"World Peace Essays"

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Peace in Our Time Is it Possible Essay

Words: 1613 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41352356


If the planet is to become more peaceful in my lifetime: How is this to come about?

Over the years, many types of solutions have been proposed to the problem of the constant state of war which has gripped humankind for so many years: solutions political, economic, and artistic in nature. All of these solutions to some degree have failed. This essay will briefly review some of these proposals and then suggest that these various solutions cannot be deployed in isolation. Peace must be brought about through a multifaceted effort, through both a shift in culture and creating supportive institutions that facilitate dialogue. To bring about world peace or at least to establish a more peaceful planet requires change at every level of society.

"When I was a young boy," writes Johan Galtung, "German soldiers marched past our windows in occupied Norway singing an incredibly heart-warming tune with lyrics by Horst Wessel, a Nazi hero. Since I could not understand the words at all I felt these soldiers could not be that bad" (Galtung 55). Galtung uses this example of the universality of art and music and its ability to create connections that transcend the limitations of words. This, he believes, can bring about peace. "Make an orchestra and have musicians from many points in 'our untidy human landscape' create together," he writes, "together they can produce a creative structure, not the destruction made by their governments" (Galtung 58). However, as beautiful as his image might be of Iraqis, Americans, Britons, Palestinians, and Israelis uniting together to make art, history suggests that merely because people can connect over music (or through any artistic endeavor) does not necessarily make music a liberating force. After all, for many years in America, African-American music was celebrated and became…… [Read More]

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World War II in the Context of History and Modern Warfare Essay

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57416332

World War II in the Context of History and Modern Warfare

The 20th Century was simultaneously a Century of exceptional advancement and unsurpassed violence. Why was this a Century of incomparable violence? The quick answer is that we, as a human race, used many of our advancements to become far more efficient killers; where advancements of prior centuries allowed armies to kill tens of thousands, the advancements of the 20th Century enabled armies to kill tens of millions. The longer answer involves military technological revolutions, military inventions used in World War II, business methods that drastically increased war production, the transformation of national wealth to effective fighting power, and the conversion of civilian moral energies into the will to win. Keegan, Overy, Ferguson and Weinberg, in turn, either support those conclusions or, at the very least, do not deny them.


a. The Four Military Technological Revolutions

Knox and Williamson point to four military technological revolutions to date, each building on the developments of the prior military revolution. The first military technological revolution, occurring in the 17th Century, was dominated by the French, who made tactical, organizational, naval and general military reforms.[footnoteRef:1] The first military revolution also saw tactical reforms by the Dutch and Swedish, as well as a British financial revolution.[footnoteRef:2] The second military revolution, occurring during the French Revolution of the 18th Century, created national mobilization politically and economically and Napoleonic warfare, including utter destruction of the opposition armed forces.[footnoteRef:3] Within that same second military revolution, the Industrial Revolution's 18th -- 19th Century technological advances of telegraph, railroads, steamships, small arms, automatic weapons and artillery for land wars and naval evolution of big-gun battleships and fleets, made arming, clothing, feeding, payment, swift movement to battle and consequent masses possible.[footnoteRef:4] While Overy does not speak of four military technical revolutions, he does speak of the technical and tactical revolution that took place prior to World War II.[footnoteRef:5] [1: MacGregor Knox and Murray Williamson, The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050 (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 6, 13.] [2: Ibid., p. 13.] [3: Ibid.] [4: Ibid.] [5: Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won (New York, NY W.W. Norton…… [Read More]

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WWI the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Essay

Words: 1553 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55010445


The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.

As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all creations of the mid-nineteenth century," (vii). Prior to the nineteenth century, the city-state model ruled supreme. In Italy, the classic Renaissance economic powers like Genoa and Venice found themselves suddenly embracing a national identity based on some common cultural elements that might not have been recognized a century before: including language and religion. The same thing happened in the German-speaking parts of Europe. For this reason, when the Austro-Hungarian Empire found itself face-to-face with the Serbian nationalist rebels, the Germans took sides against those to which it could relate. Germany was itself a new nation, crafted in the modern model of the nation-state. Fresh and new, Germany had something to prove. It had also been rapidly industrializing, along with other countries that had colonial vassal lands abroad. Therefore, budding concepts of national identity and national pride coincided with both industrialization and colonization. Industrialization led to militarization: as the mass production of ammunitions became possible for the first time. In order to manufacture weapons on the scale that was needed to fight a massive military project like a world war, it was necessary to have access to a…… [Read More]

Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.

Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
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Peace or War in Homer Essay

Words: 2107 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88344698

Is it a sign of inconsistency in Athena that at the end of the Odyssey she echoes the sentiment of Zeus and sues for peace whereas in Book 4 of the Iliad she is all too eager to ignore the sentiment of her father and manipulate the warriors into shedding more blood? Again -- not necessarily. While, were it up to Zeus he would gladly see men work out their problems in a peaceful way, and, if he can help it, only sends strife and war when men need to be punished. The relationship between war and peace is complicated by the fact that he is not the only god (even if he is king of the gods). The gods seem to have just as many quarrels and disagreements among themselves as men do on Earth -- a point Zeus knows quite well. That is the reason he presides over the council of Olympians at the beginning of Book 4: he wants to see if there is someway they can put aside their differences and stop provoking the two sides (Trojans and Greeks) to do battle against one another. On the side of the Greeks, for example, are Hera, Athena Poseidon, Thetis and others. On the side of the Trojans are Aprhodite, Ares, Apollo, Artemis and more. As long as they are involved, peace is not likely to come. This is why Zeus forbids the gods and goddesses to have anymore part in the war: he wants the men to work it out and is tired of seeing the Olympians fighting and disobeying him.

But, just as Zeus says to Athena at the end of the Odyssey, "Conclude it as you will," (24.531), so too does he say to his wife Hera in Book 4 of the Iliad, "Do as you please" (4.37). He does not understand her bloodlust or her insatiable appetite for seeing Troy obliterated. He tells her without exaggeration, "If you could walk through the gates and through the towering ramparts and eat Priam and the children of Priam raw, and the other Trojans, then, then only might you glut at last your anger" (4.34-6). But he would rather see her do this than see themselves fight. As much as he dislikes discord among men, he dislikes it even more between himself and his wife. Therefore, in order to appease her,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Homer. The Iliad. (Trans. By Richmond Lattimore). IL: University of Chicago Press,

1951. Print.
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Peace Settlement That Ended the First World War Essay

Words: 743 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92754530

World War I -- the Peace Settlement

Known as "The War to End All Wars," World War I and its terms of peace significantly altered the civilized world and sowed the seeds of World War II. While physically devastating to the four major empires that ruled Europe prior to World War I, the terms of peace were also deeply psychologically devastating to the losers of that War, particularly to Germany. The humiliation and resentment resulting from defeat and from those peace terms provided fertile ground for the rise of Adolf Hitler.

Specific Peace Terms of World War I

Prior to World War I, there had been four major European empires: German, also known as the "Weimar Republic"; Russian; Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman. However, defeat completely disassembled the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires while taking great amounts of land from the German and Russian empires: the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 required the Germans to admit responsibility for World War I, pay reparations[footnoteRef:1], accept occupation and total disarmament[footnoteRef:2], and cede large stretches of its territory to the War's winners[footnoteRef:3], essentially accepting "enforced subservience" to the winners[footnoteRef:4]; the Austro-Hungarian Empire was divided into Austria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Hungary; the Ottoman Empire was dissolved and essentially became the Republic of Turkey. Finally, the Treaty of Versailles established the League of Nations, which was supposed to prevent another World War.[footnoteRef:5] In sum, the terms of peace significantly redesigned Europe and placed considerable sanctions on the German people. [1: Gerhard L. Weinberg, A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 14.] [2: John Keegan, The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II (New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996), 12.] [3: Ibid.] [4: Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won (New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997), 9.] [5: Weinberg, 12.]

b. Psychological Effects of World War I and Its Peace…… [Read More]

Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
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WWII History Making Decades WWII-Present Essay

Words: 2515 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66978809

Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President Reagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. Research continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused by the disease led some to believe it could be transmitted by normal -- rather than sexual or blood-to-blood -- contact. In addition, the appearance of the disease in gay men made many accuse the gay community of the disease and lead to hatred and fear of both gays and Haitians, who were among those at risk ("History of AIDS," 2009). The impact of this disease has greatly influenced Americans and those all over the world, staring in the 1980s until today. Discovery Health calls the disease a "pandemic" and warns that cases are growing ("HIV / AIDS," 2009). Because no cure exists, it is a frightening condition, and its discovery in the 1980s has resulted in many of the precautions that we currently take today. In addition, it is the cause for the stigmatization of gay people and Africans even today.


The fear of AIDS continued into the 1990s, where it was joined by Mad Cow Disease and Y2K as prominent fears of the era. The 1990s saw the election of the first Democratic President -- Bill Clinton -- since LBJ, and tumultuous affairs in Africa, such as the Rwandan genocide and the release of…… [Read More]

Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:

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WWI and the Russian Revolution Essay

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24086671

The makers of the peace settlement hoped to reduce the possibility of future conflict by taking away Germany's army and controlling its political system. This proved impossible, and only provoked more violence in the long run, as Germans grew more sympathetic to fascism as a result.

Third, why did the United States Senate reject the Treaty of Versailles? What objections did they have to the treaty, especially to the League of Nations? Why was the United States not ready for peace through collective security?

The United States at the time was still isolationist in its philosophy. It had come to participate in the war fairly late, and had little appreciation about how bloody and terrible it had been, through the system of trench warfare, for the major participating European powers. The U.S. still believed the Atlantic Ocean could protect itself from most major European conflicts, and it had felt less anxiety about becoming involved in future European conflicts, as its economy and infrastructure were less damaged by the events of World War II. This was why the United States Congress rejected the League of Nations. It feared that the League was exactly the sort of type of entangling European alliance that the U.S. had always tried to avoid, and even President Wilson felt that the treaty punished Germany excessively and unfairly for the war and demonstrated the perpetuation of European hostilities that could lead to future conflict and draw the United States into war.

Fourth, why did the newly created League of Nations not keep the peace? To what extent did sovereign interests, nationalist sentiments, and anti-colonialism interfere with a lasting peace? What… [Read More]

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World War II in Europe Essay

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23478242

By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-

3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry them back to England after Belgium surrendered.. Italy, a Nazi ally, then declared war on France and Britain, hoping to be included in any post-war negotiations to her benefit4.

Hitler prepared to invade England from occupied France, and began a vicious and extensive aerial bombing campaign, using incendiary bombs on civilian population centers of England. Though vastly outnumbered, the British Royal Air Force (RAF) rallied to the defense. Using superior aircraft in the Spitfire and Hurricane, in combination with the timely invention of Radar, the RAF handed the mighty Luftwaffe its first major combat defeat in the Battle of Britain in Summer of 1940. Churchill, who had since replaced Chamberlain as Prime Minister, famously credited the RAF pilots, saying, "Never have so many owed so much to so few." Despite 40,000 civilian dead and hundreds of thousands of homes and businesses destroyed, the British people spent months in blackout conditions and underground shelters, living by the phrase "We'll get used to it." 5

Under their Non-Aggression Pact of 1939, Germany had occupied Western Poland and Russia…… [Read More]

Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)

Hayes, C., Faissler, M. Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present (1966)
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Peace Agreements and International Intervention Essay

Words: 3606 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65074896

Peace Agreements and International Intervention

A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process. "Though a wide ocean separates the United States from Europe, yet there are various considerations that warn us against an excess of confidence or security ... Politicians have ever with great reason considered the ties of blood as feeble and precarious links of political connection. These circumstances combined, admonish us not to be too sanguine in considering ourselves as entirely out of the reach of danger."

The peace treaty signed at the Appomattox Courthouse, formally ended the American Civil War. The United States went through a process of nation-building after the Civil War to reconstruct the South. This process lasted close to a century, only finally culminating in the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s.

The Treaty of Versailles, formally ending the First World War, is possibly the most notorious of peace treaties, in that it is blamed by some historians for the rise of National Socialism in Germany and the eventual outbreak of the Second World War. The costly reparations…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone, eds. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

Chomsky, Noam. "Peace Process' Prospects." July 27, 2000. June 27, 2005. .
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Peace Keepers of the Northeast Essay

Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92147282

This dance was very powerful as it did scare the European people. They did not fully understand the reason behind the dance and the religion, but they were very clear as to what the apocalypse was and they wondered if the Indians were somehow summoning the end of the world. Not soon after this Ghost dance caused such a commotion, an Indian by the name of Handsome Lake who was a leader for the Seneca tribe brought a new message to the Iroquois people. His message was to end the drinking. The Iroquois people had began to drink a lot of alcohol that was often offered to them from the European people during the fur trade. Handsome Lake believed that many of the problems that the Iroquois people faced was related to the alcohol. Many of the Indian people were drunk when they were trying to handle problems of poverty or problems with the American or British people. They were not thinking clearly and usually ended up making very bad decisions. Therefore, Handsome Lake worked to spread the word of anti-drinking. He preached that once the drinking stopped, the Indians would be better able to make better decisions. The Americans did not take the message from Handsome Lake very seriously. They knew that many Indians were alcoholics and it would be impossible for them to stop drinking. So, they were not too worried about the messages that Handsome Lake was preaching. They were concerned more over the Ghost dance than the Handsome Lake messages.

As a result of all of the issues and events surrounding the Iroquois Indians and the American people, many of the Iroquois nations were hurt. They faced issues of poverty, and lack of a quality education. They were forced from their land and forced to live on smaller reservations where there are no schools and most reservations are located miles away from public schools and colleges. The 1600s and 1700s were very hard times which still has its effects in the modern day world. Today, decendents of the Iroquois Indian tribes still face major issues with…… [Read More]

Kehoe, Alice Beck. North American Indian Tribes, Chapter 5. 1992 Prentice Hall.

Biolsi, Thomas and Zimmerman, Larry. Indians and Anthropologists, Chapter 9. 1997 Prentice Hall.

Iroquois Website. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from http://www.iroquois.net/.
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World Religions the World's Great Essay

Words: 2918 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61872482

Taoism is another ancient religion practiced within Eastern Asia. It shares beliefs and practices with Confucianism and is mainly practiced in various parts of China. It is a polytheistic religion that has a wide variety of gods within its spiritual arsenal. Like Hinduism, Taoism is a name that covers a wide variety of smaller religious sects that can be found in various parts of China and its neighboring countries, although the basic principles are the same (Hansen 1). Also known as Daoism, it is derived from the phrase "the path," or "the way." Its philosophy depends on three major conceits, or the "Three Jewels of the Tao," which are practicing elements of compassion, moderation, and humility (Hansen 1). Part of the principle of compassion is the idea of non-violence within everyday life. This means following a peaceful existence no matter what life throws at you. Human behavior is then guided through practices of non-violence, which then shape the nature of the religion itself. The concept of non-violence in Taoism is referred to as Wu Wei (Hansen 1). The idea of the Tao has come to represent the path to enlightenment. It is the flow of the universe that leads individuals to spiritual heaven when they follow its principles. Those principles also include moderation and humility. By practicing living a life of moderation, one is straying away from the distraction of living a life of luxury with all of its indulgences. With moderation comes humility, which is line with the path of life, or the Tao.

Taoism proves similar to some core Christian beliefs in several of its essential elements. The religious practice depends on following a specific way of life, the path or the Tao in order to gain spiritual enlightenment. Although the Christian tradition does not have a truly specific name for its own path, it is clearly laid out by the teachings of Jesus (Glaser 121). It calls for a life of non-violence, which is a direct relation to the life of Jesus. When Jesus was accused and…… [Read More]

Aiken, Charles Francis. "Jainism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 21 Oct. 2009. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08269b.htm

Brar, Sandeep Singh. "Sikh Religious Philosophy." The Sikhism Home Page. Retrieved 20 Oct 2009 at http://www.sikhs.org/philos.htm
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WWII to the 60s the Essay

Words: 1427 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99114644

Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin Roosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else, but also created shortages and hardships. When the war was over, the social pressures were far different. There was a new level of expectation from the returning GIs, new technology that kept the world within one's living room, suburban growth, more technological jobs, and as the decades progressed Civil Rights, Women's Rights, an unpopular "police action," and a fundamental and aggressive War on Poverty. All these events required a different type of public administration, one that was less "governmental" than the New Deal, and one that would be more socially resopnsible to the evolving needs of the population. This culminates still with not the Congress making some of the decisions about public money, but according to the New Administrative State, the Courts acting in a new role -- that of juridical federalism (Wright 254).

Question 4 -- Fesler and post-war public administration - The post-war period of American history provided a number of challenges that focused on cultural, political, social, technological, and administrative functions. From 1933 to 1939, Americans saw public administration in a new light -- a combined rescue effort that would literally change the face of the country;…… [Read More]

Shepherd, G. "Fierce Compromise: The Administrative Procedure Act Emerges From New Deal Politics." Administrative and Regulatory Law News 22.2 (1997).

Wilson, W. Woodrow Wilson: The Essential Political Writings. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2005.

Wright, D. "A Century of the Intergovernmental Administrative State." Changler, R. A Centennial History of the American Administrative State. New York: Free Press, 1987. 219-60.
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WW2 for FDR the Second World War Essay

Words: 425 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49435703


For FDR, the Second World War served as a vital opportunity to revitalize the American economy after years of depression. Therefore, a large part of Roosevelt's justifications, ideas, and visions of the war centered on the economy. The war boosted employment levels, helped involve more women in the workforce, and propelled the industrial development of the nation. The war machine offered impetus for financial investments in industry as well as impetus for developing new technology. In fact, the war era led directly to the consumer culture that was to rise to the fore in the Truman years. Roosevelt had also promoted a bigger federal government even in the years prior to entering the war. The war gave the president the ultimate excuse to further his New Deal plans for greater federal powers.

The bombing of Pearl Harbor served as a convenient excuse to shed America's neutrality and enter into the war on the Allied side in December 1941. Roosevelt has been often accused of wanting to go to war far before the Japanese attack: Hamilton Fish, a Republican congressman who stood in direct opposition to Roosevelt's war polices, stated of the President, "He would have gotten us into the war six months or a year before Pearl Harbor."

During the course…… [Read More]

Schultz, Stanley K. "World War Two: The Impact at Home." 1999 Ameircan History 102: Civil War to the Present. Online at < http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture21.html>.
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Peace Justice and Reconciliation Following Essay

Words: 1924 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67376544

Victims can participate in the proceedings, presenting their voices and concerns. They are invited, and it would be good for us if they present their concerns in court. They can also request compensation from those under investigation.

It will be a demanding process and there could be delays and setbacks. Our first trial was stayed two times. We had to appeal the genocide charges against President Al Bashir. So there will be fights in court. We will persist and do our part. We count on your support. But I want to be clear: we will not go further than these six individuals. We are helping Kenya to start, to break impunity. Kenyans will decide on their own way forward.

Doing justice for massive crimes is a long journey. Different countries have chosen different paths. South Africa is well-known for its truth commission, in Argentina we started prosecuting the top leaders 25 years ago, and today there are still new investigations being opened against other individuals. So there are different models. Kenya has the opportunity to create its own path. After the ICC decisions, Kenyans can discuss whether other individuals should be prosecuted -- discussions you deserve -- but today Kenya should discuss how to assist the victims now, how to ensure peace and reconciliation. In this sense, Kenya is today creating a new path.

There was a political agreement to stop violence and harmonize positions. This achievement could be challenged in the coming months. There are still tensions between communities that could be exacerbated during the trials. There is a need to heal and ensure reconciliation. This is a challenge for today.

The judicial process will put the suffering of the victims in the center of the public agenda. Those women raped and infected with HIV, those wounded, the families of those killed, those who lost their homes, internally displaced persons should be assisted today. There is no reason to wait until the end of the ICC trial.

That is why this meeting is an opportunity for you to develop the Kenya path, a comprehensive model of justice, integrating the inquiries…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Kofi Annan Foundation (2010). "Kenya National Dialogue and Reconciliation, Two Years On,

Where Are We?" Statement by Luis Moreno Ocampo, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court. http://kofiannanfoundation.org/newsroom/speeches/2010/12/kenya-national-dialogue-and-reconciliation-two-years-where-are-we-statemen
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Peace Strategy a Strategy for Essay

Words: 1315 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79191687

At the time of its composition, Laird's proposal would be contextualized by the ongoing SALT conferences between the U.S. And Soviet Union designed to reduce each side's proclivity toward nuclear armament in a highly contentious setting. The result would be the re-assertion in Laird's strategy of American prioritization of its nuclear armament. As Laird would note, "we should make it clear to the Soviet Union that regardless of the outcome of SALT, our approach to strategic forces is designed to preserve our deterrent without question." (Laird, p. 10) This 'deterrent' would be the continued research, development and maintenance of its nuclear stockpile in the interests of demonstrating the latent power to respond to any Soviet nuclear action. As Laird reports, even under the terms of the uncomfortable negotiation with the Soviets over an Anti-Ballistics Missile treaty, it was the intention of the United States to remain girded by this stockpile.

Today, conditions are quite different owing primarily to the power vacuum created by the collapse of the Soviet Union. With its dissemination into an array of independent states would also come the dissemination of many of its nuclear secrets. These would not be accompanied by the same sovereignty principles that deterred the Soviets from engaging the U.S. On a nuclear front. Such is to say that as nuclear technology has become ever more accessible, rogue states such as Iran and North Korea demonstrate that the fear of nuclear retaliation may no longer be a sufficient deterrent. The current policy, accordingly, must more directly reflect the ambitions underlying the original SALT negotiations. That is, the United States must be an active participant in a multilateral effort to reduce the global presence of nuclear stockpiles as well as to apply political pressure on those rogue states that are not cooperative with that effort. This is a…… [Read More]

Feickert, Andrew. Does the Army Need a Full-Spectrum Force or Specialized Units? Background and Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service, 18 January 2008, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL34333.pdf

Laird, Melvin. "Strategy for Peace: National Security Strategy of Realistic Deterrence." Department of Defense. 6 November 1970.
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World's Religions -- Social Duty Essay

Words: 2195 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52567584

As seen in the concept of rectification of names, people can build orderly and harmonious societies when they clearly understand the duties associated with each other of the basic relationships and strive to fulfill their duties to the best of their abilities. The father must rectify or live up to his title by providing for his son's educational and vocational training and teaching them virtue, etiquette and reverence in tradition and authority. (Slavicek, 2002:33)

Confucianism discusses social duty in terms of the family and how the individual's character in dealing with the community is shaped by the family. In the Confucian perspective, the family is the center of all values that the individual would learn and practice as the individual deals with other members of the community. This perspective shows a distinct Eastern philosophical leaning whereby the family is at the fulcrum in explaining the social duty of the person. In Confucianism, social duty starts off with the family and the role that a person must perform in relation to one's position in the family. The family is then reinterpreted from a micro standpoint to a macro standpoint as the individual now function with his or her social duty in relation to a larger family, i.e. As a subject of the ruler for instance.

Taoist principles are manifested in the following verses in terms of social duty. Taoism argued that the wise person does deeds that consist in taking no action and teaches without talking. In order to build a house, level ground is needed. In order to think well, depth is needed. In order for two people to be friends, mutual affection is needed and that in order to succeed in any venture, the right thing is needed. Taoism stated that to perform a task well, appropriate skill is needed. For the social duty in relation to government, Taoism contends that if leaders do not trust their people, their people will not trust them, if they give no trust they will receive…… [Read More]

Slavicek, L. (2002). Confucianism. San Diego, California: Lucent Books Inc.

Streissguth, T. (2002). Hinduism. San Diego, California: Lucent Books Inc.
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Is Peace Possible Essay

Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43940170

Peace Possible in the Modern World?

Is peace possible in the world as we know it today? One side of the human brain, if idealistic, might reply: "Certainly peace is possible, even perpetual peace, but it is possible only if visionary, bold and intelligent leadership emerges in key international places." The other side of the brain could well answer like this: "Are you kidding? There are too many terrorists, and too many greedy, power-crazed nationalist leaders pushing and shoving and developing weapons to ever expect a peaceful world." And meanwhile, what did some of the great thinkers and philosophers have to say about the prospects of peace?

THUCYDIDES: Thucydides, in writing about the Peloponnesian War, makes it clear that human nature tends to dictate how history plays itself out, and he does not blame the Gods or other forces for this war. Thucydides, who is a young man, and an intellectual, is living in Athens; he writes (38) at great length about the many differences between the Athenian life (his life) and the style of living in Sparta. In his explanation of the differences between education in his city state, Athens, and education in Sparta, he writes that "from their earliest boyhood" the Spartans "are submitted to the most laborious training in courage"

. The Athenians, on the other hand, according to the writings of Thucydides, " ... pass our lives without all these restrictions, and yet are just as ready to face the same dangers as they are."

As more evidence that Athens is the more worthy, the more generous, literate, informed and intelligent society, Thucydides (39) writes: "We Athenians, in our own persons, take our decisions on policy or submit them to proper discussions: for we do not think that there is an incompatibility between words and deeds ... " What is bad for a nation, he continues, " ... is to rush into action…… [Read More]


Immanuel Kant, \"The Enlightenment,\" in International Relations in Political Thought: Texts from the Ancient Greeks to the First World War, ed. Chris Brown, Terry Nardin, Nicholas Rengger (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 430.
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War vs Peace How Efforts Essay

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33754943

Peace, therefore, is dependent upon the power-play between capitalism, socialism, consumerism and communism -- and often they all overlap. The problem arises when domination rather diplomacy becomes a tactic of certain world powers. Rather than working with other nations at the expense of commercial or ideological interests, nations (like the U.S.) revert to underhanded scheming, acts of espionage, terrorism, and war, and militarism to undue rival nations' hegemony. The Middle East is a prime example for the way the West has gone about ending "terrorism" and restoring "peace." The idea that the U.S. is at all interested in peace is a complete farce. It is interested in nothing but profits.

Peace can be attained, however -- as Kennedy showed during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Roger Fisher, William Ury, and Bruce Patton all agree when they affirm that the best way to peace today is through negotiation and diplomacy. By putting peace as a viable alternative to war on the table -- rather than threats and sanctions (as the Obama administration prefers to do with nations like Iran) -- peace suddenly becomes a real solution. Yet, the desire for peace has to be real on both sides: "Negotiations…can succeed only if there is a set of outcomes that each party prefers over reaching no agreement. Occasionally, participants in a dispute negotiate only to appear virtuous…the trick is to find a peaceful outcome that will be acceptable to all sides" (Fisher, et al. 71). In other words, suing for peace involves a process of give and take -- just like Kennedy showed when he gave in to the Soviet demand to remove bases from the nearby Soviet border in Europe.

Works… [Read More]

Fisher, Roger, et al. "Getting to Yes." Approaches to Peace. [Barsh, David, ed.] UK:

Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.