan. How Democratic is the American Constitution? Yale University Press, 2003.

Kaplan, Lawrence. S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Scholarly Resources, Inc., 2002.

Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. University of North Carolina Press, 1989, 2004.

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London, 1859.
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A concise Analysis of Special Identifications in History Person Event Place

Words: 1476 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73617676

Special Identifications in History; Person, Event and Place

Transition from New Amsterdam to New York (1664)

New York City is located right at the mouth of the Hudson River. The first European power to visit New York was the Dutch in 1624. The land caught the attention of the administration in Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company hoped to explore the region's fur trade. Peter Minuit purchased a major real estate. Peter traded trinkets with natives for the island of Manhattan in 1626. A new town was set up there and was called New Amsterdam. The colony sought to enrich the stockholders from the Netherlands. The first governor of New Amsterdam (Peter Stuyvesant) ruled it with decree and dictatorship. The Dutch West India Company thrived in slave trade.

The English focused their eyes on the Dutch holding after Charles II assumed the throne. Charles gave the land to his brother…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Caswell, J. E. (2015, May 19). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Henry Hudson: English Navigator and Explorer: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-Hudson

Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2016). Hudson River school; American Art Movement. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/art/Hudson-River-school

Lankevich, G. (2016, August 12). New York City. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/place/New-York-City/

Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. (2016). George Washington (1732-1799). Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Miller Center of Public Affairs: http://millercenter.org/president/washington
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Revolutionary Generation

Words: 2378 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39794130

Founding Brothers

When studying the history of the formation of the United States, one usually thinks in terms of separate events and individuals. However, the American republic was established, instead, by a series of important decisions and the joint efforts of some of the most prominent men of all time. In a matter of ten years, these critical interactions among the eight leading figures of John Adams, Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington formed a nation that to this day remains one of the most successful "experiments" of democratic governments. As Joseph J. Ellis, the author of Founding Brothers: the Revolutionary Generation states:

What in retrospect has the look of a foreordained unfolding of God's will was in reality an improvisational affair ... If hindsight enhances our appreciation for the solidity and stability of the republican legacy, it also blinds us to the…… [Read More]

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Judicial Review the Most Important American Political

Words: 2917 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53719316

Judicial Review

The most important American political institution is the U.S. Constitution. Of course, this is only a document, but it is also an institution in its own way, for it is the basis of all American political institutions and practices. It is like the DNA of our government: We would have no government without it, no road map to create our form of democracy. Unlike other democracies like Great Britain in which there is no single guiding document or voice, the U.S. government has a central core. This is, of course, sometimes problematic as when courts or other governmental institutions become so wrapped up in the problem of the "original intent" of the Framers of the Constitution - as if anyone could determine after over two centuries what such intent might be, assuming that the Framers themselves would want us necessarily to limit ourselves to their vision of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brest, Paul (ed.). Processes of Constitutional Decisionmaking: Cases and Materials. Denver: Aspen, 2000.

Calabresi, Guido. "The Current, Subtle - and Not So Subtle - Rejection of an Independent Judiciary." U. Pennsylvania J. Constitutional Law 4 (4): 637, 2002.

Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison and John Jay. New York: Mentor, 1999. http://www.cic.nyu.edu/pdf/E23SummaryConstitutional%20Court%20Judicial%20ReviewAHaq.pdf

 http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_sepp.html
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Leaders Are Made Not Born

Words: 1255 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53845448

Leadership

In his Pulitzer Prize winning biography, His Excellency George Washington, Joseph J. Ellis presents a balanced and comprehensive portrait on the nation's first president that steers a course between hero-worship and debunking. He based his work on the latest edition of the Washington papers, which now include virtually every scrap of written information available except for his last three years as commander of the Continental Army and the second presidential term in 1793-97. For many modern readers, Washington comes across as a cold, distant, patriarchal figure, an iconic face on Mount Rushmore or the dollar bill, but not exactly a people's president like Abraham Lincoln. At the opposite extreme, Leftist and revisionist writers regard him as the creator of a nation that "was imperialistic, racist, elitist, and patriarchal," and prefer to write social history about women, slaves and common soldiers rather than the dead, white male ruling class (Ellis,…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency George Washington. NY: Vintage Books, 2005.

Grant, Susan-Mary. Book Review. History Today, Vol. 55, June 2005.

Wesiberger, R, W. Book Review. Pennsylvania History, 2006.
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Political Design and Today

Words: 1939 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57339817

People

In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a brief but stirring speech while the country was in the process of tearing itself apart in a civil war. During that speech President Lincoln stated a phrase that has helped to capture what democracy means. Lincoln told the audience that had gathered to dedicate a soldier's cemetery that the government that had been formed "of the people, by the people, for the people" would not "perish from the earth." In that phrase, Lincoln summarized what the founding fathers had hoped to capture in documents that shaped the system of government they believed was essential for prosperity and happiness for all mankind. The fact that the United States has remained in existence for more than 200 years does not necessarily mean that the ideals Lincoln spoke of are in existence today. In fact, many would argue that the concepts Lincoln captured in his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hamilton, Alexander, "Federalist Paper 79," Independent Journal 18 Jun. 1788

Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 37," Daily Advertiser 11 Jan. 1788

Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 52," New York Packet 8 Feb. 1788
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Training Levels and Number of

Words: 3726 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73371699

"

Harassment, including sexual and other types as well, is also a common type of formal complaint that must be taken very seriously by contemporary businesses. More extensive employee training can help better inform employees of appropriate work behavior, so that there are less incidences of harassment between employees unknowingly.

Better trained employees makes for a more efficient work environment with less complications. Therefore, the research showed that "many organizations within it industries focus on providing "extensive retraining of employees," especially "as reengineering efforts go forward it is important to define and redefine performance goals and objectives, maintain a strong commitment to the vision, break the barriers between the departments, and be flexible as the business environment changes."

More extensive formal training can help with "nipping negativity before it derails morale" by reassuring the proper procedures but also by explaining appropriate company policy more directly and intimately so that all…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alexander Hamilton Institute. "Bad Attitudes & Complaints: Handling Workplace Negativity." Business Management (2012). Web.  http://www.businessmanagementdaily.com/19426/bad-attitudes-complaints-handling-workplace-negativity 

Attaran, Moshen. "Exploring the Relationship between Information Technology and Business Process Reengineering." Information & Management 41 (2004), 585-596.

Bartel, Ann P. "Measuring the Employer's Return on Investments in Training: Evidence from the Literature." Industrial Relations 39, no. 3 (2000), 502-525.

Batt, Rosemary, Colvin, Alexander, & Keefe, Jeffrey. "Employee Voice, Human Resource Practices, and Quit Rates: Evidence from the Telecommunications Industry." Industrial and Labor Relations Reviews 55, no. 4 (2002), 573-595.
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Political Philosophy

Words: 1783 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54459358

Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles about the United States Constitution. These are a series of eighty-five letters written to newspapers in 1787-1788 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, urging ratification of the Constitution (Wills, 1981). For many years, historians, jurists, and political scientists share a general consensus that The Federalist is the most important work of political philosophy and pragmatic government ever written in the United States (USDS, 2004). It has been compared to Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics, and Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan, and has been used by many nations as a base for their constitutions.

One of the main parts of the Federalist Papers is the establishment of a system of checks and balances, which is now the root of democracy (USDS, 2004). This idea of checks and balances is based on a profoundly realistic view of human nature. While the Founding Fathers, which include…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kennington, Richard. (2004). Enlightenment and Natural Rights. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.crvp.org/book/Series04/IVA-7/chapter_xi.htm.

Masud, K. (March 14, 2004). Let's seek a common ground. The Daily Star.

Patrick, John J. And Clair W. Keller, Lessons on the Federalist Papers: Supplements to High School Courses in American History, Government and Civics, Bloomington, IN: Organization of American Historians in association with ERIC/ChESS, 1987. ED 280-764.

Potter, K. (1999). Federalist's Vision of Popular Sovereignty in the New American Republic.
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Limits to Democracy in the Early Republic

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24279584

limits to democracy in the early republic, as its first president George Washington reflected the elitist view of the federalists in his approach to the executive branch of government. As Patrick Henry stated in 1788, "The Constitution is said to have beautiful features, but when I come to examine these features…they appear to me horridly frightful…it squints towards monarchy," (p. 146). According to Henry, the "President may easily become King," a fact that should "raise indignation in the breast of every American," (p. 146). Henry was himself not concerned with issues related to race, class, or gender, but he did understand the ideals of the democracy when he lamented, "Whither is the spirit of America gone? Whither is the genius of America fled?" (146). This question can easily be posed to point out the gross hypocrisy in denying Constitutional rights to more than half the population living in the borders…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bailey, Ronald. "The Other Side of Slavery." Agricultural History. Vol 62, No. 2, 1994.

Hershberger, Mary. "Mobilizing Women, Anticipating Abolition." The Journal of American History. Vol 86, No. 1, June 1999.

Matthaei, Julie A. "An economic history of women in America: Women's work, the sexual division of labor, and the development of capitalism." Schocken Books, 1982.

All Primary Source Material from: Major Problems in American History:
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Benefit of Virtue in Liberalism

Words: 1658 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46608317

Virtues and Liberalism

For several decades, many politicians and professors have been promoting the belief that the fate of liberal democracy in America is correlated with the quality of citizens' character (Berkowitz, 1999). President George W. Bush campaigned as a compassionate conservative, promising to restore honor and dignity to the Presidency. In 1992, former President Bill Clinton sought to set a new tone for the Democratic Party, campaigning as a New Democrat -- devoted not only to the protection of individual rights and the promotion of the social and economic bases of equality but also to the principle of personal responsibility. Clinton's campaign was inspired by the ideas of William Galston, a professor of political science and fellow member of the Democratic Leadership Council, whose writings discussed "liberal virtues" and defended the propriety of a liberal state that cultivates qualities of mind and character that form good and decent citizens.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berkowitz, Peter. Virtue and the Making of Modern Liberalism. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Diggins, John Patrick. The Lost Soul of American Politics. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1984.

Gronbacher, G. Choice, Even In A Free Society, Has Its Limits. Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty, 2001.

Macedo, Stephen. Liberal Virtues. New York, Toronto: Oxrford University Press, 1990.
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American History Slave Revolts Although

Words: 6354 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54831518

Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.

Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the War of 1812,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
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American History as it Relates to the

Words: 2191 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2477589

American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.

THE IMPACT OF…… [Read More]

References

Agar, Herbert. The People's Choice, from Washington to Harding: A Study in Democracy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933.

Kane, Joseph Nashan. Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data. New York H.W. Wilson Co., 1959.

Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.

Smith, Abbot Emerson. James Madison: Builder: A New Estimate of a Memorable Career. New York: Wilson-Erickson, Incorporated, 1937.
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Differences Between Constitutional Models

Words: 1481 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73228007

Constitutional Models and Political Parties

Constitutionalism and noble representative government are concepts and practices that have existed longer than the American Republic. The existence of these concepts provided the foundation for the formation of the American Democratic Experiment through acting as ingredients towards this process. Since the foundation of American Republic, there are various constitutional models that have been established. These different models have been established in attempts to respond to several governance issues that emerge from time to time. Actually, these different models have provided the foundation for governance models and practices for better governance of the society. Some examples of constitutional models include the 18th Century Madisonian and Hamiltonian constitutional models and Barker's normative democratic theory, which differ with regards to their major components.

Madisonian and Hamiltonian Models v. Normative Democratic Theory

The 18th Century constitutional models basically relied on principles introduced by Madison and Hamilton. Madisonian constitutional…… [Read More]

References

APSA Committee on Political Parties (1950). Towards a More Responsible Two-Party System.

Barker, E. (1942). Reflections on Government.

Garrison, A.H. (2008). Hamiltonian and Madisonian Democracy, The Rule of Law and Why the Courts Have a Role in the War on Terrorism. In Papers from the February 2008 conference: terrorism & justice -- The balance of civil liberties. Retrieved from https://www.ucmo.edu/cjinst/Issue8.pdf

Hamilton, A. (n.d.). The Presidency. The Federalist No.70.
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America Without the Constitution Without

Words: 3372 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94195078



Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of Rights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED

Amar, a. (2005). America's Constitution: A Biography. New York: Random House.

Bailyn, B., ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution. Library of America Press.

Beeman, R. (2009). Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution.

Random House.
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American Presidency McDonald Forest The

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40527363

The second section examines the processes of the Constitutional Convention, the rectification of the weak Articles of Confederation, the ratification of the new Constitution, and the Washington and Jeffersonian Administrations. The first presidents had to try to make sense of the wording of the new document and put the presidency's ideals into practice. The third section examines the evolving role of presidents from Jackson to the present and how they defined the role in relationship to the legislative and judicial branches, public opinion, historical events, and foreign affairs.

McDonald notes that although Democrats today tend to be most critical of so-called imperially styled presidents, it was Republicans who decried the increasingly powerful office of the presidency during the Roosevelt and Johnson administrations, and only later did the two parties flip-flop, after Nixon created what would later be called the imperial presidency by Democrats. This suggests that there is less of…… [Read More]

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Approval of the Constitution of

Words: 2574 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53645579



DUAL FEDERALISM PHASE

The Dual Federalism is the reflection of the ideology that stressed over the balance of powers between the national and state governments, and considers both the governments as 'equal partners with separate and distinct spheres of authority' (Sergio, 2005). Previously, the 'federal or national government was limited in its authority to those powers enumerated in the Constitution', and it was evident that there was partial understanding and correspondence between the national and stat. There existed little collaboration between the national and state governments, which resulted in the 'occasional tensions over the nature of the union and the doctrine of nullification and state sovereignty'.

In 1789, the Constitution was approved by the States; ratification of the conventions convened took place. The period from 1789 to 1801 has been regarded as the Federalist Perios, 'the period takes its name from the dominant political party of the time, which believed…… [Read More]

References

Michael Mcguire. American Federalism and the Search for Models of Management. Public Administration Review. Volume: 61. Issue: 6. 2001. American Society for Public Administration.

Stever, James a. The Growth and Decline of Executive-Centered Intergovernmental Management. Publius: The Journal of Federalism Vol. 23. 1993. pp. 71-84.

Stoker, Gerry, and Karen Mossberger. Urban Regime Theory in Comparative Perspective. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy Vol. 12. 1992. pp. 195-212.

Stone, Clarence. Regime Politics. University Press of Kansas. 1989. pp. 218.
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American History Affairs of Honor

Words: 1351 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77283525

She uses primary documents such as diaries, journals, and notes, combined with secondary sources such as biographies, historical articles, and historian's viewpoints of times and individuals in history. She combines a deep understanding of history with the ability to see beyond words to engage the feelings and inner thoughts of individuals in their written words. Normally, this reliance on "feelings" and intuition does not play largely in history, but Freeman feels it is an important aspect of her research. She writes, "Although historians typically dismiss such evidence as personal, idiosyncratic, and trivial - useful for little more than spicing up biographies and historical narratives - feelings are vital passageways to an intuitive level of thought" (Freeman 289-290). Thus, this book is different, not because of the research, but because the author attempted to personalize the research, thus personalizing the individuals for the reader.

If there is anything to criticize about…… [Read More]

In conclusion, initially, the main thesis of this book, the code of honor that governed our early political leaders, did not seem to ring true to this reader. It seemed to be a rather minor detail in the many important undertakings in the fledgling years of a new country. And yet, the author portrayed her thesis clearly, created compelling arguments, and illustrated her points with extensive research and thought. This book increased my knowledge and understanding of the first years of the New Republic. Americans tend to think that once the war with Great Britain was over, everything here in the United States was immediately calm and coherent, and this book proves that was simply not the case. The fledgling nation still had many growing pains to overcome, and history was not all glorious and harmonious. Rather, the country faced many challenges in government and political action, and this book graphically points out the many challenges early leaders faced, and how they coped with them. I would recommend the book to scholars, students, and anyone who is interested in American History, especially the very beginnings of the American Republic. I do not believe this book is a rehash of accepted information, at least it was not for me. I think it might be too intense for general reading, but would certainly be a welcome addition to any American History class that delves deeply into the roots of the United States and her government.

References

Freeman, Joanne B. Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.
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Peace Agreements and International Intervention

Words: 3606 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65074896

Peace Agreements and International Intervention

A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone, eds. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

Chomsky, Noam. "Peace Process' Prospects." July 27, 2000. June 27, 2005. .

Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler. "Greed and Grievance, Policy Research Paper 2355." World Bank Development Group. May 2000.

Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
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American Politics

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14862477

American Politics

Introduction to Kevin Phillips

Kevin Phillips is a well-known, controversial yet respected writer and political analyst, who writes about the political and social world of contemporary America with a sense of literary style and an "at the bottom of it" substance. His most recent book, American Dynasty: Aristocracy, Fortune, and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush, would seem to give the literary and politically uninitiated all the information needed in terms of where Phillips stands politically - his social and political/philosophical frame of reference. It would be safe to say his investigative, hard-hitting book on George W. Bush's White House would probably not get him an invitation to a Rush Limbaugh insider cocktail party, and yet, Phillips has worked as a Republican strategist, and he was a top political advisor to Richard Nixon during the presidential race in 1968.

In the book this paper reviews,…… [Read More]

references for "the rich and powerful" - there were "650 special provisions" in the bill which were called "transition rules" and "technical corrections" which actually didn't hurt the rich but harmed the middle class.

On page 414, Phillips calls a section of his Afterward "The Democratic Deficit and the Rise of the Unelected." During the winter of 2000-2001, Phillips recalls, "when Americans watched the U.S. Supreme Court determine the outcome of the November presidential election..." And the Federal Reserve Board made "its critical judgments on the fate of the U.S. economy," the "migration of political authority" was thrown into "bold relief." For thinking Americans, these past few years have brought about radical and almost unbelievable events: first, Bush is elected on a 5-4 vote of the Supreme Court, five Republicans and four Democrats. And that happens notwithstanding the fact that Al Gore won the popular vote, and even won the Florida popular vote - once a coalition of news organizations hired lawyers and counters to count all the "disputed ballots" with "hanging chads" and the other flaws in the Florida balloting.

So, we have a president elected by a 5-4 vote by a judiciary that does not run for election or re-election, and a Federal Reserve Board, that is not beholding to the public, that does not run for election or re-election, making monumental decisions affecting millions of Americans.

And today, we see the enormous influence of giant corporations like Halliburton, formerly run by Vice President Dick Cheney, which, we now know, received billion-dollar no-bid contracts before the attacks on Iraq even begun, contracts to "rebuild" Iraq.

After reading this book by Kevin Phillips, the rebuilding should take place not in Iraq, but in America. And what should be rebuilt is not just the power grids, the schools, the roads and the other key infrastructures that are rotting away (things Bush wants to rebuild in Iraq), but the whole system of how taxes and the economy always benefit the rich few, rather than the struggling middle and lower classes.
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Founding Fathers Principles

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10392479

Founding Fathers: How the Founding Fathers of America would respond to the success or the shortcomings of America's progress in keeping with their principles

America was a nation founded upon the principles of freedom but also upon compromises. One of the most notable compromises was the negotiation between free and slave states in the framing of the U.S. Constitution. The three-fifths compromise was an attempt by the Founding Fathers to determine how to count slaves in terms of population for the purpose of representation totals in the House of Representatives: "The issue of how to count slaves split the delegates into two groups. The northerners regarded slaves as property who should receive no representation. Southerners demanded that Blacks be counted with whites" ("Three-fifths compromise," 2013). Eventually, the external slave trade was abolished in 1807; this, of course, did not end the practice of slavery within the United States ("1807," 2015).…… [Read More]

References

1807: Congress abolishes the slave trade (2015). This day in history. History.com. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/congress-abolishes-the-african-slave-trade

Establishing a national bank. (1997). PBS. Retrieved from:

 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/hamilton/peopleevents/e_bank.html 

Three-fifths compromise. (2013). African-American registry. Retrieved from:
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How Did the Constitution Satisfy Complaints

Words: 2341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90411351

United States Constitution concentrates on. It will address how it treated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the complaints in the Declaration of Independence.

How the Constitution Deals with Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation

One key factor that has helped keep the constitution of the United States alive is the processes involved in its amendment. These processes require 2/3 majority votes from the two houses of Congress or by every state legislature. The Articles of Confederation could not be changed easily because a unanimous vote required from each of the states. As the number of the sates in the United States increased from 13 to 50, it would have been almost impossible to change the articles. No judicial system was provided for the United States by the Articles of Confederation.

In the same way, Congress lacked the legal power to enforce any laws (Morelock, n.d). Each of…… [Read More]

References

Boyd, S. (1995). Ashbrook -- Strengthening Constitutional Self-Government. A Look Into the Constitutional Understanding of Slavery -- Ashbrook. Retrieved October 31, 2015, from http://ashbrook.org/publications/respub-v6n1-boyd /

DeLaney, A. (n.d.). How-To Help and Videos - For Dummies . Understanding Elected Offices - For Dummies . Retrieved October 29, 2015, from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/understanding-elected-offices.html

Kimberling, W. (n.d.). Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. The Electoral College - Origin and History. Retrieved October 31, 2015, from http://uselectionatlas.org/INFORMATION/INFORMATION/electcollege_history.php

(n.d.). Legal Dictionary. Commerce Clause legal definition of Commerce Clause. Retrieved October 31, 2015, from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Commerce+Clause
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Two Visions of Government Federalist vs Anti Federalist

Words: 727 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73763249

ratification of the U.S. Constitution pushed the nation to extremes: on the one hand were the Federalists, led by men like Alexander Hamilton and James Madison -- men who promoted the idea of a central government (the reasons for which they enumerated at length in their "Federalist" papers); on the other hand were the Anti-Federalists, led by men like Robert Yates and George Clinton (Yates being the presumptive author of the pseudonymously penned Anti-Federalist papers under the name of "Brutus"). Each side had its own view, not just of government, but of humanity and the way in which political society should be organized. This paper will present the underlying fundamental perspective of each side and show why I would have sided with the Anti-Federalists.

The Federalist plan to organize the federal government was to make it capable of overriding the individual autonomy and authority of the individual states, which the…… [Read More]

References

Brutus No. 1. (1787). Retrieved from http://www.constitution.org/afp/brutus01.htm

Brutus No. 3. (1787). Retrieved from http://www.constitution.org/afp/brutus03.htm

Federalist No. 6 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed06.asp

Federalist No. 7 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed07.asp
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Politics Six Questions & Discussion on American

Words: 2113 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20754328

Politics

Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics

Constitutional Convention

During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burner, David and Rosenfield, Ross. "Polling." Dictionary of American History. 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .

"Evolution of American Political Parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction." 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 < http://everything2.com/title/Evolution+of+American+political+parties+from+the+Revolution+to+the+Reconstruction >.

Follesdal, Andreas. "Federalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 15 Dec. 2009 .

Green, John, Smidt, Corwin, Guth, James, and Kellstedt, Lyman. "The American Religious Landscape and the 2004 Presidential Vote: Increased Polarization." 15 Dec. 2009 .
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John Adams Was the Second

Words: 3045 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50445004

In fact, many turned to Toryism because they believed that the aim of government was "to place man out of the reach of his own power." Adams strongly disagreed as he believed that the purpose of government was to secure for the citizenry "the greatest quantity of happiness" for the greatest number of people. His strong conviction was that this 'general happiness' could be achieved if the citizenry not only made the laws, but if "an Empire of Laws and not of men" came into being. Furthermore, Adams believed that the American Revolution would enhance individual opportunity. His aim was to destroy the system of elite privileges which existed in both monarchical and aristocratic societies; this wish was based on his belief that power should never be an inherited right because the first objective of the governing elite would be to serve themselves.

Adams contended that private virtue was crucial…… [Read More]

Sources:

Miroff, Bruce. "John Adams: Merit, Fame, and Political Leadership," the Journal of Politics, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Feb., 1986): pp. 116-132

Ferling, John. Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Morse, Anson, "The Politics of John Adams," the American Historical Review Vol. 4, No. 2,

Morse, Jr., John T. John Adams. Read Books, 2007.
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Branches of Government the Three

Words: 747 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36183007

This meant that President was not allowed to encroach upon the rights and powers of other branches. Hamilton further explains in the Federalist Paper # 75:

The essence of the legislative authority is to enact laws, or, in other words, to prescribe rules for the regulation of society; while the execution of the laws, and the employment of the common strength, either for this purpose or for the common defense, seem to comprise all the functions of the executive magistrate.

It was because the framers wanted to limit the powers of the President that his term was fixed at four-years. It was much later that the condition of twice consecutive terms was incorporated in the Constitution to further curtail the powers of the Executive branch. While the framers tried to control all braches of the government by means of limiting powers, they did intend to have a stronger executive branch…… [Read More]

Reference

Alexander Hamilton, Federalist Papers, accessed on 18th May 2005 at http://www.naawp.com/gov/fed/_nav/fed_nav.htm
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Maryland Many Consider Mccullough v

Words: 1778 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12505906

" (McCullough v. Maryland, 1819). Doherty's response to that statement is:

Ah well, the constitution is not a suicide pact, after all; nor is it a shopping list, a condominium agreement, or any number of other things. But it was meant to be a document that defined in a strictly limited way what government could do, and also to a significant degree how it could do it. (Doherty).

Obviously, Doherty recognizes that the Constitution is different than a mere law, but he is concerned that an overly liberal interpretation could give the Federal government too much power over the states and, ultimately, over the people. Such an argument is the prime reason that some people continue to question the doctrine of Federalism as outlined in the case, and why people debate the merits of the decision to this very day.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atkins, Chris. "Important Tax Cases: McCullough v. Maryland and the Sovereign Power to Tax." Tax Policy Blog. 2005. Tax Foundation. 5 Oct. 2006 http://www.taxfoundation.org/blog/show/1002.html.

Doherty, Brian. "Recruiters in My Cornflakes: Time to Give McCullough v. Maryland Another

Look." ReasonOnline. 2006. Reason. 5 Oct. 2006 http://www.reason.com/links/links030906.shtml.

McCullough v. Maryland. (1819). American Government: Online Almanac. 2004. Houghton
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American System Henry Clay Gave His Famous

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68304687

American System

Henry Clay gave his famous speech in support of the American System to the House of Representatives in 1824, although Alexander Hamilton had used the same term decades before. It rested "on the idea of harmonizing all the segments of the economy for their mutual benefit and of doing so by active support from an intervening national government" (Baxter 27). Clay's conversion to this policy was surprising since Hamilton had been a member of the Federalist Party while Henry Clay was supposedly a Democratic Republican and a Jeffersonian, opposed to Federal plans for government aid to industry, a national bank, protective tariffs and federal funding for highways, canals, railroads and other internal improvements. After the War of 1812, however, the first political party system had come to an end and the Federalists were discredited by their opposition to the war and threats of secession in New England. During…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Baxter, Maurice G. Henry Clay and the American System. University Press of Kentucky, 2004.

Hounshell, David A. From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
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U S Political Party System

Words: 1132 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73022279

Anti-Federalists and the Constitution in the Development of Political Parties

The Development of Political Parties

The Constitution and Political Parties

The Changing Ideology of Political Parties

Even before the adoption of the Constitution, political parties were beginning to form. Those who favored the Constitution were called Federalists, and were led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. Another group, led by Thomas Jefferson, opposed the adoption of the Constitution and was known as Antifederalists. The Antifederalists broke up after the Constitution was ratified, but they set the stage for the development of other political parties, resulting in the two party system that we have today.

The Development of Political Parties

The debate over the Constitution split people into two groups. Those who favored ratification believed that a strong federal government that would dominate the individual states. Hamilton particularly argued that the future of the country depended on the development of a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brief History of the Democratic Party." 2003. Democratic National Committee. 30 April 2003 http://www.democrats.org/about/history.html.

Elkins, Stanley and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788-1800. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. Chapel

Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1961.
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Politics and Government

Words: 2406 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29477523

Government & Politics

The arguments contrast two observations. Which of them is the best and why? Give a detailed and substantial response.

Charles Beard and John Roche had differing views regarding the American constitution as they hailed from different background. Due to their diverse backgrounds, they have their own views regarding American constitution. A deep study of both authors shows that, John Roche is an optimist and a reformer, while Charles Beard attempts to expose the inner intentions of the founding fathers (Thesis Statement, 2014). Both authors give interesting insight into the minds of the founding fathers with rock solid evidence. Beard (1913) proposes that founding fathers had huge properties to protect while Roche (1961) argues that constitution united the nation quite effectively.

Beard's points

Those penning the constitution had sold commercial and financial interest of their own (p. 36)

The authors of the constitution were bent on penning a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berg, S. (2012). The Founding Fathers and the Constitutional Struggle over Centralized Power. Baltimore County: University of Maryland. Retrieved from:  http://www.umbc.edu/che/tahlessons/pdf/The_Founding_Fathers_and_the_Constitutional_Struggle_PF.pdf 

Dalleva, N. (2010, August 30). An Analysis Of John Roche's Essay "A Reform Caucus in Action." Retrieved from Essencearticles.com: http://www.essencearticles.com/book-reviews-politics/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay-a-reform-caucus-in-action

Dalleva, N. (2010, September 15). Education. Retrieved from articlesfactory.com: http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/education/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay.html

Folsom, B. (2009, June 11). The Freeman. Retrieved from Fee.com: http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/the-founders-the-constitution-and-the-historians
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Paulson Multiple Foundings and Evolutions

Words: 397 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25388928

S. Constitution; Bertelli & Lynn). The general outline and structure of this paper will build from historical roots of bureaucracies as described in the literature and follow a chronological through-line of administration development through to the modern era.

Outline

Introduction

Discussion of the founding principles of the United States

Conflicting Ideals of Self-Reliance/Government protection

Development of Bureaucracies

Examination of Hamilton's views on public administration

Analysis of Madison's administration

General growth of federal government

Different Founding of Public Administration

Initial administration and principles reviewed

Aftermath of Civil War

Teddy Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Lyndon Johnson

Shifts in Modern Era

Pull-back in regulations of business, return to laissez faire

Greater emphasis on personal responsibility

TARP Decision

Lack of regulation leading to ultimate fallout

Protective/preemptive measures determined to be necessary

Developing ideals behind protection v self-reliance… [Read More]

References

Bertelli, a. & Lynn, L. (). Madison's managers. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Green, R. (2002). Alexander Hamilton: Founder of the American Public Administration. Administration & society 34(5), pp. 541-62.

Nelson, W. (1982). The roots of American bureaucracy, pp. 1-8.

Stillman, R. (1991). Preface to Public Administration: A Search for Themes and Direction. New York: St. Martin's Press.
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The Ripple Effects of American

Words: 4742 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5699076


In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…… [Read More]

Works Cited
Center for History and New Media (CHNM). (2005). Monarchy Embattled.
George Mason University. Online at
.

Chew, Robin. (2004). Napoleon I: Emperor of the French. Lucid Caf?.
Online at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95aug/napoleon.html.

Locke, John. (2003). Two Treatise of Government, 14th. ed. Cambridge
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American Democracy & the U S

Words: 2075 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65426903

"

Thus, the members of the Convention assumed that, although power was a necessary evil, it was also dangerous, especially when provided to the wrong person who might take advantage of this power for his own gain. In essence, the members attempted to compose a constitution that would insure effective power for the government when needed but that would also place reliable checks and safeguards on the use of that power. Once again, this aim can be traced back to Montesquieu's essay in which he states "to prevent the abuse of power, 'tis necessary that by the very disposition of things (that) power should be checked... " (Leone 37).

But the members were also much too experienced in the ways of politics to take for granted that conscientious and moral men would always be elected to office. To them, human nature was universally fallible and only built-in safeguards could be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life, 1500 to the Present. New York: HarperCollins, 2000.

The Constitution: An Enduring Document." U.S. Constitution: Drafting the Constitution. Internet. 2005. Accessed February 6, 2005. http://www.usconstitution.com/DraftingtheConstitution.htm.

Leone, Bruno, Ed. The American Revolution: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1992.
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Madison's Role in Trying to

Words: 9173 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78854304

In fact, during the 1787 Constitutional Convention, Slonim notes that the need for a bill of rights was not even a topic of discussion until Virginian delegate George Mason raised the issue just several days before the Convention was scheduled to rise on September 17; Mason suggested that a bill of rights "would give great quiet to the people." Following this assertion, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts moved that the Convention add a bill of rights to the Constitution and Mason seconded his motion to no avail: "The Convention unanimously rejected the proposal by a vote of 10 to 0, with one state absent. Failure to heed Mason's counsel was to plague the Federalists throughout the ratification campaign" (emphasis added).

The first major confrontation concerning the ratification of the Constitution involving the need for a bill of rights occurred in Pennsylvania several weeks after the close of the Constitutional Convention; at…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Banning, Lance. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Binkley, Wilfred E. And Malcolm C Moos. A Grammar of American Politics: The National Government. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1949.

Bernhard, Virginia, David Burner and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese. A College History of the United States, St. James: Brandywine Press, 1991.

Brant, Irving. The Bill of Rights: Its Origin and Meaning. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.
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Analyzing the Partisan Politics

Words: 2107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34653564

Partisan Politics

At the time the U.S. Constitution was ratified, the new America of the 19th century saw its indigenes with varied political opinions. Those in favor of a powerful central government and therefore, a restraint of the powers the states possessed were part of the Federalist Party; those with the belief that interpretation should be given to the Constitution in order to reduce the powers the national government wields, which would further empower the states, became part of the Republican PartyTherefore, The Federalists adopted a nationalistic opinion; the Republicans, although they would not refute the efficiency of the central government, held the opinion that certain rights ought to be kept for the states. Thus, this essay will explore the aforementioned idea (Writer Thoughts). It will examine how the Federalist philosophy and ideas shaped modern American Society.

Supporters of the Constitution

The proposed American Constitution's advocates labeled themselves as "Federalists."…… [Read More]

References

Boyd. "American Federalism, 1776 to 1997: Significant Events." USA Embassy. N.p., 1997. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .

"Constitution of the United States." The Free Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .

"Federalists." U.S. History. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .

MacDonald, William. Select Documents Illustrative of the History of the United States, 1776-1861. N.p.: Macmillan, n.d. Google Books. 1905. Web. 26 Mar. 2016. .
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The Consolidation of Power Ratification of the US Constitution

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55657296

Confederation and Constitution

The differences between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution of 1787 were significant. The former entrusted power to the individual states while the latter relinquished the majority of power to the central/federal government. This was evident in the way in which representation was established and legislation enacted. For example, under the Articles, Congress was unicameral -- that is, one house. Under the Constitution, Congress was bicameral, consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate. This allegedly gave more power to the states by allowing more state Representatives into the government, in actuality it diluted the process of passing laws, making it much more bureaucratic (Freedman, 1993).

Essentially, the Articles gave sovereignty to the states, while the Constitution gave it to the collective group of states, i.e. the nation -- represented centrally by the federal government. It was in other words a difference of allotting power…… [Read More]

References

Amar, A. (1993). Anti-Federalists, The Federalist Papers, and the Big Argument for Union. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 16: 111-123.

Brutus No. 1. (1787). Retrieved from http://www.constitution.org/afp/brutus01.htm

Federalist No. 6 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed06.asp

Freedman, E. (1993). Why Constitutional Lawyers and Historians Should Take a Fresh
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Economic Society and New World

Words: 2145 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40030140

(Zinn 83)

Human societies within the context of civilization most always are organized into deference periods. The Constitution is a product of worldviews developed within such a limited paradigm, as paradigms tend to be, whether individuals -- including the Founders -- were and are aware of it. This condition, in part, touches on what Heilbroner frames as "The Unresolved Problem of Economic Power." He accepts that the wonderful free market system of Adam Smith is tainted by "giant oligopoly." The logic positing the market economy "as the servant of the consumer," therefore, might as well be null-and-void, but, still, "the emergence of these new attributes," Heilbroner argues, "can be seen as new functional mechanisms for the support of that system." (Heilbroner 138)

To make natural the influence of "giant oligopolies" to the free-market economy, Heilbroner borrows examples from the world of advertising and the manipulation of consumer wants. He admits…… [Read More]

3. Chomsky, Noam. (3 March 1993) Notes of NAFTA: "The Masters of Man." The Nation.

4. Zinn, Howard. (1980) a People's History of the United States. Boston: HarperPerennial

5. ____. (1997) Britain and America: Studies in Comparative History 1760-1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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American Government the Five Main

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91599353

It separates the various forms of government and does not allow one to become more powerful than another, and it ensures that laws are created fairly, that justice is fair, and that the President does not gain too much power. Essentially, it is the backbone of our Democracy, and that assures our freedom and the public good.

Critics of the Constitution and its support of the public good believe that the laws can promote gridlock in legislation, and that it can make it easier for government leaders to not take responsibility for problems. However, the framers of the Constitution had the citizens in mind, and they formed it to create a Democratic country with the good of the public as a foremost concern.

The Virginia Plan was a plan favored by James Madison, and it had three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature chose the executive and judicial branches,…… [Read More]

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American Politics Development of Political

Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36586772

This rule is applicable to all states except North Dakota which does not require registration. Absentee ballots and mail ballot options are also available for voters who could not make it to the election booth. This is the election process in the United States.

Problems of the local governments

Local governments have a vital role to play in the country because they are the closest government body for the citizens. Despite this close association, the role of local governments is under-estimated due to a variety of reasons. They face many problems in reaching out to the public and in creating a better community for its residents. The primary problem is finance. Though the community gets a certain amount directly through taxes from the state government, it sometimes, may not be enough to bring about a real change in the community. This is more prevalent in communities that have a large…… [Read More]

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Vice-President the Responsibilities of the

Words: 1411 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11954152

In December of 1867, "the House defeated an impeachment resolution" (Carlton, 423), but when Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, this was seen as "a deliberate breach of the Tenure of Office Act" which brought new charges against him. However, Johnson ended up serving out his term as President while under much scorn and condemnation. Thus, Johnson failed to live up to Lincoln's ideals and entirely shrugged off all of the responsibility which he had inherited.

On April 12, 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt died in office after a long illness. His death "stunned the nation and not since the death of Lincoln... had there been such evidence of grief for the loss of a national leader" (Bradley, 364). This was a time of great concern, for the Vice President, Harry S. Truman, was little known to the American public who "openly wondered whether Truman could master the complex…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bradley, Harold Whitman. The United States from 1865. New York: Charles Scribner's

Sons, 2003.

Carlton, William C., Ed. Encyclopedia of the History of the United States. New York:

Macmillan, 2002.
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Evolution of Modern U S Society

Words: 1212 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36583240

In an era where the issue of human and civil rights was considered an element that could not be addressed by law, the drafting of the U.S. constitution came as a result of a great democratic endeavor which tried to point out several aspects. On the one hand, it proved the fact that the people are the supreme judges of the way in which the country is developing through the fact that Thus, the most important line for the American democracy is part of the Declaration of Independence which underlines the fact "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" (the Declaration of Independence, n.d.). This aspect certifies the idea that according to the American documents, people have the right to be free in all their respects.

The Constitution comes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, John. "Novanglus, Febuary 6, 1775." From Revolution to Reconstruction. 2003. 5 May 2008 http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/P.ja2/writtings/novan1.htm

American Foreign Relations. Revolution: Impact on the Economy. 2007. 5 May 2008 http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/Re-Ro/Revolution-Impact-on-the-Economy.html

Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Republicanism. 2006. 5 May 2008.  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/republicanism/
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Judicial Review The Legacy of

Words: 1436 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63468149

As Treanor emphasizes, "What appears to be a puzzling, unconvincing, and uniquely aggressive exercise of judicial review was fully consistent with prior judicial decisions in which courts had invalidated statutes that trenched on judicial authority and autonomy" (455).

Texas v. Johnson (1989). Perhaps as no other issue in the post-September 11, 2001 climate is that of flag-burning. The debate is heated and emotionally charged, and it is easy to get caught up in the rhetoric. Nevertheless, it is important to keep in mind what the flag represents to many people and avoid characterizations that would lead to misunderstandings. The U.S. flag and - in the case of Texas v. Johnson, state flags can mean a great deal to citizens and it is natural to expect them to want their flags honored and respected. When people use the symbolism inherent in the national or a state flag, they touch buttons that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.

Marcus, Maeva. Origins of the Federal Judiciary: Essays on the Judiciary Act of 1789. New York: Oxford, 1992.

Raskin, Jamin B. Overruling Democracy: The Supreme Court vs. The American People. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989).
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Thomas Jefferson Background and Description

Words: 1807 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44284324



Summary of the three most important leadership lessons learned

What one can and should learn from studying the life and thinking of Thomas Jefferson is that leaders are not necessarily born, but they are also shaped. What is takes to be a leader in those days, is similar to these. One needs constant learning and interest in different fields of activity that will cultivate not only a good understanding of their society but also a way of thinking that results into initiative. One of the features of Jefferson's leadership is the importance of initiative. Also, one should have within his communication skill those of persuasion. Without a convincingly presentation of one's ideas, these cannot become valuable initiatives - support, and later on persons that carry on one's idea, so therefore followers, are won by powerful statements by powerful men. That is what Thomas Jefferson had: initiative, based on a rigorous…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Biography Online. 3 Major Achievements of Thomas Jefferson. n.d. 22 March 2008.  http://www.biographyonline.net/thomas_jefferson/achievements.html 

Chemers, Martin M.. An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1997

Eicholz, Hans. Harmonizing Sentiments: The Declaration of Independence and the Jeffersonian Idea of Self-Government. New York: Peter Lang. 2001

Gould, William D. "
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Politics in America From 1775

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45693893

Both large states with a great population, they did not want to lose influence or power to a federal government. In particular, there was great debate in New York as existing political leaders feared a lose of power. The Federalists were those who supported the Constitution and include James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. They were the Federalist Papers that were published in New York and not only helped the Constitution to be ratified, but guided the direction of the new American nation. Those who opposed a strong government were the anti-federalists and they feared America would turn into a corrupt nation like Great Britain.

George Washington, who would be the first President, was a federalist and had great influence and therefore helped the country to go in that direction. A Bill of Rights quelled further fears about the oppression of the federal government. In 1788 the Constitution went into effect.…… [Read More]

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Rediscovering George Washington Founding Father

Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17096342

One can assume from his writing that he wants his readers to be persuaded with his point-of-view and appreciate the accomplishments of George Washington (Kuegler). It is also believed that his secondary aim of writing the book is to give rebirth to politics of morals and ethics.

Monty Rainey. Book Review. Junto Society.

A www.juntosociety.com/

Thomas Kuegler. Review www.skyline.net.com

All in all, one can say that his book represents dynamism, intellectualism and exceeding pleasure. As mentioned above, his book does not fully cover his life and works, however, it aims to bring alive the politics of those times so as to transform the hearts and minds of all those who read his book (Kuegler).

The most unexpected result of his book is the warmth it provokes amongst those who read it. It is clear that Brookhiser does not make an effort to create an acceptable image of Washington to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

A.J. Bacevich. Book Review: "Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington." National

Review, March 11, 1996. www.findarticles.com

Monty Rainey. Review: "Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington." Junto Society.

A www.juntosociety.com/
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John Steele Gordon Considers the

Words: 355 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60634320



In the study of history, an article like Gordon's is extremely important in a variety of ways. When examining aspects of history in such a linear way, it becomes easy to identify mistakes and problems arising from certain events and actions, for example. In this way, linier history can be used as a lesson for future events and actions, and the cliche that "history repeats itself" might become less likely. On the other hand, the sound decisions and developments made during the examined period can also be used to replicate for future success.

Examining Gordon's article is also interesting in terms of examining sequential events such as the slavery issue. I for example find the question of slavery and the cotton industry intriguing. The possibility of avoiding one of the most terrible wars in American history by a ten-year development delay is certainly food for thought.

Source

Gordon, John Steele.…… [Read More]

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Judicial Review No Doubt Exists

Words: 3458 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38413153



Tushnet (2005) defends his point-of-view by writing that the advocates of the Stuart lawsuit placed the argument that Justices of the Supreme Court, even though, had the authority to be Supreme Court Justices, but they could not be Circuit Court Judges if the position of Circuit Court Judges already taken up by others had been eradicated. Furthermore, they stated that the eradication of the Circuit Judges had been, in fact, illegal and undemocratic in accordance to Article III of the Constitution that stated that once authority had been assigned to a body, it had an enduring or life term; and giving Congress, the authority, to eliminate or eradicate the Circuit Courts had been against the judicial sovereignty promised. Another argument had been that the Congress could not and should not add to the responsibilities already handled by the Supreme Court Justices/Authorities mainly because the added responsibilities could burden them unnecessarily…… [Read More]

References

Clinton, Robert L. (1989). Marbury v. Madison and judicial review. University Press of Kansas. Taken at  http://library.uh.edu 

Clinton, Robert Lowry. (1994). Game Theory, Legal History, and the Origins of Judicial Review: A Revisionist Analysis of Marbury v. Madison. American Journal of Political Science. 38, 2, pp. 285-302. Taken from www.jstor.com

Dewey, Donald O. (1970). Marshall vs. Jefferson: The political background of Marbury vs. Madison. Knopf Publications. Taken at
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Race and Revolution an Iconoclastic Figure in

Words: 2513 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66594271

Race and Revolution

An iconoclastic figure in the study of American History, Gary Nash, who is Director of the National Center for History in the Schools at UCLA, writes from a position of authority as he questions the history that many of us were taught during our primary and secondary educations. In Race and Revolution, Nash turns his keen vision toward the matter of slavery at the time our country was founded. A collection of essays based upon his series of Merrill Jensen Lectures in Constitutional Studies at the University of Wisconsin, Race and Revolution is an indictment of our country's, primarily northern, founders as they hemmed and hawed and, ultimately, declined the opportunity to create a true, free, racially diverse republic.

Rather than focusing on the issue of slavery at its post-independence height, during the antebellum period in the South, Race and Revolution examines the issues surrounding slavery during…… [Read More]

References

Nash, G. (1990). Race and revolution. Lanham, Maryland:

Madison House Publishers

Nash, G. (2010). Red, white, and black: the peoples of early North America (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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Independent United States Shed Colonial Past Begin

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57872193

independent United States shed colonial past begin a direction, politically

Political and Economic Unity

In order to properly understand the methodology employed by the newly independent United States used to effectively shed its colonial past and begin a new direction politically and economically, one must first understand how the country operated on these two fronts as a series of British colonies prior to the waging of the Revolutionary War. Politically, the colonies existed as an extension of the British crown, were governed by the monarchy which ruled the foreign kingdom, and had little say in matters that were mandated by Britain. The colonists preferred a form of salutary neglect in terms of British involvement with their daily political lives, but when Britain intervened (particularly in the years leading up to the revolution) in the daily affairs of the colonialists, there was little they could actually do about it -- save…… [Read More]

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Sovereign Immunity

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91409757

Sovereign Immunity

(Chicago Citation)

It has been a tradition in English law that the Sovereign can do no wrong and therefore had immunity against any and all laws within the kingdom. In fact, this was a way to protect the Monarch from being held to the same legal standard as everyone else. When the United States began, the framers of the Constitution made certain to include the concept of "sovereign immunity" on the "practical ground that there can be no legal right against the authority that makes the law on which the right depends." ("Sovereign Immunity: 205 U.S. 349, 353") But they also included the right of the government to waive its sovereign immunity in certain cases. There is a distinct contradiction in a democratic government that does not allow itself to be subject to civil legal action brought about by the same people that the government claims to represent.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bondy, William. 1896. The Separation of Governmental Powers In History, In Theory,

and in the Constitutions. New York: Columbia College Press.

Sisk, Gregory, et. al. 2006. Litigation with the Federal Government. Philadelphia, PA:

The American Law Institute.
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Education and Proper Behavior for

Words: 1044 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15871899

He believed, a bit more than Sophocles, that through behavior, humans can actually change fate. Fate does control, yes, but only punishes those who fly in the face of all that is just and divine. For instance, Plato would agree with Sophocles that Fate would have a hand in punishing those who rule via hubris, or supreme confidence in their wisdom and strengths. However, Plato believed that through acting justly and with proper political and logical behavior, humans can actually reroute fate and escape its wrath.

Aristotle was, arguably, the most different in his beliefs on how humans should behave, and the construction of their education, in this group of Plato, Sophocles and Aristotle.

By setting up objective criteria for human behavior, Aristotle prepares the foundation for his aristocratic political views. Perhaps the part of Aristotle's Politics most offensive to the general concept of Greek democracy is his defense of…… [Read More]

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U S Census Bureau Projected That

Words: 4517 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4786269



The 16th Amendment was the first to be passed in the 20th century. It allowed incomes to be taxed as a clear response to the Supreme Court decision in the Pollock v Farmers' Loan and Trust Company (Fonder and Shaffrey 2002). Congress previously passed an income tax law in 1894, which the Supreme Court found to be unconstitutional, not being divided among the states by population. Before the 16th Amendment, the Constitution protected citizens in Article 1, Section 9, which provided that no capitation, or other direct tax chall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration. This protection was eliminated with the passage and ratification of the 16th Amendment, which gave Congress the power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the States and without regard to census or enumeration. Before the 16th Amendment, taxation was based on consumption and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, J. (2000). United States (Government). MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia: Microsoft Corporation. http://encarta.msn.com/text_1741500781_44/United_Sttes_(government

Collins, R.A. (1993). Gibbon, D., ed. The History of America. New York: CLB Publishing.

Fonder, M. And Shaffrey, M. (2002). American Government. Pearson Education Company

Francese, P. (2002). The Exotic Travel Boom - Leisure Travel Market Will Benefit from Aging American Population. American Demographics: Media Central, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/mi_m4021/is_2002_June_1/a_8867
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People's History of the United

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83417269

While most history textbooks tell stories from the perspective of the wealthy and powerful, Zinn shows how things happened from the perspective of the powerless. For example, in Chapter 3: "Persons of Mean and Vile Condition," the author focuses on poor whites, blacks, and Native Americans, and their "unfair treatment by the wealthier classes," (50). Zinn also demonstrates throughout a People's History of the United States how racism and bigotry became institutionalized and acceptable practices, and critiques colonial America as being definitively "feudal" in nature (48).

People's History of America exposes the dark side of American politics throughout the history of the nation, not aggrandizing or idealizing typical heroes and founding fathers like most history books do. For example, Zinn shows how men like Alexander Hamilton were overtly concerned with preserving elitist privilege in American politics and went out of their ways to ignore dissenting voices. The elitist culture of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper, 1980.
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Republic Form of Government

Words: 341 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84297740

Democracy is a form of government wherein what is majority defines the only law and which by definition, guarantees the absence of minority rights. In democracy, the legal safeguard and rights of every individual, especially those that belongs in the minority, cannot be guaranteed. Under the statement in the legal system, the majority's power and the decisions made are unappealable. Therefore, they are absolute and unlimited.

In a Republic form however, the majority, under a written Constitution can provide the best safeguards for the rights of the individual and the minority. A Republic's purpose can be defined as follows, as extracted from Lexrex Online.

is to control the majority strictly, as well as all others among the people, primarily to protect the individual's God-given, unalienable rights and therefore for the protection of the rights of all minorities, and the liberties of people in general

Here the term "the people" means…… [Read More]

References

Newberry, S.E. (1998). Republic vs. Democracy.

http://www.indixie.com/indixie/Articles/Republic.htm

An Important Distinction: Democracy vs. Republic.

Retrieved on Aug. 3, 2005, from Online.
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Criminal Justice When the Constitution Replaced the

Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77748473

Criminal Justice

When the Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation in 1789, the United States of America formed a government that specifically divided its powers between three separate branches. This was done in order to make certain that no one branch of government could accumulate too much power. These three are called the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches of government, and the Constitution defines the powers each branch of government is allowed to exercise. While the Executive and Legislative branches of government deal with the running of the government, the Judicial branch is limited to dealing with legal matters. While it may seem that the Judicial branch is someone less important, it is the judiciary that decides whether the actions taken by the other two branches of government are legitimate.

Alexander Hamilton argued in the Federalist Papers that a separation of powers was necessary in order to prevent one particular…… [Read More]

References

"Court Procedures." United States Courts Web Page. Retrieved from http://www.uscourts.gov/FederalCourts.aspx

"Criminal Justice System - Structural and Theoretical Components of Criminal Justice Systems, The Systems in Operation, The importance of Viewing Criminal Justice as a System." Retrieved from Criminal Justice System - Structural And Theoretical Components Of Criminal Justice Systems, The Systems In Operation, The Importance Of Viewing Criminal Justice As A System

Kaiser, Frederick. (2003). American National Government: An Overview. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/RS20443.pdf

"Federal Courts." United States Courts Web Page. Retrieved from http://www.uscourts.gov/FederalCourts.aspx