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bortion and the Significance Towards Women's Health With Evidence
Induced abortion represents a multifaceted ethical, moral, biological, psychological, and legal human issue. The complex issue of induced abortion has been the source of substantial debate, controversy, and activism over the course of several decades. Induced abortion is medically defined as the removal or expulsion of a fetus or embryo before the fetus is able to survive outside of the uterus (Grimes et al. 2004). Fetal viability has been explained as 20 weeks gestation or a fetal weight that is less than 500 grams; however, there is not a reported case of a fetus surviving at 20 weeks and weight alone is not the strongest predictor of viability (Grimes et al. 2004). In the United States, the U.S. Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade legalized abortion nationwide (Grimes et al. 2004). bortion is currently one of the most common medical procedures…
An additional study investigating the significance of abortion and its role on women's health examined the links between pregnancy and mental health outcomes. Over the course of the past two decades, research has been conducted to consider mental health outcomes, such as depression, substance use, anxiety, and suicidal behavior in association with induced abortion (Fergusson et al. 2008). The research performed by Fergusson et al. based their results from a longitudinal study of 534 women who had been participants in the Chirstchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS); CHDS studied individuals at birth, 4 months, 1 year, every following year to age 16, and at ages 18, 21, 25, and 30 (2008). Each woman had provided information over the 30-year period regarding pregnancies and mental health history. Based on this study group, 284 women reported a total of 686 pregnancies prior to age 30, and included a total of 153 abortions that occurred to 117 women (Fergusson et al. 2008). During every assessment from age 16 to 30 years, participants were questioned regarding mental health issues since the previous assessment using specific, structured questionnaires (Fergusson et al. 2008). After analyzing the correlations between abortion and mental health, Fergusson et al. found abortion may be associated with a small increase in risk of mental health disorders; women who had abortions showed rates of mental disorder that were approximately 30% higher than the other female participants (Fergusson et al. 2008).
The longitudinal research component of the Fergusson et al. study is its greatest strength (2008). Being evaluated since birth, the female participants each offered a comprehensive, detailed medical history. The comprehensive nature of their medical histories allow for significant insights into mental health and how life events affect the occurrences of mental disorders. This strengthened the research group's ability to evaluate correlations between the incidence of abortion and subsequent mental disorders. The study also considered such lifestyle dynamics as living arrangements, employment problems, illness or death in the family, and any partner relationship problems that could contribute to mental illness in order to identify direct relationships with abortion and mental health (Fergusson et al. 2008).
Weaknesses of the Fergusson et al. study include sample bias and the length of the study. There were an original 630 women in the CHDS study who entered the study at birth; only 534 women provided consent to be included in the Fergusson analysis. Based on information available from all 630 female CHDS participants, the 20% of women not represented in the study had a tendency to be from low socio-economic status which gives evidence of sample bias (Fergusson et al. 2008). The longitudinal nature of the study is a noted strength; however, the study only provided information on women to age 30. Women are still likely to become pregnant after age 30, and the
Abortion AND CRITICALLY EXAMINE VARIOUS CHRISTIAN RESPONSES ( CATHOLICS, EVANGELICALS, AND LIBERALS) TO SUBJECT. CHRISTIAN ETHICS IS TGE COURSE. THANK YOU AGAIN, GOOD JOB.
Christian Views on Abortion
The Christian Church has always had strict regulations when concerning matters like abortion. Even with the fact that the Christian Bible contains no information about the practice, many Christians have gotten actively engaged in trying to denounce it as being against God's will. Some branches of the Church are, however, hesitantly willing to accept abortion in particular cases because they acknowledge that one can look at the matter from a series of different perspectives. One of the most divisive problems about the relationship between Christianity and abortion relates to how the latter can be associated with the gravest sin when considering things from the religious ideology's point-of-view: murder.
Abortion has been in public view long before the Christian Church was founded…
Eggebroten, Anne Marie, "Abortion: My Choice, God's Grace: Christian Women Tell Their Stories," (Hope Publishing House, 1994)
Maguire, Daniel, "Sacred Rights: The Case for Contraception and Abortion in World Religions," (Oxford University Press, 2003)
Melton, Gordon J., "Encyclopedia of Protestantism," (Infobase Publishing, 01.01.2005)
"The Orthodox view on Abortion," Retrieved November 30, 2012, from the Orthodox Christian Website: http://www.orthodoxchristian.info/pages/abortion2.htm
Pros and Cons of Abortion and the Feminist Perspective
The Pro-Life (Judeo/Christian) Perspective: God is the author of life and controls how that life will be dispensed. This is true of both birth and death. It is not the responsibility of the individual to either begin their life or to end it because the life is not theirs it is God's. When God chooses to bless a human being with being the surrogate for the beginning of said life, again it should not be the decision of that individual, who has a completely separate life growing inside of them, to choose whether that life should be continued or ended; again, that decision is to be made by God, the author of life. A woman's right to choose then ends when she decides to have intercourse with a male, realizing that the end product could be a sampling of…
Balogh, L. (2009). The public debate on the religiosity of the public debate of bioethics in the U.S.A. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 8(23), 3-12.
Gavriluta, N. (2010). Abortion and challenges of applied ethics. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 9(26), 238-243.
Pickering, B.A. (2003). Women's voices as evidence: Personal testimony in pro-choice films. Argumentation and Advocacy, 40(1), 1-33.
Pourreza, A., & Batebi, A. (2011). Psychology consequences of abortion among the post abortion care seeking women in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 6(1), 31-41.
Aborting a living human fetus is morally wrong because taking one's life away from them is "one of the greatest losses one can suffer" (Marquis, 1989, p. 4) and causing that person to suffer that great a loss is a morally wrong thing to do. There is a plethora of material on abortion -- both pro-choice and anti-abortion -- that focuses on how to best determine what is a human, or a human person. There is plenty of available literature that determines why abortion is wrong, and an equally wide array of literature on why abortion is morally acceptable. It seems that both sides have marshaled their forces to crush their opposition. One side appeals to man's spiritual or theological side while the other appeals to the scientific side. One argues that a person is not really a person unless it is a reasoning entity, while the other argues…
Abortion; (2012) accessed on June 3, 2012 at: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/abortion
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 1142a12-16.
Embryo; (2012) accessed on June 3, 2012 at:
They argue that the fetus only has the potential of developing into a full-fledged human being; in the same way as an acorn has the potential of developing into an oak tree. In their view it is as ludicrous to call an embryo an independent human being as it would be to call an acorn an oak tree. (Lewis, 2000)
ight of Woman Over Her Body
The main "pro-choice" argument is that a woman has a right of control over her own body and nobody, including the state or her family has the right to take away her right in this regard. According to this argument, the right of control over her own body includes a woman's right to terminate or continue with her pregnancy. (Ibid.)
The "pro-life" counter argument to this contention is that the fetus is a discreet individual with all the rights of a separate person; the…
Abortion." (2006). From Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved on May 30, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion#Public_opinion
Abortion in the United States." (2006). From Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved on May 30, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion_in_the_United_States
The Facts Speak Louder than 'The Silent Scream'" (1985) The Planned Parenthood. Retrieved on May 30, 2006 at http://www.plannedparenthood.org/pp2/portal/files/portal/medicalinfo/abortion/fact-abortion-silent-scream.xml
Gordon, D. (1999). "Abortion and Rights: Applying Libertarian Principles Correctly." Libertarians for life. Retrieved on May 30, 2006 at http://www.l4l.org/library/abor-rts.html
Abortion from a purely moral or ethical perspective can never be endorsed. However, in some medical conditions where the life of the mother is at stake abortion as a life saving intervention is certainly approved. Also in cases where the pregnancy is due to sexual victimization the woman has the right to decide about abortion. Irrespective of the methods used abortion leaves a great psychological stigma and guilt feeling.
The more horrific partial birth abortions are a cause for concern and leave deep psychological distress and depression. It is more thoughtful and appropriate to use the available contraceptive methods instead of going for abortion. However, for those women who choose abortion as a method to end their unintended pregnancies the provision of post abortion-healing care is very important.
1) Suzanne R. Trupin, 'Elective Abortion', Accessed Nov 27th 2009, available online at, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/252560-overview
2) Lisa . Haddad, MD, MA…
1) Suzanne R. Trupin, 'Elective Abortion', Accessed Nov 27th 2009, available online at, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/252560-overview
2) Lisa B. Haddad, MD, MA & Nawal M. Nour, 'Unsafe Abortion Unnecessary maternal Mortality', Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Spring; 2(2): 122 -- 126, Available online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2709326/?tool=pmcentrez
3) Anne Nordal Broen & Torbjorn Moum et.al, 'The Course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: A Longitudinal five-year follow up study', BMC Med. 2005; 3: 18., Available online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1343574/?tool=pmcentrez
4) Patrick S. Carroll, 'The Breast Cancer Epidemic: Modeling and Forecasts based on Abortion and other Risk Factors', Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons
Abortion means the early removal of a human fetus, whether impulsively as in a miscarriage or unnaturally caused by surgical or chemical abortion. As of today, the most general usage of this term abortion stands for the artificially caused abortion. A decision by oe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton that authorizes abortion was passed over by the Supreme Court in 1973 that allowed abortion for any basis like medical, social or otherwise in all the 50 states during all nine months of pregnancy. But most of the abortions done in the present days are done not based on medical grounds but on social basis, as some women are not prepared for a child at that time and her spouse wants her to have an abortion. Almost 93% of these induced abortions are done not for medical reasons but are voluntary.
Evolution of the law concerning abortion
The chronicle of…
Adolescents Need Safe and Legal Abortion. Retrieved fromhttp://www.crlp.org/pub_fac_atkadol.html Accessed on 10 February 2005
Bruce, Deanna; Benatar, Sarah. Policy Update on Safe and Legal Abortion, 30 Years after Roe v. Wade. IWPR Publication #B241. Retrieved from http://www.iwpr.org/pdf/B241.pdf Accessed on 10 February 2005
Defining Abortion. Retrieved from http://www.nrlc.org/abortion/ASMF/asmf3.html Accessed on 10 February 2005
Deflem, Mathieu. 1998. The Boundaries of Abortion Law: Systems Theory from Parsons to Luhmann and Habermas. Social Forces. Vol: 76; No: 3; pp: 775-818. Retrieved from http://www.cas.sc.edu/socy/faculty/deflem/zaborsf.htm Accessed on 10 February 2005
Government Funding of Abortions
Notes: Entries are unstandardized regression coefficients from ordinary least squares regression (standard errors are in parentheses).
A significant at.01; significant at.05;
For general abortion opinion high = conservative; for parental consent opinion high = liberal; for abortion funding opinion high = conservative.
Norrander and ilcox, 707).
Den Dulk, Kevin R., and J. Mitchell…
Den Dulk, Kevin R., and J. Mitchell Pickerill. "Bridging the Lawmaking Process: Organized Interests, Court-Congress Interaction, and Church-State Relations." Polity 35.3 (2003): 419+. Questia. 4 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001969773 .
Norrander, Barbara, and Clyde Wilcox. "Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of Post-Roe Abortion Policy." Policy Studies Journal 27.4 (1999): 707. Questia. 4 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001889368 .
Abortion in Politics
The argument on legality of abortion is nurtured deep into root of American society. The judgment on Roe v. ade where abortion became legal to today's politics. This paper analyses in depth the issue surrounding this subject and present solutions and considerations.
The struggle for sexual rights has been linked to the process of building citizenship and has been challenged mainly by entrenched conservative groups like Parents' groups, or as defenders of morality and decency, these actors construct ditches in the field of freedoms. (Linda 1998) Most of these groups are linked to private Catholic schools and religious colleges; there are also church officials of the Catholic Church, party leaders and officials who are visible actors in the field of sexual politics.
Roe v. ade is a controversial policy decision that the Supreme Court of the United States on 22 January 1973 precipitated by a majority of…
Randy Alcorn Prolife, Answers to Prochoice Arguments. Sisters, OR: Multnomah, 2000.
Linda J. Beckman and S. Marie Harvey, eds., The New Civil War: The Psychology, Culture, and Politics of Abortion. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1998.
James F. Bohan, The House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human Rights Issue. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999: pp76-78.
Leslie Bonavoglia, ed. The Choices We Made: Twenty-five Women and Men Speak Out About Abortion. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2001: pp45-57.
Abortion and eligion
Church and abortion debate
Abortion has been a major issue of discussion with different group finding themselves caught up in a sensitive argument that they have to take a position. eligious groups have been vocal on condemning abortion, however there are other groups which hold that it should not just be viewed in that manner without looking the circumstances that makes one to abort and they see nothing wrong with doing so. It is a matter that cannot be regarded simplistic because there are other governments with their law in some parts of the World that already allow it depending on the situation to help life. The position of the church to discourage abortion should be well recognized and spread for they are fighting to save importance of humanity. More institutions should rise up to condemn such practice to save our morals, lives, and dignity so that…
Fr. William Saunders, (2013). The Catholic Church and Abortion, Retrieved July 15, 2013. http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/resources/abortion/catholic-teaching/the-catholic-church-and-abortion/
JoAnne Viviano, (2012). Religions largely oppose abortion. Retrieved July 15, 2013. http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/faith_and_values/2012/10/26/religions-largely-oppose-abortion.html
Robert Cavalier, (2012). Jewish Attitudes Towards Abortion. Retrieved July 15, 2013. http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/cavalier/Forum/abortion/background/judaism1.html
Susan Wilson, How do religious views impact abortion views? (2012) Retrieved July 15, 2013. http://www.tntech.edu/files/sociology/Final_Project_1Susan_Wilson_.pdf
Abortion and Class Bias
Abortion has generally been framed as an issue of gender rights, a question of whether women have the right to privacy and have jurisdiction over their own bodies.
This formulation has made abortion into a feminist cause. Any attempts to criminalize or otherwise infringe on abortion rights is viewed as a violation of the rights of individual women.
However, there is a side to this argument that often remains overshadowed.
Statistics show that majority of the women who have abortions do so for economic reasons (Pollitt 1997). Corollary to this, analysts believe that making abortion illegal or criminal would unduly burden minority and other marginalized women (Swomley 2002).
This paper examines the class bias that underscores laws that criminalize abortion. It focuses on the abortion laws that existed before the landmark Roe vs. ade decision, and how these laws particularly restricted the rights of poor women.…
Andryszewski, Tricia. 1996. Abortion: Rights, Option and Choices. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, Inc.
Guernsey, JoAnn Bren. 1993. Abortion: Understanding the Controversy. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company.
Politt, Katha. 1997. "Abortion in American History." Atlantic Monthly May: 111-115.
Sappenfield, Mark. 2002. "California Passes Broad Abortion-Rights Legislation." Christian Science Monitor. September 13: 2+.
Abortion has always been a case of debate in history, because of the numerous implications this issue has. It relates not only to the rights of the mother, but, even more important, to the rights of the unborn child. Additionally, abortion provides an unwanted means of late contraception. Due to this available, last minute solutions, teens tend to pay less attention to normal contraception means, which encourages not only promiscuity, but the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases and especially AIDS.
The most important argument that the pro-choice and the pro-life groups use is the morality argumentation. A simple syllogism applies in this case. The conceived fetus is a member of the human specie and ending its existence is murder. Murder is immoral and unethical
. However, this argumentation stands only after we deliberate over the condition of the fetus. Can the fetus be considered a human being, entitled with the…
1. Physical Health Risks of Abortion. Scientific Studies Reveal Significant Risk. On the Internet at http://www.w-cpc.org/abortion/physical.html
2 H.L. Howe, et al., "Early Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Under Age 40," International Journal of Epidemiology, 18(2):300-304 (1989)
3. Sharvy, B. The morality of abortion. A critique. On the Internet at http://www.efn.org/~bsharvy/abortion.html
4. Abortion morality. Letters to the Editor. The Miami Herald. November 2004. On the Internet at http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/editorial/letters/10278784.htm?1c
Nature intends that an offspring should begin and develop in the mother's baby until it is mature enough to be delivered and live on its own. Those nine months of gestation in the mother's womb pose a long-standing controversy, which pits the rights of the unborn child against the rights of the mother. One side, called pro-life, holds that the embryo or fetus has full and distinct rights to life while in the womb as a separate entity from the mother and, that therefore, the termination of pregnancy through abortion as a birth control method violates its rights. The other side, called pro-choice, argues that pregnancy can be terminated as a method of birth control under certain conditions, that the fetus or embryo does not have the same full rights as the mother and that the mother has a right to her own body.
Gleaning from these opposing views,…
1. Callahan, Sidney. Twenty-Five Years After "Roe" -- Abortion Arguments. Commonweal: Commonweal Foundation, January 30, 1998. http://www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1252/is_n2_v125/ai_20520543
2. Doerr, Ed. Roe v Wade at Thirty -- Church and State. Humanist: American Humanist Association, March-April 2003.
The following is a table of state laws regarding abortion:
State Laws Pertaining to Abortion
Effected 1982; revoked / enjoined 1987
Effected 1990; revoked / enjoined 1998
District of Columbia
Effected 1997; revoked / enjoined 2000
Effected 1982; revoked / enjoined 1984
No law revoked/enjoined
Effected 1980, 1990;
Author Unknown, 1980. http://www.quotegarden.com/abortion.html
Brower, Kay;Sloane, Bonnie;Wolansky, Taras. "Art of persuasion.(LETTERS to the EDITOR)(Letter to the editor)," Skeptical Inquirer, 1 May 2007.
Ferguson, Andrew. "Puritans in Hollywood; R-rated smoking, X-rated trans-fats.(Movie review)," the Weekly Standard, 21 May 2007.
Fetus." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. 04 Aug. 2007.
In the book Abortion is a oman's Right! The authors Pat Grogan and Evelyn Reed write about why the subject of abortion is of such importance both in discussions of the rights of women but in the concept of Feminism and the place of women throughout society. Before the Roe v. ade case made abortion lawful in this country, abortions were illegal in the United States. Anyone who desired or required the abortion procedure for any reason, physical or emotional, would have to go to back alley abortionists who would be working with unsafe tools and in squalid and unsterile conditions which would be a breeding ground for bacteria and germs. Many women died during these procedures, or from the later infections directly related to the abortions. Other women were left permanently sterile or even more cripplingly debilitated by their experiences. Grogan and Reed write that: "In 1969, the…
Pat Grogan and Evelyn Reed, Abortion is a Woman's Right (Pathfinder, 1985).
oth the pro-life and anti-abortion movements are motivated by one concept: that human personhood begins at conception. To these groups an embryo and a fetus are all human persons who should be granted the same rights, privileges and protections as a child or adult (Violence & harassment at U.S. abortion clinics). Operation Rescue is an anti-abortion organization that states that it is dedicated to the protection of children in the womb and their mothers who are exploited by abortion. The group declares that "We work in every way we can to manifest the truth of God concerning abortion" (Operation Rescue Colorado).
Unfortunately, "every way we can" includes violence, murder and the misuse of religion to inspire what any moral individual could only interpret as unholy acts.
The god-father of Operation Rescue is Joseph Scheidler, director of the Pro-Life Action League which he has called the "Green erets of the…
Ackerman, S. (2001, August). The most biased name in news. Extra! Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.fair.org/extra/0108/fox-main.html
Burghardt, T. "No place to hide" campaign fizzles. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.etext.org/Politics/Arm.The.Spirit/Antifa/or.no-place.april-1995
Clinton, conspiracism, and the continuing culture war. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.publiceye.org/conspire/clinton/Clintonculwar8-02.html
Fredericks, K. (1993). Anti-choice terrorism in the U.S. Green Left Weekly. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.greenleft.org.au/back/1993/94/94p28.htm
With the growing awareness regarding gender roles and their due rights, the number of misunderstandings and misapprehensions has also considerably augmented. Abortion, by some is considered the right of a woman or of the parents of the unborn child, by some a crime and by many others a debatable and a highly controversial issue. However, it has been observed that the underlying aspects of the issue under consideration are largely ignored, seldom misunderstood and are often given in to assumptions or false beliefs and preconceived notions based on generalizations.
We need to understand that the main reason behind this heated debate about abortion results more from lack of awareness than anything else. Since we mostly study this issue from the standpoint of morality and religion, we equate abortion to crime. However if we take into account the real definition of personhood, mental, physical and emotional health of the…
Special Report: The war that never ends - Abortion in America; To come., The Economist, 01-18-2003, pp 25
Berer M., Making Abortion Safe and Legal: The Ethics and Dynamics of Change., Reproductive Health Matters, 11-01-1993, pp 5-10
Muller, Jerry Z, The conservative case for abortion: family values vs. family planning. (The New Republic: 1995). 27-28
Katha Pollit, Abortion in American History; (The Atlantic Monthly: 1997). 111-115.
Finally, Thomson in her hypothetical case introduces a concept of physical restraint and immobility that is completely inappropriate. hile carrying a baby for nine months is no small task, we can all agree that it is not the same thing as having a grown adult plugged into one's kidneys. In Thomson's example, we imagine a person who essentially has to lie in bed for nine months, unable to go anywhere or do anything while this violinist feeds off her organs. Is that really how Thomson sees pregnancy? Hopefully not, as this is a stark - and even hostile - view.
Perhaps we can all agree that no unborn baby ever reaches adult size and that, in many pregnancies, the baby's size does not become a significant obstruction until the very late stages of the pregnancy. In fact, at the six-month mark a typical fetus will only weigh about a pound…
Battle, Karen (1982). "Nine months in six weeks." Retrieved Nov. 13, 2006 from the Web site for the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute at http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1982/7/82.07.09.x.html .
Thomson, Judith Jarvis (1971). "A defense of abortion." Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 47. Retrieved Nov. 13, 2006 at http://www.utdallas.edu/~jfg021000/thomson.html .
The crux of the matter, of course, is that Polish law is incongruent with that throughout Europe as denoted within the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The latter provides access for all citizens throughout the Continent to have "respect for privacy and family life" (Martin). This is a great right, and one that is worthy of being upheld. However, in Poland, abortions are only permitted if the life -- not the health -- of the woman is in danger, if the fetus may be born deformed, or if the pregnancy has been incurred by rape. Therefore, Tysiac's situation did not truly meet the legal requirements for abortion in her home country of Poland. It did, however, result in the violation of her rights in the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Sadly, Poland is willing to terminate the life…
Martin, Jenny. "European Court of Human Rights Considers Appeal of Polish Woman Allegedly Denied Abortion." Medical News Today. 2006. Web. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/37619.php .
Sample, Ian. "When does life begin?." The Guardian. 2005. Web. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2005/feb/10/thisweekssciencequestions
A fruitful consensus between the liberal and conservative approaches could be achieved through certain guidelines (Tribe). Namely, abortion could be ethically permissible until an agreed "specified stage of fetal development [rule utilitarianism] or for some moral reasons that are believed to be sufficient to warrant abortions" (Sperling). For instance, early (pre-uterus implantation) termination of pregnancy through medication ought to be acceptable, much like the decision to abort if the woman was a victim of rape or incest (Tribe 231); virtue ethics could endorse abortion so long as it is an act of courage, and not cowardice.
A distinct matter is the question of delivering a baby when the pregnant woman is comatose. Given that the mother is not conscious in order to express her will and the baby's well-being is jeopardized, this is a difficult ethical judgment call. Ideally, the mother should present a previously expressed or implied consent to…
Sperling, D. "Maternal Brain Death" in American Journal of Law & Medicine, Vol. 30, No. 4 (January 1, 2004)
Tribe, L.H. "Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes." New York: W.W. Norton, 1992
Abortion Is Every Woman's Right
the issue of abortion remains controversial, with different class-oriented, cultural, religious and ethical factors playing important roles in the debate, as well as social factors, related to the role of the individual in society. This paper argues that, in the end, the decision over one's body (given normal circumstances, such as soundness of mind) remains that of the individual and not of anybody else involved, from legislators to religious leaders.
"One controversy that pans the socio-political and cultural paradigm in the late 20th and early 21st century is that of the overall morality of abortion"
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy.
There are significant moral controversies surrounding abortion, from the mother's, the fetus's or the society's perspective.
Moral controversies surrounding the mother are based on how unlimited the woman's right is towards her body, including whether she can use abortion as a contraceptive…
osenblatt's arguments and conclusions are quite convincing. At first glance, it would not seem that people who are so emotionally for or against abortion would have any common ground at all. However, after reading osenblatt's piece, it seems quite true that his theory about abortion is correct. Most people favor the ability to have an abortion, but discourage it personally. Most people think someone should have the right to an abortion, but that does not mean they themselves would have or condone the procedure. He also notes that both sides would like to make abortion less necessary by creating other means of dealing with unwanted pregnancy, such as educating young people to limit premarital sex. All of these arguments and statements are not only convincing, they seem like common sense and seem to wrap up what most people feel about this emotionally charged issue. This is how I…
Weston, Anthony. A 21st Century Ethical Toolbox. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
The only way to rescue these zygotes is to have them implanted into a woman and brought to term.
It is hard to say whether or not it would be inconsistent for a female religious "pro-lifer" to refuse to have fertilized eggs implanted into her uterus. There are many differences between rescuing a drowning child and becoming impregnated with an unborn child. First, a drowning child will only inconvenience the rescuer for a short period of time, while becoming pregnant will last for nine months. Additionally, rescuing a drowning child does not usually obligate the rescuer to care for the child or take financial responsibility for the child after the incident, while becoming pregnant with a child will obligate a person to this. Also, it is not necessarily the moral obligation of a person to join the coast guard so that he or she will spend all of his or…
Green, R. The Human Embryo Research Debates: Bioethics in the Vortex of Controversy. London: Oxford Press, 2001.
Richards, T. "Stem Cell Research: The UK Government Should Sanction Carefully Regulated Research." British Medical Journal. 9 December 2000. http://www.findarticles.com
Author unknown. "Abortion and the Fate of Frozen Fertilized Human Eggs."
Generally, secular science reminds us that even the distinction between the value supposedly inherent in human life and that of other "higher" non-human life forms is very difficult to maintain logically. In fact, it may very well be that many species are sufficiently capable of complex emotions and other intellectual behavior previously considered exclusive hallmarks of "humanity" as to deserve greater moral consideration.
If anything, the convergence of contemporary knowledge made possible by combining our modern understanding of genetics and the biological basis of behavior suggests that whatever "quality" or 'aspect" of human life that qualifies for moral consideration is not anything that is uniquely human at all.
The more familiar one is with the lives and relationships apparent in primate societies as well as those of elephants, whales, and porpoises, the more difficult it is to argue against the need to consider the sentience and consciousness of animal life…
Meanwhile, it completely ignores the obvious moral imperative to prevent needless suffering in the Third World by opposing the idea of providing condoms because of its traditional view that any form of contraception is a sin. Apparently, it is an infinitely loving and omniscient God's will that African infants continue to die by the many thousands because their prolonged suffering before their eventual death while still in infancy is morally inconsequential compared to the glory of their creation in God's image, however brief and painful their lives may actually be from their perspective.
Abortion became legal throughout the 50 states in 1973 after the decision by the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade. Nevertheless, the debate between religious beliefs and secular rights continues to this day. Certainly, the developing fetus becomes a person at some point before birth, but that specific determination is one appropriate for the application of scientific criteria, not religious beliefs, particularly in the United States where religious freedom guaranteed by the Constitution means freedom from the religious beliefs of others as much as freedom of one's own religious choices.
Sometimes it’s best to save the title for last. Other times coming up with a title first helps one focus the essay. Either way is fine when it comes to writing abortion essay titles. These titles are generally merely reflective of the subject of the paper. So if you’ve written the essay already or are in the pre-writing stages, it makes no difference. The title of the paper should give the reader a good sense of what your position in the paper will be. Here are some examples to help you get started.
Abortion Essay Titles
1. The Abortion Dilemma: How Duty to Protect Life Gave Way to a Focus on Political Rights in the 1960s
2. Pro-Choice Does Not Mean Pro-Murder: Why Women Who Would Never Personally Have an Abortion Still Support Others’ Right to Have Them
3. Abortion is Infanticide: The Ugly Truth behind the Abortion Rights…
Abortion and Its Ongoing issues in America
The issue of abortion, while never far from the spotlight, has been making headlines again recently as New York passed a full-term abortion law (Tolentino) and Virginia has one similar in the works (North). The Virginia bill has been described as infanticide (BBC) and President Trump has even called for a ban on late-term abortions (Green). However, many Americans continue to be divided on the abortion issue. This paper will describe the current state of abortion in America, the ongoing issues regarding what should be permissible and what should be denied, and how the subject continues to be a major political sticking point.
Abortion has been legal in America since Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court case that judged abortion to be the legal right of a mother—i.e., she had the right to determine whether to keep or kill her baby up to…
The Moral Choice of Women
The issue of abortion in the U.S. is one that has been politicized for several decades. Prior to the Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade (1973), abortion was not legal. The Supreme Court ruled that laws restricting abortion were unconstitutional and since then abortion has been seen as a natural right of women by those who believe that the pro-choice side of the issue is the moral one. The other side of the issue, of course, focuses more on the fact that abortion is the ending of a life, and that the deliberate ending of a life is an immoral action. A third perspective on the matter is that while abortion may be immoral in general there are instances when it may be acceptable, such as when the child is conceived from a rape or when aborting the child will save the mother’s life.…
Jones, E. Michael. Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine’s Press, 2000.
Sandle, M. Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do? NY: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 2009.
Thomson, Judith Jarvis. \\\\"A Defense of Abortion.\\\\" Philosophy & Public Affairs (1971): 47-66.
Wolbrecht, Christina. The politics of women\\\\'s rights: Parties, positions, and change. Princeton University Press, 2010.
When writing an Abortion Pros and Cons Essay, it is important to maintain a balanced perspective—which can be tricky because abortion is such a polarizing issue for many people. This article shows how to maintain that balance, first by defining abortion, second by objectively identifying the reasons given by both sides of the issue—i.e., the pros and cons of abortion; third by identifying abortion laws, and fourth by examining abortion statistics. A conclusion is then provided based on the material examined in the article.
Abortion is an enormously controversial issue. It is a topic that divides hundreds of millions of people all over the world. In some respects, what makes it so polarizing is that it is often conflated with the concept of women’s rights—i.e., those who support abortion (or are “pro-choice”) do so for a variety of reasons: (a) because they feel that every woman should have…
Guttmacher Institute. (2018). Abortion fact sheet. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states
Horgan, J. (2012). Ethicist Peter Singer critiques Roe v. Wade, Obamacare, Romney. Retrieved from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cross-check/ethicist-peter-singer-critiques-roe-v-wade-obamacare/
Huang, Y., Zhang, X., Li, W., Song, F., Dai, H., Wang, J., ... & Wang, Y. (2014). A meta-analysis of the association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk among Chinese females. Cancer Causes & Control, 25(2), 227-236.
OED. (2018). Abortion. Retrieved from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/abortion
Pedersen, W. (2008). Abortion and depression: a population-based longitudinal study of young women. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36(4), 424-428.
Pope Francis. (2014). Address of His Holiness Pope Francis to the members of the Diplomatic Corps. Retrieved from http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/speeches/2014/january/documents/papa-francesco_20140113_corpo-diplomatico.html
Sun, Y., Che, Y., Gao, E., Olsen, J., & Zhou, W. (2003). Induced abortion and risk of subsequent miscarriage. International Journal of Epidemiology, 32(3), 449-454.
Abortion has become a contentious political issue because it is a subject that raises the most prominently competing worldviews and ethical systems. Ultimately, however, abortion is a personal choice. The individual faces a decision with meaningful consequences. If the pregnancy was unplanned or unwanted, an abortion liberates the woman from carrying the child to term. Abortion conforms to Constitutional law, resulting in the decision in Roe v. Wade. Recent threats to Constitutional law have showcased the importance of empowering all individuals with the right to choose, rather than forcing parenthood upon them. Abortion is not murder, but those who believe that abortion is immoral are free to not engage in the practice. The main drawback with abortion is that it undermines patriarchal social, political, and economic institutions.
For as long as women have been getting pregnant, they have also been voluntarily aborting their pregnancies. Until recently, though, governments…
Adoption.org (n.d.). Answers. Retrieved from: https://adoption.org/pros-cons-adoption-vs-abortion
Planned Parenthood (n.d). What facts about abortion do I need to know? Retrieved from: https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/abortion/considering-abortion/what-facts-about-abortion-do-i-need-know
ProCon.org (n.d.). Abortion. Retrieved from: https://abortion.procon.org/
“Reasons for Abortion,” (n.d.). BBC. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/abortion/legal/when_1.shtml
Shea, B. (2019). Here are all the anti-abortion laws going into effect next month. Rewire News. Retrieved from: https://rewire.news/article/2019/06/28/here-are-all-the-anti-abortion-laws-going-into-effect-next-month
The immorality of Abortion from Deontology and Divine Command Perspectives
The moral question of abortion is whether one is morally justified in killing a child growing in the womb. In section 1, I will summarize the argument. In section 2, I will explain my view on the moral question. In section 3, I will discuss two objections to my view. In section 4, I will provide a response to these objections. In section 5, I will conclude the paper with a summary of each section.
The argument involved in the issue of abortion comes down to two points of view. The point of view of those who oppose abortion is that people have a duty to protect, nourish and support life: they have no right to end or prevent life from happening. The point of view of those who support abortion is that people have a right to…
Korman, Daniel. Learning from Arguments An Introduction to Philosophy. Draft, 2018.
Marquis, Don. "Why abortion is immoral." The Journal of Philosophy 86.4 (1989): 183-202.
Plato. The Dialouges, vol. 1. Online Library of Liberty. http://lf-oll.s3.amazonaws.com/titles/111/Plato_0131-01_EBk_v6.0.pdf
Pope, Stephen J. “Natural Law in Catholic Social Teachings.” https://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/boisi/pdf/f09/Pope_Natural_Law_In.pdf
Thomson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs (1971): 47-66.
Moral Choice Questions on Abortion
The question of whether one has a moral choice to choose to have an abortion is one that has long been part of American history. Since the latter half of the 20th century, however, it has become more prominent, especially with the ruling in Roe v. Wade. The sides of the issue stem from two opposing views of the matter. On the one side is the concept that life is precious and should not be terminated in the womb intentionally for whatever reason. On the other side is the concept that a woman’s body is her own and no one has a right to tell her what to do with it. This latter point is muddied by the argument that while her body may be her own, she has a responsibility to carry the body growing inside her womb to term. However, the opposing argument…
Abortion is one of the most controversial topics around the globe, and a hot topic for debate in both the political and personal arenas. In this argumentative essay, the author will present the case for why abortion should be legal. The essay will address compelling reasons for keeping abortion legal. These reasons include the fact that criminalizing abortion does not prevent abortions, the role of abortions in health care, the right to personal autonomy, and the fact that there is no rational basis for differentiating between right to abortions based on how conception occurred. In addition, the essay will respond to the most common arguments in favor of criminalizing abortion, which focus on the idea of abortion being immoral.
Abortion Should be Legal Essay Titles
1. My Body, My Choice: The Critical Role of Personal Autonomy in the Abortion Rights Debate
2. It’s Not a Baby: Society Already Recognizes…
Galea, Sandro. “What Will Happen to Women’s Health if Abortion Is Banned?” Boston University School of Public Health. BU.edu. 31 May 2019. https://www.bu.edu/sph/news/articles/2019/what-will-happen-to-womens-health-if-abortion-is-banned/ Accessed 5 March 2021.
Raymond EG, Grimes DA. The comparative safety of legal induced abortion and childbirth in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Feb;119(2 Pt 1):215-9. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31823fe923. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22270271/  ; Accessed 5 March 2021.
Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems. 2nd edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. 4, Legal and policy considerations. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK138197/   ; Accessed 5 March 2021.
Smith, Saphora. “China Forcefully Harvests Organs from Detainees, Tribunal Concludes.” NBC News. 18 June 2019. NBCNews.com. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/china-forcefully-harvests-organs-detainees-tribunal-concludes-n1018646 Accessed 5 March 2021.
How Does Abortion Restrictions Affect Womens Mental Health?It is estimated worldwide that 48 percent of all pregnancies are unintended (Oluseye, Waterhouse, & Hoggart, 2021). A majority of unintended pregnancies are also unwanted. Unwanted pregnancies have a significant impact on womens mental health and wellbeing. The need for abortion services increases since most women get pregnant without planning and are not ready to raise a baby. In countries that restrict abortion, there has been a 50% increase in the procurement of abortion services for unintended pregnancies (Herd, Higgins, Sicinski, & Merkurieva, 2016). When women are forced to carry a pregnancy to term, adverse socioeconomic outcomes increase the risk of mental health problems. Many of the women will more likely reject maternalism since they feel forced to raise a child they never wanted and were never prepared to raise in the first place. Denying women abortion creates anxiety when pregnant since they…
Foster, D. G., Steinberg, J. R., Roberts, S. C., Neuhaus, J., & Biggs, M. A. (2015). A comparison of depression and anxiety symptom trajectories between women who had an abortion and women denied one. Psychological medicine, 45(10), 2073-2082.
Herd, P., Higgins, J., Sicinski, K., & Merkurieva, I. (2016). The implications of unintended pregnancies for mental health in later life. American Journal of Public Health, 106(3), 421-429.
Medoff, M. (2016). Pro-choice versus pro-life: The relationship between state abortion policy and child well-being in the United States. Health care for women international, 37(2), 158-169.
First off, no decision can be made without the informed consent of the parents and if they are opposed to a hysterectomy then it is unethical to go ahead with the operation. Additionally, if they are opposed to an abortion to save the mother’s life then this option cannot be advised or considered either. The principle of the double effect states that there are times when it is morally permissible to perform an action in pursuit of a good end even though it will also have bad effects as well. This is the basic concept behind an indirect evil. In the pursuit of a good, i.e., the preservation of the mother’s life an indirect bad may result but it is not immoral because the bad result was not pursued directly. This would be the situation with a hysterectomy and the direct vs. indirect sterilization issue. The mother does not…
Discuss the legal and ethical issues involved in Roe v. Wade
With the advent of 70's and particularly, aftermath of the decision of the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade during 1973, abortion policy has become a controversial issue in the merican politics. (Levine; Staiger; Kane; Zimmerman, 1996) The decision in Roe v. Wade reinforced the right of women to privacy with regard to her own body, incorporating the termination of pregnancy. (Pozga, 2010) Roe v. Wade delineated more specifically the rights of fetus as well as the mother on the basis of the magnitude of viability. (Killion; Dempski, 2000)
The decision in Roe v. Wade which accorded constitutional protection to abortion, which voided the state laws which banned it, was a decision which had several legal and ethical concerns. This verdict in Roe v. Wade damaged the cornerstone of the ethical principles against the issue of killing. The…
An ultrasound neither informs legally nor medically -- irrespective of that, it notifies them aesthetically. Women are compelled to view at an image of a fetus; however, the woman who desire to abort already has prior knowledge of the ultrasound image of fetus. Additionally, there is the concern for ultrasound prices. As per the law the patient is expected to take the burden of the compelling procedure. The law entails a fine of $2,500 for not complying with the legal necessities. Such incorporation of ultrasound is visualized as a method to financially dissuade women for resorting to a legal medical procedure. Irrespective of the ethical issues of the abortion the government is not expected to emphasize moral issues on its citizen legally. This law on this ground is regarded as appalling & the offensive government encroachment that is framed to embarrass women desiring to avail legal healthcare. (Fox, 2012)
Such laws pertaining to necessities of ultrasound for abortion is lacking in significant arenas and is not the most successful methods to insure that an abortion thinking mother gets advantages from the powerful influence of ultrasound. Particularly, all of these laws need that some ultrasound information be accorded to the woman from the doctor who is attending the woman. The attending doctor definitely desires that the women must select the option for abortion since the doctor will be paid for abortion. It is pertinent that any need that this person offer ultrasound information would be distorted and skewed by the attending doctor to persuade the mother to abort her baby. Secondly the limitation of the law is that it compels a mother to attain information that she does not require. This imposes problematic public relations. (Glessner, 2012)
An analysis of several laws enacted reveal that they are insufficient in assuring that a woman desirous of undergoing abortion will really view an ultrasound image of her child. Some of these laws simply necessitate that woman be told of
Describe the Compelling Attitudes both for and Against Abortion
This paper explores the particular virtues and morals to which each side of the debate subscribe; this is of particular importance since the pro and anti-abortion camps each believe that they are morally just while contending that the other is not. According to Marquis (1989), this is the reason why neither position has successfully been able to persuade the other, and both sides have had difficulty compromising and arriving at any middle ground. The basis for such divisiveness stems from altering perceptions of whether a fetus constitutes a human being; while the anti-abortion group believes that a fetus is in fact a living being (such that abortion becomes equated with murder) the pro-abortion camp asserts that a fetus is not yet a human being and so abortion is not a form of murder. Meanwhile, those who are pro-abortion believe that…
Dejanikus, T., & Rylance, M. (1979). pro & anti-choice dialogue: cooptation or cooperation? Off Our Backs, 9(3), 4-5, 28.
Lake, R.A. (1984). Order and disorder in anti-abortion rhetoric: A logological view. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 70(4), 425-443.
Marquis, D. (1989). Why abortion is immoral. The Journal of Philosophy, 86(4), 183-202.
The pro-choice group really does not have an argument other than the right to choose. It is, unfortunately, not much of a choice when it involves killing a living thing without reason. The political ramifications have reached such a point that the abortion is the only medical procedure that has no age restrictions (or require parental consent). Abortion also goes against the scientific laws of nature. In the creative scheme of things, after God, women occupy a very important place. Such power cannot be misused. Even atheists would concede the powerful natural forces at work here. A woman's body goes through significant changes as it readies it self to create a brand new human being. Abortion cuts this process short.
Then there are guilt feelings and burdens of society. Obviously, a woman who goes through abortion merely for convenience would be guilt ridden for a long time (if not for…
Callahan, Joan C. "The Fetus and Fundamental Rights." The Ethics of Abortion: Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice. Eds. Robert M. Baird and Stuart E. Rosenbaum. Rev. ed. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1993. 203-09.
ChristianAction. "Prolife: 10 Arguments against Abortion." 2009. Christian Action. org. April 11, 2009. .
Noonan, John Thomas. "The Morality of Abortion; Legal and Historical Perspectives." The Morality of Abortion; Legal and Historical Perspectives. Ed. John Thomas Noonan. Cambridge, Mass.,: Harvard University Press, 1970. 51-59.
Steyn, Mark. America Alone: The End of the World as We Know it. Washington, DC
omen who are otherwise responsible can become pregnant but out of no fault of their own. Keeping abortion legal ensures that all women have the right to determine their own destiny; no woman should be forced to carry a child who was actively trying to prevent pregnancy in the first place. Even if a woman was trying to become pregnant she might need to get an abortion in cases in which doctors revealed serious birth defects. To prevent unwanted physical and emotional strain not just on the mother but on the father, the extended family, and the community, abortions should be allowed in extreme cases.
The vast majority -- at least 98% -- of all abortions performed in the United States are for women who elect to have them not for physical or mental health purposes or to terminate a pregnancy known to contain genetic defects or birth defects (Johnston).…
Fu, Haishan. Darroch, J.E., Haas, T. & Ranjit, N. Contraceptive Failure Rates: New Estimates From the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Family Planning Perspectives. Volume 31, Number 2, March/April 1999. Retrieved 26 Feb 2008 at http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3105699.html
Johnston, W.M. "Reasons given for having abortions in the United States." 4 Dec 2006. Retrieved 26 Feb 2998 at http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/policy/abortion/abreasons.html
National Abortion Federation. "History of Abortion." 2008. Retrieved 26 Feb 2008 at http://www.prochoice.org/about_abortion/history_abortion.html
Ross, J. Illegal Abortions Rampant in Latin America. Women's eNews. 28 Nov 2004. Retrieved 26 Feb 2008 at http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/2086/context/archive
Abortion and the Right to Privacy
It is a summary of the most important elements of your paper. All numbers in the abstract, except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph, and on the Tools menu click ord Count.
United States' law is descended from English common law. As it stands, the historical idea of a life beginning at "quickening" has been replaced by the idea of fetal "viability." Despite a brief historical hiatus, women maintain the right to an abortion, before life begins. Despite Georgia's best efforts, fetuses are not people, legally or otherwise. Naturally, states regulate abortions and even proscribe them, under specified circumstances. However, the historical right to privacy in the home includes the right to choose whether to procreate. The right to privacy is protected in the substantive due…
Boyd v. United States, 116 U.S. 616, 116 U.S. 630 (The Supreme Court December 11, 1886).
Bullough, V. (Ed.). (2001). Encyclopedia of Birth Control. Santa Barbara, CA, U.S.: ABC-CLIO.
Coke, E. (2001). The Third Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England: Concerning High Treason, and Other Pleas of the Crown and Criminal Causes. Clark, N.J.: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
Garrow, D. (1998). Liberty and Sexuality: The Right to Privacy and the Making of Roe v. Wade (2nd Edition ed.). Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
In this day and age it is almost impossible to find a more highly charged issue than that of abortion. Every man and woman appears to have an opinion if not personal experience or knows a family member who has had to make the decision about an unplanned pregnancy. ut whether your feelings are based on religious beliefs or personal or family experience, there are some interesting statistics which may make one think twice before having an abortion rather than giving up a child for adoption.
From 1990 (the year in which the number of abortions was highest) to 1995, the annual number of legal induced abortions in the United States declined by 15%. From 1995 to 1996, the number increased slightly and then decreased again in 1997. This change in the number of abortions reported to the Centers for Disease Control may indicate that the number of legal…
Zabin, Laurie Schwab, et al. (1989). "When Urban Adolescents Chose Abortion: Effects on Education, Psychological Status, and Subsequent Pregnancy." Family Planning Perspectives, 21(6), 248-255.
Russo, Nancy Felipe & Kristin L. Zierk. (1992). "Abortion, Childbearing, and Women's Well-Being." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23(4), 269-280
Major, Brenda, et al. (2000). "Psychological Responses of Women after First-Trimester Abortion." Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(8), 777-784
Rogers J. et al. Psychological impact of abortion: methodological and outcome summary of empirical research between 1966-1988. Health Care for Women International 1989; 10:347-376
In this situation, the images work on their own in presenting an effective argument. Just as a lawyer must often rely on visual evidence in court to persuade the jury, so too does a pro-life advocate need to use visual aides to get his or her point across to the general public.
The audience for the Abortion Pages will vary. Some pro-life advocates will visit the website to reinforce their beliefs and remind themselves why they are dedicated to the cause. People in the religious community might point others to the website in order to inform them about the implications of abortion. The values and beliefs of those in the religious community will be generally in line with the views of the creator of the website. The website will bolster the opinions of religiously-minded visitors and will consequently show them that their beliefs have considerable support.
Furthermore, showing the Abortion…
Abortion is a polarizing issue. The debate divides families as well as politicians. However, I am all too well aware of the fact that there are many individual stories that are far more complex than the black-and-white shades in which the issue is presented by the media.
Take the example of the aunt of one of my best friends from high school. My friend's aunt became pregnant: this was joyous news for her and she wanted to keep the baby. This was her third pregnancy: the first two had ended in miscarriages. By the third time she became pregnant the woman was in her early 40s, making her pregnancy extremely high-risk for both mother and fetus. The woman was very cautious and followed her doctor's advice and yet, she still had complications. By the end of the third trimester she was in tremendous physical pain and the fetus was unlikely…
"Catholic pro-life committee E-Alert: The distinction between direct abortion and legitimate medical procedures. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 23 Jun 2010. Web. 3 Dec 2013.
Eckholm, Erik. "Bishops sued over anti-abortion policies at Catholic hospitals."
The New York Times. 2 Dec 2013. Web. 3 Dec 2013. .
he stance is, of course, preposterous. he solution to lessening poverty of course lies in providing more resources for development rather than encouraging abortion.
Similarly, some people justify the abortion of babies with disabilities on compassionate grounds. his reasoning is an extension of the now thoroughly discredited pseudo-science of eugenics that promoted the weeding out of the mentally retarded and feeble-minded populations. here is no 'compassion' involved in the killing of the most vulnerable sections of our population and the unborn child is quite obviously the most vulnerable. In fact, it is one of the cruelest acts imaginable. It is also misleading to suggest that such unborn babies with disabilities are 'unwanted.' he readiness of families to adopt such disabled children disproves the contention.
he most controversial legal issue facing the U.S. courts and the administration is the issue of 'partial birth abortion.' he procedure in which a baby's brain…
The most controversial legal issue facing the U.S. courts and the administration is the issue of 'partial birth abortion.' The procedure in which a baby's brain is 'literally sucked out' has been performed thousands of times in the country since abortion was legalized. The U.S. Congress passed the "partial-Birth ban Acts" in 1996 and 1997 but was vetoed by President Clinton. Eventually President Bush signed the Act into law in 2003. On appeal, the courts in California, Nebraska, and New York ruled that the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 is unconstitutional and a violation of the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade. The Act now heads to the U.S. Court of Appeals and is expected to eventually end up in the U.S. Supreme Court for a decision. New appointment of judges to the U.S. Supreme Court by the Bush administration in the coming days is, therefore, crucial to the decision on this issue and would be eagerly awaited by all those who support the right of life for the unborn babies.
Even the earliest abortions, such as the RU 486 abortions cannot be done until after six weeks of pregnancy
Abortion: Two Opposing Sides
Abortion is one of the most difficult and controversial bioethical issues of modern times. This is perhaps because there are equally compelling arguments on both sides -- in favor of and against. hen debating abortion we are dealing with the question of when human life begins in a meaningful fashion, which is, to some extent, unanswerable.
Four principles of bioethics
Autonomy: The idea that human beings are autonomous, and possess the right to govern their own fate can be used to support a women's right to choice. However, from the point-of-view of an opponent of abortion, if the fetus is a person, it possesses a right to autonomy and to choose to live. But from the mother's perspective, because it is her body at stake, her right to autonomous choice trumps the right even of the father's to decide whether she does or does not have…
"Bioethical principles." The Nathaniel Center. [June 14, 2011]
Abortion After Prenatal Testing
Methods of Prenatal Diagnosis
There are four methods of prenatal diagnosis that is available to women. The first and most commonly known is ultrasonography, colloquially referred to as "ultrasound." A picture of the fetus is developed through the implementation of sound waves. Ultrasound is used to identify abnormalities that are physically apparent such as deformed limbs, defective chest, and heart. During the fourteenth to sixteenth week of the pregnancy, neural tube defects can also be detected (Cassidy & Gentles, 2002). There are other uses such as detecting multiple fetuses and measuring fetal growth.
The second method is Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP). Its primary purpose is to detect neural tube defects by measuring the alpha fetoprotein levels in the women's blood. High levels of alpha fetoprotein can indicate neural tube defects in the fetus. This exam is typically administered during the fifteenth to seventeenth week…
Cassidy, E., & Gentles, I.J. (2002). Abortion after Prenatal Testing. Women's health after abortion: the medical and psychological evidence (pp. 155-174). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: deVeber Institute for Bioethics and Social Research.
Yashon, R.K., & Cummings, M.R. (2012). Changes in Chromosome Number. Human genetics and society (2nd ed., p. 56). Australia: Brooks/Cole.
Abortion and the Media: Domestic and Global Perspectives
If anything can be agreed upon, it’s that abortion is a complex issue, one that triggers a wealth of opinions, feelings and beliefs. The way in which abortion is presented in the media is something that is also exceedingly complex, and which can both impact society and be a reflection of the beliefs of a particular society. Even in this modern era, abortion is still an issue that has the power to divide people and to cause tense debates. This paper will examine abortion in the media from a more global perspective, and will attempt to pinpoint the factors that trigger and influence both women and men alike.
The research article, “Women’s opinions on the legalisation of abortion in Chile 2009 –2013” by Palermo and colleagues (2015) shows an unsurprising finding about people’s viewpoints on abortion—and with those viewpoints, their beliefs on…
However, when all said and done the situation is still critical and those having resorted to abortion have a hard time getting over the psychological traumas that they suffer. Of course, such an experience is difficult to put behind and the best solution for abortion victims should be their subjection to intense psychological discussions in order to get over the shock more easily.
It seems that the women that cannot psychologically recover from an abortion describe similar symptoms. Most have reported having nightmares about children, blood, and voices calling them. It is horrible for someone that underwent an abortion to be reminded of the episode, as images immediately spring to their minds making them go into a state of distress. It is not surprising that consequent to undergoing an abortion, one's self-esteem drops significantly, as women feel that they have been incompetent at performing one of humanity's basic functions-that of…
1. Angela Kennedy, and Mary Krane Derr, "Feminism and Abortion," History Today Aug. 1999: 34, Questia, Web, 9 Mar. 2010.
2. Beverly Wildung Harrison, Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion (Boston: Beacon Press, 1983) 163, Questia, Web, 9 Mar. 2010.
3. Robert M. Baird, and Stuart E. Rosenbaum, eds., the Ethics of Abortion Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice, Revised ed. (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1993) 7, Questia, Web, 9 Mar. 2010.
4. "Is Abortion Safe?." Retrieved March 09, 2010, from the nrcl.org website: http://www.nrlc.org/abortion/asmf/asmf14.html
In this context the argument is made from a moral and religious point-of-view that the unborn child is alive and that abortion is tantamount to murder. As Bohan (1999) states in the House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human ights Issue, "No society that truly believes in human rights can fail to recognize the right to life of the unborn. Human rights are, by definition, rights, which inhere in one simply by virtue of being a human "(Bohan, 1999, p. 64).
From the religious perspective the main argument against abortion revolves around the view of the religious and spiritual value of human life. In Christianity this refers to the Commandant, "Thou shall not Kill." The sanctity of life applies as well to the unborn child and in many religions life begins at the moment of conception. Form this normative perspective the murder of a human being is seen to be…
Abortion is every woman's right. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://www.socialistworker.org/2004-1/496/496_06_Abortion.shtml
Abortion Laws Worldwide. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://www.womenonwaves.org/set-1020.245-en.html
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bohan, J.F. (1999). The House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human Rights Issue. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Abortion takes away the fundamental, unalienable right to life; therefore, it is legally wrong. Its effects on unborn children and women are both traumatic and long-lasting, which makes abortion the wrong choice physically and emotionally. Because it results in an unnatural and unnecessary death, abortion is morally wrong. For these reasons, abortion is wrong and should be made illegal.
Even though the verdict of Roe vs. ade was rendered in 1973, the issue of abortion continues to be extremely controversial today. It is always a popular and important issue during presidential elections. Most people have a firm belief in whether or not abortion should be legal. hile there are many other factors and issues, the debate about whether or not abortion should be legal is deeply rooted in differences of belief in two main areas. These differences are when human life begins and where government jurisdiction ends (Cozic and Petrikin…
Cozic, Charles P., and Jonathan Petrikin, ed. The Abortion Controversy. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1995.
Hadley, Janet. Abortion: Between Freedom and Necessity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.
Reardon, David C. Aborted Women: Silent No More. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1987.
Tribe, Laurence H. Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes. New York W.W. Notron & Company, 1992.
Probably, one of the most logical statements made by a nonbiased researcher and commentator on the subject of emotional effects of abortion is that;
In spite of psychological problems suffered by a few women after abortion, the existence of post abortion syndrome is doubted by most experts. There is little need to posit a unique disorder in this case, since abortion is not significantly different from any other stressful life experience that might cause trauma in certain people.
This trauma can then be dealt with in a logical and constructive manner, befitting any other stressful life event, such as the loss of a partner in a separation, being fired from a job or getting into a car accident. Depression, protracted grief or general feelings of guilt, when they occurs must be treated as a logical outgrowth of life stress not as a special case of social…
Arthur, Joyce. "Psychological Aftereffects of Abortion: The Rest of the Story." The Humanist Mar.-Apr. 1997: 7.
Bullough, Vern L. "The Abortion Debate." Free Inquiry Summer 1996: 16.
Corbett, Maureen R., and Katherine L. Turner. "Essential Elements of Postabortion Care: Origins, Evolution and Future Directions." International Family Planning Perspectives 29.3 (2003): 106.
Irwin, Harry. "Choice: Tone it Down." The Nation 5 Apr. 2004: 23.
For the most robust philosophical debate, the morality of abortion should be argued based on both duty-based and rights-based ethical principles. Abortion does in fact point to both duty and rights-based ethics. The duty to care is one example of a moral duty relevant to the abortion debate. Abortion also raises the question of rights. In the case of abortion, the rights belong to several stakeholders but none more salient than the embryo/fetus/potential human being. Because it is scientifically as well as philosophically impossible to delineate any other moment in which a fetus becomes a person, it is logical to presume that the beginning of personhood is conception and not some random or arbitrary point in the gestation period. The rights of the pregnant female are less central to the abortion debate from a philosophical standpoint, because it is the fetus/embryo who stands the chance of being killed. In…
"Abortion." Philosophy Talk. Retrieved online: http://www.philosophytalk.org/shows/abortion
Bouchier-Hayes, Frank. "Philosophers on Abortion and Infanticide." Retrieved online: http://www.minerva.mic.ul.ie//vol2/bh.html
Gordon, John-Stewart. "Abortion." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/abortion/#SH3b
Thomson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs. Vol 1, No. 1, Fall 1971. Retrieved online: http://spot.colorado.edu/~heathwoo/Phil160,Fall02/thomson.htm
(Brownmiller 470) Hemorrhaging blood, Brownmiller was afraid -- but her fear did not make her question her choice.
Of course, pro-life activists like Dew would argue that no matter how desperately women might want abortions, they have no right to end another human being's life, regardless of their circumstances. But Dew's line of argumentation raises serious questions about the ethics of forcing another human being to subject their bodies to the rigors of pregnancy (which has far greater risks than a legal abortion) and to harbor another human being within their body against their will. Of course, a woman might choose to have sex -- but the ability of a young girl to fully understand the implications of her decision to have intercourse, and the fact that the male in question does not have to endure a pregnancy, suggests that the 'fairness' of outlawing abortion, regardless of the status of…
Brownmiller, Susan. "Abortion is a woman's right." In Voices of a People's History of the United States, 2nd Ed. Edited by Howard Zinn & Anthony Arnove, 1999.
Dew, Diana. "It's a child, not a choice." Diana Dew's essays on life issues. 1998. [August 7,
Instead, considering the more empirical medical and social considerations at hand, the Supreme Court established the position that stands today.
In spite of this precedent, pro-life groups have mounted powerful, ongoing and determined opposition to this constitutional position. Indeed, the political relevance of abortion can mostly be attributed to this determination, which reflects a belief on the part of the conservative population of the United States that abortion is wrong, that it should be regarded as murder and that the failure of the nation to intervene on the behalf of its unborn children is a fundamental sin. This is a view which has resonated with many Republican office-holders and Christian community leaders in recent years, who have battled aggressively to shift the public perspective to a place of rejection of these values.
However, most of the evidence available to us suggests that abortion is a critical right which must be…
California Medical Association (CMA). (1973). Where We Stand -- CMA Position Papers: • Abortion. Western Journal of Medicine, 116(6), 42-59.
Dreaper, J. (2007). Divisions Deep Over Abortion Ban. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7041048.stmCalifronia Mecianl
Whether a probable existing advocate of slavery could offer satisfactory reasons is a decision that is not neutral and unqualified but joined to the background of individual's modern standards. In the same way, the adequacy of the reasons specified by pro-choice or pro-life supporters is relative to the literary context in which an individual judge it. The literary climate nowadays makes the reasons given by pro-choice supporters seem sensible, even though, they are primarily incorrect. Although it gives confidence about respecting for these sensible reasons and for those who place them onward, just as slavery today is seen as not carried by any satisfactory reasons, in the same way, years from now, people will see abortion as not carried by any satisfactory reasons. This entails that pro-life supporters are previously aware of the unacceptability of the causes of pro-choice advocates. (Amy Gutman, Dennis Thompson).
If a person expands it point-of-view…
Alan R. Fleischman. The Pro-Life Maternal-Fetal Medicine Physician: A Problem of Integrity. 1995.
Amy Gutman, Dennis Thompson. Democracy and Disagreement. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996.
Simona Goi. Agonism, Deliberation and the Politics of Abortion. 2005.
The short-term effects of only one year.
hat this researcher also found enlightening was that the population of those working in the psychological field can accept many 'syndrome' type findings, but when it comes to a syndrome espoused by those who believe women who have abortions are affected by a post-abortion depression syndrome, those same psychological experts show scorn and disdain for such espousals.
One study agrees, stating that; "since the 1960's mental health professionals...have recognized disorders such as postpartum depression....can have a negative psychological impact on both mother and child these same constituencies have almost universally rejected the existence of Post Abortion Syndrome because of the lack of supporting scientific evidence or strong political support. (Psychology pg 117).
Other studies show that women no longer feel that abortion is anything more than an everyday procedure.
One study; "presents evidence that abortion is not likely to be followed by severe…
Adler, N., David, H., Major, B., Roth, S., Russo, N., Wyatt. G. "Psychological Factors in Abortion" American Psychologist 47.10 (1992) 1194-1204.
Kero, A., Hogberg, U., Lalas, A. "Well Being and Growth: Long-term Effects of Legal Abortion." Social Science and Medicine 58.12 (2004): 2559-2569.
Psychological Effects of Abortion and Motherhood." Psychology of Women Quarterly 30.1 (2006): 117
Abortion: An Argument in Favor
Abortion is one of the most controversial topics of our day as it involves an entanglement of truly pressing issues that people generally feel incredibly passionate about: human life, religion, morality, and the rights of women. Historically, America has been a nation founded by and run by Caucasian men, which has meant that the bulk of legislation can be and has historically been harsh, unfair and unequal to women and minorities. Women (and minorities) have had to work harder and fight harder to receive rights that white men don't hesitate in giving themselves. For example, women have had to fight for the right to be reinstated to their jobs after maternity leave, for equal pay, and to fight against federal laws that have made it a crime to use contraceptives or birth control information (ACLU, 2012). Women have had to fight in certain states to…
Aclu.org. (2012). The ACLU And Women's Rights: Proud History, Continuing Struggle. Retrieved from aclu.org: http://www.aclu.org/womens-rights/aclu-and-womens-rights - proud-history-continuing-struggle
Alessio, J. (2011). Social Problems and Inequality: Social Responsibility Through Progressive. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.
Amplifiy. (2012). 10 Arguments in Favor of Pro-Choice Policy. Retrieved from Amplify.com: http://amplifyyourvoice.org/u/pheo152/2009/01/26/10-arguments-in-favor-of-prochoice - policy
Life.org.nz. (2011). Child Abuse Link to Abortion. Retrieved from Life.org.nz: http://www.life.org.nz/abortion/abortionkeyissues/childabuselink/
"It is not just a Catholic and Protestant Debate"(13).
Some Catholic statements, like the 1968 papal encyclical Humanae Vitae, condemn the practice on grounds of the created order, which is thought to be structured in such a way that all sexual expression must be open to procreation. Other statements, notably various declarations issued from 1969 to 1989 by the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) in the U.S. appeal instead to the nature of the human person and the idea that life begins at conception. Abortion must be rejected, such statements argue, because it terminates a human life. Yet a third subgroup can be identified. Statements like the NCCB's well-known 1983 pastoral on peace and the Catholic bishops of France's 1979 declaration do not emphasize the doctrines of creation and human persons but argue against abortion by granting priority to the gospel.
In addition, in the Protestant Church, several statements…
Beckwith, F.J. Politically Correct Death: Answering the Arguments for Abortion Rights Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1993.
CPN. "Topics." 6, May 2005. http://www.cpn.org/topics/families/prolife.html
Currie, Stephen. Abortion. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Do No Harm. Coalition of Scientists for Research Ethics. 6, May 2005. http://www.stemcellresearch.org/
In this case, according to Alexander Hamilton, the court would have had the right to interfere and it would have had the superior power to declare the Texas statue void on its face.
However, Hamilton aside, our natural law and natural rights also prohibit first trimester abortion. Derived from Locke, Natural law and natural rights follow from the nature of man and the world. For instance, we have the right to defend ourselves and our property, because of our nature, because of the kind of creatures that we are. True law derives from this right, not from the arbitrary power of the omnipotent state.
Natural law has an objective, extrinsic existence. The ability to make moral judgment - or in other words, the capacity to know good and evil -- has immediate evolutionary benefits: just as the capacity to perceive three dimensionally tells one when one is standing on…
Women who see their physician two times a year for refills would see an individual cost savings of $85 per year for a total cost savings of $307 million for the population. In addition, approximately 2.1 million women would eliminate their annual gynecological visits altogether for an individual cost savings of $85 per year and a total cost savings of $178.54 million (Louis Harris and Associates 1993). Overall, the savings to women who either stop seeing their physician annually or reduce their visits to once a year would equal about $695.3 million.
Assuming the average wage rate is $12/hour and the average amount of time spent at the doctor's office is 11/2 hours (including travel time), women who currently see their physician four times a year for Oral Contraception refills would save 4.5 hours per year or$54 for a total opportunity cost savings of $44.4 million for the population. Five…
Holly Mead, IWPR/GWU Research Fellow. Making Birth Control More Accessible to Women. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Over-the-Counter Oral Conceptive. Feb, 2001. IWPR Publications.
Kate Saunders. New Mobile Clinics to carry out birth control policy in Tibet. July, 2003. Life News
China Forces Abortion, Sterilization on Tibetans Lhasa. Aug, 2000. CW News in collaboration with LSN.
Health Abortion 'part of birth control'. January, 1999. Health Latest BBC Health News.
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…
Lewis, Jone Johnson. (1999). Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/abortionuslegal/p/roe_v_wade.html
Springhouse Corporation. (1989). Abortion. Professional Guide to Diseases 3rd Edition,