1000 results for “Child Psychology”.
Child and Adolescent Psychology
Over the last several years, major advancements have taken place in child and adolescent psychology. This is occurring with mental health professionals trying to gain a better understanding about which issues are impacting individuals from these demographics. The main idea is to learn how the challenges they are facing early in life will influence their behavior. Once this happens, is when new ideas can address these issues and help the person grow into a responsible adult. To fully understand what is happening requires comparing different theories, describing child / adolescent psychology, formulating treatment plans, examining legal / ethical issues, existing research, analyzing and incorporating this information. Together, these elements will offer insights about which factors influence the mental health professionals and the way they interact with them. (Wolf, 2015)
Compare and contrast theories of normal and abnormal development
There are number of theories that are used…
ACA Code of Ethics. (2014). Counseling.org. Retrieved from: http://www.counseling.org/resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf
Dan Pink: The Puzzle of Motivation. (2009). You Tube. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrkrvAUbU9Y&feature=BFa&list=SP70DEC2B0568B5469
Boykin, A. (2001). Nursing as Caring. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Duchesne, S. (2013). Educational Psychology. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Child Psychology Study
This study is designed to test the hypothesis that environmental enrichment among the impoverished ad underprivileged children can lead to an improvement in their IQ levels. This is why the 20 children who were from the underprivileged sector of the society were picked and subjected to a non-residential school that was less crowded than their previous situations. This is a program that was initiated at the age of 3 and special attention was put on development of social and cognitive skills.
An independent variable in psychology experiment is the characteristic that is changed or manipulated in order to see the effect the manipulation has on the dependent variable (Kendra Cherry, 2011). For instance, in this study, the independent variable is the environment under which the three-year children are subjected to for a period of four days a week until they began infant school. This is the characteristic…
Kendra Cherry, (2011). What Is the Independent Variable? Retrieved October 8, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/iindex/g/independent-variable.htm
Saul Mcleod, (2008). Independent & Dependent Variable. Retrieved October 8, 2011 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/variables.html
In order to decrease the risk of burnout, it is important to find ways to deal with stress. Learning to generate a division between ones work life and personal life is a significant first step. Practicing good stress management methods can also be very helpful (Pros and Cons of Being a Clinical Psychologist, 2012).
Even though one establishes normal work hours during the day, as a psychologist they may find that they are required to deal with client issues at unforeseen times. Some clients may not be able to meet during normal business hours due to their own busy work schedules, so one might have to shuffle their own plans around to make time for these people. In other cases, one might be called during off-hours or weekends to meet with clients who need help or are facing crisis circumstances. Because of this, flexibility is a significant skill for any…
Becoming a Clinical Psychologist. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.innerbody.com/careers-in-health/becoming-clinical-psychologist.htmlCherry , K. (2012). Child Psychologist. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologycareerprofiles/a/child-psychologist.htm
Child Psychologist: Job Duties, Employment Outlook, and Educational Requirements.
(2012). Retrieved from http://degreedirectory.org/articles/Child_Psychologist_Job_Duties_Employment_Outlook_and_Educational_Requirements.html
Clinical Child Psychologist: Career Information and Requirements. (2012). Retrieved from http://education-
Mander, G. (May 2001). "Fatherhood Today: variations on a theme." Psychodynamic Counselling, Vol. 7, ssue 2.
This journal article centers on the increasing role that fathers play in parenting, especially among single parents. Mander discusses how parenting among fathers has become more an exception than the norm, and they were relegated to "minimal" roles that downplay their role as a parent, such as simply being "mere sperm donors." The article recommends that laws should be studied in order to improve the state of single parenting in society, for it is possible for children to experience having a 'complete family' even though their parents are separated. This, for the author, is a big step towards improving marriage and family laws, resulting to better child development in the process.
Seaman, P. And H. Sweeting. (June 2004). "Assisting young people's access to social capital in contemporary families: a qualitative study." Journal…
Important findings from this study show that single parents have "less intimate" relationships with their children than those families between children and their parents (from intact families). This study demonstrates how single parenting poses as a major influence in child development, and determining the factors that contribute to the decline in intimacy between single parent and child (children) is vital.
Dunn, J. And T. O'Connor. (December 2002). "Out of the picture: a study of family drawings by children from step-, single-parent, and non-step families." Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Vol.31, Issue 4.
This study was conducted in order to determine how children cope with the effects of divorce and remarriage, which was found to affect their development. Results from the study reflect that non-biological relatedness, i.e., the addition of a step-family, results to greater disconnectedness between the child and the family than those children from single-parent and non-step families.
Development psychologists love to quote this stage among their discussion of adolescent growth. This is perhaps the most appropriate theory to apply when it comes to explaining about the impulsive behavior of adolescents. (hapman, 2006)
OGNITIVE THEORY by Jean Piaget
Piaget's cognitive theory discusses how a child thinks or how her mind works from birth to adulthood. She believes that development of the child is not a smooth task, but rather, a leap. There are new tasks that a child learns that marks the start of each stage. This theory seems to occur in a chronological order in a rigid but orderly manner. This can be a good tool in evaluation of the development of the cognition of a child. Her theory is useful in the educational world, and in helping the child learn about his environment. Her key ideas include adaptation in which one learns and adapts himself to…
Chapman, a., (2006) Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Development.
Retrieved May 4, 2008 on the World Wide Web: http://www.businessballs.com/erik_erikson_psychosocial_theory.htm
Stevenson, D., (1992) Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development. Retrieved May 4, 2008 on the World Wide Web: http://www.victorianweb.org/science/freud/develop.html
The most fundamental theorist in this area is Jean Piaget. Additionally, Piaget demonstrated one of the first scientific movements in the filed, with the utilization of direct observation as the best tool for understanding. (Piaget, 1962, p. 107) Piaget also believes, and his theories reflect that children play a very active and dynamic role in development through interaction with their environment and active role imitation. (Piaget, 1962, p. 159)
Sensory-motor intelligence is, in our view, the development of an assimilating activity which tends to incorporate external objects in its schemas while at the same time accommodating the schemas to the external world. A stable equilibrium between assimilation and accommodation results in properly intelligent adaptation. But if the subject's schemas of action are modified by the external world without his utilising this external world, i.e., if there is primacy of accommodation over assimilation, the activity tends to become imitation. Imitation is…
Ainsworth, M.D., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Barnett, W.S. (1996). Lives in the balance: Age-27 benefit-cost analysis of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program (Monographs of the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, 11). Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.
Biller, H.B. (1993). Fathers and Families: Paternal Factors in Child Development. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. New York: Basic Books.
The movie Willa Wonka and the Chocolate factory and Child Psychology
The Movie Willa Wonka and the Chocolate factory
And Child Psychology
The movie, "Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory," is one that will always captivate imagination. The entire movie is central to oald Dahl's book (Dahl and Schindelman, 1964). In addition, this movie is among the best of human imaginations. Although some people may perceive that the thoughts and situations depicted in the movie are possible in hallucination, others perceive the thoughts as those of a genius man full of imagination. When the movie starts, it portrays reality because the audience can see poverty represented by poor families. However, as the film progresses, there is gradual exposure of the mysterious chocolate factory, which takes the audience back to the most extraordinary situations.
Owing to the inclusion of children in this film, it is likely that the main…
Dahl, R., & Schindelman, J. (1964). Charlie and the chocolate factory. New York: Knopf.
Craven, G.R., & Marsh, W.H. (2008). The centrality of self-concept construct for psychological well-being and unlocking human potential: Implications for child and educational psychologists. Educational and child psychology, 25(2), 104-118.
It is clear from the studies thus far examined (plus a few more) that the ability to distinguish between animate and inanimate objects develops much earlier than Piaget imagined. Second, while it is unclear from this study if the rules of grammar inform the child's sense of animacy or vice versa, we find that children significantly tend to attribute animate characteristics to a sentence's first noun and inanimate qualities to the second. In either case, clearly children are able to make early deductions about the characteristics of animate objects vs. inanimate ones. Perhaps they were able to draw conclusions about the most logical configuration about the sentence based on their preexisting knowledge of animacy, or perhaps the opposite is true. Perhaps the rules of grammar that have already been taught informed children's sense of animacy. Whichever the reality, the development of an understanding of the differences between animate and inanimate…
Dewart, M.H. (1979). Children's hypotheses about the animacy of actor and object nouns. British Journal of Psychology, 70(4), pp. 525-530.
Dolgin, K., & Behrend, D. (1984). Children's knowledge about animates and inanimates. Child Development, 55(4), pp. 1646-1650.
Greif, M.L., Nelson, D.G.K., Keil, F.C., and Gutierrez, F. (2006). What do children want to know about animals and artifacts? Psychological Science, 17(6), pp. 455-459.
Inagaki, K. & Hatano, G. (2006). Young children's conception of the biological world. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(4), pp. 177-181.
Music and Brain Development
The link is recognized by Georgia Head tart program
Recently, the Georgia Head start organization began distributing CD's with classical music on them to every newborn child's mother as part of a program designed to aid in the early childhood development of children's intelligence. ome applaud Governor Zell Miller's push to establish this program as a step in the direction of improving the health and well being of a future generation. Others, citing disagreements with the research behind the program, doubt as to whether this program is beneficial to children, or just a bureaucratic waste of time. This paper will research the date behind the initiative, attempt to evaluate the desires of those who support and oppose the initiative, and then consider changes in the policy which may further aid the mental and social development of newborn children.
Governor Zell Miller was…
Leng X, Shaw GL. (1991) Toward a neural theory of higher brain function using music as a window. Concepts Neurosci. 2:229.
Moughty, Sarah. The Zero to Three Debate. (2002) Frontline. Accessed 8 Dec 2003. Available from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/science/zero.html .
Prigge, D. (2002) 20 ways to...: promote brain-based teaching and learning. Intervention in School & Clinic, Vol. 37.
Rauscher FH, Shaw GL, Levine LJ, Wright EL, Dennis WR, Newcomb RL. (1997) Music training causes long-term enhancement of preschool children's reasoning Neuro. Res; 19:2.
Mountain Meets the Moon by Grace Lin, and answers several questions covering topics from age appropriate content, theoretical perspectives, book summary, and opinion. Social conflict theory and Piaget's cognitive theory of development are briefly covered. Opinions on book selection will highlight the reasons for selecting such a book as well as whether or not the protagonist of the story is a positive role model or follows preconceived gender stereotypes.
Some topics like ethnic diversity will be explained as many books tend to focus on particular kind of character while others bring in a new and rare perspective. Grace Lin is an award winning children's author and her book has delighted children for years. Thanks to her effort, children get to see a hint of China's culture through the eyes of Minli and Dragon. The book is perfect for children ages 8-12 and a good choice for English classrooms grades 3-7.…
Lin, Grace. Where the Mountain Meets the Moon. New York: Little, Brown and Co, 2009. Print.
Child Play Time Naturalistic Observation
Describe the setting and why you chose it.
The naturalistic observation approach is performed in a pre-school environment. The reason being that the environment allows the experiment to focus on the possibility of behavior of a child to be influenced by environmental factors or conditions, giving a comprehensive depiction of what occurs in classrooms in the case of preschool children. The following study gives a unique observational design and approach which allows numerous observations on a child for the purpose of examining the trends of behaviors both within and across classroom event settings and the manner in which they relate to a given child's gender and also basic tutor conducts (Leslie M. Booren, Jason T. Downer, & Virginia E. Vitiello, 2012).
Discuss the age, gender, ethnicity and overall physical description of the child?
The observation was performed on a child of pre-school age, around five…
(the National Institute of Mental Health, 2008) Though we are able to identify some external factors, like drug use, and development problems in the womb, mainly it is the genes which determine the occurrence of this disease. We may say that it is a biological disorder. The persons suffering by this disease are largely affected by programs on TV, games, bad environments food intake and similar occurrences. It is Genes that have control over the chemicals in the neurotransmitters and the affected child has these chemical output out of balance. The scans conducted reveal that these defects can be noted in the areas of the brain that deals with psycho motor reflexes. This imbalance creates and distorts the functions of the person in changing focus of thought, organization of things and methods, planning out things, memory, and emotion and reasoning and differentiating between the two. They have impairments of speech…
Adler, Lenard. (2007) "Scattered Minds: Hope and Help for Adults with Attention Deficit..."
American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008) "Child and Adolescent Mental
Illness and Drug Abuse Statistics" Retrieved 27 February, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/resources_for_families/child_and_adolescent_mental_illness_statistics
Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.
The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training,…
Children's Use of Play
Children use play as a way of role-playing and expression. Anxiety expression, mastering of conflict as well as many other developmental benefits are derived from play by children. This paper intends to explore the play of children in relation to the developmental benefits that play provides.
Though play children grow in the understanding of not only themselves but of others and the world around them as well in their capacity to communicate with their friend and the adults in their lives Children's play is vital to the developmental growth in a child.
Progression of Play in Development:
Paiget, 1962 described what he termed "sensorimotor practice play" which refers to the experimentation of bodily sensation and motor movements on the part of infants and toddlers and as well as in connection with objects and people. y the time a baby is six months old the…
Bergen, Doris (2001) "Pretend Play and Young Children's Development" ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Champaign IL.
Online] located at http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed307967.html
DeHart, G.B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R.G. (2004). Child development: Its nature and course (5th ed.). Toronto: McGraw-Hill.
Bear, G.G., & Rys, G.S. (1994). Moral reasoning, classroom behavior, and sociometric status among elementary school children. Developmental Psychology, 30, 633-638.
As explained by Gelles and Strauss in their works, "With the exception of the police and the military, the family is perhaps the most violent social group, and the home the most violent social setting, in our society. A person is more likely to be hit or killed in his or her home by another family member than anywhere else or by anyone else." (Gelles & Straus, 1985, p. 88). Therefore it is evident from this theory that the social connections and settings can impact upon a person's conduct and emotions and could force them to act violently, proving this theory to be true in explaining the biological connection with criminal behavior.
Another biological theory mentions that the gender differences, especially in cases of men, generate strings of violent reactions to the opposite gender. This theory argues that the natural superiority instincts in men push their brain functions to act…
Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The Adapted Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (8th Edition). Prentice Hall.
Dawkins, R. (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Gelles, R.J., & Straus, M.A. (1985). In Crime and the Family. Springfield, U.S.: Thomas.
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.
The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…
Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.
Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.
Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childabuse.html
Child Abuse Statistics. Available at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics.Internet
esearch and the Scientific Method: A Concise Definition
esearch as a term does not have an assigned definition. Indeed, different authors have in the past offered varying definitions of the same. In the opinion of Goddard and Melville (2004), research does not limit itself to information gathering. esearch as the authors point out "is about answering unanswered questions or creating that which does not currently exist" (Goddard and Melville, 2004). In that regard, an individual who seeks to systematically gather new information in an attempt to find answers to specific questions is in one way or the other involved in research. On the other hand, when it comes to the scientific method, the same according to Jackson (as cited in Coon and Mitterer, 2010) can be defined as "a form of critical thinking based on careful collection of evidence, accurate description and measurement, precise definition, controlled observation, and repeatable…
Brain, C. & Mukherji, P. (2005). Understanding Child Psychology. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes Ltd.
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2010). Psychology: A Journey (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Gravetter, F. & Forzano, L.B. (2009). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Goddard, W. & Melville, S. (2004). Research Methodology: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd.
Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)
In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…
Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64
Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
juvenile justice requires evidence-based interventions and corresponding policy. This intervention analysis research is rooted in antisocial potential theory, a subset of cognitive theories of criminality and social behavior. Antisocial potential theory suggests that at-risk populations, in this case youth, exhibit antisocial tendencies and that those tendencies can be mitigated via evidence-based interventions. The following annotated bibliography draws primarily from the disciplines of psychology and sociology, with a goal of informing evidence-based intervention policies and strategies. However, the research also includes empirical criminal justice research studies illustrating the relationship between juvenile psycho-social development and offender outcomes.
Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012
This article approaches juvenile justice and intervention from a criminal justice perspective. Prior research has clearly shown that adverse childhood experiences and…
Focusing exclusively on sex offences, this article shows that victim empathy approaches are popular but that their efficacy has not been thoroughly proven in the literature. Although my research does not focus only on sex offences, this research will be instrumental in showing how treatment programs can and should be evaluated critically and on a continual basis, to ensure cost-effectiveness as well as overall efficacy. Moreover, the concept of victim empathy is one that can have some effects on certain populations, and could be shown to help juveniles who are at risk of developing antisocial behaviors.
10. Morin, S., Cruise, K., Hinz, H., Holloway, E., & Chapman, J. (2015). Content, Structure, and Usefulness of Juvenile Predisposition Psychological Evaluations. Child & Youth Care Forum, 44(6), 893-917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10566-015-9312-3
Because of my emphasis on the ways at-risk youth may be prone to antisocial behavior, this research will be critical to show support for my hypothesis. Also offering a dispositional point-of-view, this research shows that psychological evaluations taken at intake can influence outcomes and also influence recommendations offered by juvenile probation officers. To improve the overall quality of services delivered by the justice system, it is important to perform psychological evaluations that are evidence-based and interpret the results of those evaluations accordingly.
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
Term: Winter, 2014
Age of Child: 6 years old
Date of Observation: February 3, 2014
Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00
Place of Observation: Child Care Center
Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children
Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.
Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents
John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsy. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from:
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…
Beresin, V .E. (2010). The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions. This article examines the biophysiological impact of violent images on children and how those exact dynamics work. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_for_clinical_interventions
Grayson-Mathis, C.E. (2005, June 10). Media violence may affect children's minds.
Offers a thorough appraisal on how violent media images impact the minds of children using relevant literature to support the case.
Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20050610/media-violence-may-affect-childrens-minds
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
The research into how young women perceive their own bodies -- in response to constant exposure to media images of un-naturally thin and extraordinarily beautiful females -- has been a popular topic for many years. But when it comes to male models that are nearly perfect, handsome and muscular in exactly the right places, there has not been as much attention or research. This paper reviews the potential of -- and reality of -- dissatisfaction in males based on the media's model images of males.
Body Image for Males -- Background
Annette La Greca is Professor of Psychology at the University of Miami and Gerald Koocher is the Dean of the School for Health Studies at Simmons College. As co-authors of The Parents' Guide to Psychological First Aid: Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Predictable Life Crises they assert that the research for body dissatisfaction among…
Cassell, Dana K, and Gleaves, David H. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating
Disorders, Third Edition. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Grogan, Sarah. (2007). Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women, and Children. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Koocher, Gerald P., and La Greca, Annette. (2010). The Parents' Guide to Psychological First
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Hong Kong
The prevalence of mental health problems in people with disabilities is estimated at between thirty and fifty percent, in Hong Kong (Vasa & oy, 2013). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental problems occurring during adolescent and childhood, at least one in ten people having anxiety disorders. In addition, anxiety disorders are the most common manifestations of psychological distress among people with autism. People with autism are much likely to be anxious than their non-autistic peers. Oftentimes, they are described as highly anxious. The co-morbidity of separation anxiety is frequent in people with autism. Similarly, epidemiological studies indicate that approximately eighty percent of people with autism have separation anxieties. This study concentrates on discussing the treatment method or way of Autism and Separation Anxiety Disorder among children and adolescents in Hong Kong.
isk factors owing autism
Young people with autism are more prone…
Mash, E.J., & Barkley, R.A. (2013). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.
Ozonoff, S., Rogers, S.J., & Hendren, R.L. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: A research review for practitioners. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Pub.
Saklofske, DH, & Schwean, V.L. (2009). Handbook of psychosocial characteristics of exceptional children. New York [u.a.: Kluwer [u.a..
Vasa, R.A., & Roy, A.K. (2013). Pediatric anxiety disorders: A clinical guide. New York, NY: Humana Press.
According to Smoll and Smith, there are two basic attitudes toward competition; an ego attitude and a mastery attitude. Parents who have an ego attitude toward their own competition -that is, they compete to win and to be better than others - are especially likely to be competitive with other parents about their child's achievements. Essentially, the parent goes from being proud to being boastful.
These, then, are the four psychological factors that must be recognized as we try to understand the youth sports experience of families: the identification of the parent with the child, the tendency of parents to fantasize about their child's potential, the sense of youth sport as an investment, and competitiveness between parents. Combined, these factors drive many parents to push their child to excel, and to take action when they feel that their child's potential is being ignored or inhibited. The unfortunate result is children…
Smoll, F.L., & Smith, R.E. (2002) Children and Youth in Sport: a Biopsychosocial Perspective 2nd ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.
" (2003) in other words this is a trust based on possible rewards or possible punishment, or gains vs. losses. Over a period of time when the relationship is further tested trust evolves to 'identification-based trust which is stated to be the "highest level" of trust in that "the parties have internalized each other's desires and intentions. They understand what the other party cares about so completely that each party is able to act as an agent for the other." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) at this stage of trust Lewicki and Tomlinson state that "a strong emotional bond between the parties" (2003) has been formed.
Violations of trust occur when the individual holding "confident positive expectations of the trustee are disconfirmed." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) the result is lower trust because research has shown that violation of trust result in a stifling of "mutual support and information sharing" (Lewicki and…
Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers (2007) Child Development Institute. Online available at http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/erickson.shtml
Rousseau, D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R.S., and Camerer, C. (1998). "Not so Different After All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust," in Academy of Management Review, 23, 393-404. In Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/trust_building/
Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…
The authors assessments about the power of television in influencing the ideas children have about multiculturalism are extremely relevant and accurate. All forms of media are extremely popular and as a result the messages that are presented about people from various cultures also become popular, even if the messages are untrue or based on stereotypes. The benefit of understanding the power of television on the minds of young people, is that parents have the ability to monitor how much television that their children watch. In addition, when questionable images do appear parents can discuss these images with children. y monitoring the images that children see on television, parents have the ability to shape the opinions of children concerning multiculturalism.
The article seems to also articulate the idea that the images seen on television can be used to reinforce positive attitudes in children concerning the culture that they belong…
Berry G.L. (2003). Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic
Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society.
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 9(4), 360 -- 366
There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…
Lawrence, Sawyer (2009). "Biological vs. Humanistic Approach to Personality." University of Phoenix.
Vigil, Jeremy (2002). "Biological v. Humanistic." Psychology 250.
I was stricken at the site of gender representation at the management level in this country, for example.
Jane Eyre and characters like her made me develop a sense of reality when it came to gender roles that was partly distorted. I was of course inclined to think that I had every right to get the same opportunities as my male counterparts and generally I did in my country. but, the trust I had developed in my male coworkers and those I came in contact with was a little far stretched because of characters like Jane. The physical part of a relationship between a man and a woman was not treated in detail because the era did not allow such extravagancy, but the sexual aspects that were left unsaid or that were just alluded to were impossible to understand for a child and hard to explain later for a young…
The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.
4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?
The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…
Psychology and Culture
Lynn's parenting of her son takes an authoritarian approach to child-rearing. In her culture, parental authority is rarely questioned. Not only would she find support in her family, but she would also find support for her parenting decisions in the community and in the Cambodian interpretation of the Buddhist religion. One of the parenting practices that is acceptable in her culture is the use of physical punishment for children. Children are expected to be obedient in her culture and to listen, without argument, when a parent gives instructions. This obedience is part of the authoritarian approach to parenting. In addition, it is clear that she expects the child to conform to her standards. Despite the fact that the child was having a difficult day, she decided to go to the mall, which is reflective of the attitude that children should be obedient.
I think that this question…
Psychology - Developmental
The single mother comes home after a long day of work. The little girl, (Sara) is approximately 4-5 years old. Her mother realizes that someone there are small pieces of M&M's sprinkled around this kitchen floor, and assumes that her child has been eating the candy instead of waiting until after dinner. The mother asks Sara if she has been eating candy, and Sara looks down at the floor and adamantly denies that she has had any candy. She states that she has spent the afternoon watching television and painting pictures with grandma. Mom and child have been working on learning the difference between telling the truth and telling a lie and the mother is certain that the little girl has indeed been eating the candy. Telling lies is typically of children in this age group. Children may lie for several reasons, including trying to…
Mlyniec, Vicky. "Got An Attitude?" Parents. December 2003:209
Mlyniec, Vicky. "To Tell The Truth." Parents. December, 2003: 202
Martinez, Teresa. "Why Kids Want the Most - And More." Parenting, November 2003: 206
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
The first stage of language acquisition is talking one word at a time. The child uses that single word to make requests and direct activities. The individual at this stage can be considered an "emergent communicator." Their use of language for the purpose of communication is in its beginning period. Thus, the articulations consists mainly of a single word, this word may capture an entire sentence.
In stage, two the individual builds on the foundation of stage one as their vocabulary increases to beyond 75 words. At this stage, they are able to fuse words together and make simple phrases. They may continue at this stage to rely on single words but two word phrases begin to be used more frequently and with greater assuredness. During this stage some individuals may improve their vocabulary to upwards of two hundred words or more.
For stage three, the individual begins using morphemes.…
The objective of this work is to provide viable research techniques to use in order to help a child and her family. This report represents a summary of Alicia Thomas, a nine-year-old African-American 4th grader with a series of legitimate medical as well as possibly psychosomatic physiological and psychological concerns. The young lady has been specifically diagnosed as having a duodenal ulcer with the inherent gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting and intermittent pain. The pain has been linked to increased absenteeism from school, four hospitalizations, adverse sleeplessness, nightmare experiences with detail of dismemberment and professed fears of death for herself and for her family members.
The family consisted of eight total children and an intact parental situation but of these members, there has also been a history of mental retardation, depression and one sibling who has since deceased but in life was a main care provider. There is also…
Annunziata, Jane. (n.d.). "Play Therapy With A 6-Year-old With Jane Annunziata, PsyD." Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://www.apa.org
College of Agricultural Sciences (1999). Cognitive Development/Play-Overview. College of Agricultural Sciences, Penn State University. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://www.penpages.psu.edu/penpages_reference/28507/2850764.htmL
Ferguson, E.D. (1989). "Adlerian Therapy: An Introduction." Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Adlerian Psychology Association of British Columbia.
Wikopedia. (n.d.). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-traumatic_stress_disorder
After reviewing the "Vignette Miles "case study, using the five axis of the DSM-IV-T, it is clear as Axis I provides anxiety because he has been distressed after the holidays due to financial set backs. His financial situation has been gradually deteriorating during the past six months, and he has been feeling a great deal of anxiety. Miles demonstrated tolerance, loss of control, and denial. This also included trying often to cut down going out but to no avail. Axis II and Axis III shows no symptoms. However, Axis IV provides marital problems and legal involvement. His work as a tree cutter is seasonal, and his income varies from month to month. The child support payments for his two children have recently been increased, and his new wife of two years has no job. She is unwilling to work outside the home. Miles reports that his marriage is otherwise…
Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. ( Eds.). (2008). Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Hirsch, I. (2010). Discussion: On some contributions of the interpersonal tradition to contemporary psychoanalytic praxis. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 70(1), 86-93. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2009.47
Magnavita, J.J. (2012). Theories of Personality. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Behavioral activities are more of reactions to stimuli and have less to do with cognitive (or brain) processes and more to do with how one acts in a certain environment. Some behavioral activities would include: 1) sitting quietly while in the classroom or in church; 2) opening the door for somebody to walk in ahead of you; 3) using good manners while at a restaurant; 4) helping an old lady cross the street; and, 5) picking up a child that is crying.
4) the following question requires you to write a short essay consisting of a few paragraphs. Compare and contrast structuralism and functionalism by discussing elements such as their definition, founders, and similarities and differences. Edward B. Tichener formally established and gave a name to structuralism, which was first based on Wilhel Wundt's ideas. Structuralism is the first school of psychology and focuses on breaking down the mental processes…
Thus, the participants with ASD were as able to attend to the images as the control group and imitate the perceived emotional state. However, only the typically-developing children showed activity in the pars opercularis during the imitation task. The pars opercularis is associated with some mirroring functions.
As expected, the scans revealed that the participants with ASD had far less activity throughout the MNS. Also as predicted, results indicated an inverse relationship between MNS activity and autism symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Interview.
Results therefore supported the hypothesis that ASD is correlated with a dysfunctional MNS. Children with autism often cannot understand, anticipate, or read the emotional expressions of others and the current study points to a possible underlying cause for this dysfunction. Typically developing children not only imitated the observed emotion but likely felt it as well;…
How have you been labeled as a child or as an adult, and how has this impacted your identity and performance?
As a child I was always labeled as intelligent. This impacted my identity by showing me how I was different from others (because of this special talent). When I became older, this established certain standards for academic performance. I used this to push myself to do more (based upon these beliefs).
Based on the newer, broader definitions of intelligence, (such as Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences), assess your own strengths and weaknesses. Do these definitions change the way you see yourself now?
These strengths and weaknesses are showing how I meet the various categories for intelligence (according to Gardner's theory). This based upon several predetermined criteria to include: the potential for brain isolation, the presence in core operations, a place in evolutionary history, distinct developmental progression, symbolic expression,…
Howard Gardner. (2012). In Fed. Retrieved from: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm
Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Erick Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
Erik Erikson, American psychoanalyst, is known in the field of psychology for his contribution in studying the socioemotional aspect of development among humans. Called the theory of socioemotional development, Erikson posits in his theory that, "people grow and develop "socialized by and socialize others -- parents, siblings, peers, teachers... processes that involve changes in an individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality" (Santrock, 2001:338). Erikson identified different dichotomies that specifically delineate positive and negative aspects of socioemotional developments among individuals. These dichotomies are placed at various levels, where different socioemotional characteristics are manifested at each level of the individual's development.
Erikson's theory is an essential tool to understanding human behavior because it serves as a guideline for people to understand the different changes in socioemotional characteristics of people as they grow older. Of course, there are certain exceptions…
Dundy, E. (1976). "Life is all ups and no downs on this carousel." New York Times Web site (NYTimes.com). Available at http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson-carousel.html .
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Research into the value of critical thinking probably came about when reud became influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of the behavior of early human societies. Later theorists in the field of psychology, such as Hyman Spotnitz, a modern psychoanylist, and William Graham Sumner, expanded reud's theory to include the ability of the human mind to think critically, or to bend one's mind (forgetting the bad and remembering chosen events) to form one's impression of life. Melanie Klein theorized that a child's perception of what is occuring around them determines whether they develop into depressive or schizoid-depressive personalities, or whether, with proper guidance, they develop normally. (Klein, 1966) it is important that research continue in the field of psychology to determine what techniques of critical thinking may aid the disturbed patient.
reud, Anna (1966-1980). The Writings of Anna reud: 8 Volumes. New York: IUP.
reud, S. (1913) Totem and…
Freud, S. (1913) Totem and Taboo. London: Dover Publications (Reprinted in paperback: September 23, 1998).
Persons, S. (Ed.). (1963). Social Darwinism: Selected Essays of William Graham Sumner, Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Scriven, M. And Paul, R. (2004). The Critical Thinking Community, Foundation for Critical Thinking. Dillon Beach, CA.
It ends up bouncing from one group to the next like a teenager suffering from role diffusion or role switching. Gender role plays into ego-identity like drawing a winning card in poker but without proper ego-identity it does not. If an adolescent becomes confused with these choices he or she may suffer in the ability to develop properly both emotionally and sexually.
Even though physical and mental developments occur separately, they form a close relationship during adolescence. According to authors Currie and illiams body image has a huge impact on how adolescents develop self-esteem. They collected showing a direct correlation between early physical developments to improved self-esteem. They suggest no mediation for this data. They opposite was true too according to their data, less development showed less self-esteem (Currie and illiams).
The suggested mediation for this correlation between body image and self-esteem during adolescence is the media and pop culture.…
About.com:Teen Advice. Body Image: A Pep Talk. 29 November 2009. http://teenadvice.about.com/library/weekly/aa060300a.htm
Child Development Institute. 2009. Adolescent Stages of Development. 29 November 2009. http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/teens_stages.shtml
CliffsNotes.com. Development in Adolescence. 29 Nov 2009.
In the second phase of the research, testing of the children in various areas related to their attitude towards outdoor play will take place. Appreciation and awareness of the natural world, signs of emerging independence or continuing dependence, and a variety of other variables associated by previous research with outdoor play will be examined. This will also provide some direct insight as to the factors that motivate outdoor play, allowing for further extrapolation. Specifically, plans and procedures for motivating increased outdoor play and more positive attitudes towards/greater appreciations of outdoor play will be recommended based on the findings of the two research phases. From this, the beginnings of a comprehensive view of early childhood attitudes towards outdoor play and the benefits of increasing positive attitudes towards outdoor play will hopefully be established.
The observations made in this research will not provide enough evidence to lead to any entirely conclusive…
Chan, L. & Louie, L. (2003). "The Use of Pedometry to Evaluate the Physical Activity Levels among Preschool Children in Hong Kong." Early childhood development & care 173(1), pp. 97-107.
Kernan, M. & Devine, D. (2010). "Being Confined within? Constructions of the Good Childhood and Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in Ireland." Children & society 24(5), pp. 371-85.
Maday, G, (2005). "Indoor play systems." Scholastic early childhood today 19(6), pp. 33-4.
Valentine, G. & McKendrick, J. (1997). "Children's outdoor play: Exploring parental concerns about children's safety and the changing nature of childhood." Geoforum 28(2), pp. 219-35.
Borland (1997) states that,"...the construct of giftedness has undergone significant changes in recent times." (Borland, 1997, p. 13) the author also refers to modern educationists and theorists of intelligence such as Gardner and his Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Howard Gardner has put forward his Theory of Multiple Intelligences in contradiction to the older hierarchical view of intelligence which, Gardner asserts, privileges some types of intelligence over others. The "types" of intelligence that Gardner has isolated includes the following: Visual or Spatial Intelligence; Musical Intelligence; Verbal or Linguistic Intelligence; Logical and Mathematical Intelligence; Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligence and the Bodily or Kinesthetic Intelligence. He later added an eighth to the list, which is the Naturalist Intelligence. These intelligences he sees as natural propensities in every child that may be obscured to hidden due to cultural and social factors. In the past linguistic and rational models and ideals of intelligence have trended…
On the other hand, others may require a few weeks to get adjusted (Thompson; Connell; Bridges, 1988).
Threshold of esponsiveness:
This refers to how strong a stimulus requires to be reminded of a response from a child. For instance, one child may find a light touch irritating while another may need a deep hug to continue a response. This intensity of reaction refers to the vigor level of the response that is the characteristic of that child.
Another example is a child who has little threshold of responsiveness but at the same time his intensity of reaction is quite high may react to a bad taste medicine with a very loud, "Yuck!" along with lots of frowning and spitting. In contrast, another child may have the same threshold of responsiveness but a low intensity of reaction may just crumple his nose in dislike.
Persistence - Attention Span
This describes of…
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. (1995). Child maltreatment and attachment organization: implications for intervention. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir and J. Kerr (Eds.). Attachment theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
Fox, N., Kimmerly, N., & Schafer, W. (1991). Attachment to mother/attachment to father: A meta-analysis. Child Development.
Goldsmith, H., & Alansky, a. (1987). Maternal and infant temperamental predictors of attachment: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
Seifer, R., Schiller, M., Sameroff, a., Resnick, S., & Riordan, K. (1996). Attachment, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology.
Child of age
The film Child of age (Home Box Office, 1992) depicts the devastating effects of child abuse. In the film Beth Thomas, a child who was severely abused and later adopted, discusses her shocking attitudes and desires that include wanting to kill her little brother and adoptive parents. She also discusses numerous incidents of abusing animals and her brother. Her depiction reminds one of a person with a psychopathic personality (now termed antisocial personality disorder).
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of disregard for the rights of others that occurs since 15 years of age and presents with three or more of the seven symptoms that are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The symptoms include a failure to conform to norms or other rules, deceitfulness, impulsivity, aggressiveness or irritability, disregard for the safety of oneself or others, responsible behavior, and a…
Home Box Office. (1992). Child of Rage. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2 -
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…
Carter, Janet. (2000). Domestic violence, child abuse, and youth violence: strategies for prevention and early intervention. San Francisco: Family Violence Prevention Fund.
CUPA: Canadian Union of Public Employees. (1997). What we owe to families: a brief on child welfare in Manitoba. Winnipeg: Canadian Union of Public Employees.
CWLA: Child Welfare League of America. (1997). Child abuse and neglect: a look at the States. Washington, D.C: Child Welfare League of America.
Drucker, Philip. M. (October, 1997). "The consequences of Poverty and Child Maltreatment on IQ Scores." The Vincentian Chair of Social Justice Papers. Vincentian Center Faculty Colloquium Presentation, New York.
These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of children older than 2 years but extend these findings to children who are spanked beginning at a relatively early age (issow Pp).
In the January 2002 issue of "Journal of Counseling and Development," Lisa Fontes states that Latino parents who engage in harsh physical discipline need help, however, they are far from homogeneous and their needs vary (Fontes Pp). She believes that many are "loving and devoted parents who practice traditional forms of child rearing that may include an authoritarian style and harsh corporal punishment, side by side with high levels of intimacy and support" (Fontes Pp). Fontes states that some Latino parents are often "incorrectly accused of abusing or neglecting their children because non-Latino professionals are puzzled by their unfamiliar yet harmless practices" (Fontes Pp). hile other Latino parents, like parents from other groups, punish their children in ways…
Straus, Murray a. "Spanking and the making of a violent society." Pediatrics;
Fontes, Lisa Aronson. "Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: reducing violence and misunderstandings."
Journal of Counseling and Development; 1/1/2002; Pp.
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.
Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Secondly, the kid should be assisted in augmenting their reasoning and by making them know deaths with realistic information. Thirdly, the kid should attain consent to allow him/her do away with old lifestyle and come up with new lifestyle. An example of a long-term effect includes troubles with the internalization of conscience.
Loss at Teenage Years
At this age, for the teenager to finish the duties of psychological loss the adolescent requires to resist parent figures that nevertheless are constantly available. Parent loss will interrupt these duties. Secondly, control matters will continually affect the teenager's behaviors, more so if he/she feels a great part of the resolutions about his life are out of his/her control.
In order to reduce the short-term effects, teenagers are required to feel that they do have rising control over their very own lives. Also, adults should offer them many chances as much as possible in…
1. Bonanno G., Neria Y., Mancini a., Coifman K., Litz B. & Insel B (2007)Is there more to complicated grief than depression and posttraumatic stress disorder? A test of incremental validity. Psychological Medical Journal.116, pp. 342 -- 351
2. Brent, D., Melhem N., Donohoe MB & Walker M. (2009). The Incidence and Cause of Depression in Bereaved Youth 21 Months after the loss of a Parent to Suicide,
Accident, or Sudden Natural Death, Psychological Medical Journal.166, pp.786 -- 794.
3. Hensley P., Slonimski C., Uhlenhuth E. & Clayton P. (2009)Escitalopram: an open-label
These stores then send information into Short-Term memory stores, which then send information into Long-Term memory stores. The believed that control process were performed in short-term memory which allowed information to be put into long-term memory and then recalled from it as well (Baddeley, 1997).
6. Suppose a two-year-old child believed every object a person can go into with a roof is called a house. One day the child refers to the family car as a house. The parent corrects him and says this is a car not a house. Based on Piaget's theory, what will this child have to do in order to correctly process this material and not make a similar error in the future?
According to Piaget the child would have to assimilate and accommodate the information in order to not make the same mistake in the future. Assimilation is the process by which a person takes…
Baddeley, Alan D. (1997). Human Memory. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from Google Books Web
Shame and Doubt, according to Erickson, children develop a sense of self-control as they control their bodily functions. This makes them feel confident and able to handle problems independently. But Tom's mother would not relinquish her control over his bodily functions at this time. Her forcing him to void on her schedule and not his, gave him a sense of shame and the feeling that he was not in control of his world. He therefore felt inadequate and doubtful of his ability to cope with anything. As she continued to control him by denying him food, love and choices of clothing, he became increasingly angry at the world, frustrated at the impression that his body and whole life was under the control of someone other than himself. This created anger and depression.
It is a wonder that Tom was as normal as he was during his teen years. He was…
Association for Humanistic Psychology. Website: http://ahpweb.org/aboutahp/aboutahp.html .
Berger, Kathleen S. The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, Sixth Edition. New York: Worth Publishers. 2002.
Thompson, Ross a. "Child development." Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557692_2/Development_Child.html.
Thorpe, G.L., Olson, S.L. (1997) Behavior Therapy: Concepts, Procedures, and Applications, Second Edition (Paperback). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
281). Those regularly spanked children were also six times more likely to "become juvenile delinquents, and later as adults, to use physical violence against their spouses"; it is also asserted in the research that those same children tended towards "sadomasochistic" behaviors and were known to suffer from depression (Chang, p. 281).
The difference between physical punishment and "abuse" is significant, according to Chang. Physical punishment is meant to cause pain in the child, but abuse implies "injury." Meanwhile, in a survey of Japanese and American college students conducted by Chang and colleagues, "U.S. respondents were more likely to perceive physical punishment as being appropriate discipline than were Japanese respondents" (p. 284). The survey participants included 120 U.S. college students and 107 Japanese college students. As to what kind of punishment they received, 91% of U.S. respondents said they had been "physically punished" and of those, 62% said they had been…
Chang, I.J., Pettit, Rebecca W., and Katsurada, Emiko. (2006). Where and When to Spank: A
Comparison Between U.S. And Japanese College Students. Journal of Family Violence, Vol.
Lallanilla, Marc. (2010). Should Parents Spank Young Kids? Spanking May Lead to Behavioral
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016
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Lewis, D. (1960). Quantitative Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9395983
Newman, I., & Benz, C.. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative esearch Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006987353
Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
The Descriptive Method: Because psychology is an observational science, it necessarily relies on the experimenter to observe, catalogue, quantify, and interpret variables suspected of a causative relationship. While observation is, therefore, essential to the study of psychology, it also presents a potential weakness in the results observed (Carlson 2006). For example, in the above experiment, the experimenter could, through a series of well designed experiments, determine that: (1) domestic violence perpetrators have, on average, a higher testosterone level than non-perpetrators; (2) other criminals do not, on average, have a higher testosterone level than non-criminals; and (3) none of the domestic violence perpetrators have a lower testosterone level than either non-perpetrators or non- criminals. Those results would seem to validate the initial hypothesis, that high testosterone levels are a causal factor in male perpetrators of domestic violence. However, the preceding series of experiments establishes only that there is a correlation between…
REFERENCES Carlson, N.R. (2006) Physiology of Behavior 9th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless,…Read Full Paper ❯
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The Descriptive Method: Because psychology is an observational science, it necessarily relies on the experimenter to observe, catalogue, quantify, and interpret variables suspected of a causative relationship. While observation…Read Full Paper ❯