Educational Opportunities Essays Prompts

25+ documents containing “Educational Opportunities”.

Sort By:

Reset Filters
Domestic Abuse

Final Project ??" DOMESTIC ABUSE
For your Project, you are asked to select a problem or issue related to society or to the counseling or human services profession and to use what you have learned in the course to create a plan for a societal or professional change project.
The Final Project must include the following (you may wish to use the bulleted items below as the basis for topic headings throughout your paper):
The societal or professional problem/issue that concerns you, one that could benefit from social change, leadership, and/or advocacy. Explain why the problem/issue is of concern to you. Also explain the merits of the cause, including but not limited to how it would contribute to a society that supports the mental health and welfare of its members and/or a profession that supports that commitment.?
The needed change: Describe a specific change you think is needed (in society or in the profession) that would address the problem/issue you selected and how the change would help to resolve or improve the problem or issue.
Goals: Describe one or more manageable goals that would at least begin the process of bringing about the identified change and explain how the goal(s) would do so.
Resources: Using Waldens library and/or the Internet, find at least three sources of information (e.g., research articles, print literature, videos, websites, etc.) related to the problem/issue you selected. Cite the references using APA guidelines. Also include a brief summary of the resources as they relate to your problem/issue.
Analysis: Using either a force-field analysis or SWOT analysis, identify and briefly describe the forces??"people, elements of the environment, resources, leadership, substantive knowledge, political expertise and/or experience in creating change??"working for and against the achievement of your goal(s).
Objectives: Develop and describe up to three specific objectives for meeting your goal(s). You may need or wish to include an objective(s) that reduces or eliminates one of the forces working against the achievement of your goal(s).
Action plan: Develop an action plan to meet the objectives using what you have learned about social change, leadership, and advocacy theories and processes. Explain the steps of your action plan.
Evaluation: Explain how you would evaluate the effectiveness of the actions taken based on your action plan.
Ethics and diversity??Explain any ethical issues and guidelines, as well as equity and diversity opportunities and challenges related to the problem/issue, goals, objectives, and/or actions to be taken. Explain how you might address them in carrying out your action plan.
Projected results: Anticipate and explain what you think might happen if you implemented your plan. Be specific.
Next steps: Explain the next steps you would take to address the problem/issue.
References: Use a minimum of 10??"12 empirically based references in addition to any course readings that you wish to cite. Your citations should come from peer-reviewed journals, reputable periodicals, and noncommercial websites. Please note that Wikipedia is not considered a scholarly reference and thus is not accepted as a citable source. (Please consult the Walden University Library's instructions for evaluating research resources, which includes a link to criteria for evaluating resources).
o Explain how you would characterize the relationship between and among social change, leadership, and advocacy.
o Explain how your understanding of social change, leadership, and advocacy has shifted your perspective on the problem or issue you selected, on what you can do about it, and on your sense of personal efficacy in bringing about needed changes in society and/or in the counseling or other human services professions.
Project must be presented as a 15??"20 page (not including references, title page, or abstract), double-spaced, APA. Create a plan for a societal or professional change project.

Customer is requesting that (writergrrl101) completes this order.

Consulting Psychology

A Comparative Analysis of Perspecitves on Consulting

1. History of Consultation
2. Stages of Consultation
3. Four interviews: Educational Consultant, Swedish Consultant, Internal Consultant & International Consultant
4. Convergence of perspectives
5. Divergence of perspectives
6. Conclusion

Begin with a solid research statement (e.g., Burnout remains one of the most critical problems facing human services today (Burke & Greenglass, 1995; Malach-Pines, 2000; Mathews, 1990).

At least 3 solid main points to expand in your paper


Recommendations/Application for future research

References 15 - 20

APA style

The offering and Marketing of Distance Learning in Third World Countries.
General: This Research Paper aims to demonstrate that the current distance learning and online learning programs that are available are prepared with the students in the west in mind and not students in Third World countries. We need to demonstrate that a new approach is needed in these countries and that we need to make available to them a system that can be implemented taking into consideration the fact that there are several barriers such as language, culture, technology, access to research material, libraries etc. Furthermore we need to talk about marketing strategies of such a product in these countries. Following is a suggested structure of the above.
Chapter 1 ? Introduction to the Thesis
-This sets out the basic premise of the project
- Why is there an issue ? economic growth and exclusion by cost of study and artificial market barriers ? the fact that most distance learning and online learning programs are design for people in the west. (expensive, needing fast internet connection, language barrier etc)
-Social economic power of supplier of education, limiting numbers to control the economic development and influence its implementation
-What might be done using existing medium and knowledge transfer
-Why this is not working
-What might be done
Chapter 2 ? Higher education and distance learning global trends
- Summary of the use of distance learning, its forms, it costs and its delivery requirement in higher education
-Make an argument that this only serves the interests of the rich western universities who develop programmes for internal strategic interests
Chapter 3 - Distance learning and its impact on student number in..
-Continue the review but now focus on the target markets for the study (Iran and Pakistan, India, China)
- Show how the current approaches fail to offer hope and opportunity to those who most need it
- Suggest reasons and possible solutions
Chapter 4 The research issues and aims of the project
-What can be done and why should it be done?
-A discussion on the issues of the market determining value
-What is the purpose of the thesis and its outcomes?
-Who will it help (reveal as sinners) and how will it do that
-What are the actual outcomes ? research report, new form of product, distribution system
Chapter 5 ? Research methodology and methods
-How are you going to address the problems
-What is the basis of the methods chosen
-What are the methods and why are they best to deal with the research questions or outcomes
Chapter 6 - Doing the work
-Describe the activities in research and development
-Highlight actions and the result obtained
-Discuss how the outcome we formulates making reference to them throughout this section (the actual outcome, software, research report will also need to be done and attached separately)
Chapter 7 ? Discussion
-This is a general decision of the results; what they mean, how you have analysis and used them to create the outcomes
Chapter 8 ? Conclusions and reflection
-What does this all means?
-What is the likely use of the outcome?
- How successful have you been?
- Reflection on the process

We can furthermore discuss the marketing problems in terms of an integrated marketing mix relating to the marketing of distance learning in Third World Countries.

Identify an area of concern in education over which you have some control and design an action research plan that will help you come to a positive improvement of the problem (challenge and opportunity)

In plan, for conducting the action research, use procedures as outlined by Sally J. Zepeda and Carl D. Glickman

Describe the knowledge and skills a supervisor would need to successfully complete the project

You must also review 3 articles and include the reviews as an appendix to your written assignment. The review of the literature is an appendix.

In 1997, Dr. John T. Krimmel published an article titled The Northern York County Police Consolidation Experience: An Analysis of the Consolidation of Police Services in Eight Pennsylvania Rural Communities. His study reviewed the experiences of the Northern York Regional Police Department in York County and similar police departments in Lancaster County, both of which are rural counties in Pennsylvania. The article also contained a review summarizing several police department consolidations across the United States.

Dr. Krimmel's study identifies several advantages and disadvantages of consolidation.

Read the following article. The article contains the information you will need to complete this assignment:

"The Northern York County Police consolidation experience An analysis of the consolidation of police services in eight Pennsylvania rural communities." Krimmel, John T. Policing. Bradford: 1997. Vol. 20, Iss. 3; p. 497

On the basis of your reading and research, answer the following questions:

What are the pros and cons of consolidating police agencies?
Who will be in charge of the merged departments?
Identify examples of problems dealing with educational levels, pay scale, and seniority.
Which hiring standards related to the different departments in the merged cell are affected?
Polygraph and psychological exams are not required for some police agencies. Will all the agencies be required to take the exams after the merger?
How will you evaluate the merged police departments on the following criteria:
Fair play
Cost effectiveness


Across the nation, municipalities are struggling financially. In Pennsylvania, for example, the state sets taxation caps and regulates real estate tax limits. The only remaining revenue generating option for Pennsylvania communities seems to be an earned income tax, which is, in many instances, politically dangerous. A portion of this economic struggle may be eased, somewhat, if municipalities consider regionalizing their departments or consolidating police services.

In addition to the tax savings objectives there are several other reasons why jurisdictions consider consolidating police services. Consolidation may result in a more effective delivery of police service by eliminating duplication of efforts between police departments. Smaller departments may find consolidation increases their efficiency by providing resources previously unavailable to them. Municipalities, for example, may be able to take advantage of centralized record keeping systems, crime laboratories, or other specialized services not readily available to smaller police departments.

Consolidation may yield better trained personnel and a lower personnel turnover rate due to increased opportunities created in a larger "merged" department. Finally, consolidating police services presents the opportunity for innovation. It may alter the structure of existing police departments and improve the quality and delivery of police services.

The logic for consolidating municipal police departments is simple. For example, in smaller, "low-crime" towns with total populations of 25,000 and a total area of nine square miles, why support the costs of five police stations and five police chiefs? (A scenario suggested as commonplace in Pennsylvania and New Jersey by a New York Times reporter, September 17, 1995.) In addition to providing municipalities the opportunity for innovation and improving service, opportunities for better quality of proactive policing will emerge. Specialization of investigative techniques will result when officers have more access to more training and options to ply their skills in larger, more flexible and diverse departments. These skills can include arson investigation, investigating hate crimes, developing juvenile units, better burglary investigations, career criminal apprehension programs, and the like. Improved services will result as costs for equipment are reduced, communications systems are streamlined, and centralized record keeping is improved. Hiring can become more efficient and purchases done in bulk. Specific crime control strategies (e.g. hot spots) can be more vigorously employed while at the same time the bonds between police and prosecutors can be strengthened. If the interagency bonds are improved, theoretically, better networking will result and municipalities will participate in the development of community relations programs which hopefully will become critical to the department as the planning process improves. Furthermore, the better the inter-agency cooperation, the more likely the community will be to share other services such as fire and rescue operations, resulting in further efficiency of municipal service.

On the other hand, there may be reasons why a municipality would not desire consolidation. There may be a history of strong community autonomy. Community members and police officers may value their unique characteristics and identities. Perhaps nobody in the community wants change. Residents may wish to retain direct control over police supervision in one form or another and maintain the character of the police department. Citizens may not care to risk the chance that police will no longer provide service to the community in the manner that they have always done. Generally, community members feel that police should provide more services than arresting people. A suburban Pennsylvania police chief, for example, was quoted in the local newspaper regarding police consolidation "someone always loses when departments consolidate" (Pilla, 1995). Citizens may distrust big government. They may fear that political monopolizing will take place after the consolidation and drive taxes even higher.

It is, in fact, the fear of losing local control that most often derails attempts to eliminate or regionalize police departments. Police officers feel that their jobs are threatened and elected officials do not want to lose jurisdiction over what is probably the biggest service they control (Orndorf, 1995). Police officers will understandably be concerned about their retirement systems, job security and benefit packages.

Crawford and Jones (1995) studied negative aspects of agency consolidation and concluded that current multi-agency forums brought together to combat crime resemble neo-corporatist administrative arrangements and discretion becomes invisible and remains unaccountable. Thus, unregulated power differentials between agencies may result in some loss of control and can become a factor in a police agency consolidation.

Sampson et al. (1988) caution that conflict may arise in those multi-agency projects were one agency is more powerful than the other(s). State agencies, for example, tend to dominate the agenda. Police are often very enthusiastic about multi-agency approaches to crime problems but the larger agencies tend to prefer to set the agendas and dominate forums. Sampson et al. conclude that they would not advocate an overblown, all-encompassing, multi-agency approach as a panacea to all problems in all localities, but rather a more narrowly focussed approach, with specific forms of inter-agency relationships, on specific themes and problems. In short, where the problem calls for a directed police response, a multi-agency approach may overcome inter-agency conflict.

DeRoche (1994) in her study of regionalized health care systems found that "expansionist approaches that seek to derive the local system from some larger system will not adequately comprehend the local system." Regional health care strategies have emerged as a cost saving strategy and this trend to regionalize continues. Where cultural analysis of regionalizing is, for the most part, absent DeRoche concludes that workers feel less estranged from work that allows them some latitude in problem solving and decision making. Police officers should be permitted these kinds of latitude despite the regionalized strategy. They will feel less estranged.

Some police eperts argue that no real savings will be seen in the long run. "Personnel cuts will be made from the bottom of the roster and not really show savings" (Fisher, 1995). Those fearful of consolidation have sincere reasons for their trepidation. However, the literature suggests positive outcomes overall.

Literature review

Kenney et al. (1982) studied a five-municipality consolidation project in California. They found police consolidation of small departments to present an opportunity for innovation, that is, "alter the structure of police departments and thus improve the quality and delivery of police services" (Kenney et al., 1982, p. 466). This California consolidation project offered the police departments involved the chance to shift their priorities to a proactive crime prevention priority, a strategy based on crime suppression. Their strategy included the development of improved community relations along with the use of community service officers. The Kenney study also recommended the use of contract personnel and employment of officers on a yearly (contractual) bases. The initial use of contract personnel allowed the police executive greater flexibility in filling positions and provided for greater accountability. The study concluded that consolidating police services provides alternative staffing methods, creative financing, and more control over effective police services.

Richard Rubin (1984) in his study of municipal consolidations demonstrated that the rising costs of maintaining and manning two separate public safety departments is the major reason city officials seek alternatives to the standard organization. He postulates that consolidation can be successful if, at the same time, the cities can cut costs and maintain the quality of their protection. Rubin's research located a number of cities including Sunnyvale, California; Clifton, New Jersey; Flagstaff, Arizona; El Dorado, Kansas and Glencoe, Illinois where police consolidated services on some level. The benefits of these consolidations included lower insurance costs along with increased police protection. Accordingly, better management practices led to improved police performance.

In Crank's (1990) assessment of consolidated police departments he found lower insurance rates, a higher quality of police training, and a resulting need for higher quality police personnel and increased salaries for police officers. The police departments that offered more training opportunities and higher salaries eventually demanded a better qualified recruit.

McAninch and Sanders (1988) employed a survey to measure the attitudes of police officers toward consolidation and how consolidation would affect their personal benefits. Also measured was the officers' perceptions of how much of an impact such consolidations would have on police professionalism. The study found that police were more likely to support consolidation if enhanced professionalism was perceived to be in the future. That is, if crime control efforts were improved, departmental operational costs reduced, and initial start-up costs were kept at a minimum, then the police officers tended to support consolidation regardless of any threat to personal benefit.

Research of municipal consolidations include those efforts to combine police and fire services. Sobba (1991) introduced conceptual levels of consolidation and examined the issues and concerns that involve the consolidation. Sobba investigated the consolidation of police and fire services. Although there is not enough published research to reveal the exact number of consolidations at each level, various municipalities have selected the best level suited for them (Sobba, 1991, p. 7).

Levels of consolidation can vary from community to community. Some administrators believe that consolidation is a more productive and efficient way to manage employees. In a study in Morganton, North Carolina, for example, city officials conducted a survey to determine if the creation of a public safety department would benefit their city. It was proven that 60 percent of the calls received at the fire station were false calls and considered unproductive (Sobba, 1991, p. 7). Therefore, a consolidation of police and fire services would in fact save money. Police trained in fire detection could respond first and eliminate the need for fire equipment to respond.

Staley's research (1993) included an analysis of several different police departments that have attempted to consolidate. His objective was to identify the long-term patterns of change among consolidated organizations. It was found that the consolidated departments realized quicker emergency response time in departments where police and fire services have been combined. If a police officer was trained as a fire official, he would be able to act on arrival. When there is a fire, the police are initially called. They then contact the fire department who acts and responds as quickly as possibly. However, if these agencies were consolidated, any communication gaps between the police and the fire department would be eliminated.

Municipal consolidation has recently occurred at the national level. In 1989 the Labor Party in New Zealand passed the Local Government Amalgamation Act which called for the reduction of local governments nationwide from 290 units to 87 units thus creating regionalized governments. Local governments were reduced by 67 percent (Elsass, 1991). Planners were faced with increased costs for merging communication systems and some immediate unemployment problems as governments workers were laid off. However "there appeared to be more accountability on the part of the local government boards and managers as a result of the act" (Elsass, 1991, p. 18). For the first time, governments were forced to do long-term planning. Prior to the consolidation, local governments were not inclined to plan and they were under no pressure to conform to modern accounting systems. The regionalized approach to government eventually led to lower costs of planning, administration, public health, and more. Police and fire service were already nationalized. For the first time in ten years "the country's budget was not in deficit, but was in surplus, by 0.6 percent of the GNP" (Wellington, 1994). The growth in the country's economy is attributed to a more flexible labor market as a result of "liberalized" government. Planners are better able to keep control of spending as a result of the consolidation, studies revealed.

Despite the lack of research in the area of municipal consolidation the literature strongly predicts the benefits of consolidation to include a proactive shift to crime fighting, better overall management practices, quicker response rates, better training, lower insurance rates, better salaries leading to higher quality personnel, increased planning capacity and more accountability.


This study was conducted in York and Lancaster Counties in rural Pennsylvania. The Northern York Regional Police Department has been a consolidated department since 1972 and currently consists of eight municipalities. The Northern York Regional Police Department is the study population (experimental group). The comparison group consists of eight similar police departments in Lancaster County, a contiguous rural geographic area. The primary objective of this study is to compare the operational costs of the consolidated department in York County to eight similar municipalities in a neighboring county. (A preferred methodology might have been to compare operational costs prior to and after the Northern York County Regional Police Department (NYCRPD) consolidation but this information was not available.)

This study was operationalized as a quasi experimental design. Quasi experiments are distinguished from true experiments primarily by the lack of random assignment to experimental and control groups (Babbie, 1995). Further, a common strategy for evaluation designs is the construction or identification of groups of nonparticipants which are to be compared in critical ways (Rossi, 1985). Thus, the value of using comparison groups depends on how similar the groups are on key variables to the treatment group (Hagen, 1995). The focus then becomes the comparison of the experimental group and the control group (or comparison group). The primary dependent variable (or outcome) is the cost of operating the police departments.

The first task in this research was to find and compare our comparison group to the experimental group. The experimental group has been defined as the eight municipalities that make up the Northern York County Regional Police Department. This study considered the NYCRPD as a whole and compared the eight "comparison" municipalities as a whole. In other words, this study treated the comparison group as a similar consolidated police department, even though they are not consolidated. They are eight separately operating police departments. This approach allowed for the comparison of group means, a calculation of the standard deviation and a student's t-test. Therefore, conclusions can be drawn as to whether or not the eight consolidated rural police departments are, in fact, more efficient to operate than the "independents."

Eight municipalities, similar to the municipalities in NYCRPD, were located (see Appendix). The comparison variables considered were population, land area and density, income tax level, the market value of the real estate, and other tax rates. Table I provides a display of the variables used to compare the regionalized group to the control group. Notice that none of the t values are significant, suggesting that the NYCRPD and the comparison municipalities are equal for purposes of this comparison.

The second group of comparison variables focussed on the operations of the municipalities. Variables such as the dollar amount of the municipality's general fund, the expenditures for the police department, the per capita expenditure for police, the number of police vehicles, the crime index and the number of incidents handled by the police were analyzed. Table II provides a display of the variables used to compare the NYCRPD to the comparison group municipalities. Again, we see no statistical differences between the two groups. There is no significant difference between the NYCRPD and the control group.

The above data show that the municipalities identified as comparison municipalities are comparable. Therefore, we can safely proceed to the next phase of this study which considers the aggregate differences between the comparison group and the NYCRPD. The aggregated data, as they appear in Table III, are population, land area, roadway miles, real estate value, police costs, per capita police costs, costs per officer, costs per incident, costs per call, number of officers per 1,000 population, the number of vehicles and the number of police officers.

Based on the information gleaned from Table III, this study concludes that the NYCRPD provides police coverage to the same geographic area and population density as the comparison municipalities, only they do so for 28 percent less total aggregate costs. In addition, the per capita cost in the NYCRPD is 25 percent less than in the comparison group. However, the cost per officer is higher (by 13 percent) in the NYCRPD. (This difference may be attributed to accounting practices by the individual municipalities. Some municipalities could not separate police costs accurately from their general operating budgets.) The officers in the NYCRPD earn higher salaries than in the comparison group. The cost per crime incident is 50 percent less in the NYCRPD. The cost per call is 70 percent less in the regionalized department. The number of officers per 1,000 population is 34 percent less in the NYCRPD and the NYCRPD patrols with 56 percent fewer vehicles. Overall, the NYCRPD is providing police patrol and investigatory functions at the same level as the comparison municipalities but with 37 percent fewer police officers. The comparison municipalities require 52 officers and the NYCRPD is staffed with 33 officers.

Ancillary effects of the Northern York experience

According to the police chief of the NYCRPD, the citizens served by the Northern York County Regional experience have benefited by the combination of eight small rural police departments into one. He stated that the regionalized approach has provided citizens with a more effective delivery of police services simply by eliminating duplication of effort. Since 1972, when the departments originally merged, the service provided has become more sophisticated as records became centralized and communication systems were streamlined. The police department offers citizens specialized service such as a grant funded proactive policing unit, a canine unit, an investigations unit (detectives) and juvenile specialists. "It is doubtful that the individual departments would have had the means to provide this type of specialization, independently," said Chief Segatti.

Segatti further stated, "The amount of necessary equipment was reduced. The savings in vehicles alone is noteworthy." The regionalized project also saw better training opportunities. Prior to the regionalization, small departments were hard pressed to release patrolmen to attend training seminars. Thus, the regionalized department is able to offer more training opportunities. One important benefit the NYCRPD realized was strengthening specific crime control strategies. The NYCRPD was able to mobilize patrol functions and create hot spot enforcement strategies, drunk driving details and narcotics investigations. These efforts have served to enhance the bonds between the police department and the district attorney's office

The management style of the NYCRPD board contributed to the success of the consolidation. In Northern York each municipality involved in the police consolidation project appointed a representative to the Police Board of Directors. Each board member acted on behalf of his or her municipality as well as on behalf of the consolidated effort. The result is each board member is acutely aware of the service provided to his or her community as well as the services received by other municipalities.

This resulted in a management strategy that is closely connected to the community, perhaps even closer than before the consolidation. Chief Segatti stated that the Northern York Regional Police Department feels no pressure to fix tickets or alter investigations of any sort. This is due, at least in part, to the management style of the police board. Segatti said, "Each board member protects their individual turf while at the same time maintains an awareness of the turf of the others."

The NYCPRD experience has demonstrated that a regionalized approach can do more for less. The NYCRPD polices the same type of community and area as the comparison group with a third less manpower. At the same time the NYCRPD offers more specialized services to the communities they serve.

The NYCRPD experience has provided to their community a more effective delivery of police service, better crime control strategies and a more coordinated approach to police-fire-rescue operations. At the same time, the police are able to offer a formal proactive police strategy to the citizens, where prior to regionalizing no department would have been able to staff such a program.

In addition, the police officers have been able to take advantage of more training opportunities. Also, the interaction of the Police Board of Directors has created a positive management atmosphere. The bonds between the police department and the district attorney's office have been strengthened.


The primary goal of this study was to assess the costs of police operations in a consolidated police department and compare them to a comparison group of similar "unconsolidated" municipalities. The bottom line for the NRCRPD experience is that the consolidated department does the job for less money than the comparison municipalities. There are some other reported benefits to this particular police consolidation experience.

According to the NYCRPD police chief, in addition to the cost savings realized by the consolidation, the experience permitted the department to receive more training opportunities, created more professional choices for the officers as well as higher salaries. The department was also able to compete for state grant money and received funding for proactive policing programs and a state-of-the-art fingerprint system.

Consolidating police services is not necessarily the fiscal answer for every struggling municipality. Research has identified some negative aspects of inter-agency approaches to policing. They include management problems with discretion and accountability and the inability to settle conflicts, especially when one agency dominates. The more powerful agency may tend to dominate the agendas. Small municipalities will give up control of their police operations if they consolidate. They risk loss of autonomy and realistic comprehension of the special needs of the smaller unit. Additionally, if departments consolidate without a careful plan they may not realize any fiscal benefits.

In addition to the type of municipal consolidation described in the Northern York County experience, Crank (1990) offers a description of possible variations. Municipalities may opt to consolidate fully as did Northern York County. They may select partial consolidation in which some of the municipality identities are retained. Municipalities may also consider selected consolidation strategies such as special units made up of officers from different municipalities (e.g. multi-jurisdictional drug task forces). This may allow municipalities to evolve slowly toward consolidating services.

Another negative aspect of consolidations is the potential loss of employment for some police officers. In general, the research on consolidation offers no counsel on this. However, in the Kenney et al. (1982) study the authors suggest contracting, on a yearly basis, with individual officers at the same salary and benefit level prior to the consolidation. Any contractual renewal after one year will be based on the performance of the individual officers. Thus, any employee not performing as specified in the contract can be eliminated after a trial year.

In closing, police consolidation may provide a viable alternative strategy for smaller municipalities searching for ways to control rising taxes. The research offers a cautionary note, consolidation may not be for every municipality. The experience in York County appears to be a positive one. The police department remains small (around 30 officers) and keeping a small-town police philosophy was not difficult to do. This may not be the case in every consolidation.


1. Babbie, E. (1995, The Practice of Social Research, Wadsworth Press, Belmont, CA.

2. Crank, J.P. (1990, "Patterns of consolidation among public safety departments 1978-88, " Journal of Police Science and Administration, Vol. 17, pp. 277-88.

3. Crawford, A. and Jones, M. (1995, "Inter-agency co-operation and community-based crime prevention, " British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 35 No.1, Winter, pp. 17-33.

4. DeRoche, C. (1994, "On the edge of regionalization: management style and the construction of conflict in organizational change, " Human Organizations, Vol. 53 No. 3, pp. 209-19.

5. Elsass, D. (1991, "Upheaval in New Zealand local government: wave of the future in the USA?, " PM, July, pp. 16-18.

6. Fisher, W. (1995, New York Times, September 17..

7. Hagen, F. (1995, Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology, Macmillan, New York.

8. Kenney, J.P., Adams, G.B. and Vito, G.F. (1982, "Consolidation of police services: an opportunity for innovation, " Journal of Police Science and Administration, No. 10, pp. 466-72.

9. McAninch, T. and Sanders, J. (1988, "Police attitudes toward consolidation in Bloomington/Normal, Illinois: a case study, " Journal of Police Science and Administration, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 95-104.

10. Orndorf, D. (1995, Bucks County Courier Times, October 30, Levittown, Pennsylvania.

11. Pennsylvania Department of Community Affairs (1992, "A study of the cost effectiveness of the Northern York County Regional Police Department, " an unpublished state document.

12. Pilla, B. (1995, Bucks County Courier Times, October 31, Levittown, Pennsylvania.

13. Rossi, P. and Freeman, H. (1985, Evaluation: A Systematic Approach, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.

14. Rubin, R.S. (1984, "Consolidation of police and fire services, " Journal of Police Science and Administration, Vol. 12, pp. 221-6.

15. Sampson, A., Stubbs, P., Smith, D., Pearson, G. and Blagg, H. (1988, "Crime, localities and the multi-agency approach, " British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 28 No. 4, Autumn, pp. 478-93.

16. Sobba, R.L. (1991, "Public service consolidation, " FBI/Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 9, February, pp. 6-10.

17. Staley, S. (1993, "Bigger is not better: the virtues of decentralized government, " USA Today, March, pp. 10-15.

18. Wellington (1994, "The New Zealand success story, " The Economist, Vol. 332, p. 40.

Appendix. Pennsylvania municipalities compared in the study

The program municipalities in the study were:

Dover Township;

Dover Borough;

Manchester Township;

Paradise Township;

Conewago Township;

North York Borough;

Franklin Township;

Dillsburg Borough.

The comparison municipalities in the study were:

Conestoga Borough;

Fairview Township;

Manheim Township;

Marietta Borough;

Penn Township

Quarryville Borough;

West Manheim Township;

Wrightsville Borough.

dear writer-

I work in education, these are high-school kids ages 13-19. I am trying to sell my product, it is called Teens and Technology. I have to see myself and my educational idea. It is very popular and Headteachers are asking about it, but I need help making it look nice so I can give it to them when I meet with them. Please help me make it marketable. it is a a great for challenging teens who are struggling in school. They can develop a skill to take with them and make money once they learn it. Also the policy writing at the end makes them part of a whole school project which is really spectacular in today's economy, they have to be technically savvy! today to survive!.

I am including what it is about.

1. Please try and use professional educational language to spice it up. remember I have to sell this to schools

2.My boss wants it in bullet points so they can make a leaflet out of it-keep the heading and than the point have to be bullet pointed

Teens and Technology teaches uses technology to capture the imaginations of students , to empower them, build confidence, self-esteem and hope.Their vision and voices are shared through exhibitions, books, websites and videos. By linking with local organizations, we work to strengthen the pupils education and general well-being of the individual

Teens and Technology
Technology awareness class

To raise children's self confidence, self esteem and independence
To enhance children's understanding and use of emerging technology
To give children the confidence and knowledge to face a changing work landscape of the future.
To teach marketable skills for future career opportunities in fields such as:
Awareness of new technology
graphic design,
web page design,
digital and online publishing,
digital technology
collaboration and team project working.
To make the educational process more positive for the students.
To help reduce the disruption caused by current introduction of mobile phones,
Teach children how to use mobile phone and computer to more constructively, and how to use them as personal development and educational tool.
Make children more aware of the positives and negative components of modern technology.

What is created by the program

Students create a digital images, films and audio presentations using mobile devices they already have.
Students will learn how to upload this material on to a computer and edit it.
Students learn how to create interactive and creative presentations using Web based and computer based tools.
Students will learn to work collaboratively as a team to create richer projects and share knowledge
Students will participate in discussion of the proper and improper uses mobile technology in the school,
Students will train as technology mentors to help other students and staff in using digital devices in a more educationally constructive fashion,
Students will work to form a mobile technology audit that they they will present to head teachers as input in to potential school wide mobile technology policy.

The key goal of this program is help students see digital devices less as a distraction from school and more as a strong potential tool for teaching and learning.

Technology is rapidly changing every part of children's lives. And this trend is likely to only increase in the future. Technology opens a world of possibilities to children, offering a space where they can create, collaborate, research and express themselves. But technology also posses a number of threats. Therefore the greatest danger is that children be drawn in to new emerging technology without learning to master it, to understand it, and to form their own beliefs and opinions about it.

There are faxes for this order.

This is an abstract that I have been working on. I want to demonstrate that Black women during the 19th to early 20th century used biblical scripture to identify themselves as chosen individuals and fight for women's rights in the church and secular world. I hope this is abstract will help you. I want to use Rebecca Jackson, Maria W. Stewart, Nannie Helen Burroughs, and Mary V. Cook as the four examples to establish my argument. I am hoping you will be able to find speeches, newspaper articles, and other primary sources to complete this paper, at least 8 primary sources.

With the Courage of Esther: Black Womens Struggle for Equal Rights through the use of Biblical Interpretation and Identification, 1865-1930.

Black womens rights came from redefining biblical interpretation of scripture and biblical identification through Womanist Theology. According to Delores S. Williams, Associate Professor of Theology and Culture at Union Theological Seminary, Womanist Theology is a prophetic voice concerned about the well-being of the entire African American community, male and female, adults and children. This research paper is to provide evidence and a historical framework of black women using various techniques of womanist theology to challenge and transform social, political, and educational notions of race and gender. Black women used biblical scripture for social mobility and coherence, to make them more consonant with their own lives, within a patriarchal society that imposed limitations for being black and a woman.

Sustainable Further Education Teacher/Lecturer Education/Training in the UK to focus on critical awareness of issues around the new model FE lecturer/teacher qualification; especially issues of inclusion, diversity, equality, local and global sustainability.

Present quality argument to demonstrate an understanding of the implications of theoretical complexity and ability to analyse alternative approaches

Present a critical engagement with relevant educational and research literature, showing evidence of a wide range of sources (reading)
Present a structured argument, style and appropriate level of presentation of material

Cross Platform Mobile and Web
PAGES 63 WORDS 17284

PhD Research proposal - Cross platform application installation - by Barak Avraham

Despite the spread of software development and software usage, we has very few cross-platform applications which run on PC operating system, web browsers and mobile as well. Since technologies are no longer different from each other in todays era, we can develop such application with ease.

Our proposal is to undertake the deployment of one such cross platform application. For web browsers this application will make it possible to install widgets\mobile applications on a websites user view without communicating with the website owner. The application or widgets installed on the site users view will be non modifiable by the user. The widgets installed on one site cannot be used in another site. The user will be able to install mobile applications on Desktop OS as well and vase versa.

Our proposed kind of proposal will expose how it is possible to install these applications and widgets on the users site view without communicating with the site owner by installing a platform on the site users operating system which will provide services to all user web browsers. This platform (micro engine) will set the location, the size and the site user by parsing the incoming HTML stream and reformat it to the desire presentation. The user will have the freedom of choosing the desired applications or widgets from the set of available applications in the markets existing today with no relation to the platform he run on his machine and install them on his own site view. As well for Mobile application installed on Desktop OS. This will open such market to new customers which will consume applications with no relation to the platform he run and increase market monetization. My understanding and experience in Mobile and Web2.0 Applications market will help me to bind them together and to open more monetization options. Unlike developing a cross platform application here we are focus on install cross platform application (deployment) on cross platform environments without changing the or interrupting the application source code.

Specific Objectives of Research

Our Objectives are as follows
1. The researcher wants to expose how it is possible to install the widgets\mobile applications on the web site users view without even communicating with the web site owner. A widget's end user experience is solely controlled by a widget\mobile applications manager which is part of the widget\mobile micro engine manage the applications the user installed on his site view. The widget\mobile application manager will manage the application source and private parameters such as registration username and password if needed.

2. The researcher aims to develop a micro engine which will manage the installed applications, the positions, sources and the conversion from such platform to a web application stream. This micro engine which can be effectively implemented in a cross platform environment will serve the system and the web browsers using the HTTP stream by interpreting to HTML and JavaScript application. The micro engine will bears several advantages such as flexibility, strength, staff, location and operations, hence the same micro engine will be developed for multiple platforms covering web browsers elements, personal computer Operating Systems and mobile Operating Systems speed, resolutions and unique components such as GPS and Rotation.

3. The widgets\mobile applications installed by the users cannot be modified by the other net users and the widgets\mobile applications installed on one users website view cannot be used by the other user in her/his website view over the net. The Choice of the widgets\mobile applications to be installed will be made by the user and will depend upon the set of available widgets\mobile applications in the market with no relation of platform dependences.

4. So instead of having multiple environments the researcher wants to have a common environment for running applications or widgets for almost any platform be it a mobile phone, a web browser or Windows desktop. There will surely be Application Programming Interface (API) and Data Object Model differences (DOM) differences to extend the micro engine system to support more capabilities and new incoming technologies. For example Windows widgets allow access to Windows Management Instrumentation (or WMI) so that an application having all the system functionality provided by WMI can be use these resources, but the mobile is limited to web-services based development and really basic DOM, but even though HTML/JavaScript/CSS can be used as a standard for running cross platform applications.

Related Work

1. The idea of putting web-application as widgets right on the desktop was invented way back by Microsoft in 1994 (in Windows Nashville which was to be released in 1996). You could use an HTML and JavaScript page as you desktop background which would be running in the Internet Explorer. Microsoft even had a set of Active Desktop widgets.

2. One more technology that played a role in inventing desktop widgets is HTA (HTML application) which runs as a standalone application for that you were required to put you VBScript or JavaScript code and style in a single HTML file and rename it to .hta extension.

3. Netvibes has developed its universal widget API (UWA)[6] which is a free and elegant widget framework that uses XHTML for its structure, CSS for styling and JavaScript/AJAX for Data Object Model control. UWA has support for all the major widgets platforms e.g. Netvibes, iGoogle,Windows Vista, Mac OS X, iPhone.

4. The Fox Interactive media has developed a widgets platform called SpringWidgets[9] which works on most of the websites as well as the desktop in contrast to the widget platforms which work today on either websites such as Google Gadgets4, WidgetBox[10] or desktop such as Yahoo Widgets[3].

5. Opera Widgets are also set of widgets which are self-contained and are built using standards such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript. These are cross-platform and cross-device, which means they can be deployed anywhere from desktop to mobiles to TV[3].

6. The Opera has also proposed a draft to W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)[11] called widgets- the concept of small HTML/CSS/JavaScript application running inside a browser.

Research Methodology

1. Literature review on how the other cross platform widgets or applications make use of the available cross platform development techniques and APIs such as Netvibes, FLTK, wxWidgets, iPhone, Android, Google Gadgets, etc.

2. Collect appropriate amount of cross platform application code from open source repositories such as, Free Software Foundation and Apache Open Source Foundation.

3. Compare the literature on how these cross platform applications make use of the available APIs and toolkits versus how these APIs and toolkits are actually implemented.

4. Identify the problems and opportunities that exist with the way cross platform applications are actually written using several available methodologies, patterns and standards for designing and programming.

5. Evaluation of the tools for deploy the application for different platforms. The mobile may use for example two platforms one will be iPhone for which the researcher will be using objective-c. The reason for which this language is selected by apple for the development of applications for mac and iPhone is justified by a website as it is an object-oriented extension of ANSI C and hence any C program can be used with this framework. It supports an open dynamic binding which will help in creating a simple architecture to interactive user interface.[8] To write an iPhone application, I will have to use Xcode and the iPhone SDK.[16]

6. For another mobile platform which will be Android, the researcher will be using Java. This scenario will make use of the Android SDK which provides tools and APIs necessary to begin developing appications on Android platform using Java programming language. Andriod has the potential for removing the barriers to success in the development and sale of a new generation of mobile phone application software.[15] Here Ill be using the concept of AppWidget host which is a component that can contain widgets. Android allows applications to publish views to be embedded in other applications. [13]

7. These views are called widgets and are published by AppWidget providers.[14] These application widgets will be the set of available widgets in the market from which user can choose the desired ones.

8. The desktop widget application will be developed only for one platform Windows which will be coded using c#. The IE can be proved out to be a perfect host for desktop widget applications. By modifying its User Interface, I can create a generic widget container. The customization of embedded IE browser can be done by removing the scroll bars and 3D border by implementing the IDocHostUIHandler interface[2].

9. For the web widgets or even the desktop widgets (for windows vista or later) a manifest file needs to be created with the gadget settings and the HTML file with the gadget code, CSS styles and JavaScript; then zipping them into one archive and renaming them to .gadget or .wgt extension makes them eligible for getting installed on windows platform, these widgets use Internet Explorer 8 core to run them, so I can get full support for CSS2.1 and the goodness of JavaScript.

10. The standard configuration of the widgets within the micro engine will be maintained by the use of a config.xml file which will specify some configuration information.

11. The cross platform testing of all the widgets will be carried out on each and every platform. The testing strategy will be decided at a later stage, depending upon the design pattern used.

12. Discussion of the testing results will be carried out.

13. Report on the results will be generated by writing a thesis.


[1] Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from Boomi Atmosphere website
A Widget end user's experience is completely contained with the Widget Manager. From the Widget Manager they can setup and provision new Widget instances and manage existing Widget instances by editing the configuration and viewing execution activity...

[2] Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from Code Project website
Desktop Widgets are small applications that provide frequently used functions such as an alarm clock, a calculator, a text box linked to Google etc. They can also decorate the desktop.

[3] Retrieved on March 29, 2010 from dev.opera website
Opera Widgets are self-contained Web applications built using open Web standards such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript...

[4] Retrieved on March 29, 2010 from Google gadgets website
Gadgets powered by Google are miniature objects made by Google users like you that offer cool and dynamic content that can be placed on any page on the web...

[5] Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from NetVibes website
Netvibes has opened its platform to allow publishers and developers to benefit from our technology. Netvibes Universal Widget API (UWA) is a free and elegant widget framework that uses XHTML for structure, CSS for styling and JavaScript/Ajax for behavioral/DOM control ; it can also use iframes and plugins such as Flash.

[6] Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from Ozibug website
The demand for cross platform development and test environments has increased dramatically in recent times. This is due directly to the influence that Java has had on the software development process. Where once an internationalized, multi-platform application was complicated and expensive to develop, Java and the technology available today (and perhaps its cost) has simplified the process.

[7] Retrieved on April 17, 2010, from Droleary Subsume website
Although gcc compiles ObjC as well as C and C++, you don't commonly see ObjC programs out there. As far as I know, AgentD is the first one developed under and released for Linux. What follows is not an indepth comparison between languages, but the reasons I came to use and like ObjC.

[8] Retrieved on April 17, 2010, from Mac OS X Reference Library's website
The Objective-C language is a simple computer language designed to enable sophisticated object-oriented programming. Objective-C is defined as a small but powerful set of extensions to the standard ANSI C language.

[9] Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from SprigWidgets website
a collection of a spring widgets

[10] Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from WidgetBoxs website
Widgetbox makes the complexities of sharing your ideas and experiences on the web simple...

[11] Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from word press website
Look, Opera has proposed a draft to W3C called Widgets ??" the same concept of small HTML/CSS/JS application but running inside a browser...

[12] Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from Yahoo Widgets website
Yahoo! Widgets help you save time and stay current by bringing an always-updated, at-a-glance view of your favorite Internet services right to your desktop...

[13] Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from Androids website
Android API documents, show the packages

[14] Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from Androids website
Android allows applications to publish views to be embedded in other applications.

[15] Rick Rogers, John Lombardo, Zigurd Mednieks and Blake Meike. (2009). Android Application Development. (chapter 1, page 3).
When Google announced the development of Android, the field of mobile platforms was already well established. Even in the narrower category of open source platforms, a number of viable alternatives were being pushed by proponents.

[16] Stephan G Kochan. (2009). Programming in Objective C (Chapter 21, page 460).
A powerful yet simple object-oriented programming language thats based on the C programming language, Objective-C is widely available not only on OS X and the iPhone/iPad platform but across many operating systems that support the gcc compiler, including Linux, Unix, and Windows systems.

[17] Rajesh Lal and Lakshmi Chava (2009). Professional Web Widgets with CSS, Dom, Json and Ajax (page 120).
Wrox's Professional Widgets with CSS, DOM and Ajax is the first guide to building web widgets - tiny applications that can be embedded in a web page or on the desktop and have exploded in popularity in recent months.

[18] Sterling Udell. (2009). Pro Web Gadgets for Mobile and Desktop (page 96).
The miniature web applications known as gadgets (or widgets) are a key component of the Distributed Web and an ideal way to publish your content far beyond the reach of your own web site.

[19] Jeff Heaton (2007). HTTP Programming Recipes for Java Bots (page 340).
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) allows information to be exchanged between a web server and a web browser. Java allows you to program HTTP directly.

[20] Mark Pilgrim (2010). HTML5: Up and Running (page 114).
If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. The latest version of this markup language is going to significantly change the way you develop web applications, and this book provides your first real look at HTML5's new elements and attributes.

The type of document requested is Business Report

The Topic of the Business Report is:

Your college has decided to offer each student the opportunity to establish a Web presence on its server through a personal home page. As the head of media and information technologies, it's your job to develop clear and understandable directions for students who want to create their own Web sites whether they use HTML or any of the popular Web-page-creation software programs. After carefully analyzing your audience's needs and investigating your college's regulations about content and security, present students with a set of directions.

Written Report Parameters:

This report is that it must assume a business setting. You must incorporate at least THREE visual aids into the body of the report; one must be imbedded into the text of the document (between two different paragraphs):

1. You must use both primary and secondary research
2. You must incorporate at least ONE interview into the written report and oral presentation and cite the interviewee comments with proper format.
3. The report must be typed, double-spaced and contain a minimum of:

-Cover/Title page
-Memorandum for transmitting an internal report
(or Letter for transmitting an external report)
-Table of Contents page
-List of Figures/Illustrations page
-Executive summary
-Introduction section of the report
-Body section of the report
-Conclusions & Recommendations (this can be presented together
or separately)
-Works Cited page: use MLA
-Use at least 5 sources for your report
-Proper use of page numbers, headings

Be sure to use the 3x3 Writing Process for Reports:

Step 1: Analyze the problem and the purpose.
Step 2: Anticipate the audience and the issues.
Step 3: Prepare a work plan.
Step 4: Implement your research strategy.
Step 5: Organize, analyze, interpret, and illustrate the data.
Step 6: Compose the first draft.
Step 7: Revise, proofread, and evaluate.

This paper focuses on self-study, narrative and story, and memoir. Written in first-person voice, and include stories, poems, photographs, other visuals, and reference to other kinds of literature (fiction, poems, memoir) rather than solely educational research curricular studies. Paper should be 20 pages of text plus (i.e., not including) references, and this is one continuous paper divided into sections or somehow marked off by photographs, other visuals, headings, or quotes.
All references cited in the paper must be in APA style.

You are to write a 3-page paper. Read the article below. Please answer the discussion question, State the question first and then continue to answer. *Do Not Use Outside Sources.*

Discussion question:
What concepts in the articles of Boudon 2001 and Eskensberger 2001 Can Current Instructors Apply in the Adult Education Program?

Boudon 2001: Theories of Social
Social action has become an important topic in sociological theory under the influence of the great German sociologist Max Weber. To him, social action, which includes both failure to act and passive acquiescence, may be oriented to the past, present, or expected future behavior of others. To ever, explaining a social phenomenon means analyzing it as the effect of individual actions. He says explicitly in the letter addressed the year of his death to a friend, the marginalist economist Rolf Liefmann: sociology too must be strictly individualistic as far as its methodology is concerned. The too means that sociology should according to Weber followed the same principles as economics a principal later christened methodological individualism by Joseph Schumpter and later popularized by Frederick Hayek and Karl Popper. This principle states simply that in a collective phenomenon is the outcome of individual actions, attitudes, beliefs, etc. To methodological individualist as Max Weber, a crucial step in any sociological analysis is to determine the causes of individual actions. Max Weber introduces and a crucial second postulate: that the causes of any action lie in the meaning to the actor of his actions. Thus, calls responsible for the fact that I look on my right and my left before crossing the street is that I want to avoid the risk of being hit by a car. To this operation aiming at retrieving demeaning and to the actor of his actions, Max Weber gives a name: Verstehen, to understand. Given the importance of the Verstehen postulate, Max Weber calls the style of sociology resting upon these two postulates comprehensive sociology. To Max Weber, by contrast with notably Dilthey, the notion of comprehension characterizes exclusively individual actions, attitudes or believe. Weber 1992, proposed in his posthumous work Economy and Society a distinction between four main actions. Actions can be inspired by an instrument of rationality: when an actor does X because he perceives X as an adequate way of reaching a goal G. they result from axiological rationality when an actor does X because X is congruent with some value he endorses. Actions are traditional when they are oriented to the fact that such actions have been readily performed in the past, and are perceived as recommended by virtue of that fact. Finally, an action is affective when it is inspired by some feeling more generally emotional state of the subject.

The functional theory Social action
An important contribution to the theory of social action is Parsons The Structure of Social Action 1937, a work where the American sociologist attempts to provide some little idea of social action developed by Max Weber, Durkheim, Pareto, and Alfred Marshall. Parson devotes much attention to the point that, to Weber, at is defined as oriented to the behavior of others. He is notably concerned by the ideas that social actors are embedded in systems of social roles. To him, roles rather than individual should be considered as the atoms of sociological analysis. This shift from individual to roles was inspired to Parsons by his wish of combining the Weberian with the Durkheimian tradition, individual actions with social structures. The most popular aspect of Parson theory is the typology of the pattern variables. These pattern variables are a set of four binary attributes by which all roles can in principle be characterized. Thus, the role of a bank clerk is specific in the sense of where his relation to the customer is limited to well defined goals, by contrast with the role of, say, mother, that is diffuse. The role of mother is ascribed, while the role of the clerk is achieved. The former is particularistic in this sense where it deals with specific individual; the latter is universalistic: the clerk is the supposed to apply the same rules and indistinctly to all customers. Ralf Dahrendorf 1968 saw in the Parsonian theory a definition of the Homo sociologicus and a proper basis for making sociology a well-defined discipline, resting on a well-defined set of postulates. While economics sees the Homo oeconomicus as move by his interest and as able to determining rationally the best ways of satisfying them, the Parsonian Homo sociologicus was described as moot, not only by interest, but by the norms and values attached to his various roles. Merton 1949, develop ideas close to Parsons insisting on the norms and values attached to roles but also on and incompatibilities generated by the various roles and individual is embedded in. It must be recognized, though, that the idea according to which the parsonian homo sociologicus would guarantee to sociology foundations as a solid as the homo oeconomicusto economics, has never gained recognition. More precisely, while most sociologist except the idea that norms, besides interest should be taken into account in the explanation of action, they doubt that be parsonian homo sociologicus can be expressed in an form able to generate deductive theories as precise and powerful as the Homo oeconomicus. The skepticism toward the parsonian theory of action that appeared in the 1960s result not only from this theoretical consideration but also from conjunctural circumstances. In the 1960s, the so-called functional. A general and a label that covered in the sociology with a Parsonian inspiration became strongly attacked. Critical sociologist objected to functionalism in that it would contribute to legitimate the existing social institutions while the main objective also geology should be to criticize them. To this unfair objection in other, equally unfair, was added: that functionalism would not be scientific ally fruitful. Functionalism provides a useful their radical framework to develop a social logical theory of stratification, of that legitimacy of institutions, and of other social phenomenon. But it is true that it did not succeed in providing a theoretical basis from which sociological research could develop cumulatively. By contrast with the Homo oeconomicus, the Homo sociologicus of the functionalist tradition failed to generate a well identify research tradition.
The utilitarian theory of social action
Neither critical theory and war other more recent sociological movements, as ethno-methodology or phenomenonology succeeded in providing a solid basis for the theoretical consensus among sociologists. Balkanized character of sociological theory incited some sociologist to propose to identify the Homo sociologicus with Homo oeconomicus fact that the model of Homo oeconomicus had actually been applied successfully to several kinds of problems, will be traditionally to be jurisdiction of sociology. Thus, the so-called theory of opportunities rest on the postulate that criminal behavior can be analyzed as a maximizing behavior. The economist G. Tullock 1974 had shown that differential data about crime could notably be accounted for by a theory close to the theory of behavior used by neoclassical economist. G Becker, another economists proposed to analyze social discrimination along the same line. In Accounting for Tastes, Becker 1996 analyzes addiction as resulting from cost-benefit considerations and claims that the rational choice model, namely the model of Man proposed by neoclassical economist, is the only theory able to unify the social sciences. This general idea has been developed by J. Coleman 1990 in his foundation of social theory. The idea of explaining social actions can buy the utilitarian postulates is not new. Classical sociologists use it occasionally. Thus, in his the old regime and the French Revolution, Tocqueville explains the underdevelopment of French agriculture at the end of the 18th century, at a time wen British agriculture knows a phase of quick modernization is the effect of landlords absenteeism. As to the latter it results from the fact that the French landlords were better off socially when they bought a royal office and when they stayed on their land. The French centralization meant that many royal officers were unavailable and brought crest each, power, and influence to bills field them. In Britain by contrast, a good way of increasing ones influence was to appear as a innovative gentleman farmer and by so doing getting local and even to a national political responsibilities. Tocquevilles van owners make their decision on the basis of cost-benefit analysis along the line of the rational choice model. The social outcome is different in the two contexts because the parameters of the two context are different. But Tocqueville uses this model exclusively on subjects where it seems to account for historical facts.
The utilitarian postulates defended by rational choice modelists where not only occasionally used by Tocqueville, they had also been treated as universally valid by some theorist notably Marx and Nietzsche and their followers. To Marx, and still more Marxians, individual actions and beliefs should be analyzed as motivated by class interest even though the final role of his interest can be remained unrecognized by the actor himself (false consciousness). To Nietzsche and still more Nietzscheans individual actions and believes should be analyzed as motivated by the positive psychological consequences on the actor himself. Thus, to Nietzsche the Christian faith developed originally among lower classes because of the psychological benefits they could derive from endorsing a faith that promised paradise to the weak and the poor. In his essay and the sociology of religion, Weber 1920-1 is critical toward theories: my psychological or social interests can draw my attention on an idea, a value or a theory; I have a positive or negative prejudice toward them. But I will endorse them only if I think they are valid, and not only because they serve my interest. Webers position has the advantage of making useless the controversial . As rightly stressed by Nisbet 1966, the ideas of false consciousness in the Marxian sense the concept itself being due to F. Mehring and other rationalization in the Freudian sense have become a commonplace ; they postulate highly conjectural psychological mechanisms, though. The utilitarian approach proposed by rationale choice theorists old little to this Marxian-Nietzsche tradition. The motivation of rationale actually its used by a neoclassical economics explain many social phenomenon of interest to sociologist. Moreover, they make possible the use of mathematical language in sociological theory building. Above all, they provide final exclamations without black boxes. While the rationale choice approach is important and can be a fact of the use of many subjects it claims to beat the theoretical ground on which sociology could be unified is unjustified. Its limits on more and more clearly recognized by economists. Thus, Bruno Frey 1997, has shown that under some circumstances people are more willing to accept unpalatable but collectively beneficial outcomes and they are to accept outcomes for which they receive compensation. Generally, a host of social phenomenon appear as resistant to any analysis of the rational choice type as the example of the so-called voting Paradox suggests. As in a national election a single fold has a practically zero influence on the outcome why should a rational voter vote? Ferejohn and Fiorina 1974 have proposed considering the paradox of voting as similar in its structure to Pascals bet: as the issue of the existence of God is crucial, even if the probability that God exists is supposed close to zero, I have an interest in betting that he exist. Pascal argument is relevant in the analysis of attitudes toward risk. Thus, it explains why it is not necessary to force people to take an insurance against fire: the cost of the insurance is small and the importance to me of the damage is being compensated in the case of my house would bar is great, so that I would normally subscribe. At the same argument can be realistically used in the case of voting behavior is more controversial, notably because actual folders often show a very limited interest in the election. Overbye 1995 has offered an alternative theory: people would vote because nonvoting would be negatively regarded so that nonvoting would entail a cost. But rational people should see that any individual will fails to influence the outcome of an election; why then should they consider not voting as bad? Another theory claims that people also resisting on the rationale choice model submits that people vote because they like to vote. In that case the costs of voting being negative the paradox disappears. Simple as it is the theory introduces the controversial assumption that voters would be victims of their false consciousness, since they do not see that they just like to vote and believe that they will force some higher reason. Moreover this very does not explain why the turnouts is variable from one election to another. Actually no theory using the basic postulates of the rational choice model appears as convincing. The good exclamation is that people vote because they believe that democracy is a good regime that elections are a basic institution of democracy and that one should vote as long as one has the impression that a policy or a candidate are better than alternative ones. This is an example of what Weber called axiological rationality.
The cognitive theory of social action
The theory of action characteristics of neoclassical economics and used by rational choice theorists was made more flexible by H. Simon. His study of decisions within organizations convinced him that decision makers take satisficing rather than optimizing decisions: because of the cost of information stopping a deliberation process as soon as one has discovered a satisfying decision can be more rationale than exploring further the field of possible decisions. A chess player could in principle determine the best next move. Actually this would entail a huge number of computations. So he will use rather rules of thumb. Simon qualified this type of rationality as bounded. His contributions to stress the crucial point that social action includes an essential cognitive dimension and invite sociologist to drop the postulate of neoclassic economics use for distance and game theory, a court to which a social actors would be fully informed when they take their decisions. Experimental cognitive psychology has also contributed to this sociology. It has shown that ordinary knowledge is often biased as in the case where respondents are confronted with a situation when they have to estimate the probabilities of alternative events. Thus, in an experiment subjects are invited to guess the outcome of a heads and tails game with a bias coin where heads and tails have a probability of coming out, respectively, of 0.8 and 0.2. Now by doing so, they are worse off than if they would predict heads all the time, since they would then win on average eight times out of 10, while with their preferred strategy the probability of winning is (0.8 x0.8) + (0.2 x 0.2)=0.68. rather than talking of biases in such cases it is perhaps more illuminating to make the assumption that when people are faced with problem-solving situations they tried to deal the theory satisfying to their eyes but depending of course of their cognitive resources. In that case people use the theory that says they are asked to predict a sequence of events heads or tails a good strategy is to use the law governing the actual sequence generated by the experimenter. So while wrong the answer may be analyze as understandable since inspired by a theory which in other situations would be valid. All scientific theories also generally result from understandable systems of reasons. Priestley did not believe in the phlogiston theorybecause he was affected by some cognitive bias but because strong reasons convinced him of the existence of the phlogiston. Fillieule 1996 has rightly contended that the theory of sociological action should take seriously the meaning of the notion of rationality as the find not only by a neoclassical economics but by the philosophy of science as well. In the vocabulary of the philosophy of science and actor is rational when he endorses a theory because he sees it as grounded on strong reasons. Durkheim 1912 maintains in his elementary forms of religious life that scientific knowledge and ordinary knowledge differ from one another in degree rather than nature. Even religious and magical beliefs as well as the action generated by these believe should be analyzed in the same fashion as scientific beliefs: primitive Australians have strong reasons to believe what they believe. One can call this type of rationality evoked Durkheim as well as by philosophers of science cognitive rationality. Applications of this motion are easily found. In the early phase of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, the Luddites dished right their machines because they thought that machines destroy human work and generated unemployment. Their action was grounded on a belif and they believe on that theory. They endorsed the theory because it is grounded on a strong reason: a machine is effectively designed and built the purpose of increasing productivity by substituting mechanical for human work. So other things equal, when a machine is introduced and a factory it destroys effectively some amount of human work. But other things are not equal: an economic system as a whole human work is needed to conceit, Beal, maintained, and modernize the new machines so that on the whole the new machine can create more work than it destroys. Whether this is actually the case is entirely empirical question. But at a local level the workers have strong reasons to believe that the introduction of new machines are the threat to new employment. Taking cognitive rationality into account the size the instrumental type of rationality used and rational choice model is essential to the realistic theory of social action. As stressed by Weber as well as Durkheim believes are a normal ingredient of social action. Now believes cannot generally be explained by the rationale twice model: I generally do not believe that X is true because believing so serves my interest but because I have strong reasons for believing. The dominant status and contemporary sociology of the intermeddle utilitarian conception of rationality rated in the rationale choice model has the effect that the powerful institution of classical sociologist according to which, first, explaining believe should be a main concern in the sociological theory of action and, second, the leafs should be analyzed as endorsed by social actors because they have a strong reason for endorsing them appears actually as neglected. Normative and axiological believes besides representational believed are also a crucial ingredient of social action. Weber distinction between instrumental and axiological rationality introduced the crucial idea that normative beliefs cannot always be analyzed at the product of instrumental rationality nor a fortiori by the contemporary rationale choice model which considers exclusively instrumental rationality. Boudon 1998 has admitted that a fruitful interpretation of the notion of axiological rationality would be to consider the axiological believes are legitimated and the mind of the actors because the latter see them as grounded on strong reasons. Axiological rationality would then be a variant dealing with prescriptive rather than descriptive beliefs of the cognitive type of rationality. Axiological rationality is responsible notably for the evaluation for people bear on situations they are not involved in. The rational choice model cannot for distance of account for the opinion of people on the topic such as death penalty because most people are obvious not personally concerned with the issue. They have strong convictions on the subject though. Should we consider these convictions as irrational since the rational choice model is unable to account for them or decide whether to follow an elaborate on the classical sociological theory of rationality?
Introduction: activity, action, operation
Psychology has distinguished various classes of behavior, reflexes, affective responses, and goal oriented activities. The special nature of goal oriented activities is the clearest when they are contrasted with the behavior of human beings who are not or not yet able to orient their activities to goals mentally retarded people or goals with major injuries to the frontal lobes of the brain. Those activities that are not organized toward goals are typically characterize as trial and error impulsively and unreflectively driven without direction or orientation and without examination of the consequences of alternatives. Goal oriented selection of programs known or yet to be developed is lacking. The project was that of activities are not oriented toward gold implementation. They are neither integrated parts of linear sequences of steps nor subordinated parts of hierarchical plan. Hence they are all perceived to be of equal importance for gold implementation. Furthermore there are no anticipating comparison between the given state and a desired goal state. Finally a prospective evaluation of consequences is lacking. There are distinctions to be drawn among the concepts of activity, action, and operation. Activities are motivated and regulated by higher order goals and are realized to actions that are themselves relatively independent components of each activity. Action differs from other with respect to their specific goals. Actions may themselves be decomposed into their subordinate components the operations. Operations are described as subordinate because they do not have goals of their own. Operations can be taken to the movement patterns or in the case of mental activities elementary cognitive operations. The concept of psychology of activities has been since the mid-20th-century central to the tradition especially up Russian and German psychology. There are many points of agreements with but also important differences between the orientations of the leading research group particularly those of Leontjev 1979 a student of VygotskiRubinstein 1961, and Tomaszewski 1981. The philosophical foundations of Marxism the psychological findings of Lwein 1926, the psycho-physiological results of Bernstein 1967, the numeral psychological results of Luria 1973, and suggestions of Cybernetics particularly of systems theory, have all contributed to the development of this concept. The basic idea of this concept is that activity cannot adequately be researched in stimulus response terms. The elements or building blocks of even primitive and unchallenging real-life activities are not just responses or actions but goal oriented actions. Goal orientation however does not mean a strictly top-down planned activity. Instead goal oriented real-life activity is opportunistically organized which means that people are trying to accomplish goals by a kind of muddling through with some planned episodes. In a modern review from the very special point of view of linking cognition and motivation to behavior was presented by Gollwitzer and Bargh 1996 and a more general review was written by Frese and Sabini 1985. The concept of goal oriented activities and actions is relational on that relates at least five components: the anticipated and desired results represented as the goal, the objects of the activities raw materials which typically have their own laws governing how they can be transformed from a given state into the desired one, transformations of the physical or social world nailing requiring the expenditure of energy and the use of information the actual change of objects without which there would be only an unimplemented intention, the acting person, with her/his ability tohave an impact on and attitudes toward the processes these processes in turn act back on the person, and that means needed for and the contextual conditions of the activities.

Eckensberger 2001

Action Theory: Psychological

The action theory is a formalized and unitary. Agreed upon by the scientific community but rather a unique perspective narrative or paradigm. Although this perspective very in saliency during the history of psychology it has been in existence since the very beginning of psychology in the 19th century old in Europe and North America. In Germany Brentano a teacher of Freudian focused 1874 on intentionality as a basic feature of consciousness leading to the concept of acts of consciousness. 10 years later, Dilthey distinguish between an explanation of nature and an understanding of mind/soul, a dichotomy which paved the way for ongoing discourse on the dichotomy of explanations and understanding. In 1920 Stern criticize the mainstream psychology of his time because it neglected intentionality and also cultural change as a created framework for human development. In Paris, Janet wrote his dissertation about Automatisme in 1889. This was the beginning of an elaborate action theoretical system of neuroses. In North America James developed a sophisticated theory of action at the end of the 19th century that anticipated a remarkable amount of action theory concepts. Munsterberg a disciple of Wundt proposes action as the basic unit of psychology and stead of sensations at the turn of the century. The early tradition of overrules by the Neo-positivistic logic of explanation expounded by Vienna circle and philosophy and behaviorism in psychology. They were taking up in philosophy by Wittgensteins language games that are different and natural science and humanities. In psychology action theory turns have increased in importance again during the 1960s to the 1990s. In fact in recent times human actions or aspects of it is taken as a framework for analysis and/or research in many branches of psychology. This is true for basic science: in theory some motivation, problem-solving, ontogenetic development, social psychology, and particularly in cultural psychology. And it is true for applied domains: a clinical psychology, educational psychology, organizational psychology or psychology of work, and sport psychology. Under an action theory Prospective the boundaries between these domains become fuzzy. Cultural psychology f or instance, becomes an integrated enterprise which is developmental as well as conflict affective and motivational. Beyond this diversity of action based near East and psychology, human actions are also focused on in other human sciences. It is particularly reflected upon in philosophy and has a long tradition in sociology and anthropology. Finally a second tradition exists basically equivalent to action theories and with hardly the same roots in Janet work: the Russian activity theory in the tradition of Vygosky, Luria, Leontiev, is most famous representatives. In the US this framework is particularly elaborated and applied by Cole, Rogoff, Valsiner, Wertsch; in Germany by Holzkamp.

Attributes of action: considering the breadth of action theoretical frameworks is not surprising that the issues same studied are not identical and that the terminology is not coherent or fully agreed upon by different authors or traditions. Actions as an analytical unit: from an analytical perspective it appears necessary to note that: to act does not mean to behave although some authors consider actions as that particular subtype of behavior; to speak of an action instead of behavior implies the following features. Intentionality broadly speaking it means that sentences, samples, but also mental states referred to something in the world. Intentionality therefore occurs if a subject called agency refers to the world. Agencies referred to the world by acting with reference to the world, by experiencing it they think, feel, perceive, etc. and by speaking about it: the latter is called speech act. An intentional state thus implies a particular content and a psychic mode a subject can think that it rains, wish that it rains, claim that it rains, etc., where rain is the content, thinking, wishing, and claiming are modes. The intent of the action is the intentional state of an action the intended consequence or goal is content. This implies what is also called Futurity or future orientation of an action. Although some try to explain actions by interpreting these intentions as causes of action there is agreement at present that actions cannot epistemologically be explained by material causes, but have to be understood in terms of reasons. This leads to serious problems in psychology is understood as a natural science which basically interprets events in terms of causes. It follows that actions are not necessarily observable from the outside. If they are one also uses the turn doing. However allowing something to happen as well as refraining from doing something are also actions. Control over the action: it is assumed that action involves the free choice to do something (a or b.) to let something happen or to refrain from doing something. This condition is strongly related to the subjective perception of free will. Although the control aspect is sometimes also expanded to include the intended he thinks of an action these two aspects should be distinguished because the effects of an action can be beyond the control of the agency, although the decision to act itself was controlled. The basic structure of an action which aims at some effect to bring something about is the following: analytically it is assumed that the means applied to carry out an action follow rationally from the intentions i.e. they can be justified or made possible by the agency. They are chosen on the basis of finality in order to reach a goal. If they are applied the result is some change and this change leads casually to some consequences. Those consequences of actions that represent the goal are attempted others are unintended. To let fresh air into a room intended goal one opens the window does something, after having opened the window is open result and lets fresh air in intended, but the room may become c old unintended. So actions in principle are conscious activities of an agency. The agency cannot reflect upon their actions as well as upon themselves as agency. This is why Eckensberger 1979 for cold interpreting action theories as a theory family based on the self reflected subject or agency. This position is related to the basic issue of whether or not Homo sapiens has a special position in nature because this species is the only one that can decide not to follow natural laws. Once more this holds this a serious problem for psychology as a natural science. There are different types of actions: if directed at the physical/material world and aimed at bringing about some effect also letting things happen or suppressing some effect, they are called instrumental actions; but its actions are directed at the social world, i.e. at another agency B, they cannot causally bring something about in B, but have to be coordinated with Bs intentions. Therefore agency Bs intentions have to be understood and interpreted by agency A. This presupposes a communicative attitude. This type of action is consequently called communicative action. If this orientation not only implies understanding B, but also respecting Bs intentions this is clearly a moral action. If Bs intentions are simply used for As benefit it is a strategic action. Interestingly in non-Western philosophies/religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism this adaptive attitude and respect for the non-A is extended to include the plant and animal world. So one may distinguish between two action types which aim at As control of the environment instrumental and strategic and two action types which aim at harmonizing A with the environment communicative and adaptive actions. Although an agency is in principle considered on annymous actions are not arbitrary but follow rules of prudence as well as of social/cultural conventions and/or expectations. This tension between autonomy and heteronomy is basic to all action theories that also focus on social/cultural context of actions. One tries to resolve the tension however by assuming that cultural rules and their alternation are also man-made although the implied intentionality of cultural rules/norms may get lost in time. In principle within the theoretical frame and action links the actor and his/her environment and cultures are considered intentional worlds or action fields. Actions as empirical units: the most recent and comprehensive review of action related to research and developmental psychology is given by Brandtstadter 1998: hierarchical of goals there is considerable agreement among researchers that empirically actions do not just have one goal but many. They can be seen as forming a chain or a hierarchy.

To read an article may have the goal of understanding particular problems and may be considered an action. Reading individual characters on paper may be taken as sub-actions or elements of an action called actemes by Boesch1991. Yet reading the article can also be embedded in a large set of goals passing an examination, and may even be part of overarching far-reaching goals like becoming famous. These hierarchical are particularly elaborated in the application of action theory to work and sport settings i.e., instrumental contexts. But they are also relevant to communicative actions. The fact that actions are meaningful to an agency implies that it is exactly this meaning, which has to be identified empirically. This calls for hermeneutic methods because actions have to be interpreted. Harre 1977 calls for an ethogenic approach ethogenics literally mean meaning-giving. This does not just referring to the dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative methods in psychology, but is a basic methodical feature derived from the theoretical model of an action should be noted, however, that no science can do without interpretation. Beyond the structural ask banks of actions the course of actions is particularly relevant in empirical contexts. This is divided into action phases the number and features of these action phases differ however: while, Boesch 1991 distinguishes three action phases beginning phase, its course, and end others Heckhausen propose four phases a pre--decision phase, a pre-actional phase the action phase (doing) and a post-action phase. Here the decision to act plays an important role uses the metaphor of crossing the Rubicon. In all these phases there is an interplay between cognitive, affective, and energetic aspects of action. Affects determines the valence of a goal and therefore of the environment in general, and his actions have more than one goal, goals are also polyvalent . Additionally, affects also a valuable eight the course of action dealing with the areas, the impediment during the action and its end was the action success or not. These impediments basically increased consciousness and dust regulatory processes are of special interest in empirical research. They are basically coping processes dealing with occurring in the banks external more primary control, actional, or secondary control. From a systematic point of view regarding these regulatory processes as secondary actions is attractive because they are action oriented actions. All questions relating to an agency are of particular empirical interests. First the consciousness of actions is discussed differently. While some authors claim that consciousness is a necessary aspect of an action which also implies the methodical possibility of asking actors about their actions, others claim that only the potential self reflectivity of an agency and a specific action is crucial. This not only implies that a self reflective action may be a rare event during a day but also the actions can turn into automatisms etc. yet still remaining actions. This calls for the analysis of the development of actions. Development therefore it is a genuine and crucial dimension in many action theories as micro- process or actual Genesis, as ontogenesis, and as social/cultural change. Second, the development of the agency is a focus of research. Here study on self-development became relevant. Of particular interest in this context is the agency perception of being able to act called action potential more communicative competency as a triggering more incitement condition for agency development. Third, the development of agency can itself be considered an action as a project of identity development which has a goal and which may fail. Therefore, for polls calling these identity projects which have agency related action structures, tertiary actions. The structural component distinguished above intentions, analogy, causality, etc. have also become read the central empirical research and topic. In fact the expanding research on theory of mind and scripts can be interpreted systematically as a program aiming at the question of whether or not and by what age children can think in terms of action structures distinguish between casual and intentional states etc. this strategy has also been applied to the development of moral judgments by Eckensberger and Reinshagen 1980, when analyzing arguments used in moral dilemmas in terms of action structures. Thus most research programs on social cognition can be reinterpreted in terms of action. Since that action links an agency with the social and nonsocial environment, this action is the overlap between the internal and external action field. The internal action field is formed during ontogenetic experiences in the sense that actions are internalized as operations in Piagetian since and normative rules from action bound taskonomies to generalized taxonomies. These developments as well as controlled theories individual rule systems logic, understanding of morality, law, conventions and ideas of the self as agency constitute the internal action field. The external action film which is understood this culture provides opportunities and strains for action but it also attributes value to action. Rituals as a culture proffer of organized action clusters and myths as complements of fantasms on the cultural level are just as important as personal processes of construction active production of water in the Piagetian sense. Like actions (the action field) can also have different levels of comprehensiveness and the organized hierarchical. According to Boesch 1991, for instance, the external action field of culture can be subdivided into action spheres like occupation or family and action domain like the office or kitchen. Both, the internal and external action field acquire their affective meaning (valence) via action.

Action theory as opportunity for developing an integrated psychological theory: the uniqueness of the action theory approach to humans not only poses problems for the definition of psychology as a natural science, but also entails the possibility of developing an integrated theory, which not only interrelates different developmental dimensions (actually genesis, ontogenesis, and cultural change) but also resolves most of the classical splits in psychology ( Overton 1998), like body/mind, nature/culture, cognition/ affects. The psychological basis for action as well as the phylogenetic emergence of self reflectivity in nature can both be understood as enabling conditions for human actions (Harre 1977). Cognitions and affects are integral parts of human actions and their development.

Action, collective
Collective action is the means individuals use to pursue and achieve their values when individual action is not possibly more likely to fail. Collective action is that he and all the social sciences: in economics, it is the period of public goods and of collective choice; in sociology, it is linked to rational choice, collective behavior, and social movement theory. When markets fail because of an imperfect competition, externaliies, transaction costs, and collective good provisions, and some other reasons, institutions and organization governments, political parties, corporation, universities, churches, kinship, and social movements etc. structure collective actions and allocate resources through nonmarket methods. Among these institutions have been conventions, ethical codes, morality, and norms which contribute to the efficiency and welfare and social transactions. In the broadest sense, and collective action seeks to explain the origins, evolutions, and varieties of nonmarket institutions. Most collective actions is undertaken by organizations that initiate, coordinate, control, and reward individual participation in a joint enterprise. In a narrow sense the theory of collective action deals with the non--coerced voluntary provision of collective goods the groups and organizations that provide them participation and contribution in their pursuit and contentious actions against targets that resist collective goods attainment. The group and organizations are interest group, Civic Association, an advocacy group, dissidents, social movements, insurgents, and more transitory social formations such as crowds. Collective and mass phenomenon which result from many individuals pursuing personal goals and factual and temporal proximity as and a migration, the baby boom, or the fluctuation of public opinion, have been viewed when the as aggregations of individual choices and believes. Nevertheless when there are strong externalities and when individuals to strategically, collective action. Provides powerful insights about aggregation dynamics. Schelling 1978 has shown that housing choices and makes the race residents neighborhoods can lead to avoid extreme pattern of racial segregation and racial preferences of the majority of people in broken groups. Similarly Boudon 1982, showed how French higher education reforms meant to increase the opportunities of working-class youth led to the perverse effect of increasing it affluent youth. Unanticipated consequences, positive and negative bandwagons, unstable equilibria, critical Mass, and threshold effects are common consequences of collective action and to the central theory.

Collective behavior
Collective behavior refers to fads, panic, crazes, hostile crowds, riots, cults, moral panics, cargo cults, witch hunts, ghost dance, and the like. The conventional explanation for some variety of social psychological and psychodynamic processes such consciousness of kind, herd instinct, imitation, contagion, and repression. Observers which drunk by the spontaneity and volatility, the emotional expressive and transitory character of such behaviors in contrast to normatively she structured everyday routines. Collective behavior was thought to result from extreme deprivation and threat perception in extraordinary situation when norms and expectations fail to guide action. The best-known theorist in this tradition was LeBon 1960, who postulated three laws of crowd behavior: mental unity, loss of rationale and moral faculties, and hero worship. The problem with LeBons and kindred theories of collective behavior is there a highly selective character and disregard for alternative explanations. For the same episodes of crowd behavior and the French Revolution that LeBon describes, Rude 1959, showed that they were atypical of crowds and many could be explained as purposive action without assuming unproven social psychological processes. Later theorist showed that uniform behavior and mental unity and are due to select the convergence of predisposed participants, and that much variants of behavior occurs, ranging from engagement by hard-core activists to standing around my curious bystanders. Rather than amorality, emergent norms in structure crowd behavior. Irrational crowd behavior results from the n-person, single game, prisoners dilemma aspect of some collective behavior, as in panics of escape. Because of the shortcomings in the conventional view, collective behavior has been explained with collective action theory, even violent, destructive and bizarre collective behavior, such as lynch mobs, riots, and the witch hunts of early modern Europe. Southern US lynch mobs in 1880 1920 were structured, ritualized, and predictable. To be sure, some collective behavior manifests a lack of emotion, we-feeling, hate, fears, violence, and unusual beliefs, yet participants do respond to the benefits.

You are to write a 3-page paper. Please read the article below and then answer the discussion question. State the Question first and then continue to answer. *Do Not Use Outside Sources.*
Discussion Questions

1.How can adulthood be socially constructed? What does it mean to say that something is "socially constructed"?

2.What are the strengths and weaknesses of an individual or social perspective on adult learning? Is one more relevant than another in certain contexts?

Linking the Individual Learner to the Context of Adult Learning: by Caffarella & Merriam
As educators of adults we have long been driven by two primary perspectives in how we work with adult learners. Until recently, focusing on the learning process of individual learners has dominated the way we think about adult learning. This perspective still permeates much of our practice from our continued belief that responding to individual learning styles is critical in working with adults, to a wish for some kind of magic memory pill that will help us learn more efficiently. In the second perspective, the context within which adults learn becomes an essential component of the learning process. There are two important dimensions to the contextual approach to learning what were calling interactive and structural. The interactive dimension acknowledges that learning is a product of the individual interacting with the context. The most effective learning is that which takes place in authentic, real life situations. Translated into practice, this has led to incorporating internships, role playing, simulations, and apprenticeships into our instruction. The Structural dimension of context takes into consideration the social and cultural factors that affect learning such as race, class, gender, ethnicity, and power and oppression. The structural factors have long been a part of our educational systems. There are some who strongly favor the more psychologically driven paradigm of viewing learning as a process internal to the individual, while others clearly adhere to the contextual approach to learning. As researchers and practitioners, we have for the most part viewed these two perspectives as separate and distinct ways of conceptualizing learning in adulthood. One side speaks from the merits of seeing every learner as an individual with unlimited potential, while the other fights for basic social change as fundamental to education practice. Although both of these perspectives are important in understanding adult learning, we believe that either perspective by itself is too limiting in addressing the complex array of issues and problems we face in working with adults. Therefore, we advocate a third way of conceptualizing adult learning that of thinking the individual and contextual perspectives. For us, advancing this third perspective has been a major change in our thinking and a challenge to incorporate into our practice as teachers and scholars. While we were both schooled primarily in the individual perspective, it has come clear to us in recent years that often the two are so interwoven that our practice is incomplete if we only address one. This change in our thinking and practice has come from our continued in depth review of the adult learning literature, and in particular, feminist and critical theory and our experiences with diverse learners and cultures in both formal and informal settings.
The individual learner
A focus on the individual learners has a long tradition and history in adult learning and has until recently been how both the researchers and practitioners in adult education have fashioned their craft. Two basic assumptions from the foundation for this perspective. First is that learning is something that happens primarily internally, inside our heads. In essence the outside environment is given little if any attention in the way what we think and learn. Second, this perspective is based on the assumption that all adults can be effective learners, no matter what their background or situation. A sampling of topics that are grounded primarily in this perspective include: participation and motivation, self directed learning, andragogy, transformational learning, memory and learning, learning style, intellectual and cognitive development, and the neurobiology of learning. Three of these topics are discussed illustrate this perspective: participation and motivation, self directed learning, and transformational learning.
Participation is one of the more thoroughly studied the areas in adult education. We have a sense of who participates, what is studied, and what motivates some adults and not others to enroll in a course for undertake an independent learning project. Beginning with the landmark study of Johnstone and Rivera, scholars have sought to describe the typical adult learner. What is interesting is that the original profile put forth by Johnstone and Rivera has changed little over the past 30 years. Compared to those who do not participate, participants in adult education are better educated, younger, have higher incomes, and are most likely to be white and employed full time. This accumulation of descriptive information about participation has led to the efforts to build models that try to convey the complexity of the phenomenon. The work on determining why people participate that is, the underlying motivational structure for participation has been carried on most notably by Boshier and others using Boshiers Educational Participation Scale. Between three and seven factors have been delineated to explain why adults participate, such as expectations of others, educational preparation, professional advancement, social stimulation, and cognitive interests. A number of other models, grounded in characteristics of individual learners, have been developed to further explain participation; several of these models also linked a more socio-demographic or contextual approach with that of the individual backgrounds of learners. Studies in participation and motivation have had wide reaching effects on the practice of adult education. Many of those have come to expect the instructor will take into account their individual needs and desires and may leave programs when these are ignored. In addition, an area that always seems to interest educators of adults are ways to motivate and retain learners once they are enrolled in programs. This interest in motivation and retention is both a function of wanting to address individual participants needs in motives for attending as well as an economic necessity for adult education programs that operate as profit centers. We also design and market numerous programs in adult education related to what we know about why adults participate. The many job related programs that are offered by a variety of organizations are good examples of matching program content with one of the major reasons why adults participate in formal educational programs.
Self-directed Learning
Although learning on ones own or self-directed learning as been the primary mode of learning throughout the ages, systematic studies in this arena did not become prevalent until the 1970s and 1980s. The majority of this work is grounded in humanistic philosophy, which posits personal growth as a goal of adult learning. Therefore, understanding how individuals go about the process of learning on their own and what attributes can be associated with learners who are self-directed have been the two major threads of this research tradition. The process of self-directed learning was first presented as primarily linear, using much of the same language we use to describe learning process informal settings. As more complex models were developed, this emphasis began to shift to viewing the self-directed learning process as much more of the trial and error activity, with many loops and curves. In addition, as in the participation literature, contextual aspects of the process, such as the circumstances learners found themselves within, were found to also be important. In pactice, the study of self-directed learning has led instructors and program planners to use such teaching tools as individualized learner plans or contracts and to test learners for their readiness to engage in self-directed learning. For example, individual learning plans and contracts have been used in a variety of ways, from framing the whole program of professional development and even graduate study, to being used as one format among many within a set of learning activities. The use of learning contracts allows participants to write their own learning objectives, choose how they will learn the material, and evaluate what they have learned; in essence, they are given the opportunity to individualize their own learning. In addition, a number of organizations have chosen to equate self-directedness in learning with the ability to be lifelong learners. Many public schools, colleges, and universities, for example, now include the promotion of self-directed learning as a part of their mission statements.
Transformational learning theory
And other major strand of research that is grounded primarily in this individual perspective is transformative or transformational learning theory. First articulated by Mezirow in 1978, transformational learning theory is about changedramatic, fundamental changes in the way individual see themselves and the world in which they live. The mental constructions of experience, inner meaning, and critical self reflection are common components of this approach. Self reflection is often triggered by a major dilemma or problem and may be undertaken individually as well as collectively with others who share similar problems or dilemmas. The in result of this process is a change in ones perspective. For example, a person has a heart attack and though a process of self-examination decides that the type A lifestyle that she has lived is no longer a positive action; or a newly divorced, single-parent reworks his understanding of the parenting role. Although there are a number of writers who have or would like to connect this transformational learning process more to it a social action, the predominant work has been and continues to be done from the individual perspective. Only the few educators have looked at how to operationalize the work on transformational learning into the formal practice of Adult Education. Cranton and Mezirow, for example, have offered both philosophical discussions and practical strategies and techniques that instructors use in fostering and supporting transformational learning. Yet the implementation of transformational learning brings with it many practical and practical questions. Do we have the right as adult educators to ask people to examine and change the basic life assumption as part of our educational programs? Can we expect learners to freely share this type of learning experience? Should we actually precipitate such a learning experience by posing real dilemmas or problems that forced learners to examine who they are and what they stand for as individuals (at least if they want to pass a class or earn a certain credential)? And it do we have the competencies as a dove educators from our current training to assist learners through a transformational learning process? What makes these various orientations individual is the presumption that adult learning is primarily an individual, psychological process only relatively shaped by contextual factors. As noted throughout this discussion of the individual learner perspective, though, some of the work has taken into account the contextual factors that we explore more in depth in the next section of this chapter. Actually in the last decade it has become more difficult to place topic areas into one camp or the other. Still, the majority of work on these and other topics mentioned draw heavily from psychology and are grounded in thinking about learners as individuals.
The contextual perspective
The contextual perspective takes an account to import elements: the interactive nature of learning and the structural aspects of learning grounded in a sociocultural framework. Although the contextual perspective is not new to adult learning, it has resurfaced as an important consideration over the past decade. The interactive dimensions acknowledge that learning cannot be separated from the context in which the learning takes place. In other words, the learn the situation and learning context are as important to the learning process as what the individual learner and/or instructor bring to that situation. Recent theories of learning from experience, situated cognition, cognitive and intellectual development, and writings on reflective practice in form the dimension of the contextual approach. In exploring the interactive dimension of the contextual perspectives we focus and two interrelated areas: situated cognition and reflective practice.
Situated cognition
In situated cognition, one cannot separate the learning process from the situation in which the learning takes place. Knowledge and the process of learning within this framework are viewed as a product of the activity, context, and the culture in which it is developed and used. The proponents of the situated view of learning argued that learning for everyday living which includes our practice as professionals have been only among people acting in culturally organized settings. In other words, the physical and social experience at situation in which learners find themselves in the tools they use and that experience are integral to the learning process. And practice situated cognition can be incorporated into the learning process through attending more closely to our everyday world to developing highly sophisticated simulations of real-world activities and events. For example, in the teaching of well baby care to low income mothers, new mothers are encourage to bring their newborns to class and actually practiced their new knowledge and skills. In addition, the old staff visit these mothers to see how their home situations can either enhance or detract from actually using what they have learned. The old staff may even more toward changing aspects of the context by helping these new mothers access adequate healthcare and decent housing. As another example, technological base simulations of real-life bring to bear all of the possible outcomes than the learner might have to face and carrying through a particular job or responding to a crisis situation. A flight simulator in which a pilot flies a plane in all kinds of weather conditions or computer simulations of floods or hurricanes for relief workers are examples of how technology has made situated cognition and integral part of education and training programs. The tenants of situated cognition are often played out in reflective practices. Reflective practices allow us to make judgments in complex and murky situations, judgments based on experience and prior knowledge. One way that Adult Education have integrated and interactive reflective mode into their work is through what to Schon has termed reflection-in-action. Reflection in action assist us in reshaping what we are doing while were doing it and is often characterized as being able to think our feet. In addition to Schon work, useful models of using reflective practice and a conceptual way in clue the new work of Boud and Walker, Boud and Miller, and Usher, Bryant, and Johnstone. The interactive reflective mode has been incorporated into practice in a number of ways. For example, in training instructors on how to a teach adults, the practicing teacher and learner are asked in the middle of a teaching scenario to reflect on what can Schechter has done that has been helpful to the learning process and what can be improved. The practicing teacher at the end either continue and incorporate what she had learned as she commences teaching, or she may start the teaching of the soul over again after she has had a chance to revise the lesson. The second way to incorporate this form of reflective practice into our teaching i to have learners pay attention to the here and now of the learning situation that is, what they are thinking and feeling now about whatever content is being discussed. Tremmel terms being mindful and awareness of the present moment. Mindfulness moves away from mindless absorption in the endless parade of thoughts through the mind. When one is mindful, one lives in the present and pays attention pure and simple.
The structural dimensions
The second dimension of the contextual perspective, the structural dimension, argues that factors such as race, class, gender, and ethnicity need to be taken into consideration in the learning process. Being white or of color or being male or female, for example, does influence the way we learn and even what we learn. The structural dimension of a dealt learning is interwoven into a number of research trains, such as work on a dealt cognitive development, a dealt development and learning, and participation studies, and indigenous learning. The strongest voices for the structural dimension are those scholars writing from a feminist, critical, or postmodern viewpoint. Those that a adult learning from these theoretical perspectives asked questions regarding whose interests are being served by the program being offered, really has access to these programs, and who has the control to make changes in the learning process and outcomes. Further, our assumption about the nature of knowledge including what counts as knowledge, where it is located, and how it is acquired are also a challenge. Fundamental to these questions are the themes of power and oppression in both the process and organization of the learning enterprise. Are those who hold the power really operating in the best interests of those being educated? Do our behaviors and actions as educators actually reinforce our power position, or do they acknowledge and use the experience and knowledge of those with whom we work, especially those who have been traditionally underrepresented in our are dealt learning program(such as the indigenous, or people of color)? Do we use our power as instructors and the leaders in Adult Education to either all void or band discussions about the importance of race, gender, ethnicity, and class and the adult learning enterprise? Some of the clearest messages on how to translate this structural contextual dimension into practice have come from feminist and multicultural writers. For example, using insight from both multicultural education and feminist pedagogy, Tisdell has explored how to make our practice as adult educators more in schools of people from a variety of backgrounds. She emphasizes the importance of understanding both the specific learning context of the classroom or learning activity and the organizational context in which one is working. Is there something within either of these contexts that would inhibit learners from speaking and especially from challenging predominate views and ideas? Or does the instructor incorporate ways for the learner to challenge what they are being taught in an open and positive way? Tisdell goals all and to suggest specific ways to create the inclusive learning environments including acknowledging the power disparity between the teacher/facilitator and the students considering how curricula choicest implicitly or explicitly contribute to challenging structured power relations, and adopting emancipator teaching strategies. Other insights for practice have come from people writing about the learning of indigenous cultural groups. Cajetes book on the tribal foundations of American Indian education is a useful example of this type of material. In his book, Cajete speaks to the importance of tapping into the ethnic backgrounds and ways of knowing for indigenous people. More specifically, he emphasizes techniques such as storytelling, dreaming, and artistic creation as methods for doing this. What is interesting about Cajetes observation is that he captures both the conceptual perspective of learning and the spirit of individual learners and teachers. As he states: the integration of the inner and outer realities about learners and teachers must be fully honored and we must engage both realities to make our educational process complete. He and others including ourselves have argued that both perspectives, the individual and the contextual, should inform our practice as educators of adults.
Linking the perspectives
Linking the individual and contextual perspectives can provide us with yet another way of gaining a more comprehensive understanding of learning and adulthood. What this means is that those of us who work with a belt learners need to look at each learning situation from two major lenses or frames: an awareness of individual learners and how they learn, and an understanding of how the context shapes learners, teachers, and the learning transaction itself. A number of adult education scholars acknowledge the importance of taking into account both the individual and contextual perspectives. Their work provides a starting place for both researchers and practitioners who want to gain a better understanding of this integrative perspective of adult learning. For example, Jarvis writes that learning is not just a psychological process that happens in splendid isolation from the world in which the learner lives, but that it is intimately related to that world and affected by it. Likewise, Tennant and Pogson highlight both psychological and social development and their relationship to a double learning. They shreds that the nature, timing, and the process of development will vary according to the experiences and opportunities other individuals and the circumstances in their lives. Heaney emphasizes that a narrow focus on individual in the head images of learning separates learning from its social conscience, both the social relationship which are reproduced in us and the transformative consequences of our learning on society. From Heaneys perspective, learning is an individuals ongoing negotiation with communities of practice which ultimately gives definition to both self and that practice. In a more practical vein, Pratt and associates outlined alternative frames for understanding teaching in a way that captures both the individual and contextual nature of adult learning. Some teachers, for example, focused more on individual learning in their practice those who fall under Pratts nurturing perspective, others adopt more of what Pratt terms a social reform perspective more contextual in nature, and still others combined frames and therefore address both the individual and contextual side of the learning transaction. As teachers and program planners, we are often challenge to consider both what the individual brings to the learning situation as well as the life circumstances of the learner at any particular point in time. Furthermore, the organizational context in which learn takes place will have an impact on the nature of the learning transaction. Taking a course in computer technology and the university is part of a credit program, versus a three-day training session at work, versus a workshop sponsored by community agency such as local library, will make a difference in how the course is taught and what learning takes place. To illustrate how taking account of both the individual learner and contextual factors can eliminate our understanding of learning, we offer the following three scenarios and comments.
Scenario 1
Marie a first generation Hispanic is an assistant supervisor of a production unit in the local automotive plant. She would like to be promoted by lacks a high school diploma, an essential credential for a supervisor. She decides to attend an evening class to prepare for the GED. After finding childcare for her two young children, she attends classes readily, making progress in preparing for the exam. After several weeks she no longer shows up for class. For an individual learning perspective the teacher would explain the recent behavior in terms of her ability to actually do the work, or prhaps detest anxiety as the time for the GED exam grew closer. She might also question whether Marie really wanted a promotion, which appeared to be the major motivating factor for earning her GED, from a contextual perspective the teacher would view the situation quite differently. She would not automatically assume it was Maries fault or problem, but would consider other issues. For example, were there pressures from family members not to contribute? Perhaps they feel she does not need any more education especially when it means leaving the kids home with a sitter a couple of nights a week. Were there childcare problems, and if so, as she convinced the company that it would be in their own best interest to provide childcare services as a part of the program? After all, as a result of this program, at least Marie would have be potential to be promoted according to the company policies, the teacher might also consider whether her teaching methods more appropriate for Marie, at first generation Hispanic woman. Could the teacher better connect the skills she was teaching to Maries work and home life? In reality more recent research on participation and retention in adult literacy programs often ignore a social context of learners livesthe world learners live in and deal with everyday life and therefore the most literacy programs minimize or overlook cultural, social, economic, ethnic, and gender injustices not everyone has a fair and equal chance in society. If a literacy curriculum helps learners to problematize there world so that they can see that their situation is not necessarily their fault, they can begin to gain greater control over their lives.

Scenario 2
David is an elementary teacher, teaching children with diverse backgrounds all from low income families. Like many teachers nationwide he is being pressured by borough is principal at the local district to bring up the state and national task force of his students in reading and math. He decides to enroll in a three-day summer workshop offered by a well-respected national professional association so he could learn new ways to approach this problem of low test scores. Part of the requirement for attending the workshop is to bring a team of people from Federal Building. He convinces three of his fellow teachers to join him. During the first three hours of the workshop, team members are asked to identify major issues they are facing and attempting to raise test scores. Davids team members list items like 850% turn over instant during each academic year, second language problems, and a principal who gives them little, if any, tangible support for addressing the problems. The team is excited that they are finally in a workshop where their needs would be addressed. The facilitators thank each of the teams for their input, and in and out they are predetermined agenda, saying they would incorporate the issues identified that each of the teams. The afternoon constitutes a basic introduction to the academic problems of low test scores, material Davids team is already familiar with. Even though they found the afternoon session useless, they decide to come back the second day as their morning discussion has been stimulating. The second day is even worse. Not only on the problems they identified the work, but all of the examples used to illustrate how schools were able to raise their test scores were set in middle and upper class districts and require new resource. David and his colleagues did not bother to come back the third day. Although it appeared that the needs of individual learners and this workshop for going to be considered, those of David and his colleagues were not. Rather then be inched options being situated or anchored in the participants real-life context in the case of David Steen, schools located in poor neighborhoods they were given information that was either too general or so out of context that it was not worth their time or effort to continue to attend. For this workshop to have been useful to David and his team, illustrations or case examples from school and low common districts with high student turnover rates and English-language problems would have been more meaningful as would have sharing new ideas for no or low-cost instructional materials and techniques.
Scenario 3
In a gradual class and adult education one of the authors who delighted to find out that the Taiwanese student who rarely contribute to the clients discussion and written an outstanding paper on the assigned topic. The paper was so well written that the professor decided to read it to the class as an exemplar; she also hoped that by recognizing the student in this way, the student would have more confidence to participate in class discussions and activities. While she read the paper the student will now with her head in her hands, and barren; subsequent papers were not quite as outstanding, nor did her participation increased as the teacher had hoped. In this scenario the teacher is focused on the individual learner. Though well mention, ignoring the students hold true context impacted negatively on the students subsequent learning. For some Asian students, their culture has talked them that to be singled out from their peer group the other students is acutely embarrassing and jeopardizing their position in the group; to be singled out is a risk being marginalized. Not wanting to stand out from the group, the need to save face, and respect for authority, especially that of teachers, all mitigate against contributing to class discussion and activities as an individual. In a sense their learning style favors direct interaction with the written materials and nonpublic assessment of their work. Pratt, Kelly, and Wong (1998) have questioned whether we can in polls as a part of our practice of adult education our Westernized assumption of teaching and learning. More specifically, Pratt asserts that: Adult Education within any country is not simply a neutral body of knowledge and procedures there are significant cultural and ideological differences in how adulthood is defined which must be considered when exporting or importing educational practices and procedures. What we have hoped to make clear and the last section of the chapter is that paying attention to both the individual learner and the context of learning provides yet another way to gain a richer understanding of adults as learners. In considering our own practice, we might ask ourselves questions that incorporate both perspectives such as: how can I recognize in the learning process strengthens learners bring to the situation that had been culturally engendered for example, the importance of the group, of silence, of the oral tradition? As programs are being planned, what power relations among participants, teacher, and/or organizational personnel should I address? Can I, as a teacher, respond to both the individual needs of learners in my group as well as consider the contextual factors act as barriers or supports or learning? How can I use both the collective for example, being white, a woman, a man, a person of color and individual experiences of learning in my teaching? How do I, as a teacher, inadvertently reinforced the show actual assuring some learning, and what can I do to resist reinforcing the status quo? In responding to such questions, it is our hope that our practice as adult educators can be richer, more inclusive of differing perspectives, and more comprehensive and our actions. Although we strongly endorse both further study and incorporating in practice the integrative perspective on a belt learning, we recognize there are limitations to our acknowledge position. First, some might read into our stance that expanding research efforts in this way would mean ignoring scholarship and attention to the individual and conceptual frames. However, rather than curtailing work from either of these perspectives we suggest more effort be put into identifying and then focusing on questions that offer cause the most promising information for our enhancin practice. For example, from the individual perspective what we are currently learning about the neurobiology of learning has the potential for greatly expanding knowledge about adults with learning disabilities, the importance of emotion in the learning process, and how biological changes in adulthood are linked to learning. Likewise, we still need more in-depth exploration of the interactive and structural dimensions of the conceptual perspective of learning, including such areas as reflective practice, and the influence of race, gender, class, and ethnicity on how and what adults learn. We acknowledge that the integration of the individual and conceptual frames into our everyday work roles is challenging at best and actively resisted by some. Raise the issue of power and knowledge construction or even questioning how our institutional norms, structure, and assumed ways of operating shapeup the up the learning transaction can be a threatening and disruptive undertaking. Embracing this frame involves not only changes in how we as individuals do our jobs, but also major realignments in the ways our formal institutions are organized and what is considered to be acceptable practice.

You are to write a 3-page paper. The various forms of distance education discussed in the readings(correspondence, audio conferencing, Web, ect) in light of what you have found to be the strengths and weaknesses of the particular forms. Carefully reflect on Chere Campbell Gibson view about the future of distance education make reference to a comments in the paper.

Correspondence education and home study
Today as in the past, millions of people in the United States and even more in less developed countries study in distance education programs in which the main medium of communication this text sent through the post (i.e. by correspondence). Of these, the largest number in the United States take courses from private home study schools accredited by the distance education and training Council. The distance education and training Council estimates that more than 4 million people enroll in their courses every year. The council of credits more than 60 schools offering more than 1000 different subjects, such as training of beauticians, truck drivers, jewelers, gun repair, Cooks, hotel managers and travel agents. Almost all these courses are presented in print and distributed by the mail, with into action between injectors and students also by mail. CD-ROMs and the Internet are also increasingly used. Two of the most famous home study schools are the American school, founded in 1897 in Chicago, and the international correspondent school, founded in 1891 in Scranton, Pennsylvania. Since its founding the international correspondent school has provided courses to over 12 million students; it is now owned by the Thomson publishing and has been renamed education direct. It offers more than 40 diploma programs and technical skills, such as electronics and auto mechanics, computers (PC repair, programming), and business (accounting, marketing), as well as associate degrees in business and engineering. In other historically important home study school is Hadley school for the blind, founded in 1920, which provides high school and continuing education for the blind and their families using Braille, large print, and audio cassettes. The US military and other government agencies make extensive use of correspondents studying in their training programs. For example, the Air Force Institute for advanced distributed learning offers approximately 350 courses in every aspect of the Air Force training, from specialized military subjects to correct development skills. Home study course is generally involve a relatively low degree of interaction between student and the ensure that no interaction with other students. Assignments are submitted and graded Everett with vegetables and usually the student decides when to take the final examination; this is usually done under the supervision of a Proctor. This is generally an individual, self-directed form of study.
Independent study
The term independent study was chosen in the mid-19 60s by University administrators to decide that corresponded courses and to distinguish them from a private, for profit schools. There are more than 150 universities providing such courses in the United States. Compared with courses offered by distance education and training Council institutions, the content tends to be more academic and vocational, and it is likely there will be more interaction between inched doctors and students. In addition to the printed study guides and text, University independent study courses are more likely to include other technologies, such as videotapes, television broadcast, CD-ROMs, and the use of the Internet. Access to independent study courses for credit is not as open as access to home study course is, since students must satisfy the entrance requirements of the university offering courses. Bachelor, or Masters levels, as well as certificate programs, and none credit courses. Many universities allow their on-campus students to take their correspondence courses as well as of solving class schedule problems. Usually no distinction is made in transcription between the grades awarded for courses taken in class and courses taken by independent study. Although most homes for the schools have an open enrollment policy (i.e. students can register and begin a course at any time), universities may require students to wait until the beginning of the semester to began a course. Some universities provide high school courses through independent study. The University of Nebraska at Lincoln has been the leading institution of this, offering such horses since 1929. It currently offers 160 courses in 15 subject areas. Other universities that offer rate high school programs include Alaska, Brigham Young (Utah), Kansas, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, South Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin.
Replacing print with electronic media
The American Association of collegiate independent study is a professional association of administrators and academics in independent study. In 2001, AACIS conducted the survey of its members. The members were asked, when would you anticipate your programs enrollment in online courses to exceed those in print base courses? Respondents indicated: 0-5years: 7 (29%), 6-10 years: 10(42%), 11-20: 2 years (8%), 20 + years: 1 (4%), never: 0, and already has: 3 (13%).
The term telecourse covers those courses in which the principal communication technology is recorded and broadcast (i.e. not live) video. Course materials may be as simple as videotaped classroom sessions, or may be produced with sophisticated and structural design and to very high production standards. Telecourses can be attributed in a variety of ways: through videotapes, broadcast on cable or satellite, by ITFS (and structural television fixed service) networks, or as steaming video over the Internet. One of the first significant efforts and the telecourse area was the work of the Chicago community colleges, which started to offer an associate of arts degree by television in 1956. Today, hundreds of community colleges as well as universities across the country offer telecourses for credit in their degree programs more for noncredit learning. PBS serves as a national coordinating Center for college telecourses; its PBS campus provides access to 120 credit courses at more than 400 colleges. In 1981 the publisher Walter Annenberg made a grant of $150 million to corporations for public broadcasting (CPB)to be used for the improvement of higher education through telecommunications. One of the Annenberg projects main contributors has been the provision of funds, typically in the $2-3 million range, for the production of exemplary telecourses. More than 170 college credit courses have been produced. The Annenberg project does not produce programs itself, but enters into agreement with producers who compete for the projects funding. For example, the Southern California consort, and dead by coastline community college, was awarded $5 million to produce the mechanical universe. Such a course includes not only television programs, but textbooks, study guides, and faculty and administrator guides. Teams of television and other media specialist, instructional designers, and content experts from the contracting Institute for consort of design courses, and usually including experts from universities and colleges nationwide. Once produced, and telecourses arm bought by colleges and universities that provide their own injunction and student support either on campus or through their independent study divisions, and also give their own testing and credit. Many telecourses are delivered by the adult learning service, part of PBS in cooperation with 190 television stations and over 2000 colleges around the country. In an any one year about 60% of American colleges and universities have licensed telecourses through the PBS and nearly 96% of the nations public television stations have broadcast college telecourses. Since its creation in 1981, more than 5 million students have earned college credit by PBS/telecourses. In addition, sme states have set up their own telecourse organizations. For example, the consortium of distance education is a consortium of approximately 30 community colleges in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania set up to manage sharing of telecourses. During the 12 month 2000-2001 academic year, 56% (2320, of all degree granting institutions offer distance education courses. A further 12% reported plans to offer courses in the next three years. 90% of public two-year and 89% of public four-year institutions offer distance education courses, compared with 16% of private to hear and 40% of private for your universities. Credit granting courses were offered at the undergraduate level 548% of all institutions and at the graduate level by 22% of all institutions. In the 12 month 2000-2001 academic year, there were an estimated 3,077,000 enrollments institutions. (Note that the survey asked only about electronically delivered programs and thus excluded some print based programs.) An estimated 127,400 different distance education courses were offered in the 2000 2001 academic year. About one quarter (27%) of the institutions offered 10 or fewer courses, and 15% offered more than 100 courses. The majority of institutions used Internet, with 90% reporting that they used asynchronous communication and 43% used synchronous communication. 51% use two-way video and two-way audio, and 41% use one-way pre-recorded videos (telecourses). 29% use the CD-ROM as a principal delivery technology and 19% use multimedia packages. 60% participated in some type of distance education Consortium. Of those institutions, 75% participated in a state consortium, 50% in a consortium within a single university system more community college District, 27% in a regional consortium, and 4% of an international consortium.
Opened Universitys
When the United Kingdom Open University (UK OU) was established in 1969, it was not the first major university dedicated solely to distance learning. The right to such a title probably belongs to the University of South Africa, which began its nationwide distance education system soon after the end of WWII. In fact the British studied the South African experience as well as that of Australia, the Soviet Union, Japan, and United States as they were prepared plans for their Open University in the late 1960s. Within a few years of UK OU has proven itself to be so excellent and so successful that it transforms distance education (many would say higher education in general and became a model for similar institutions around the world). With over 2 million graduates since 1972 and more than 200,000 students taking courses every year, full-time staff of 2800 and eight part-time staff over 5000 tutors and counselors, and 13 regional and 330 local learning centers across Britain and overseas, the UKOU is one of the most successful example of a total system approach to distance education. Community making them at the time of the establishment of the OU , admission to higher education was very restrictive; it was particularly difficult for to occur in a working-class homes to obtained admission. Introducing distance education was a political decision taken up by a labor government as a means of breaking down various and opening up opportunity. Thus the term open, which is often attached to distance education in Europe, very specifically reflect the political ambition of the founders of the UKOU. In the United States, where higher education was never a close as in Europe, it is important that we do not confuse the method (i.e. distance education) with the political policy (i.e. openness). In particular, it is necessary to understand that although there is a substantial body of theory about the method of teaching and learning at a distance there is a little theory of open education. Combining the vision of openness with the myth of distance education, multiple universities adhere to the following principles of the UK Open University: in a person can enroll, regardless of previous education. Study is done at home, work, or anywhere the student chooses. And course materials are provided by teams of experts. Tutoring is provided by other specialists. The enterprise is large-scale, usually national, and scope. It enrolls large numbers and enjoys economies of scale. There are large investments, mostly from public funds. A wide variety of technologies are used. A highly integrated system combined with heavy investment result in high quality.
There are exceptions or modifications to some of these principles. For example, although the UKOU admits any one on a first-come, first-served basis, it imposes a lower age limit, and enrollment in a particular course may require prerequisite; UKOU courses have fixed start dates and schedules that are all students must meet; some horses may insist on petition nations in locally study groups or residential week; purchased as well as University produced materials (such as text or tapes) may be used; and tutoring may not be provided to all students or fall courses. Since they are distance education institutions, a distinguishing characteristic of all open universities in their commitment to the use of audio, video, and computer-based technologies, integrated with print and in a very systematic way. The UKOU produces its courses in association with BBC television initially it was to be called the University of the air in Europes largest educational broadcasting studios. CD-ROMs, audio, and videotapes are components of most horses, and online learning is being integrated into existing as well as new courses. However, as with independent study courses in the United States, print materials provided the backbone of most Open University courses. Open universities have now established a tradition of investing money, time, and human resource to ensure their printed materials are extremely well-designed and will produce, very attractive to study from, and pedagogical sound. However, to correct any impressions that an institution that values printed text is not also capable of innovations with new technologies. Although United States does not have an open University party because he always open extension departments of the state and other universities provide the kinds of opportunities the British look for when they set up the UKOU, there are a number of other innovative institutions that share some special characteristics with the open universities. We have already mentioned some early. Western Governors University was formed following a 1995 meeting of association of Western Governors. A joint project of 19 states and Guam , WGU is a nonprofit institution designed to offer courses developed by its members. Bates (2000) suggests that the main motive of the Western states in setting up WGU was the frustration regarding University responses to business and industrys needs in training the workforce. Its program are in the fields of business, information technology, and education. Therefore, the WGU does not design courses itself. Rather, it is an administrative body, which endorses, presents to the public, and coordinates the provision of distance education courses through participating traditional universities. However, it does provide its own degree program in certification. Western Governor University is innovative in that it opens the educational process by focusing less on how much time he still puts in two octane credits, a more on evaluating outputs; that it is to say, that knowledge to student of choirs, regardless of where, how, and when it is acquired. This allows students to make progress toward a degree based on work and life experiences as well as traditional study. All Western governors University courses or online; it does not spend money on maintaining traditional tenure teaching faculty, but instead as signs mentors to help students design and complete their individualized academic plans. In spite of the highly publicized launching of this initiative, Western Governors University was slow to take off. Student enrollment was just 208 in te 1999 2000 academic year. In September 2000 the state of Utah released the port with severe criticism of the organization for its low enrollments. Later that year, the interregional credit the committee (IRAC) granted Western governors University of the status of candidate of accreditation. By the mid-2001, the accrediting commission of distance education and training Council, granted accreditation to Western governors University. In early 2002, the university claimed its enrollment had risen to 2500 students. Of those, 450 to Western governors Universitys degree or certificate program and the other 2050 students took courses to supplement other educational goals. Some observers think the Western governor University lacks sufficient funding to develop its full potential. Certainly, the experiences of many open universities have shown that costs are often under estimated in the beginning. Also, the organizational structure that makes Western governors University a broker of both individual courses and full programs, and the defendants on the state institution for course development seems to be not yet completely refined. Empire State College, which is a part of the State University of New York and Thomas A. Edison State College in New Jersey are other notable examples of American universities that emphasize open collar sees in making admission convenient and flexible and provide study opportunities that are equally convenient and flexible through distance education methods. Nova Southeastern University, founded in 1964 and based in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, offers graduate degrees, Master degrees and doctorial degrees through a system of regional learning centers. It achieves cost-effectiveness, like the UKOU, by relying on an adjunct faculty. Students are assigned to groups called clusters that meet together for week in face-to-face seminars. A professional educator and usually a professor located at a university in the area is hired to coordinate the academic and administrative affairs for each cluster and serve as liaison between the students, faculty, and the University. Students stay in their clusters until they complete their program. Walden University, based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, offers graduate programs in a ministrations/management, health services, human services, and education. Walden University use this procedure similar to Nova, organizing weekend sessions regionally, with adjunct faculty and three summer sessions held at the University of Indiana, Bloomington. Perhaps the most important point to bear in mind about open universities, from the American point of view, is the pressure and the stimulus that their success into mistreating the principles of a system approach have had on institutions in this country, including new virtual institutions that have emerged with the availability of online technologies. It is not a coincidence that the quality of courses designed and delivered in the United States improved and distance education became much more excepted following the establishment of the UKOU van had been the case for nearly 100 years before that.
Interactive television: satellite and cable networks
The use of satellite to deliver courses was the most talked about form of distance education and training in the last two decades of the 20th century, just as delivery by Internet is uppermost in peoples mind at the beginning of the 21st century. It is estimated that there are over 60,000 received sites in the United States by the middle of the 1990s. Unlike the other forms of distance education discussed so far in this chapter, satellite-based courses are usually delivered to students in groups according to a schedule determined by the teaching institution. What makes them different from telecourses is that they are enter active, with feedback, questions, and discussions transmitted usually by telephone links from the audience to the content experts in a distance studio.
Business television and corporate training
Distance education became a training approach of significant interest to American corporations with the evolution of interactive television delivered by satellite, which became known as business television. Companies found they could provide training that was very specific to their particular products at their branch offices and plants around the country and the world, use their own private television network, and was received by means of a satellite dish located outside local business offices or plants. In recent years there has been a tendency to outsource programming and delivery to specialist vendors. Business television link is a corporate satellite user group that includes satellite television pioneers such as Ford Motor Co., American Express, General Electric, Anheuser-Busch, and Re/Max. This is a television proved to be a cost-effective way to apply employee training. For example, when there is a new product, the capability of training the entire sales force at one time means more standardized training, more immediate sales, and his extra revenue. One of authority reports, on the behalf of a bender of satellite programs that this is television results in a: 64% decrease in cost for new product introductions, 81% reduction in product cycle time, 50% reduction in Time out a field. This is television program in accomplishes other functions important to companies besides delivering formal training courses. One of these is the development and maintenance of company morale and employees motivation. These broadcasts provide details about current operation or problems as well as focusing on examples of outstanding employee performance. It is common for the senior executives of companies to make regular appearances to explain policies and answer questions. At one point there was over 80 private business television networks and the United States, some which reach thousands of sites and millions of employees. Today many of these had given way to online communication systems.
Interactive video and higher education
The national University telecommunication network has a membership of approximately 50 universities, community and Junior colleges, and vocational and technical institutes with nearly every state represented. The national University telecommunication network courses consist of one or more broadcast, with video delivered by satellite, and with interactions conducted among receiving sites by telephone. Most courses offered by the national University telecommunication network and continuing education courses produced by the members institutions. A member institution developed the videoconference on a topic of current interest, using expert presenters, and offers a program to other institutions throughout the country. Other members provide reception facilities. The typical program consists of a live video presentation transmitted by satellite and an audio discussion by question period. Each receiving site pays a registration fee to the originating institution; these fees typically range from $200-$500 per site the national University telecommunication network administration help member market their horses, but does not get involved in their production or transmission, which is responsibility of the originating site. The national University telecommunication network also conduct some training activities. When it was established in 1984, was also based on the idea of delivering satellite video courses. It offers its own master degree and a variety of engineering fields, as well as continuing education courses, mainly in engineering also. The national University telecommunication has no sovereignty of its own or campus, and uses satellite, compressed digital video, and computer technology to deliver more than 1000 courses taught by faculty from 50 major universities to more than 1000 work locations internationally. National telecommunication University clients are not individual students, but organizations. Over 200 major corporation and government agencies subscribe to national Telecommunication University and pay fees for eah course they receive. Corporations cooperating and national Telecommunication University including Boeing, Kodak, General Electric, IBM, Motorola, and Xerox. The organizations decide which employees will participate and arrange on-site facilities for taking part in the programs. National telecommunication University has granted more than 1600 master degrees to individuals left completed one of their programs of study. In any one year, more than 30,000 technical professional participate in national telecommunication universities noncredit professional development short courses. In recent years, all these systems have had to accommodate their programming to the emergence of online technologies, in some cases Michelson programs and in others by merging what can be offered by the two technologies. The satellite deliver program can be more suitable for presentations of live lectures, demonstrations, or film; while the online program provides opportunities for small group enter activity, communication from individual participants to instructors, and in-depth follow-up search activities. In the 2000s, the star schools program evolved away from satellite teleconferencing programs toward programming for delivery on the Internet. Although some of the original Star schools consortia had disbanded, among those that have survived are the satellite education resources Consortium, and the telecommunication education for advances in math and sciences.
Online learning and virtual universities
The biggest technological development in distance education in the past decade has been the rapid emergence of the Internet and World Wide Web. Almost all distance education programs, including correspondence and independent study, now have some online presence. In some institutions online learning has replaced telecourses and interactive video courses. Some institutions have been created specifically to offer online learning usually calling themselves virtual universities. Jones international University was originally established in 1987 by entrepreneur Glyn Jones when did it was called mind extension University. Mind extension University provided courses through cable television, but it turned to the Web in 1995, changed its name, and claimed to be the first fully online, accredited university. Like many other online universities, and Jones international University aims to capture an adult audience, mainly working professionals. Is courses had a professional development character with emphasis at undergraduate, Masters and certificate level in the fields of business, education, communications, and information technology. About half of the students had tuition paid by their employers, and most are enrolled in non-degree or certificate programs. In 1999, the North Central Association of colleges and schools accredited Jones international University, a decision that rendered the university more credibility. Some and academic community contested this accreditation, which was defended by the association. The University of Phoenix is one of the largest and most successful online universities. He is a for-profit, proprietary higher education institution, founded in 1976 by the CEO John G. Sperling . The north-central Association of colleges and schools granted it accreditation in 1978. The University of Phoenix is a dual-mode institution; it delivers courses both the classroom through 55 campuses and 98 learning centers in 18 states and through distance education. Most 90% of Phoenix online faculty is part-time. Its full-time faculty designs the courses, and instructors facilitate the online lessons. There is an emphasis on standardizing courses, the doctors worked in a highly structured environment. The university claims that it prefers practitioner faculty who have full-time employment in the discipline they teach. Methods emphasize teamwork, problem-solving activities, and practical application of knowledge. Since it began offering online courses in 1979, it has grown tremendously, in 2003, it had over 70,000 students and 4000 online instructors. The focus of Phoenix is working adults, and its courses have a vocational orientation. Degrees are offered online in business, management, technology, education, and nursing. The degrees range from associates of arts in general studies to a doctor but management and organizational leadership. The majority of students 43% are enrolled in the College of undergraduate business, followed by the college graduate business 20%. Of the university is another private, for profit web-based virtual University and its CEO Steve shank founded it in 1993, aiming at an adult professional audience. Capella University has institutional procedures that resemble those of the traditional universities: the individual professor teaches his or her own courses, for no more than 12 students. However, most of its 170 from two members are part-time, as with Phoenix University online and Jones international University. Capella University was granted accreditation in 2000 Iva North Central Association. It offers degree programs in business, education, psychology, human services and technology, at the certificate, bachelors, masters, and Doctoral levels. The Fielding graduate Institute was founded in 1974 as a distance learning institution specifically for midcareer adults one would create a national learning community in the behavioral sciences. It was an earlier adopter of computer conferencing and now makes extensive use of online learning. Some virtual universities have been created by conventional universities for the delivery of their own programs; examples are pinned states moral campus, University of Illinois online, and the University of Texas Tele campus. Temple University establish virtual temple, New York University created in why you online, and the University of Maryland University College set up its for profit unit. Cornell University has to redesigned its eCornell either it into a non--degree continuing education effort. States have created virtual universities serve as portals for the whole secondary institutions in that state, and not awful courses or programs of their own. Examples include Arizona, Florida, California, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, and Texas. However, some of the most talked about virtual universities quickly passed away. California virtual university was abandoned in 1999. Fathom an ambitious consortium of megastars in education and the arts, closed in 2003. Some institutions described as virtual universities have been created as a means of marketing a product. For example Barnes & Nobles University offers free courses to the public talk about authors and experts as a way to increase book sales. Macromedia University provides online course to teach people how to use the multimedia design programs sold by Macromedia. Other information-technology companies, including Microsoft, IBM, Cisco, Sun, and Novell provide extensive online education programs relevant to their products.
Virtual schools
Although K-12 schools have been interested in the use of technology for a long time, they have been slow to set up virtual schools. Reason for this includes lack of network access, face-to-face teaching Coulter that includes some political resistance, and lack of teacher training. However, in recent years at least 12 states have established some form of virtual schools intended to offer K-12 class of systems anywhere in the states. In addition, there are virtual high schools offered by some universities, as well as locals who districts and private/charter schools. Some examples are the secondary curriculum via distance education offered by University of Idaho, and the program of University of Nebraska. All these programs started out with a correspondence course model, and have been adding Internet based course. Surveyed virtual schools are reported that at the time of this report, estimated 40-50,000 students were enrolled in online courses and most of these students were taking advanced placement courses. One of the firs and most established virtual high schools is called virtual high school inc. Established in 1996 as a partnership between the Hudson, Massachusetts school district and the Concorde consortium , VHS offers over 100 horses in arts, business, four languages, language arts, life skills/health, math, science, social studies, and technology education. These courses are developed and taught by teachers at the virtual high school 162 in 2003 located in 21 states and overseas. Each participating schools space and annual membership fee to belong to virtual high school and this entitles its to us to course access. For a detail evaluation of virtual high school based upon studies conducted by the Center for technology and learning. Another example is Keystone national high school, which was founded and licensed by the state of them something and and 94 and a credit in 1998. It provides both correspondent courses and Internet based courses and offers year-round enrollment, with a full credit high school curriculum that aims to meet the needs of home school students as well of souls in road of public and private schools. Major information technology, these also offer educational training programs to K-12 schools IBM has formed partnerships with 15 school districts and six states and a project that declares as it contains the reinvention of American schools and selling a line of products and services as well. Microsoft also provides programs to K-12 including an online magazine.
Corporate training
Marchese in 1998 states that private business stands about $58 billion annually on employee training and about 85% of the Fortune 500 companies are subsidizing distance education for their employees. A survey conducted by in 2003 reported that 41% of responding organizations were using online learning. Most large corporations develop their their own online training to meet specific needs of their business and employees, and many have set up their own corporate universities. According to one estimate by corporate University exchange, there are over 1000 such entities. Some of these corporate universities like more Motorola University have bilked physical campuses, other such as the old university only exist virtually. Companies like Microsoft, Oracle, Novell, and Cisco are all in the direct provision business. Sun Microsystems education services division off for over 200 courses and classroom, web-based, and CD modes. Hardware and software manufacturers have provided a plethora of training products as a means to support their customers. Sun Microsystems wraps support, education, consulting, integration, and channel services, as well as direct access to Suns online support tools, under one umbrella; further indicating the integration of training into the design, manufacturing, and distribution of information technologies. Some businesses have teamed up with universities to provide training for their employees. For example, MetLife has teamed up with Drexel University to offer distance master degrees in information systems; the Saturn Corp. and the Bechtel National Inc. formed a partnership with the University of Tennessee, Western governors University is supported by 14 business partners including Sun, IBM, and AT&T.
There are vendors will offer off-the-shelf online distance education courses as well as tailor-made courses for specific companies. For example, the college is a company comprised of educators and technologist that partner with University of Colorado and in other five universities to deliver courses online; a contracted with Microsoft to deliver Microsoft 2000 productivity courses to university faculty. The 100 degree online grant program is eCollege effort to sell a range of online degrees and certificate programs. Smart force, another in the learning Company with sales of 168,000,002 thousand, claims to be the worlds largest the learning Company, serving over 2500 corporate customers and having over 30,008 learning objects into its library. It provides online mentors, a library of laboratory simulations, threaded discussion forums, and the chance to interact with guest speakers on a pay-per-view basis. Vcampus Corporation distributes a library of more than 5200 web-based courses, and has delivered more than 2.5 million horses to over 700,000 adult learners. A method example is NETg, which has provided 700 online modules for the national Institute of health, including over 100 codeveloped with Oracle education, with the majority devoted to database administration, and an Internet Master series developed by Netscape. In one form of online learning that is frantically popular and corporations is Web conferencing. This involves the simultaneously use of voice and shared whiteboards the latter usually used for showing PowerPoint slides, and may also involve video all sharing of application programs. This form of distance education is readily adopted by trainers who had their first exposure to distance education in the video teleconferencing and audio graphics boom of the 1980s. Deliver a Web conference is very similar, except that the numbers up trainees at each screen are generally smaller than the audience is distributed more widely. There are a number of vendors that sell Web conferencing services. All the company has to do is to provide is the subject matter experts who deliver the presentation.
Certification and testing companies
There are three testing companies that dominate the market. They are Prometric acquired from Sylvan learning systems by Thomson Corp. of Canada Forest $775 million cash, CatGlobal a division of Houghton-Mifflin, and virtual University Enterprises a division of national computer systems. Prometrics operates about 2500 testing centers and 140 countries. Virtual University Enterprises has nearly 1500 locations, including 20 in Mexico, 28 in Russia, 23 in Brazil, 19 the South Africa, and 50 in China. CatGlobe offers wholly online computer-based testing from servers and 16 countries. Some vendors have developed their own certification. Learning tree international, for example, will qualify you as a certified professional and Cisco router or Oracle7 database administrator on completion of coursework minimum of 22 days and $4500 for Cisco; 19-24 days and $4500 for Oracle and passing examinations.
Military education
US military has always been a major user of distance education, and he should come as no surprise that it has actively embraced online learning. There have been doers distance education programs involving interactive satellites and television in military settings. The Army logistics Management College has offered one-way video/2-way audio programs on its satellite education network for a number of years 2000 of learners with the armed forces and government agencies. The pair technology network is operated by the Air Force Institute of technology; the program reached over 18,000 students at 69 sites across the United States. The Navy operated the CNET electronic schoolhouse network with downlinks classes to major naval training centers around the country that government education and training network provides programs of interest to the Department of Defense agencies. The armys TNET system can seem and received training from over 110 other TNET locations and over 300 site and other military and state networks including all SEN sites. TNET provides the full transfer of video, audio, and data between all sites and allows tactical communication equipment to be included as part of the videoconferencing infrastructure. The navys video teletraining system used digital video compression to network 11 sites and 16 classrooms it was available 24 hours a day and in use for 10 hours a day. Over $2 billion have been in allocated for distance education in 1997-2007. United States General accounting office, national security and international affairs division 1997. Distance education program and the Department of Defense are supported by vertically and horizontally massive technological infrastructure. For example, the National Guads distributive training program is compromise of 250 learning centers, with another 150 under development, supporting programs and 50 states and all US territories. The centers are outfitted with two-way audio and videoconferencing and Internet and Web capabilities. This network was conceived from the beginning as the basis for supporting distance education in the civilian communities, and so the centers are open for Adult Education in college programs, professional teleconferencing meetings, and telemedicine in rural and small communities. In 1997 the Army had only 100 military and television network sites United States General accounting office, national security and international affairs, 19 and seven but plans to have established over the hundred high technology, high bandwidth distance learning centers linked by land-based, commercial telecommunications network by 2005. The goal is to have a digital training facility within 50 miles of every soldiers work location. Unique perhaps to the armed forces, Molson systems are required to meet the needs of most geographically isolated military learners. The US Marines and Navy have been working on setting up deployable learning resource centers that will deliver courses to sailors and hard to reach locations such as on ships in the middle of the ocean. One of the most ambitious effort of the Armys virtual University. The six leaned on luncheon will be spent on the target of having 80,000 soldiers studying via the Army University access online, that unknown by the name of this Internet portal, EArmyU. Launched in 2001, it provides soldiers with access to over 116 certificates and degree programs offered by 32 institutions, with the most enrollment going to Central Texas College, Troy State University, Thomas Edison State College, Saint Leo University, Rio Salado College, and Embry-Riddle aeronautical University. The levels of these programs range from certificate, an associate, bachelor, and masters degrees. All soldiers taking EArmyU courses are eligible for tuition assistance in all courses credited earned are transferable across participating universities. The army continuing education system includes the work of learning centers at Army bases worldwide. In addition, soldiers receive computer equipment, technology support, Internet accounts and service through Galileo online library at the University system of Georgia. In 2003, nearly 31,000 me and women at more than 20 Army bases in the United States and abroad were enrolled in the program. In the beginning, the consortium of institutions that provide courses was managed by noneducational rations, and Price Waterhouse Coopers consulting firm, on a 359 million multi-year contract. Online curriculum was provided through smart thinking, a specialist company hired by Price Waterhouse Coopers. In November 2000, the U.S. Navy entered into an agreement with 16 institutions to provide a variety of associate and bachelor degree programs. Because of the mobile lifestyle sailors, and the Mimi London institutions to provide courses through various technologies and not only online. The same types of degrees are offered by several of incorporating institutions, thereby providing sailors with the choice of program and institution. In the guidance in the selection process is given by the Navy advisers and the institutions representatives. Institutions selected in the first stage of the Navy program included: Dallas County community college District, and George Washington University, University of Maryland University College, City University( Renton, Washington),coastline community college, Embry-riddle aeronautical University, Empire State University, and Florida community college, Florida State University, Fort Hays State University in Kansas, Old Dominion University, Rogers State University Oklahoma, Thomas Edison State College, Troy State University, Vincennes University Indiana. The Air Force Institute for advanced contributed learning, a merger of Air Force distance learning office with the extension course Institute, provides training and who education programs for the Air Force, and air National Guard, and Air Force reserve. The institute also provides career development courses to personnel throughout the Department of Defense and to civil service employees and other federal agencies. The Air Force Institute for advanced distributed learning offers a resident and nonresident curriculum. The nonresident curriculum covers over 400 horses in three categories: professional military education courses, and specialized courses and corporate development courses. Specialized and career development courses are available on CD-ROM or computer-based instruction, in such subjects as: weather, aircrew operations, medical, nursing, command-and-control system operation, communications-electronics systems, and information management. Other military schools that are developing their own distance education programs including the Army National Guard, the defense acquisitions University and Air University.

Course sharing initiatives
There have been a number of initiatives aimed at sharing in the distribution of web-based materials. One of the earliest was the world lecture hall created by the University of Texas, Austin in 1993, which has a database listing thousands of courses and over 70 subjects. In 1997, Merlot multimedia education resource for learning and online teaching was established by the California State University system and down compromises 15 other partner institutions. The multimedia education resource for learning and online teaching database includes thousands of courses and seven subject areas. All courses are peer reviewed and reviewers ratings and comments can be viewed with the course description. The Maricopa learning exchange is a method database of web based courses aimed at the needs of community college students. One of the most talked about efforts and course sharing has been the Massachusetts Institute of technology open courseware project in an effort to make MIT course materials available free to the public. At the time of its official launch in September 2003 in, materials related to more than 100 courses offered by MIT online by 2007 for each course, the syllabus, readings, and lectures notes, schedule, assignments, exams, and study materials are provided. The considerable discussion that the project has provoked within the higher education world highlights the issues of product versus process in higher education, (i.e. although it appears that MIT has given away valuable intellectual property, it really has not since the education process requires a resource more valuable than reading a lecture notes. This is the value added by the instructor and involvement in interaction with peers.

Viewpoint: Chere Campbell Gibson
Technology has brought us access to information to a degree unheard of in the past. As I reflect on the future of teaching and learning with technology and distance education, and I see a decrease in the presentation of content and an increase emphasis on the learning process. Learning through authentic problem-solving, inquiry-based learning and context-based problem posing will be accentuated at all levels of education. Learners will be challenged to work on increasingly more complex problems as well as to engage in problem identification itself. Working with others, both within disciplines and across disciplines in interdisciplinary problem-solving teams, will be encouraged to help learners broadened their repertoire of skills to critically assess information and create knowledge, as well as apply it. Actually believe the future will focus on the use of the available tools and information for personal, organizational and community growth. Teaching content becomes less relevanttool mastery, mastery of the processes of learning, both alone and with others, working within and across disciplines for problem solution, as well as problem identification and critical assessment of resources, will come to the fore.(I hope!)

French Canada Quebec Stands for

Case sutdy based on French Canada, the report is designed to be presented to a middle manager that is be relocated to Canada's French (Quebec)sector. The case study should include national culture in Canada's French sector.It should also focus on educational and training systems, especially those devoted to devlopment of managers.

Case study should focus on Canada's french population residing in and around Quebec. It should give detailed report of the national culture. Give detailed about the educational and training systems that might be avalible for the devlopoment of a manager.

Title IX Gender Bias Abstract

The Signature Assignment Action Research Project is considered a term paper. Use the required APA style and format that will be helpful to the reader. The project requires the following six sections:

Introduction - Define the research problem. This is the introduction to your study and warms the reader to your topic. Explain why the issue is important to you and the community that will learn from your study. Describe the questions you want to answer and /or the specific areas you will want to address in your study. Tell the reader how you will organize your research project to include a brief description of how you will complete the rest of your study.

Review of the Literature - This includes a comprehensive search of the relevant literature that deals with your topic; display and explain the highlights of your review of each item that you want to include in your research. At the end of this section write an instructive narrative summary of what you have learned from the literature review. This summary is intended to show the reader how much you have learned and what this new knowledge means to you and its influence on your workplace and on your academic preparation in educational law. Moreover, the summary will be presented to stakeholders who will comment on your research.

Stakeholder (Respondents) Viewpoints - Share what you have learned with stakeholders (select 7 10 respondents who are colleagues, supervisors, students, other interested persons) and collect their viewpoints, comments and opinions about your research. Display demographic data about the stakeholders and report relevant comments from the respondents about your research.

Analysis and Recommendations - When you have completed the first four portions of the Signature Assignment, reflect carefully on your accomplishment and then analyze the stakeholder comments and explicate the findings and highlights that will be of interest and instructive to the reader.

Next, based on the findings of your research study, make a listing of recommendations for yourself that you will want to remember and disseminate to others.

Abstract - And finally, please write an abstract of your study (not to exceed 150 words) that is written in the style of a news writer or reporter who wants to tell the general, most meaningful highlights of your study.
References - Display a list of the bibliographic resource material you used in your research study. This listing will help others to follow up your study and to seek more information about your topic. Make sure to make good use of the required textbook, American Public School Law, in your project and include it in your list of citations and references.

This consists of four- 2 page essays. Please seperatre them by part.

Part I
In a 2 page narrative essay discuss which your response to the following topics. Read the first paragraph below on the context and then respond to the assignment criteria topics.

Read through the background readings (links provided below) to familiarize yourself with the relationship between state policy on standards and the impact on student outcomes. For this essay in particular, we will focus on the state of Vermont's Department of Education. Review the materials at the Vermont Department of Education: State Board of Education and the framework of standards and learning opportunities. On the State Board of Education page read through the overview, mission, vision and strategic plan. On the framework and opportunities page focus your attention on the subject of Mathematics only, and select the 8th grade level, e.g. algebra.

-Identify the role and purpose of the State Board of Education, describe the five aspects to their strategic plan.

-Describe the framework for standards and the learning opportunities for Mathematics only at the selected grade level.

-Analyze how the five aspects to the strategic plan may or may not be substantiated in the framework of standards and the learning opportunities. Identify examples to illustrate your perspective. Determine to what degree the framework and opportunities documents are aligned / map onto the five strategies. Are there any gaps? If so, do the gaps make sense?

-Evaluate whether the information between the strategic plan and the framework and opportunities documents provide adequate "leadership and support to help all Vermont students achieve to excellence" as the mission statement claims in regard to standards for curriculum development. Give examples to illustrate your argument.


Vermont Department of Education - State Board of Education. Retrieved July 2007 from

Vermont Department of Education - VERMONT'S FRAMEWORK OF STANDARDS & LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES. Retrieved July 2007 from

Vermont Department of Education - Curriculum and Assessment: Mathematics. Retrieved July 2007 from

Part II
In a 2 page narrative essay discuss which your response to the following topics.

To complete the essay for this module you will need to refer to the Background Information (provided below). You will also need to read through the Tempe Union High School Curriculum Model. Draw on additional scholarly literature to demonstrate mastery of the concepts.

-Using the Tempe document, describe the three levels of committees and their features, and explain the role the district plays in relation to the Campus Curriculum Committees and the Governing Board.

-What is the importance of planning and organization of curriculum on the district level?

-What major functions would district-level curriculum efforts serve?

-Choose two of the eleven major functions as described below in the "Identified 11 major functions of the District Level curriculum" and describe how these functions are instantiated in the Tempe document. Give examples to illustrate the ways that each function can be implemented.

-Analyze how the functions are represented in the curriculum document for that district. Are the functions adequately implemented? Give reasons for your opinion.

Background Info and Readings:
11 Major functions of the District Level curriculum
1. Develop curriculum policies
2. Provided fiscal support
3. Articulate a curriculum vision
4. Identify educational goals
5. Identify the core program of studies
6. Select instructional materials
7. Assess student learning
8. Provide fiscal and technical support
9. Solicit community and teacher involvement
10.Provide professional development for principals
11.Evaluate the various types of curriculum as well as the curriculum development process itself

Tempe Union High School Curriculum Development Model. Retreived July 2007 from

Part III

In a 2 page narrative essay discuss which your response to the following topics.

-Analyze the main concepts of Bruners spiral curriculum. Provide examples in your discussion.

-Document Tylers contributions to curriculum. What were the educators main concepts? Explain each concept with an example.

-What is the relationship between Bruners and Tylers work? Compare and contrast their approaches to curriculum.

Jerome Bruner. InFed. Retrieved July 2007 from

Harden, R.N., Stamper, M. What is a spiral curriculum? Medical Teacher, 21:2. Retrieved July 2007

Pemberton, J.B., Rademacher, J.A., Tyler-Wood, T., Cerijo, M.V.P. (2006) Aligning Assessments With State Curriculum Standards and Teaching Strategies. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41:5. Retrieved July 2007 from

Part IV
In a 2 page narrative essay discuss which your response to the following topics.

-Locate a specific curriculum document from a school and subject matter of your choice. Identify and name the school and subject.

-Discuss how a) objectives b) activities/projects/assignments, and c) evaluation should meet the needs of a specific group of students.

-Analyze the curriculum document you have selected in terms of the following components: a) objectives b) activities/projects/assignments, and c) evaluation, and how each of these do or do not meet the needs of a specific group of students.

WE WILL PAY MORE FOR THIS ORDER!!! EMAIL [email protected] for the sources (we have them)!!!!

Dear Sir,

I will accomplish chapter 1 to chapter 3 myself. Therefore, I am expecting you accomplishing chapter 4 and chapter 5 with the total of 50 pages. Please develop them based on my proposal basis. I will send you my proposal, survey questionnaire, and survey data via e-mail for your better understanding of my research and hopefully they will assist your statistical analysis and results (chapter 4) and discussion (Chapter 5).it MUST use the statistics analysis (I already have all the data survey done and will e-mail to you)

Plus, I would like to have the statistical processing data (including figure or table) from the writer in case my committees would challenge me any statistical issues in the dissertation defense. For statistical package, please use SPSS is possible. Thank you for your highly cooperation!!

Below is the dissertation format. Hopefully you can help me to accomplish chapter 4 (Results) and chapter 5 (Discussion) within my expecting days (7 days).

Chapter 4: RESULTS
Criteria for Coding Data
Hypothesis One
Hypothesis Two
Hypothesis Three
Hypothesis Four
Hypothesis Five
Hypothesis Six
Hypothesis Seven
Hypothesis Eight

Study Design Based on Contemporary Literature
Review of the Findings
Other Findings
Educational Implications
Future Research
Summary and Conclusions

There are faxes for this order.

purpose of essay is to provide university to understand my reflection on the future of education in the twenty first century. The essay will let them hear my voice and perspective as well as what values I can bring to a ph.d program in educational leadership for teaching and learning phd program. essay must adress(3 points).
1. what my ideal vision of education in the twenty first century is?- All children in public setting have opportunity to engage, explore and construct ideas and issues around them and to strive for self achievement.
2. critique of current status of education- I am in favor of reform in modern society.
3.What my ideas about the work and responsibilities of educational leaders are? I am for research curriculum development, futuristic, and progressive leadership.

max. 4 pages, 12point(new times roman, first person, cover with contact info and date.
I am a Junior high science teacher in inner city school, mostly second language learners. I am successful in hands on, and work in content delivery with effective and successful strategies. I am progressive, and not afraid to try new methods, with the ever changing multi racial society. I believe the future of student success depends largely on the early processes and skills that need to be adressed as teachers are going to be future leaders and need to lead courses on interpersonal classes with values and morals incorporated.

Nursing for an Associate Degree

My paper's focus is on the different educational levels that are currently available in nursing. This is a recommendation paper to the State of Connecticut Licensure Board. This paper should focus on that they should set a minimum level of education in order to take the RN boards at the associate degree level. I will be e-mailing a list of articles that I would like to be included in this paper along with my first position paper for this. I have also listed below the requirements for this paper. I would like this paper in APA format, including a Bibliography page, and I would like copies of the sources you use. I would also like a daily e-mail update of how my paper is going and if there are any problems. Please read the other requirements below for this paper. I will e-mail both my list of articles to be included and I will include my position paper to help.

Your recommendation report should do the following:

Define the problem clearly and demonstrate its significance.
Therefore you should discuss whom the problem affects and offer some prediction about what will happen if your audience does not act to solve the problem.
Describe the characteristics of a workable solution.
Discuss possible solutions to the problem. You should present three or four possible solutions. Your three or four possible solutions should all be serious and require careful presentation and refutation. You may mention possible solutions that are obviously deficient and require little if any discussion; you would mention them to point out that you have thought of rather than overlooked
them. You must present at least three viable solutions and explain why one of them is superior to the others.
Measure these solutions against the criteria you have already established and endorse one solution.
Illustrate how and why your recommendation is the most work-able one. This will involve anticipating counterarguments to your recommendation. How would someone from an opposing camp or from a company competing with your own question your recommended solution? How can you defend your recommendation?
Attribute properly all borrowed information to the appropriate sources and include a bibliography or works cited page.
There are faxes for this order.

Cutting Faced With the Different

Here are the instructions I get each week for research paper, please consider them while writing the paper. Also a paper is pasted in the end for reference after all the questions prof asked so far.

for your proposal please give me your topic here. What was it that you found to be a problem and why do you think so? Please tell me in 3 sentences what this problem is and how you think you can either solve it, educate others on it, provide more information to world about it etc.... This will become your Statement of the Problem (Step 2) in your appendix for the DRP proposal. Below is Step 2.

Step 2. Statement of the Problem. The DRP research statement of the problem is a three part statement: an introductory sentence, a problem sentence and a transition/closing sentence.

Introductory Sentence: The first sentence introduces the topic of the research problem that is of primary interest to the DRP student.

?Organizational Behavior touts itself as a field that extracts its contents from various social sciences.?

The Problem Sentence: The second sentence presents the structure from which the research question will be derived.

?A review of academic and professional journals reveals no studies illustrating the Organizational Behavior/Social Science linkage.?

The Transition/Closing Sentence: The third sentence is a transition or closing sentence.

?Universities use Organizational Behavior text?s interdisciplinary approach to educate business professionals about behaviors occurring within organizations, and the Organizational Behavior/Social Science relationship.?

Anyone, with or without expertise in this intended research area of interest can immediately understand where the DRP research effort is headed and why. This provides a basis for how the DRP student will relate the DRP research conclusion back to the statement of the problem and either their primary research question or hypothesis as the research moves forward.

Post this statement of the Problem here.
for your proposal please provide me with the context of your problem. What is the history behind your problem? Why is it a problem and for whom is it a problem? How did the probelm begin, where is this problem located? What are the consequences and or positive aspects if any of this problem? This is from Step 1 of your DRP proposal in the appendix section of the syllabus. This should be around 3 pages long.

Step 1. Context of the Problem. -- sets up the research statement with background, purpose and perhaps some support from the literature or acceptable literature alternatives. It is here that the DRP problem or issue is discussed and gives a transitory explanation of what the completed research work-product will most likely contain.
for your proposal please provide me with your research questions. These questions are going to guide your research. They are going to be the questions from which the answers will help you solve, educate others about or further explore your problem. You should have around 5 or 6 reserach problems. All of them should be guiding not yes or no questions but rather ones that when asked and answered will help you figure out a solution to your problem. This is Step 3 of your DRP proposal in the appendix section of the syllabus.

Step 3. Research Question/Hypothesis and
The research question or hypothesis is derived from the statement of the problem. This provides a clear basis for the research to be done. The research question/hypothesis can be broken into applicable manageable subquestions or subhypotheses.

Research Questions

The purpose of this research is to determine how universities use Organizational Behavior?s interdisciplinary approach to educate business professionals about behaviors within organizations, and the Organizational Behavior/Social Science relationship? To answer this question, the following subquestions will be addressed:

1. What is Organizational Behavior, it?s core body of knowledge and interdisciplinary approach? (Qualitative)

2. What Social Science concepts influence the Organization Behavior field?s core body of knowledge and the correlation between them? (Quantitative)

3. How are business professionals educated about behaviors occurring in organizations? (Qualitative)
for your proposal provide me with your Significance of the Study. This section should be around 3-4 pages long and it should describe to me why you care so much about this problem? Why should I care about this problem? Why should the world care about this problem? This is where your passion can come out and where you try to persude the world that this problem is worthy of your time and energy and the time and energy of those who are going to read it. Put your heart into it but back up what you say with references.... always.
This is step 4 of your DRP proposal found in the appendix section of your syllabus.

Step 4. Significance of the Study. The Significance of the Study section is the researcher?s opportunity to explain why it is a significant research problem under study in theory and/or practice. The following example of a declaration of significance may be helpful:

Significance of the Study

This case study is important because it recognizes the value and benefits of conducting e-business on the WWW.

The study will help clarify the nature of warranted change and how a significant segment of the Corporate structure communicates strategically in business and the professions. This research is also of importance because it will add to the growing base of knowledge about e-business and the WWW Global market place. A third consideration of the significance is that much more can be learned about what companies can do to be successful and to circumvent initial failure in the first place. From a qualitative and naturalistic-ethnographical setting it is expected much will be learned including management and the need for effective strategic communication.

To the extent this study reveals how e-business can be successful, Corporate management may or may not need to be concerned with whether or not organizational policy changes are necessary, or whether the phenomena is a matter of environmental business changes of the day, then the study will have contributed to a better understanding that is unique to the larger WWW e-business community.
for your proposal please provide me with your Research Design and Methodology Section. This is the meat and potatoes, the heart, the main point of why you are here and why you are doing what you are doing. This is the road map, the path you are taking to tell me how you are going to do what you are going to do. While you will see that quantitative and triagulation methods are talked about in the appendix section of the syllabus I would like you to only use QUALITATIVE methodology. I would also like you to use 5 methodologies in your research design and methodology section.
1. interviews
2. surveys
3. focus groups
4. internal data
5. observations

You must use all 5 and talk about how each of these will be conducted, where, how, with whom, and why? Why will it help you answer your research questions and why and how will it help you solve, further educate etc... the world about your problem.

This section should be around 5- 6 pages long. This is Step 5 in your DRP proposal found in your appendix section of the syllabus.

Step 5. Research Design and Methodology. There are three kinds of DRP research design -- qualitative, quantitative and triangulation. The first sentence of the section explains which kind of design the student will use.

Qualitative research focuses on understanding phenomena, rather than predicting as in the application of traditional quantitative or statistical research. Triangulation is the integration of both qualitative and quantitative (mixed-method) research designs, combining both into a single research strategy to increase the quality of results.

The methodology section describes the procedures the DRP will follow (content analyses, face-to-face interviews, questionnaires, quantitative analyses, etc.), describes the information and/or data that the student will collect, and describes how the student will develop conclusions to address the purpose of the study.

Premises of the Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Qualitative Quantitative

Research Definition A formal systematic, realistic and consistent subjective strategy for obtaining information about a targeted research micro group or individual situation that can be used to describe life experiences and give them meaning. A formal systematic, realistic and consistent objective strategy for obtaining information about a targeted research macro population. A method used to describe, test relationships, and examine cause and effect relationships.

Research Goal The realistic goal is to clearly identify a primary research question to answer and gain an understanding and insight by exploring the depth, richness, and complexity inherent in phenomenon. The realistic goal is to clearly identify the primary research hypothesis, test relationships, find facts, describe and examine cause and effect relations.
Research Objectives A prioritized arrangement of specific key researchable and measurable research questions and subquestions; or specific key measurable research hypothesis and subhypotheses, respectively.

Research Strategy The creation of a unique, appropriate, timely design, techniques and activities appropriate for the research objective(s) and goal(s) that are consistent and synergistic. Because credibility, reality, reliability and validity weigh heavily upon the research outcome, it is important for the researcher to ?do the right thing and do things right.?
Note: See Leedy and Ormrod (2001) pp. 101 ? 103, Comparing Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches.
for your proposal: provide me with your organization of the study. In this section you will tell me what will happen next. You only need to say this:

Chapter 2 will be the Literature Review
Chapter 3 will discuss research question number 1
Chapter 4 will discuss research question number 2
Chapter 5 will discuss research question number 3

etc.... depending on how many research questions you have.

Chapter ? will be the conclusion. This is step 6 of your DRP proposal in the appendix section of your syllabus.

Step 6. Organization of the Study. This section is the researcher?s opportunity to present the research chapters and sections in brief, describing how the total research effort will be presented. In particular, it means each research chapter is presented in four to five sentences indicating what actions the researcher will perform in the research process.

-----------------REFERENCE PAPER----------------

Employee Satisfaction is Key to Employers Retaining Valued Employees

Your name here

Strayer University Memphis, TN

Instructor: Dr. Lisa Joerg

Research and Communication- BUS 531

March 14, 2005

Context of the Problem
Today the unemployment rate is at a record low. What is at a record high is employee turnover and dissatisfaction. As the employment market becomes more competitive and employees are greater prepared for the employment search, it is the employers dilemma to recruit and maintain employees. There are four major areas that contribute to this issue of the employees? expectations, the employers recruiting efforts, the employees? satisfaction level, and the employers? retention efforts.
Historically employers have not considered employee satisfaction as a problem, because people would take a job and work until they retire. That was the way of society, find a decent paying job to support your family and work until you retire. As the world and technology have evolved, employers have realized that personnel are a company?s greatest assets; subsequently, the need to retain highly trained and motivated employees has increased.
The root of this problem begins with the employee. Today?s employee has greater expectations of the employer compared to employees of the past. There was time when the workforce only expected to be paid for their work; however, as education and resources to prepare for the workforce have become accessible to a broader population of the workforce and as jobs have become more specialized employees who are educated in specific skill set have a greater expectation of employers. For example there is currently a nursing shortage in the United States. Some surveys have projected the possibility of a 1-16 nurse to patient ratio by 2010; with the knowledge of the nursing shortage nurses have greater expectations of employers. The job market is open and nurses have options, therefore employers must be competitive in the recruitment and retention of these employees. Naturally, employers are increasing efforts to retain nurses and to recruit new nursing personnel. Numerous factors have influenced the nursing shortage: changes in the nation?s reimbursement system; modifications in nursing care delivery; technological advances; increases in elderly and chronically ill patients requiring complex care; shifts in health care settings; an inadequate supply of nursing school enrollees; and greater career choices for women (Jones,1992).
Hospitals have responded to the turnover of staff-nurses by employing mostly short-term measures to recruit and retain nurses. These short-term solutions, while necessary to provide the complex care required by the consumer, have been costly. Recent reports also indicate that hospital revenues are being lost when staff shortages require bed closures (Jones, 1992).
The nursing shortage is an excellent example of employee driven, employer retention procedures. As a result of this shortage the nursing industry has become a prime profession. Nursing salaries have increased benefits range from healthy sign on bonuses to flexible shifts and higher differential pay for night nurses, because the industry has changed the recruiting and retention efforts for this specific job type, the industry is beginning to grow.
This is an example of how personnel shortage can directly affect a corporation?s revenue. Fewer nurses mean fewer beds, which equals a lower bottom line. As a result of this type of problem, employers have re-considered recruitment efforts. Employers have realized the need to hire the best candidates on the front end; this reduces the likelihood of job separation. Depending on the level of the position within the corporation, recruiting packages includes: sign on bonuses, benefit packages, car allowances, moving expenses and special request of the candidates.
After the recruiting process, the employer has to maintain the satisfaction of the employee, to discourage job separation. Many employers utilize employee satisfaction surveys to determine employee satisfaction. The most effective satisfaction areas have been: working conditions, working hours and salary.
Once the employee has been recruited and is currently satisfied the employer has to retain the employee. Effective methods of retention have been: promotion, annual pay increases, bonuses, and service-related benefits, such as increased vacation hours by number of years of service. Some employers recognize employees? birthdays and special events.
This study will to identify new methods of employee satisfaction and retention. This is important to the employment industry in several ways. Finding solutions to these problems will reduce the cost of employee turnover; and increase the stability of the company and its employees.
This research proposal will investigate situations like the nursing shortage. The author will focus on reasons why employees are satisfied and dissatisfied with their employer. In addition, how the employment industry can recruit and retain highly trained and motivated employees for greater than ten years.
Statement of the Problem
In today?s competitive job market, employee satisfaction is a key to the retention of employees. The job market has become so diverse that employers are experiencing high turnover of valuable personnel. The expense of turnover can affect a company?s revenue; therefore, employers recognize the need to maintain happy, secure employees. This paper will address the topic of how employers can recruit qualified personnel, satisfy employees and retain them for greater than 10 years. This paper will concentrate on illustrating ways to increase employee satisfaction, and retention of employees for more than 10 years.
Research Questions
As employees investigate prospective employers and compare opportunities prior to decision-making several requirements come to mind. First and foremost is the salary and benefits package, beyond this is the employees? need for security and to feel challenged in the position. Surveys have shown employees thrive in an environment where they have a since of ownership and control. To obtain the information needed to assess these areas of the topic the author will ask and answer the following research questions:
1. How important of a role do the organization?s culture, philosophy and mission play in retaining employees?
Corporate culture has become an important factor in employee decision-making. The author intends to look at the culture of the corporation itself. What is the structure and cultural design? Is this employer a strict and unrelenting company? Is the managerial structure to lenient? Secondly, what is the company?s employee cultural make up? In our diverse society, many cultures of people come to work together everyday. The paper will determine if this is a factor in employee satisfaction.
2. With the current generation?s diversity in the workplace, does this create an empowering environment?
The paper will examine how the many different culture of people working together daily affects the workplace and morale.
3. As our country/world continues to evolve, how do we define blue collar or white-collar workers?
The author will determine if workplace satisfaction changes between the blue collar and white-collar industry.
4. What makes an organization a great place to work?
The author will explore how employers can create work environments to satisfy and retain employees.
5. Where are the good employees?
The researcher will outline the recruiting efforts to help employers find highly trained and motivated employees on the front end.
6. What is employee satisfaction?
Employee satisfaction has several pieces, the paper will focus on interpersonal and organization influenced employee satisfaction.
Significance of the Study
Every child in America has one thing in common, the desire to succeed. Although the socio-economic environments of our children may be very different, every American child is taught to strive for something better to achieve the American dream. A very poor child may be encouraged to be the first person to be employed in his/her family. A child in a lower-middle class family may be encouraged to be first to attend college. A child in a well-to-do family may be encouraged to become a doctor or lawyer. Yet another wealthier child is raised to take over the family business and grow it in ways the generations before could not. Nevertheless, we all have the same desire to achieve a goal in life, to live the best life we can.
The foundation of this dream begins with work. The type of work or career we choose is the foundation of every other life decision. Better jobs equal better pay, which equals a better quality of life. The first determining factor of reaching each employee?s individual American dream is based on his or her employment. Because employment is such a key component in a person?s quality of life, it is the most important factor to many.
This proposal is vital in the sense that there is a direct relationship between employee satisfaction and quality of life. Weston (1999) states, although a myriad of factors may contribute to judgments of quality of life, the achievement of a sense of well-being (or happiness or life satisfaction) is a central component. As Weston (1999) pointed out a basic assumption underlying research into quality of life is that human beings are motivated to seek a sense of well-being and to avoid distress. Research has shown the work we do directly affects our sense of well-being. There are many levels of satisfaction for employees; however the primary factor is salary. According to Weston, employment status and occupational circumstances such as ?blue-collar? verses ?white-collar? are commonly used indices of socio-economic status which carry implications for numerous aspects of life, including financial circumstances, values, interests, social networks, sex-role patterns, socialization of children, adoption of health risk behaviors, and health status(1999). Information like this leads us to believe that a person?s profession drives almost every aspect of life, and how well that individual perceives his/her success.
This proposal aims to tackle the issue of what it takes to maintain a satisfactory employment status and what is needed to remain satisfied until employee?s goals are met. This author will present that one?s personal satisfaction could be correlated to ones satisfaction at work. One example of this is in employees who work in stressful situations an example of a stressful situation is an unrealistic workload. Thompson states that an unrealistic workload had the opposite effect. An unrealistic workload, will demoralize committed staff, wear them out, and ultimately drive them away. Overloaded staffs generally produce less work ? and often work of lower standard - than staff members who have a demanding but realistic workload (2004).
Unfortunately, in addition to poor performance at work, many employees carry their stress home to their families. Stress at work has been cited in cases of child and spousal abuse as well as addictive behaviors such as alcoholism (Weston, 1999). In addition, work related stress is a health and safety issue (Thompson, 2004). Stress is a known cause of hypertension, anxiety, and cardiac problems (Thompson, 2004). Employers need to evaluate the working environment and insure that it is as stress free as possible, for the safety of the individual employee and the company as a whole.
The other scenario here is the happy or satisfied employee. Studies have shown employees who are satisfied at work are more productive both personally and professionally (Dalton, 2004). Naturally employers want happy employees and are finding innovative ways to improve morale. One example of this is the Higher Ground Project Dalton sites, the Mount Carmel Health Systems Higher Ground program. ?This program is nurturing the calling side of what we do and reconnecting people with the reason they came into health care?(p.24) says Julie Snyder who runs the initiative. Through the program, more than 700 mangers have gone on week-long retreats where Snyder, who runs the initiative, and her team talk about values and discuss the benefits of leading by inspiration rather than through intimidation. Higher Ground also uses an intranet site for educational, inspirational, and community-building purposes. Since the implementation of the program the staff retention rate has gone from 47% to 77%.
Another popular method of employee satisfaction is job ownership or mastery. Studies (Barron, 2004) have shown that employees who have some control over their jobs are more productive and feel more valued.
An employer can create a positive, stress-free working environment for employees by evaluating their attitude and behavior. Levering (2004) notes the following: The main variable is the attitude and behavior of the management rather than the type of organization. How the management relates to its employees is what makes the difference. Levering notes factors that are required for employee satisfaction: sharing information broadly, as well as sharing profit information and other corporate data with all employees. Other points include accessibility of executives to meet with all levels of employees and not self-limiting interaction to just management. Company wide willingness to answer hard questions, leaders must respond to hard questions from employees. Delivering on promises, if the management makes a commitment to the employees it must see it through. Organization must show recognition and appreciation. Demonstrating personal concern employers should show concern for employee?s personal lives and acknowledge significant events such as marriage, illness or death of a family member.
Creating a great place to work does not have to be an expensive endeavor for the company; in fact, it can start with simple measures such as initiatives to improve communication. Employers who make the effort to satisfy employees find themselves in a win-win situation. The employees are more productive and more likely to remain employed. This reduces the cost of turnover, which has been estimated to cost from $1280 to $50,000 depending on the profession (Jones,1992). Reducing turnover can increase revenue for the company. In addition to the company benefiting, the employee benefits as well. Happy employees have better home lives and fewer health problems than their unhappy counterparts.
This author will prove that not only does employee satisfaction improve the working environment and help employers retain employees for more than 10 years; employee satisfaction also has direct correlation to the family structure and its success.
Objectives of Study
The primary objective of this proposal is to educate the reader on ways to recognize a satisfied employee. Satisfied employees provide better customer service and have better attitudes at work. They may go above and beyond their required duties to provide excellence in their profession. The author will also illustrate ways to increase employee satisfaction and retention time to beyond 10 years. The paper will site specific measures employers can use to improve employee satisfaction and retain them. Educate all managers on what it takes to make their organization a great place to work. This author will use the model provided by the Higher Ground program to demonstrate ways to education management in employee satisfaction and personal satisfaction. The author will also, at this time illustrate ways to keep the workplace stress free for both employees and managers.
In addition, the paper will determine if diversity in generations has any affect on workplace environment and employee satisfaction, by assessing employee?s satisfaction in relationship to generational time lines. This author will discuss the diversity of the workplace as it pertains to the cultures and nationalities of employees, and determine if there is a relationship between these factors and employee satisfaction. With the results of this research it is anticipated that changes will be created for greater employee retention. The author will introduce innovative ideas and strategies for employee retention. The author will examine leadership development in organization and measure is success in employee retention. This part of the paper will examine the role executives play in employee satisfaction. The author will determine how employers can develop strong psychological contracts with employees. A psychological contract is most effective retention tool and employer can have, we will express how employers can build and maintain strong psychological contracts with their employees.
Research Design and Methodology
The research design and methodology of the paper will be a qualitative style of research. The author will use four methods of research, observations, interviews, survey forms and focus groups. The hope is to combine these methods and research findings to demonstrate the thesis of the paper and create innovative new ways to approach future research.
During observations this author will spend ten hours observing various employees in their work environment and rate their level of satisfaction. Employers will also be interviewed regarding the impact of their workplace satisfaction on their home life and personal activities, often times during observation those being observed can change behavior for the observer, we will choose our candidates at random and notify them after the observations are completed. The observation participants will include managers who have been employed for greater than 10 years and employees who have no management titles. Past research has shown that obvious observation can have a negative affect on employees and their performance; we will not interfere with the workplace and will observe as covertly as possible.
The researcher will conduct ten interviews. The writer will interview five people who have been with their employer for 10 years or more and 5 people who have been with their employer for 10 years or less. The interviews will be conducted with 5 members of management and 5 members of non-management. The writer will discuss the employee?s current satisfaction rating. This researcher will ask the employee what it will take to retain them for 10 years or more. This researcher will also interview the employee on work-related family issues. Each interview will last one hour, we will collect information from each candidate regarding the corporate structure and culture and how they are affected by it.
Surveys will be the most effective tool in our research. Past research has shown surveys to be a primary tool in improving workplace satisfaction. Greengard (2004) found that surveys connect employee satisfaction with organizational goals. Greengard also notes surveys can help an organization achieve higher retention rates, lower absenteeism, and improve productivity and customer service. Surveys have had such a strong impact on our topic the author believes they will have a strong impact on the research as well. The researcher plans to distribute 20 surveys per week until 120 surveys are obtained. The surveys will include questions to determine the satisfaction of employees. The surveys will also ask to rate employee satisfaction with personal satisfaction. This researcher will use the survey to gain insight into how employers can retain employees and use the ideas to create innovative measures employers can use. The surveys will be the basis for information regarding retention; it will only be provided to employees who have been employed for two years or more. The surveys will be 25 questions in length and should take no more than 10 minutes to complete. The researcher will allow the surveyed person to return the survey via mail, however we prefer to return and collect the survey.
Focus groups will be conducted during the research project. Each focus group will include five participants and the facilitator. Focus groups will discuss employment challenges, growing autonomy, trust in the company leadership and organization mobility for employees. Focus groups will meet for one hour and will discuss on topic at a time, the topic will be introduced and the group will be given 10 minutes to discuss the topic. The final phase of focus groups will be to brainstorm and pull the main ideas from the discussion; the facilitator will use these main ideas as a part of the research.
In an optimistic eye of a recovering economy ?what is a good job?? and is it satisfying to all involved. Overall satisfaction of employees operates in a rippling effect, in that on the front line they continue the vision of their employer, and facilitate the desired growth. One then has to ponder if the ripple is a calming flow into the area of encouragement, or a shock wave effect that can destroy an organizations tone.
Berg states ?education is a major contributor to employee dissatisfaction.?(p. 651, 1981) The continual rise in educational requirement for job represents a bias that contributes to a malfunctioning labor market. He goes on to say that not educational achievement, but other personality characteristics and environmental condition are what leads to employee satisfaction.
The future chapters will examine the independent factors to employee satisfaction to include past work experience, educational background and career choices. Future more, it is important to note that the assessment of the satisfaction of people in different occupations attach different weight to job features. Such as gender also is a variable in job satisfaction in that men and women of same occupations view satisfaction differently. Moreover, it is imperative that employers counteract escalating employee turnover and dissatisfaction with witty and ingenious retention strategies that will encourage their employees to remain with the organization at least ten years.

Barron, T. (2004, April). The link between leadership development retention, American
Society for Training and Development, 58(4),58-64. Retrieved January 17, 2005, from Business Source Premier
Berg, I. (1981, Jan.). Education and jobs, American Journal of Sociology, 87,651-683.
Retrieved February 2, 2005, from Business Source Premier
Dalton, A. (2004, Nov.). Happy workers, Hospitals and Health Networks, 78(11), 24-25.
Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Business Source Premier
Jones, C. (1992, Jan.). Calculating and updating nursing turnover cost, Nursing
Economic, 10 (1), 39-45. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Business Source Premier
Korn, D. (2004, April). Entrepreneurship through homeownership, Black Enterprise,
34(9), 61-62. Retrieved January 17, 2005, from Business Source Premier
Levering, R. (2004, Aug.) Creating a great place to work: Why it is important and how
it is done, Corrections Today, 66(5), 86-89. Retrieved February 2, 2005, from Business Source Premier
Lommel, J. (2004, Aug.). Turning around turn over, Correction Today, 66(5)54-58.
Retrieved January 17, 2005, from Business Source Premier
McGinn, D. (2004, May). Quitting time, Newsweek, 143(21) 42-43. Retrieved January
17, 2005, from Business Source Premier
Michel, C. (2004, Sep.) We?re all recruiters: how to win the war for talent, United States
Naval Institute, 130(9) 96. Retrieved January 17, 2005, from Business Source Premier
Thompson, N. (2004, Nov.). All stressed out, community care, 1550, 34-35. Retrieved
January 17, 2005, from Business Source Premier
Weston, R. (1999, Autumn). Factors contributing to personal wellbeing, Family Matters
Issue 52. . Retrieved February 2, 2005, from Business Source Premier.
Williams, J. (2004, July). In the midst of difficulty lies opportunity, Nursing
Management, 11(4) 17-20. Retrieved January 17, 2005, from Business Source Premier

Parents and Education

Please answer the following question. I need this assignment done by 12 pm please. My class is at 1pm, wed. sept 19. Thanks.

1 Select three educational settings in your community. Contact members of
the program staff and interview them to determine the following:

a. How does their program de?ne parent involvement? Do they have a
policy statement or mission statement? What does their choice of
parent involvement activities reveal about their philosophy of parent

b. Describe activities and strategies used to involve parents. How do staff
members support these efforts?

c. What bene?ts do staff members perceive for children, families, and the

d. What challenges to participation do parents face that may prevent them
from becoming actively involved? What has been (or can be) done to
overcome these challenges?

2. In a small group, discuss the reasons to support parent involvement for
families, programs, and communities. By group consensus, list the three
most signi?cant reasons your community should promote family

3. In multiple studies, researchers have discovered differences in parent
involvement strategies used by programs and schools. Conduct your own community research, individually or within a team. Interview the parents
of children in preschool, kindergarten or primary grades, and middle or
upper grades. Ask them:

a. What opportunities are available for parents to be involved in your
child?s program/school?
 b. How does the teacher invite your support?
 c. What activities have you been involved in?
 d. What factors encouraged your participation?
 e. What may have discouraged you from participating?

Analyze the similarities and differences among the parents you
interviewed according to the program or school, ages of the children, and
your perception of the parental characteristics

4. Imagine yourself to be a parent, an educator, and an administrator. What
rewards and frustrations (or barriers) regarding parent involvement would
you expect to encounter? Support your answers.

5. Identify federal, state, and community initiatives utilized in your area to
promote family involvement. How long have the programs been in
existence? Are they selective or restrictive in determining who can
participate? What strategies or activities do they use that encourage
parent involvement? How does the community perceive the value and
effectiveness of the parent components? What criticisms have you heard?

6. What do Epstein?s Model Parent Involvement Components, the National
PTS Standards for Parent Involvement, and the National Association of
State School Boards of Education?s statement on parent involvement have
in common?

1. Research Paper. Using the assignment in Week 5 as the foundation for your final project, identify an area of need for professional development for differentiated instruction at your worksite. In a minimum of an eight-page paper, excluding title and reference pages, research the needed professional development with attention to the objectives, assessments, strategies, and implementation of a professional development plan to address this need. You should include research in your paper identifying how these components are grounded in research and best practice. This paper should include at least eight sources of reference. The paper should be written in APA format with appropriate reference citations.

Week 5
American education has always had as its central paradigm the right of all children to receive at least a basic level of education up to the high school level. The challenge inherent in this right is to help a number of different children with different abilities and needs in the same classroom to attain a similar level of education in a similar measure of time. This is the basis for the rise and growth of what is known today as differentiating instruction. According to Kingore (2005), this educational paradigm recognizes that students in the same classroom more often than not come from different educational, social, and mental backgrounds and therefore have differentiating instructional needs. In other words, not all these students will respond to the same stimulus in the classroom. For this reason, instruction provided to students focus on their various levels of ability in terms of strategies such as the pace and level of instruction, grouping, and learning products. One change that has been implemented as a result of differentiating instruction is the view that teachers have of their position as facilitators rather than instructors (Hess, n.d.). This has created the need for teacher training, a change in the leadership paradigm, and increased funding for general implementation.
The school has adhered to a traditional educational paradigm for the 15 years of its existence. The teachers have maintained a teaching style of instruction in the classroom, where all children were subject to the same style and pace of instruction. This has worked well for the first years of the schools existence, since it has not had a wide diversity of students. For this reason, teachers at the beginning of the year would make an assessment of the collective needs of the students in his or her classroom, and create a plan of action for the year accordingly. During the year, the students would become more diversified in terms of their manifest needs. Students with particularly intense needs would then be sent to a remedial program where their needs could be met.
While this strategy worked fairly well over the years, the pass rates have begun to drop recently, and my administrators have been looking for ways in which to help more students achieve their educational goals. This has brought them to the idea of differentiating education, especially since the demographic at our school has been changing to include an increasing diversity of cultures, abilities, and needs.
Goals and Objectives
The goals and objectives of the plan are therefore to help the students at the institution reach previously established educational goals for each year of study. Since there has been a decline in the pass rates over the years, one of the major goals is to find ways in which to remedy this. Hence, the leadership at the school has decided that a new direction should be implemented, in the form of differentiating education.
A related goal was therefore to train teachers in the administration of this type of education. Furthermore, continued support would be provided in the form of professional contacts in the field, as well as instructional materials that teachers could access at their convenience.
Plan of Action
The first part of the plan of action is to call a meeting with all the teachers and explain the rationale behind differentiating education, as well as its basic tenets. The implementation itself will then have to occur gradually. Each grades teachers will be provided with in-depth training in the design of this type of instruction. During these training sessions, teachers will also be provided with the opportunity to ask questions or provide suggestions on the most plausible way of implementing this type of instruction at the school. It is important to provide both thorough training and adequate subsequent support to make such a program a success, particularly at an institution like ours, where there has not been a large amount of experience with the new direction.
Furthermore, some resistance to the new direction is expected, since it is a substantial departure from the traditional instruction provided at the school up to the present. However, with adequate leadership, this should be made possible, especially if the implementation is sufficiently gradual.
In the classrooms themselves, the strategy will therefore start with an assessment of what students needs. This will then be used to plan subsequent activities and group work to help students arrive at the predetermined goals for the grade level. Hall, Strangman and Meyer (2011) note that the attitude of teachers should shift from the punitive to the supportive. Hence, these assessments should be handled with the appropriate level of tact and sensitivity, so that no student is made to feel penalized for lesser ability. Instead, a general attitude of helpfulness should be prevalent throughout the classroom.
Assessment will occur on the basis of the established end goals for each grade. For each subject, a number of goals should be established for students to attain in order to pass the grade. The way in which students arrive at these goals should be differentiated according to the abilities and needs of each student. When assessment occurs, this should be on the same basis. Students should be assessed in a way that establishes their abilities in a supportive manner rather than in a punitive one.
Again, at my institution, this is a substantial departure from the way in which things have been done in the past. However, it is important to help students become better and at the same time to also improve the pass rate of the school. Because of our changing demographic, we can no longer adhere to the status quo and must search for new ways to more effectively prepare young people for higher education.
Because of the existing status quo at the school, it is estimated that substantial resources will be required to initiate, implement, and support the change in an effective way. First, training personnel will be required for each grade to help initiate the change. Teachers should be allowed to ask questions and raise concerns during these sessions. At the end of each training session, the main goal should be that all teachers involved would be excited and ready to implement the change. Another resource, after training, would be online and printed materials that teachers could consult at their leisure if any reinforcement of information is necessary.
It is expected that the funding for these resources would be substantial. A full assessment of the required payment for training personnel and materials will be established prior to the start of the program. Because this is in the interest of education and the future of the workforce, it is possible to apply for government funding.
Professional Development
As mentioned, substantial professional development would be required to help teachers implement the new system. Each grades teachers will be trained for a given period of time prior to implementation.
What is most important is to help teachers understand and become excited about the importance of implementing the new system.

1. intro and general info
2.job duties/descriton/skills/required/responsibilites
3.Various levels in each occupation (include opportunities for articulation/carrer ladders/aides/asstistants/therapists,etc.
4. educational requirements or opportunites
5. Credentialing and other standards (certification,Licensure,required contunuing education,etc.
6.Average annual/hourly earnings/(include various types of employment including salaried,fringe benefits,per diem, travel,etc
7. job outlook-expected growth for selected health career
8. professional organization(s) & roles
9.Multiskilling oppotunities
10. opportunities for entrepreneurship: explain
11. Code of Conduct/ethics/standards
12. reference list 3 books, 5 professional journal
list other sources
13.fully documented using APA format
this paper must be 10 pages Please charge the credit card again You have my permission

Extracurricular Activities

This paper is a Literature Review.
Topic: Extracurricular activites

Title: Classroom benefits of student participation in extracurricular activities

Research questions: How does participation in extracurricular activities affect students'' academic performance? Do students who participate in extracurricular activities achieve better scores in the classroom and on stadardized tests?Do participation requirements influence classroom achievements? How does participation in activities affect students'' time management skills?

There must be at least 15 sources of which 80% must be from "professional educational" sources (ERIC is a great source).

If you have any questions please contact me at [email protected]

The purpose of this paper is to line up ideas and sources to use for a Master research paper/thesis

18 Pages

Domestic Abuse

Words: 4750
Length: 18 Pages
Type: Essay

Final Project ??" DOMESTIC ABUSE For your Project, you are asked to select a problem or issue related to society or to the counseling or human services profession and to…

Read Full Paper  ❯
10 Pages
Research Paper

Consulting Psychology

Words: 2789
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Research Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Perspecitves on Consulting 1. History of Consultation 2. Stages of Consultation 3. Four interviews: Educational Consultant, Swedish Consultant, Internal Consultant & International Consultant 4.…

Read Full Paper  ❯
20 Pages

Distance Education Man Has Always Thirsted for

Words: 6313
Length: 20 Pages
Type: Essay

The offering and Marketing of Distance Learning in Third World Countries. General: This Research Paper aims to demonstrate that the current distance learning and online learning programs that are available…

Read Full Paper  ❯
6 Pages
Research Paper

Administration Behavior Problems and Solutions

Words: 1980
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Identify an area of concern in education over which you have some control and design an action research plan that will help you come to a positive improvement of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
2 Pages

Northern York County Police Consolidation

Words: 624
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Introduction: In 1997, Dr. John T. Krimmel published an article titled The Northern York County Police Consolidation Experience: An Analysis of the Consolidation of Police Services in Eight Pennsylvania…

Read Full Paper  ❯
2 Pages
Research Paper

Teens and Technology Is Rapidly

Words: 444
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Paper

dear writer- I work in education, these are high-school kids ages 13-19. I am trying to sell my product, it is called Teens and Technology. I have to see myself…

Read Full Paper  ❯
15 Pages

African-American Women and Womanist Theology

Words: 4573
Length: 15 Pages
Type: Essay

This is an abstract that I have been working on. I want to demonstrate that Black women during the 19th to early 20th century used biblical scripture to identify…

Read Full Paper  ❯
28 Pages
Research Paper

Education Teaching the Teachers Teaching

Words: 7160
Length: 28 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Sustainable Further Education Teacher/Lecturer Education/Training in the UK to focus on critical awareness of issues around the new model FE lecturer/teacher qualification; especially issues of inclusion, diversity, equality, local…

Read Full Paper  ❯
63 Pages

Cross Platform Mobile and Web

Words: 17284
Length: 63 Pages
Type: Essay

PhD Research proposal - Cross platform application installation - by Barak Avraham Introduction Despite the spread of software development and software usage, we has very few cross-platform applications which run…

Read Full Paper  ❯
16 Pages
Research Paper

Business Report University Guidelines for

Words: 4084
Length: 16 Pages
Type: Research Paper

The type of document requested is Business Report The Topic of the Business Report is: Your college has decided to offer each student the opportunity to establish a Web presence on…

Read Full Paper  ❯
20 Pages

Parent Teacher Communication in My Preschool Setting

Words: 5571
Length: 20 Pages
Type: Essay

This paper focuses on self-study, narrative and story, and memoir. Written in first-person voice, and include stories, poems, photographs, other visuals, and reference to other kinds of literature (fiction,…

Read Full Paper  ❯
3 Pages
Research Paper

Boudon 2001 and Eskensberger 2001

Words: 1185
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Paper

You are to write a 3-page paper. Read the article below. Please answer the discussion question, State the question first and then continue to answer. *Do Not Use Outside…

Read Full Paper  ❯
3 Pages

Adulthood Be Socially Constructed? What

Words: 849
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

You are to write a 3-page paper. Please read the article below and then answer the discussion question. State the Question first and then continue to answer. *Do Not…

Read Full Paper  ❯
3 Pages
Research Paper

Distance Education in Assessing the

Words: 925
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Paper

You are to write a 3-page paper. The various forms of distance education discussed in the readings(correspondence, audio conferencing, Web, ect) in light of what you have found to…

Read Full Paper  ❯
4 Pages

French Canada Quebec Stands for

Words: 1257
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Case sutdy based on French Canada, the report is designed to be presented to a middle manager that is be relocated to Canada's French (Quebec)sector. The case study should…

Read Full Paper  ❯
10 Pages
Research Paper

Title IX Gender Bias Abstract

Words: 3379
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Research Paper

The Signature Assignment Action Research Project is considered a term paper. Use the required APA style and format that will be helpful to the reader. The project requires the…

Read Full Paper  ❯
6 Pages

Vail (AZ) School District's Online

Words: 1659
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Essay

This consists of four- 2 page essays. Please seperatre them by part. Part I In a 2 page narrative essay discuss which your response to the following topics. Read the first…

Read Full Paper  ❯
35 Pages
Research Paper

Business Ethics Development of International

Words: 9586
Length: 35 Pages
Type: Research Paper

WE WILL PAY MORE FOR THIS ORDER!!! EMAIL [email protected] for the sources (we have them)!!!! Dear Sir, I will accomplish chapter 1 to chapter 3 myself. Therefore, I am…

Read Full Paper  ❯
4 Pages

Education Reflections on the Future

Words: 1021
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

purpose of essay is to provide university to understand my reflection on the future of education in the twenty first century. The essay will let them hear my voice…

Read Full Paper  ❯
7 Pages
Research Paper

Nursing for an Associate Degree

Words: 2030
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Research Paper

My paper's focus is on the different educational levels that are currently available in nursing. This is a recommendation paper to the State of Connecticut Licensure Board.…

Read Full Paper  ❯
18 Pages

Cutting Faced With the Different

Words: 4991
Length: 18 Pages
Type: Essay

Here are the instructions I get each week for research paper, please consider them while writing the paper. Also a paper is pasted in the end for reference after…

Read Full Paper  ❯
3 Pages
Research Paper

Parents and Education

Words: 832
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Please answer the following question. I need this assignment done by 12 pm please. My class is at 1pm, wed. sept 19. Thanks. 1 Select three educational…

Read Full Paper  ❯
8 Pages

Classrooms Are Diverse Environments, Characterized by Students

Words: 2226
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Essay

1. Research Paper. Using the assignment in Week 5 as the foundation for your final project, identify an area of need for professional development for differentiated instruction at your…

Read Full Paper  ❯
10 Pages
Research Paper

Social Workers Are Not in Great Demand

Words: 3230
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Research Paper

1. intro and general info 2.job duties/descriton/skills/required/responsibilites 3.Various levels in each occupation (include opportunities for articulation/carrer ladders/aides/asstistants/therapists,etc. 4. educational requirements or opportunites 5. Credentialing and other standards (certification,Licensure,required contunuing education,etc. 6.Average annual/hourly earnings/(include various…

Read Full Paper  ❯
12 Pages

Extracurricular Activities

Words: 3929
Length: 12 Pages
Type: Essay

This paper is a Literature Review. Topic: Extracurricular activites Title: Classroom benefits of student participation in extracurricular activities Research questions: How does participation in extracurricular activities affect students'' academic performance? Do students…

Read Full Paper  ❯