Leadership of the United States has been called into question by other countries perhaps at a level not experienced since the Vietnam war. The United States has opposed United Nations opinion regarding Iraq. The resulting action by the U.S. And Great ritain with small amounts of help from other countries has triggered anti-war and anti-U.S. demonstrations all over the world (Safty, 2003). Americans are shocked and dismayed at the level of anger other countries have shown toward the United States in recent months.
For many decades, the United States, has stood among the other nations as a country of great power, wealth and influence. For much of that time, we have acted militarily in multiple parts of the world: Europe during both world wars; Europe and Asia during World War II; Southeast Asia in the Korean Conflict and the Vietnam War; and more recently, in the MIddle East.…… [Read More]
Residents from the countries where violence is encouraged by different factors need to receive solid information concerning violence and its aftermath. Also, those supporting violence need to be presented with alternatives that would partially solve their problems.
Even with the fact that outside organizations can get involved in preventing violence, they have limited access to the victims and to the persons responsible for committing violence. Thus, educational programs need to be developed, in order for those in crisis areas to learn that violence has limited and short lived efficiency, and that it does not bring any advantages to those resorting to it.
A number of organizations often fail in preventing violence because their passion overcomes their sense of reality. They tend to make promises which they are not certain that they will be able to keep. While this might seem like a minor risk, it can actually lead to serious…… [Read More]
PLANET IS TO BECOME MORE PEACFUL IN MY LIFETIME -- HOW IS THIS MOST LIKELY TO COME ABOUT?
If the planet is to become more peaceful in my lifetime: How is this to come about?
Over the years, many types of solutions have been proposed to the problem of the constant state of war which has gripped humankind for so many years: solutions political, economic, and artistic in nature. All of these solutions to some degree have failed. This essay will briefly review some of these proposals and then suggest that these various solutions cannot be deployed in isolation. Peace must be brought about through a multifaceted effort, through both a shift in culture and creating supportive institutions that facilitate dialogue. To bring about world peace or at least to establish a more peaceful planet requires change at every level of society.
"When I was a young boy," writes Johan…… [Read More]
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…… [Read More]
Is it a sign of inconsistency in Athena that at the end of the Odyssey she echoes the sentiment of Zeus and sues for peace whereas in Book 4 of the Iliad she is all too eager to ignore the sentiment of her father and manipulate the warriors into shedding more blood? Again -- not necessarily. hile, were it up to Zeus he would gladly see men work out their problems in a peaceful way, and, if he can help it, only sends strife and war when men need to be punished. The relationship between war and peace is complicated by the fact that he is not the only god (even if he is king of the gods). The gods seem to have just as many quarrels and disagreements among themselves as men do on Earth -- a point Zeus knows quite well. That is the reason he presides over…… [Read More]
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…… [Read More]
By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-
3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry…… [Read More]
Peace Agreements and International Intervention
A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process.…… [Read More]
This dance was very powerful as it did scare the European people. They did not fully understand the reason behind the dance and the religion, but they were very clear as to what the apocalypse was and they wondered if the Indians were somehow summoning the end of the world. Not soon after this Ghost dance caused such a commotion, an Indian by the name of Handsome Lake who was a leader for the Seneca tribe brought a new message to the Iroquois people. His message was to end the drinking. The Iroquois people had began to drink a lot of alcohol that was often offered to them from the European people during the fur trade. Handsome Lake believed that many of the problems that the Iroquois people faced was related to the alcohol. Many of the Indian people were drunk when they were trying to handle problems of poverty…… [Read More]
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…… [Read More]
Victims can participate in the proceedings, presenting their voices and concerns. They are invited, and it would be good for us if they present their concerns in court. They can also request compensation from those under investigation.
It will be a demanding process and there could be delays and setbacks. Our first trial was stayed two times. We had to appeal the genocide charges against President Al Bashir. So there will be fights in court. We will persist and do our part. We count on your support. But I want to be clear: we will not go further than these six individuals. We are helping Kenya to start, to break impunity. Kenyans will decide on their own way forward.
Doing justice for massive crimes is a long journey. Different countries have chosen different paths. South Africa is well-known for its truth commission, in Argentina we started prosecuting the top leaders…… [Read More]
At the time of its composition, Laird's proposal would be contextualized by the ongoing SALT conferences between the U.S. And Soviet Union designed to reduce each side's proclivity toward nuclear armament in a highly contentious setting. The result would be the re-assertion in Laird's strategy of American prioritization of its nuclear armament. As Laird would note, "we should make it clear to the Soviet Union that regardless of the outcome of SALT, our approach to strategic forces is designed to preserve our deterrent without question." (Laird, p. 10) This 'deterrent' would be the continued research, development and maintenance of its nuclear stockpile in the interests of demonstrating the latent power to respond to any Soviet nuclear action. As Laird reports, even under the terms of the uncomfortable negotiation with the Soviets over an Anti-Ballistics Missile treaty, it was the intention of the United States to remain girded by this stockpile.…… [Read More]
Peace Possible in the Modern World?
Is peace possible in the world as we know it today? One side of the human brain, if idealistic, might reply: "Certainly peace is possible, even perpetual peace, but it is possible only if visionary, bold and intelligent leadership emerges in key international places." The other side of the brain could well answer like this: "Are you kidding? There are too many terrorists, and too many greedy, power-crazed nationalist leaders pushing and shoving and developing weapons to ever expect a peaceful world." And meanwhile, what did some of the great thinkers and philosophers have to say about the prospects of peace?
THUCYDIDES: Thucydides, in writing about the Peloponnesian War, makes it clear that human nature tends to dictate how history plays itself out, and he does not blame the Gods or other forces for this war. Thucydides, who is a young man, and an…… [Read More]
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…… [Read More]
Peace, therefore, is dependent upon the power-play between capitalism, socialism, consumerism and communism -- and often they all overlap. The problem arises when domination rather diplomacy becomes a tactic of certain world powers. Rather than working with other nations at the expense of commercial or ideological interests, nations (like the U.S.) revert to underhanded scheming, acts of espionage, terrorism, and war, and militarism to undue rival nations' hegemony. The Middle East is a prime example for the way the est has gone about ending "terrorism" and restoring "peace." The idea that the U.S. is at all interested in peace is a complete farce. It is interested in nothing but profits.
Peace can be attained, however -- as Kennedy showed during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Roger Fisher, illiam Ury, and Bruce Patton all agree when they affirm that the best way to peace today is through negotiation and diplomacy. By putting…… [Read More]
Intenational Peace and Teoism
What changes to existing legal egimes may educe the incentive and make the law moe effective in peseving peace?
Teoist goups can be disupted and destoyed though continuous and diect legal actions. The focus includes the use of national and intenational elements of powe. Immediate focus should be on the teoist oganizations with global each as well as teoists o states sponsoing teoism activities. Thee ae attempts of gaining and using weapons of mass destuction o pecusos. The law defends the national inteests, the native people, and intenational goals. Achievements in this case ae deived though identification and destuction of peace theats pio eaching national bodes. While most govenments continually stive towads enlisting intenational community suppot, they do not hesitate to act alone whee necessay. The goals at stake include execising thei ights to self-defense though peemptive action against teoists. The actions pevent them fom inflicting…… [Read More]
Then of course we have the war in Iraq. This war has escalated out of control in terms of security and has in fact created a new training ground for terrorists. This is an alarming fact. As these conflicts increase and the more that that Western countries are seen to be implicated or perceived to be taking sides, so the threat of terrorism and terrorist attacks in foreign lands becomes a greater potential reality. The terrible events of 9/11 are a continual reminder or this fact.
Numerous commentators warn that unless a peaceful solution to the central conflicts in this region is found, the threat of terrorist attack in and outside the region will increase. It should be remembered that terrorist attacks in the West are usually motivated by perceptions of Western involvement in the Middle East. Whether these perceptions are correct or not is not the immediate issue. What…… [Read More]
Human ights in the Arab World
As stated by the "Universal Declaration of Human ights" in the United Nations, Human rights has almost become one of the most important factors that decided the development of a country. To be able to promote economic growth and prosperity it is essential that a country controls its power of creativity and enterprise of its citizens, which would aid it to move into the global market in terms of trade, communication and investment systems.
It has been noticed that the most talented members of the society are usually not granted their human rights and hence the political, social, and cultural developments of the society are being not in order due to human rights being violated. This gets us to realize that we need to follow human rights development not only to protect a single individual but the entire society on the whole.2 Wrong use…… [Read More]
Lloyd George from England, Woodrow Wilson from the U.S., Orlando from Italy, and Clemenceau from France held a meeting in 1919 to discuss the manner through which Germany was to be made to pay for the harm that had been brought about by World War 1. According to Woodrow Wilson, an agreement founded on his 14-point plan was the most appropriate way of bringing peace to Europe. However, Georges Clemenceau wanted payback. He wanted an assurance that Germany would never attempt to begin another war. Lloyd George welcomed Wilson's idea, however, realized that the British public welcomed Clemenceau's idea. He attempted to find some compromise amidst Clemenceau and Wilson (World War Two -- Causes). Germany was anticipating an agreement founded on Wilson's 14 points, and was not pleased with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Nonetheless, they had no option but to sign the treaty.
The League of Nations…… [Read More]
military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.
America is not merely a superpower -- the nation is also commonly known as the 'Policeman of the World', owing to its many interventions in resolving global issues. Time and again, the world has expected USA to intercede and play the role of mediator when issues crop up around the world. The world feels helpless when the nation hesitates or does not keep up to people's expectation while intervening. Two international incidents in which America opted for an unexpected course while simultaneously striving to keep from regular military action are the Libyan evolution and Syrian Civil War. Other nations' reaction in the former case and the retention of America's position in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) serve to confirm the fact that USA is, indeed, the 'policeman' of the world.
Part 2…… [Read More]
In this sense, Stalin decided to extend his influence and to impose certain types of government in countries such as Poland, Hungry, or omania. The same fate would have had Greece and Turkey as well, should the U.S. not have outlined the Truman Doctrine. It can be said that the doctrine itself was a reaction to the tendency of the soviets to extend their influence.
The Marshall Plan can be seen as the economic component of the Truman Doctrine. It was in fact a set of principles pointed out in 1947 at Harvard by Secretary of State George Marshall (American hetoric, 2008). This economic plan too was designed for cater for the economic needs of eastern countries as well, but seeing that the ussian side considered it to be the mere economic arm of the Truman Doctrine, it forced countries under its occupation to reject this reconstruction aid. In fact…… [Read More]
World War II. World War II was a turning point in world history, and brought together many allies to fight strong opponents for world domination. The War was supposed to be the "last" world war fought, but other conflicts since that time show the world is still a volatile and unsettled place, and it seems there will always be wars fought in this world.
World War II was fought on two major fronts -- Europe and Asia. There was also fighting in North Africa, and many Pacific Islands. The initial war began in 1939 when German dictator Adolph Hitler invaded Poland. England and France had pledged to support Poland as Hitler continued to take over countries in Europe, such as Austria and Czechoslovakia in the late 1930s. When Hitler invaded Poland,
France and England issued ultimatums to Germany which were ignored, and the war had officially begun, even though actual…… [Read More]
orld ar II broke out, Russia was not prepared, nor did she manage to be the military threat she could have been, because the nation was weakened by lack of industrialization, the defeat by Japan in 1905, and a lack of support by the people for involvement in this new war. hat seems clear is that Russia was not prepared when the war began and had to work to muster its army, provide war materials, and protect its own territory against the German advance. The fact that Germany was indeed stopped cold in Russia shows how well the Russians did their job, but the issue is why they did not do what they could before the war started given that the whole world could see war coming long before it reached Russia. More recently, though, the question of unpreparedness has been given a new look, and a new theory of…… [Read More]
The U.S. emerged as a leading superpower and the sole nuclear power in the world, determined to play a leading role in international politics. The post-Second World War era saw the start of a prolonged Cold War in which the U.S. competed for political domination around the world with Soviet Communism until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. The Second World War also helped the country to overcome the economic depression of the 1930s as its wartime industrial production stimulated its economy.
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew ockwell.com. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William . (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
Steiner, Z. (2001). 2 the…… [Read More]
All European nations suffered devastating postwar economic consequences, which further increased the reluctance to use military force to subdue Hitler. The United States enjoyed a postwar boom, given that none of the battles had been waged upon its own territories. But the Republican-dominated Senate refused to allow the U.S. To become a member of the League of Nations, and the absence of strong American leadership made the League ineffective as a peacekeeping force. Germany was also stripped of all of its colonies: the fact that many new nations were created in the redrawing of the map of Europe meant that many of the recently evolved national identities and infrastructures of new countries were quite fragile.
Although they were 'older' nations, Germany and Russia were particularly politically unstable, as a result of the conditions spawned by orld ar I. Despite its early exit from the ar, Russia's economy was undergoing an…… [Read More]
David Fromkin's "A Peace to End All Peace." From the beginning, the review provides intriguing information, including the fact that the title relates to the ideal of "a war to end all wars." The ironic nature of this phrase has been the subject of discussion and occasional mirth for all the years after the war. I was delighted to find out the name of the originator of the term, British commander Archibald Wavell, since this is not something I knew before.
The review provides several pieces of interesting information, including the fact that the British, and particularly Kitchener, were largely ignorant about the social and cultural nature of the Middle East, making the British policy for this region largely ineffective at best and explosive at worst. Another piece of interesting information is the mistaken belief that a conspiracy was underway to undermine the position of the British in the Middle…… [Read More]
World War I and its Effect on the Middle East
The Europeans who had already colonized much of the area with post-World War I now spread further into the Middle East claiming further portions such as Arabia, Iraq, yria, Libya, and Palestine. The Constantinople Agreement followed by many more including the ykes Picot agreement over and again implemented covert agreements regarding lands that would go to each of the Allies. After the war, France received Lebanon and yria (
) even though yria herself preferred an American mandate (2), and Britain received land that included Palestine, Israel, Transjordan, and Iraq (3). The indigenous people themselves were never consulted regarding whom they wished to control them, and colonization, consequently, prompted Arabic nationalism.
Nationalism was, furthermore, created by the fact that the peace settlements imposed by the Allies after World War I broke up nation states and created others, confusing many who,…… [Read More]
Middle East Peace Talks
Many people view the Middle East as having been a powder keg for the last half-century. These difficulties started when other countries, such as Great Britain, made decisions in the region, including setting boundaries, that historically did not work out well. This has been the cause of strife in other areas of the world as well. However, rightly or wrongly, many Arabs in the Middle East view the strife as going back much further. They point to the start of difficulties at the Crusades of the middle ages. This points to a very significant and basic problem: history is written, and viewed, differently by different groups in the world. In the case of the Middle East, the issue is history -- whether it's the history of something that happened last week or events from the 12th century.
To solve this difficult problem, it is necessary for…… [Read More]
Peace Treat between India and Pakistan:
The primary objective of the peace process is 1) to expand and intensify people to people contact, 2) broaden and consolidate the peace process by encouraging new associations as well as those groups who have been operating for enduring peace in South Asia for the preceding 58 years, and 3) give enhanced ethical, academic, community and cultural resources to assist in maintaining long-lasting peace.
The peace treaty should read:
Both governments should welcome and support the peace process by engaging in a composite dialogue between directed towards creating righteous and long-lasting peace in South Asia.
The ultimate settlement on issues, of Kashmir, international terrorism and nuclear weapons, between, both, India and Pakistan, ought to be founded on the Doctrine of Peaceful Co-Existence, that is, autonomous parity, non-violence, non-intrusion, mutual and shared advantage, and nonviolent co-existence
Both governments should agree that the ultimate settlement ought…… [Read More]
Peace without Victory, 1861-1865," author James M. McPherson discusses the American Civil ar and the desire on both sides to achieve peace. ars are far more easily begun than ended. The North was fighting in order to keep the Union together and to thwart further states from seceding. The South was fighting for what they believed to be their moral right: to govern according to their own ethics, including the right to own slaves. For the Civil ar, the stakes were so high that neither side was willing to negotiate a peaceful conclusion until there was absolutely no recourse but to do so.
There were three stages of negotiation attempts during the Civil ar. The first was foreign mediation, then unofficial contacts, and finally quasi-official conversations. From a foreign perspective, it was believed that the North had very little chance of restoring the United States of America into a single…… [Read More]
World War II drew to a close, and the planet was forced to recalibrate in unprecedented proportions, the United States began its long emergence as the most expansive super-power that had yet been known. Its influence that would compete virulently with the post-war Soviet influence for half a century, has since disseminated into every facet of the geopolitical theatre. As such, American support can operate as the determining factor in the success of a national agenda. Likewise, American dissent can be the stifling roadblock that sets nations adrift in failure and, consequently, resentment. So it's important to acknowledge that a nation's complaint of American neglect is more than just the bitter rhetoric of the disenfranchised. The emphasis placed on American approval and volition is fairly justified when one considers the weight and implication of the U.S. stance on any given topic. And it's certainly fair to say that American intervention…… [Read More]
..the spirit of ruthless brutality will enter itn every fiber of our national life" (Johnson 643).
Staying out, states Tindall & Shi 948), was "more easily said than done, not least for Wilson himself. Americans might want to stay out of the war, but most of them cared which side won. Ironically, because there were so many first- or second-generation immigrants from Germany and Ireland, the leaning was toward the Central Powers. However, "old-line Americans" mostly of ritish descent were sympathetic to the Allies.
Yet actions were to occur that made the final decision. In 1915, the Germans sank the ritish Cunard liner Lusitania with 128 Americans on board. The Americans were outraged and sent letters to no avail. Then U-boats sank a number of American ships and finally, the press published a secret telegram from the German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman to the Mexican government proposing a German-Mexican offensive…… [Read More]
As the king finally dies, Edgar speaks to him and Kent admonishes him, wishing to "let him pass" (V.iii.377). Kent understands that the tragedy s over now and King Lear can finally have the peace that he deserves. It should also be noted that in death, Lear also receives the justice he deserves as well. Edgar is still hanging onto the man and does not want him to die just yet but Kent sees the relief in death, noting, He hates him/That would upon the rack of this tough world/Stretch him out any longer" (V.iii.377-9). The two comment on how the king "endured so long" (V.iii.381) his painful life on earth. They knew what it was that the king realized in his final hours. His attitude toward family and material things had been reversed. The king taught them the meaning of value, which was exhibited in the previous scenes with…… [Read More]
With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves, but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty, I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the Government and people of the United States....America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other." (Woodrow Wilson's war message)
United States' entry bolstered the Allied forces and gave them extraordinary power over the German Imperial army. With America's entry into the war, things suddenly changed as we were was no longer spectators. The response from the public was however not overwhelming since it had been…… [Read More]
hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.
The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…… [Read More]
In what ways was Salvador Allende's "democratic road to socialism" in Chile distinct from Mexican and Cuban revolutionary movements? In what ways was it similar? Does it seem as though a democratic alternative to political coup d'etat is a workable and useful one? hy or why not?
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens, or just Salador Allende for short, was the first of the South American leader to institute a Marxist form of socialism, who came to power through a democratic election. Although the election that brought Allende to power was virtually a three-way tie, the Chilean Congress eventually named him as president through a run-off process. This victory was substantial for Allende's life and he had tried on three previous occasions to win the presidency. At the time, the Chilean government had several left-leaning government factions, with some more radical than others. This movement mirrored many other movements found…… [Read More]
World War I
Causes and Consequences of World War I
World War 1
(Causes, America's Contribution to the War, ole of President Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Versailles Failure)
The First World War (1914-1918) or the Great War was fought between the Allies and the Central Powers. The Allies included 27 countries of which ussia, the United States of America, France, Japan and Britain are the most prominent. The Central Powers consisted of Turkey, Germany, Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary as the chief combatants. It is the greatest and most atrocious war brawled till date.
There were a number of causes that initiated the brutality of World War I Major causes include imperialism, nationalism, materialism and alliance systems. However, the immediate cause of the beginning of the War was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the oyal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia. As he was killed by a Serbian nationalist in June…… [Read More]
World War I
The First World War began in the summer of 1914 with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. The conflict lasted through late 1918, concluding with the treaty of Versailles. The war to end all wars, as it was commonly known, was dominated by trench warfare. Due to numerous advances in defense technology and a lack of tactical advances, both the Allied Nations and the Central Powers, were stymied by a lack of military advances. Early victories in France, by the German army, and in Serbia by the Austrian/Hungarian forces proved to be less than decisive, due to miscommunication between the two Central powers.
Not only was this the First war between so many great world powers, additionally this was the first war to be affected by, and ultimately fought, not only on the battle field but also in the press rooms. Due to expansion in…… [Read More]
World War I
The Causes and How America Joined the War
The events that led to the causes of the first world war had its roots in the Balkans in late July 1914 and there are causes including political, territorial, and economic conflicts among the great European powers in the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, a complex web of alliances, imperialism and nationalism were some of the other causes that led up to the First World War.
The root for the Second World War lay in the peace accords and the punishments that were meted out to the Germans after the First World War and the sense of humiliation and economic debacle following the end of the First World War.
The animosity between the Americans and the Germans started with the sinking of the Lusitania as she made her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York in…… [Read More]
WWI: The Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism and Militarism
The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism irrevocably led to World War I in several ways. Germany had become an industrialized nation, vying for economic power and rivaling the power of Britain (Gilbert, 1994). Germany had also defeated France in the prior century in the Franco-Prussian War and taken the territories of Alsace and Lorraine. France wanted them back (Bradberry, 2012). ussia also had a grievance with Germany: it wanted the Bosporous Straights that were "controlled by Germany through her alliance with the Ottoman Empire" (Bradberry, 2012, p. 42). The only way for each of these countries to get what they wanted from Germany was to go to war: their alliance gave them the opportunity to attack Germany on all fronts, and Germany's support for the Austria-Hungary attack on Serbia (in retaliation for the Serbian assassination of Archduke Ferdinand) gave the Triple…… [Read More]
In 1917 ussia suffered two revolutions, which resulted in a drastic change of leadership. Tsarist ussia became Lenin's Soviet ussia and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed shortly thereafter in March 1918 with Germany. The treaty gave Germany much: over a million square millions and 60 million people -- a third of ussia's population -- were annexed. ussia lost railroads, factories, the majority of its coal and iron -- but Germany was in no position to immediately profit from the treaty. The Western Front was calling. ussia gained some peace from the treaty, and could now focus on its internal problems resulting from the recent overthrow and the war effort. Leading up to the treaty, Imperial ussia had suffered devastating casualties and food shortages. The Bolsheviks called for an end to the war on the Eastern Front, and Germany supported this call, allowing Lenin himself to return to…… [Read More]
World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany, Italy and Japan.
Leaders of the War
There were several leaders that made decisions that contributed to the start and end of WWII. Adolf Hitler, who became the leader of Germany during the Great Depression, is blamed for WWII. He raised German spirits by telling them of a better future and a better Germany. ut in reality, he gave them a war. Hitler planned to expand Germany by taking Austria, Poland, and many other countries. He believed that German people were superior to the rest of the world and wanted everyone to prove this. (Keegan)
efore Hitler, the spirit and nationalism of the German people was very low, but he was able to get the German people to take pride in…… [Read More]
World War I and the Great Depression
World War I
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 sparked the occurrence of the First World War. A Serbian nationalist called Gavrilo Princip murdered him as the heir apparent to the throne of Austria. However, other underlying factors that contributed to the rivalry between the Great Powers include the system of alliances, nationalism, domestic political factors, militarism, the Eastern question (The Balkans), and the crises before 1914. The main powers of Europe before 1914 were: (i) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882) and (ii) the Triple Entente of Britain, ussia and France (1907). In nature, the alliances were defensive, and this implied that major political disputes inevitably would lead to large and not small conflicts. Nationalism looked at eager people across the world who wanted to let the rest of the world know how strong and…… [Read More]
1st orld ar (I) was a global scale military conflict, which erupted in 1914. Virtually, the whole of Europe was involved as well as countries and kingdoms from other regions of the globe (Strachan 9). It should however be noted that the countries that engaged in this war entered the said war at different times and joined different alliances. Essentially, the war was between two alliances - the Central Powers and the Allies. In addition to these two sides, there was a neutral group of nations that remained neutral to the war. However, some of the said groups later on started taking sides. The Allies according to Kelly consisted of Great Britain, Belgium, Ireland, Serbia, Montenegro, Russia, as well as France and they were later joined by some neutral nations including Romania, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. On the other hand, the Central Powers alliance included the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria…… [Read More]
264) the result was chaos and no idea of how peace would realistically be achieved. Sharp writes that the statements of President Wilson in the 1918 speeches were the bases of the peace settlement, which was eventually made. (Sharp, 2006, paraphrased)
The primary decision making body of the gathering in Paris is reported by Sharp to have been the 'Council of Ten' which was comprised by the French, Italian and Great Britain prime ministers and the U.S. president including the respective ministers of foreign affairs and two delegates from Japan. Sharp reports that the 'Council of Four' including Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Wilson and Vittorio Orlando formed the critical decision making body. It is reported that it took the promises of Lloyd George and Wilson to assure the full support of the British and U.S. forces were Germany to attack France again to convince Clemenceau to demonstrate more flexibility. A decision…… [Read More]
U.S. Involvement in orld ar I & II:
There are several historical details of America's involvement in the First and Second world wars and the critical role that this country played in the two wars. Studies on these historical events have mainly focused on examining the involvement of the United States in the wars, the results of the engagement, and its impact on the country's position nationally and globally. America's involvement in the two wars had a crucial impact on the development of the nation to its current state both from the home front and internationally.
America's Involvement in orld ar I:
America's entrance and involvement in the First orld ar occurred on 6th April 1917, breaking the nation's long isolation tradition. The nation had embraced a policy of isolation and neutrality when war was declared in Europe in 1914. This policy seemed to be the most appropriate approach since…… [Read More]
Wilson was one of the massive supporters of this League of Nations as he felt it would help in being responsible in preventing subsequent wars. One major aspect of the treaty of Paris in 1919 was that it contained the Treaty of Versailles, one which has a major goal of disciplining Germany and forcing a sense of punishment and finality of Germany. For instance, Germany lost many colonies and investments in lieu of this treaty and their ability to forge a military was crippled and limited to a fraction of its original size; the German air force was also similarly crippled. Germany was also further bankrupt in the reparations that it was ordered to pay -- the equivalent of $132 billion gold marks. These intense punishments were a major aspect of the treaty and were something that did cause a deadlock at certain points in the negotiating process (MacMillan, 195).…… [Read More]
.. [and after they removed the bandages from his face] I saw a fearful sight...It wasn't him. I knew it. A few minutes later his breathing stopped" (The Lover 23). She still had not searched the upper floor, but the emotion of her search, the suffering of the men on those awful wards, was too much, and so she "left the building."
Dafi describes that when a math teacher is killed in the war, students were suffering over the loss, but, "it's impossible to be only sorry, but we really were stunned and shocked because we remembered him living and standing beside the blackboard not so long ago, writing out the exercises with endless patience...[and though many students went to sleep because of how boring he was] in the middle of all this drowsiness, in the cloud of chalk dust flying around the blackboard, the formulas used to penetrate. And…… [Read More]
As was the nature of the Cold ar, the United States responded by quashing new governments that were likely to lead to communism, even where this constituted an undemocratic or even brutal instituted government (Kort 80).
Democratically elected officials from Brazil, Guyana, and Uruguay were overthrown by internal revolutionaries who were funded and trained by American forces (Parenti 44). These and other leaders and governments in Latin America were targeted by American forced as having communist leanings. Foreign policy followed, with more than two decades of the Cold ar focusing not only on the major publicized events of Korea and the Soviet Union, but on many small, third world countries. These small nations were poised to become players in the larger Cold ar struggle depending on where their allegiance and governments ended up after declaring their independence. ith the Soviet Union attempting to exert force and pressure on the United…… [Read More]
92). Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.
Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. The philosophical fruit of Protestantism would spring up in the age of omantic/Enlightenment doctrine, which would produce the American and French evolutions. "Liberty, equality, fraternity" would be the modern world's ethos -- in theory. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed (as a principle). America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.
The new Imperialism of America (and…… [Read More]
Another explanation and reason of the necessity of war in Ancient Rome is economical.
There are several different perspectives on this. First of all, the Roman society was essentially a society using extensively slave labor as the most important form of labor in existence. This basically ranged from constructions to simple chores around the house and often to farming as well, entertainment of its citizens and in other battles. A society relying so much on slaves for its own economic benefits could only necessarily force wars and battles in order to constantly keep a thorough supply of slaves available for work.
Indeed, in general, the population of a nation that had been defeated in battle would have either perished in the fights or would have been enslaved. Enslavement meant not only work in the city of Rome (or elsewhere in the empire), but also the possibility of being sold in…… [Read More]
Origins of the Second World War, by A.J.P. Taylor. Specifically, it will critically analyze the book, its theme, and the author's methods.
THE OIGINS OF THE SECOND WOLD WA
Author of "The Origins of the Second World War," A.J.P. Taylor, was a noted British historian who wrote widely on European and world politics, policies, and history. His views were often unorthodox and controversial. "Taylor practiced a legitimate revisionism that is found in every field of history. Similar revisionists included Daniel J. Goldhagen who has argued that a deep-rooted anti-Semitism in Germany caused the Holocaust, not just Hitler and the Nazi party" (Schoenherr). He wrote numerous books and publications, including "The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848-1918," and "English History 1914-1945." He also worked as a broadcaster for the BBC. He was primarily interested in English and German history, but wrote extensively on a variety of historic and political subjects. Taylor…… [Read More]
United States entry into world war.
Taking nations from more than half the globe as partakers and victims, the first war broke out, 1914-1918, and that is known as World War 1 or the First World War. Until the World War II broke out, it was widely known as the war which had broken out which had the capacity to put an end to all wars, and commonly it was known as The Great War. In fact multiple factors produced the First World War. An International anarchy was seen all over Europe. On the eve of the World War I there were 25 sovereign states in Europe, each desiring to act on its own individual conscience. None of them was ready to submit to the interference or will of the other, as each of them held its pride high, thinking if they accepted the advice of any other state, their…… [Read More]
His death by suicide is not hard to understand, in fact if one reads very carefully between the lines of the last pages of his book, he is a depressed man without a country. He used words like "tortured heart" and "tormenting clairvoyance" (419); those allusions give hints.
QUESTION FOUR: My personal reflections tend to revolve around Zweig's movements and Zweig's thoughts in the years leading up to the takeover of Austria, as he could clearly see the Jewish community - and all of Europe - was in for a very rough ride. I reflect on what I believe I might have done had I been in his shoes. Surely I would have tried to spirit my aging mother out of Austria before it was too late. Also, I would have gone to America and tried to convince the political leaders and members of the media that Europe was about…… [Read More]
The crisis facing Soviet society as the union disintegrated came from several sources, but the economic problems, the growing crime rate, the inter-ethnic violence, and the political struggles all derived from the deep crisis rising questions about the legitimacy of Soviet political institutions and the identity of the Soviet people. Gorbachev brought about many changes in Soviet politics and society. The development of this national policy came as the Soviet Union spent more and more on defense and security while people had to wait in long lines for staples. The political regime began trying to reform the economic structure in the 1980s in the era of perestroika. Ronald Grigor Suny notes that official policies in the mid-1980s began to shift priorities in response to a perceived need, and at the time, socio-cultural demands by the people were being answered and were increasing the size of sections of the budget for…… [Read More]
U.S. As a World Power
The United States became a world power between 1890 and 1974 through the winning of World Wars and through economic growth and stability. By 1890, the U.S. economy was the best in the world, and American industry was producing double what Britain was. During that time, though, the U.S. was not strong militaristically or diplomatically, as these were areas on which it needed to work. In the meantime, the U.S. was focused on its industry and on helping poorer nations that were considered "backward" at the time and that were struggling in an effort to grow and develop into countries with stronger economies that were better able to help take care of their citizens. While the U.S. was engaged in humanitarian efforts at home and around the world, it also began to develop more on a diplomatic level. This was needed as the tensions that…… [Read More]
But despite the rhetorical agreement amongst all of the occupying Allied powers, de-Nazification in Eastern vs. estern Germany had a very different character. Soviets were less interested in prosecuting war criminals and more interested in eliminating all individuals and aspects of culture deemed counterrevolutionary (Mazower 238). Destroying German capitalism and private ownership of agriculture was the priority, not feeding the hungry or finding former Nazis. However, estern de-Nazification was hardly superior -- it was done on a case-by-case basis, did not exclude former Nazis from public life, and most Germans believed that lower-level officials were prosecuted, while those really responsible for war crimes were set free in the American zone (Mazower 239). Interestingly enough, the French were probably the most successful in their de-Nazification efforts, given that they focused on German youth, and changing German culture more than former Nazis (Mazower 240).
Massive financial outlays, meager social changes, and "back-pedaling"…… [Read More]
WWI was also the first time that toxins such as mustard gas were used and this created panic and death in many different countries, significantly raising the death toll from the war and also making it more difficult for the country to stay organized and on-track when it came to supporting the troops that were fighting (Marston, 1981).
Italy was another of the allies that joined up to retaliate against Germany. If it were not for the issue with the alkans, it is likely that WWI would have never taken place, but other countries objected so strongly to the way that Germany handled the problem that they felt they must become involved. When Italy had finally been pushed far enough, it "decided to retaliate" and officially joined the war (Marston, 1981).
For Italy, going into the war meant protecting itself and its allies. It had generally enjoyed a good relationship…… [Read More]
Women in World War II
The Second World War was fought on many fronted. The activities that took place both in the battlefield and outside showed a number of suffering and inhumanity. It will go down in human history that more than six million Jews were killed in a single war. In this war, women were not left behind as they also took an active role in the practice. There eight most notable women who came forth to fight for their side of the battle line. The following study focuses on the similarities and differences of Therese Bonney, May Craig, and Janet Flanner and their contributions during the war.
Each of the three women made significant contributions towards the fight during the Second World War. Therese Bonney was a highly educated woman having studied at Harvard among other institutions. She was a career photographer (Wagner, 2011). During the war,…… [Read More]
The Soviets desire to establish their "sphere of influence" in Eastern Europe and disagreement with the U.S. over the fate of Germany was another reason. The U.S. retaliated by issuing the Truman Doctrine in 1947 that authorized U.S. aid to anti-Communist forces in countries threatened by Communists. The Soviet testing of the atomic bomb in 1949 and its tacit approval of a North Korean attack on South Korea that led to the Korean War further soured relations between the two nations. The Vietnam War in which the U.S. intervened militarily to prevent a Communist take-over of the country was another area of conflict between the U.S. And the Soviet Union. (Bell, 2001)
Containment." (2006). Nuclear Files.org: Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. etrieved on November 18, 2006 at http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/cold-war/strategy/strategy-containment.htm
Bell, P.M.H. (2001). The World since 1945 -- An International History. London: Oxford University Press Inc.
The U.S. represented democracy, individual liberty…… [Read More]