Memory Experiments Essay

Length: 2 pages Sources: 4 Subject: Teaching Type: Essay Paper: #37809245 Related Topics: Child Psychology
Excerpt from Essay :

¶ … Modality and Frequency on Serial Recall

As noted by Ari & Faith (2012), individuals studying written texts show superior recall of material, versus subjects who have the same texts read to them aloud. This is true on tests of free recall, matching, comprehension, and spatial recall. Perceptual resources are more channeled when studying a text in written form. The results of the experiment performed by Ari & Faith confirmed this, noting that the recall of the subjects was substantially enhanced when the material was presented to them in written form. This is true not only of adults but also of children, despite previous studies which have indicated that children have a preference for auditory dominance in mnemonics. In a recent study by Gelman & Noles (2011): "Preschool-age children did not exhibit auditory dominance. Instead, children and adults flexibly shifted their preferences as a function of the degree of contrast within each modality, with high contrast leading to greater use." The results of their experiments performed on children, similar to that of Ari & Faith's on adults once again, suggested the benefits of visual reinforcement on memory.

As well as the mode via which information is transmitted, frequency can also affect the ability to remember data. In serial recall, high-frequency words are more easily recalled than lower-frequency...


However, "it has been suggested that high-frequency words are better recalled because of their better long-term associative links, and not because of the intrinsic properties of their long-term representations" (LeBlanc & Saint-Aubin 2005). Still, even in an experiment designed to test this hypothesis, although "the usual advantage of high-frequency words was found with pure lists and this advantage was reduced" the results indicated that frequency enhancement was "still significant with mixed lists composed of five low-frequency words" (LeBlanc & Saint-Aubin 2005). This finding of the experiment suggested an associative effect for low-frequency words in lists when paired with high frequency words although frequency still had a significant impact on all forms of mnemonic recall. Another study further suggested based upon its results that frequency enhanced memory but "that an item-to-item effect is clearly present for early but not late list items, and they implicate an additional factor, perhaps the availability of resources at output, in the recall of late list items" (Miller & Roodenrys 2012).

In the experiment performed in class, one group of subjects was presented with 15 commonly-used words…

Sources Used in Documents:

references for auditory vs. visual modalities but do not exhibit auditory dominance. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 112(2012) 338-350

LeBlanc, Jacinthe & Saint-Aubin, Jean (2005). Word Frequency Effects in Immediate Serial Recall of Pure and Mixed Lists: Tests of the Associative Link Hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 2005, 59-4, 219-227.

Miller, Leonie M. & Roodenrys (2012). Conditional recall and the frequency effect in the serial recall task: an examination of item-to-item associativity. Psychonomic Society, Inc. (2012) 40: 1246-1256

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