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Accounting Information Systems
The Influence of External Factors
On outine EP Usage
The most mission-critical accounting information systems coordinate Accounts Payable (AP) and Accounts eceivable (A), in addition to orchestrating the many activities of an enterprise across its value chain. The long-term quality of information provided by any accounting information system is predicated on how well the procedures, processes and workflows have been designed to support the value chain structure over the long-term (Worwa, Stanik, 2010). Where Material esourcing Planning (MP) systems were predominantly used within the four walls of an enterprise and as a result became myopic and inward-centered over time, Enterprise esource Planning (EP) systems have requires enterprises to concentrate on a much broader, diverse stakeholder base within and outside their immediate organizational boundaries (Ifinedo, 2011). With these facts in mind and the progression of enterprise systems from being internally-based to being more collaborative, a summary and critique…
Ifinedo, P. (2011). Examining the influences of external expertise and in-house computer/IT knowledge on ERP system success. The Journal of Systems and Software, 84(12), 2065.
Kahraman, C., Kaya, I., & Cevikcan, E. (2011). Intelligence decision systems in enterprise information management. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 24(4), 360-379.
Sternad, S., Gradisar, M., & Bobek, S. (2011). The influence of external factors on routine ERP usage. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 111(9), 1511-1530.
Worwa, K., & Stanik, J. (2010). Quality of web-based information systems. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 15(3), 1-13.
Accounting Information Systems have emerged as very famous components of modern businesses mainly because they offer beneficial and timely information to management in addition to being cost-effective. Generally, these systems are helpful in book account payables, cash transactions, receivables, and every other accounting function in an orderly manner. The need for an effective accounting information system in an organization is attributed to the huge volume of data handled by accounting departments. Accounting Information Systems provide helpful and timely accounting information because they perform accounting functions automatically rather than manually though the principles are similar. These systems are primarily based on computerized procedures that usually comprise modules known as sub-systems. While they remain an important facet of organizational decision-making, the management may make several incorrect assumptions about these systems.
Ackoff's Management Misinformation Systems:
According to Ackoff (1967), there is a growing pre-occupation with Management Information Systems by operations researchers and management…
"Accounting Information and Decision Making." (n.d.). McGraw Hill. Retrieved April 19, 2013,
Ackoff, R.L. (1967, December). Management Misinformation Systems. Management Science,
14(4), 147-156. Retrieved from http://www.acasa.upenn.edu/ackoff67.pdf
Application Development and Interface Customization for Accounting & Finance
The core aspects of this area of analysis are supported for embedded SQL, support for standard and embedded interfaces, support for XML and Web integration technologies. Many enterprises program their own native SQL applications for analyzing and reporting their financial results. The use of embedded SQL in financial accounting and analysis has become commonplace as mobile-based platforms have become more commonplace throughout the senior management teams of corporations (McCombs, Sharifi, 73). Support for standard and embedded interfaces has also grown exponentially with the rising interest in using Apple iPads as devices for quickly checking accounting and financial reports as well. Finally support for Web and XMLK-based technologies is also driven by enterprise's needs to create highly customized accounting and financial analysis applications. All of these aspects of an accounting and financial system put increased demands on the database architectures used to…
Elisa Bertino, and Ravi Sandhu. "Database Security-Concepts, Approaches, and Challenges. " IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing 2.1 (2005): 2
Jeanette Burriesci. "Recipe for revenue" Intelligent Enterprise 31 Aug. 2001:
avka, M., M. Miki? And D. Sari?. "Application Cluster Environment for Business Processes." MIPRO 2011-34th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics - Proceedings. SCOPUS. 8 Nov. 201
Duggan, J., et al. "Performance Prediction for Concurrent Database Workloads." Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data.
In the event of a recall or price protection program on any product, given the rudimentary nature of how Kudler's is managing their systems, they would not be able to react quickly. Instead the reaction would be manual and very slow, and costly to complete. There are the systemic or basic threats the company would face. If the company chose to use SaaS-based applications there is the high dependency on Internet and network bandwidth in addition to the risk of having their hosted applications somehow breached as well. There is also the risk their supply chain management systems would not provide the real-time price and availability updates necessary for the company to capitalize on the investments in it. In short, the lack of information is more of a risk than the potential risks of having these applications in place. The bottom line is that for Kudler's to grow it must…
Carlton Collins. (2006). Small Business Software Grows Up. Journal of Accountancy, 201(3), 50. Retrieved March 9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1000396791).
Tom C. Davis. (2008, September). Software as a Service Model. Accounting Technology: PAPERLESS,SR16. Retrieved March 9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1562229801).
Rick Telberg. (2004). Make Money With Basic Accounting Software. Journal of Accountancy, 197(1), 67-71. Retrieved March 9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 525184741).
Kenton B. Walker. (2008). SOX, ERP, and BPM: A Trifecta That Can Make Your Business Run Better. Strategic Finance, 90(6), 47-53. Retrieved March 9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1607404201).
The information age is likely to have a continuing impact on financial
accounting. What are some changes you think will occur in the way
financial information is gathered, processed, and communicated as a result
of increasingly sophisticated information technology?
There are massive changes on the way regarding how the information age will
impact financial accounting. First, there is the exponential growth in the
area of financial analysis and forecasting software, which is part of the
broader enterprise software growth in analytics. This area of information
technologies (IT) is already creating a foundation of entirely new levels
of processes for gathering, processing and analyzing, then succinctly
communicating financial results. This entire area of financial analytics
is becoming increasingly predictive as well, allowing financial analysts
and professionals to complete projections and plans in real-time to see how
their decisions will impact an organization.
Second, the adoption of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) is…
Using a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Web Services would be created to replace the manual and often conflicting systems and processes in place today. As part of this SOA platform development, business process management (BPM) workflows would be created and then later optimized to make each process in total system as efficient as possible. Hammer (2003) also states that the need for making BPM-based strategies successful is in allowing those using the system the majority of the time to have the greatest say in its development. As the complete re-vamping of these manual, and today conflicting, systems is completed, a series of design sessions that focus on the needs of the departments would be completed to make sure their requirements were reflected in the final system. Only after re-aligning the system to users' needs and making the entire series of processes more focused on delivering results than in being designed for…
Hammer (2003) - Chapter 4: Put Processes First. The Agenda: What Every Business Must Do to Dominate the Decade. Accessed from Michael Hammer and Company website on May 24, 2007:
Components of an Accounting Information System
Accounting Information Systems
An accounting information system is a vital tool for any organization. The system will support the organization in making critical strategic and business decisions. Having a system that captures, records, processes, and records financial data for an organization will also reduce errors in billing and shipping. This paper analyzes the six main components of an accounting information system.
An accounting information system is a program that is used within an organization for the collection, recording, storing, and processing accounting data in order to produce information that will assist in decision making Hall, 2011.
The management makes use of an accounting information system to better understand the organization's financial position. This will assist them in making strategic and business decisions for the organization. The system contains a set of integrated components, which interact with each other in order to achieve a goal.…
Albright, T.L., & Ingram, R.W. (2003). Accounting: Managing Business Information. Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 5BE: Thomson/South-Western.
Gelinas, U.J., Dull, R.B., & Wheeler, P.R. (2010). Accounting Information Systems. Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 5BE: Cengage South-Western.
Hall, J.A. (2011). Accounting Information Systems (Hall), 8th ed. Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 5BE: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Ingram, R.W., & Albright, T.L. (2006). Financial Accounting: Information for Decisions: Information for Decisions. Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 5BE: Thomson/South-Western.
Computerized Accounting Information
In a global contemporary business environment, the computerized accounting information systems have become an integral part of organizational accounting systems. The development Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has assisted organizations to migrate from the traditional accounting method to a computerized accounting systems. The integration of ICT with accounting methods has given rise to Accounting Information System (AIS) that assist organizations to deliver timely and accurate financial information which consequently enhancing effective decision-making. (omney, and Steinbart, 2011)
Accounting information system is very vital for organization survival because information system has become an effective tool that assists organizations to make effective decision. eliable data produced by information systems is very critical for organizational effectiveness. eliable data generally assists organizations to diagnose, plan as well as enhancing effective business operations. (Abdala, 2012). The reliability of accounting standard with the context of accounting information systems has been widely recognized by…
Abdala, K. (2012). Financial Accounting & Information Technology. Pearson Custom Publishing.
Dahawy, K.(2007). Introducing Computerized Accounting Information Systems in a Developing Nation: Egyptian International Motors Company (EIM) Case Study. IRMA International Conference.
HKSARG. (2008).Course 1: Contemporary Perspectives on Accounting Unit 5: ICT Applications in Accounting. Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau.
Lin, F.(2010). A Unified Accounting Information Framework To Modeling Bank Accounting Systems. Journal of Applied Business Research.20(4).104-116.
Accounting Information Systems: General Purpose eporting According to the Conceptual Framework
The International Financial eporting Standards Foundation and its development and publication arm, the International Accounting Standards Board, were created for the express and direct purpose of establishing standardized accounting and reporting procedures so as to make accounting knowledge and comparisons more meaningful. Since the creation of these entities, many specific issues have been raised and a host of suggestions, standards, and rules for the reporting of financial information have been adopted, such that the purpose of the Foundation and the Board are being well-served by these activities. In addition, certain general principles and regulations regarding accounting and financial reporting have been laid out, and the purpose of these principles will be discussed below.
General eporting Principles
The IFS Foundation and the IASB have published a framework for all of their activities that defines thee purpose and intent of…
AARF. (2010). Objective of General Purpose Financial Reporting. Caulfield, Victoria, Australia: AARF.
Deloitte. (2011). Summary of international financial reporting standards. Accessed 31 March 2011. http://www.iasplus.com/standard/framewk.htm
IASB. (2008). International financial reporting standards. London: IFRS.
IFAC. (2010). Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft 1. Toronto: IFAC.
agree with accountant B's philosophy in regards to oversight and auditing. Accountant B. expressed concerns regarding timely and effective systems control. These controls are very important in regards to business operations. In addition, tight system controls have implications for society at large. This is particularly true for institutions that are vital to the global and domestic economic health of society. Accountant A seems to favor the ability of accountant to discover mistakes after they have occurred. I believe accountant A has errors in his logic in regards to accounting. This is particularly true because inventory recognition directly impacts the firms financial statements and balance sheet (Friedlob, 1996)
In many instances, society depends, in large part, on the accuracy and confidence of accounting information. The financial markets, in particular, depend heavily on the trust and confidence of financial information. Accountant A seems to believe that society has benefited from his firm…
1. Lo and Fisher: Intermediate Accounting, 2nd edition, Pearson, Toronto 2013, ISBN 978-0-13-296588-0, p. 2-102,
2. Goodyear, Lloyd Earnest: Principles of Accountancy, Goodyear-Marshall Publishing Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1913, p.7-76
3. Singh Wahla, Ramnik. AICPA committee on Terminology. 1999 Accounting Terminology Bulletin No. 1 Review and Resume.
4. Friedlob, G. Thomas & Plewa, Franklin James, Understanding balance sheets, John Wiley & Sons, NYC, 1996, ISBN 0-471-13075-3, p.1-26
This model could then be customized for the needs of the different companies.
Sankaran and AlHashim (2006) make a compelling case regarding the need for harmonized accounting standards and practices. In addition to the globalized economy, they also rightly point to the benefits of such harmonization for corporations - including a greater ability to keep track of expenses and a better way of reconciling different accounting practices in its branches worldwide. Furthermore, Sankaran and AlHashim (2006) also allay fears that harmonization is equivalent to imposing only one accounting system around the world. Instead, they highlight the need for commonality, for a web-based accounting system that lends itself to different accounting practices.
The paper makes a strong argument, and the data regarding the need for a harmonized accounting system is compelling. hile this article may present a challenge for readers unfamiliar with basic programming language, the inclusion of a generic algorithm…
Sankaran, Siva and Dhia D. AlHashim. 2006. "An Accounting Information System for Harmonization."
Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge. 9(2): September.
This would immediately flag the loans going outside their own bank and also provide greater insights into how customers were using funds over time. Another approach is to incent auditors to find fraud and embezzlement and make it widely known in the bank that anyone finding illegal practices would receive a reward up to 20% of the error found. Auditors, who are traditionally not paid that much, would work overtime looking for fraud, hoping to earn 20% of the fraud found, thereby drastically reducing the threat. While this may appear expensive, without this strategy a bank could go for years, losing millions of dollars, if no action was taken.
In the case study, it is apparent that Greater Providence Deposit and Trust auditors were not organized or incented in their job design and rewards to actively seek out embezzlement and fraud. This is a major limitation in the design and…
Kristy Holtfreter, Kevin M. Beaver, Michael D. Reisig, & Travis C. Pratt. (2010). Low self-control and fraud offending. Journal of Financial Crime, 17(3), 295-307.
Eelco R. Van Wijk, & Timothy R. Holmes. (2007). Fraud in the Audit Department. The Internal Auditor, 64(2), 83-85,8.
Joseph T. Wells. (1998). An unholy trinity. The Internal Auditor, 55(2), 28-33.
Accounting Information System
The following plan details the business areas and services to be provided for a growing homeowners' association by a certified accounting firm. The large growth in size of the association is cited as a need for this contracting with the accounting firm, and the specific business areas in need of servicing are identified as billing, collections, payments, reporting, taxes, and miscellaneous advisory duties. Input, output, and control requirements are listed in brief for each business area, with reference to current scholarly and regulatory/advisory information to ensure consistency and conformity with accounting standards. Automation of accounting processes is a major focus of the service provision, and levels of automation are fully discussed, with the decision to build an in-house automation system and certain automation challenges discussed.
The homeowner's association is facing a problem of a major increase in the amount of accounting work it will…
AICPA. (20110. AICPA Publishes New Attest Guidance for Reporting on Controls at a Service Organization. Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.aicpa.org/press/pressreleases/2011/pages/aicpapublishesnewattestguidanceforreportingoncontrolsataserviceorganization.aspx
COSO. (2009). Guidance on Monitoring Internal Control Systems. Durham, NC: COSO.
Kruck, S. (2011). The emergence of accounting information systems programs. Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.allbusiness.com/accounting/3504565-1.html
Romney, M. & Steinbart, P. (2011). Accounting Information Systems. New York: Prentice Hall.
Accounting Information System
Improving Transactional Processing in Accounting Information System (AIS)
Propose two (2) innovative technology changes that would be appropriate for a firm's:
evenue (sales to cash collection) cycle
evenue cycle represents the description of the financial progression of a business entity in relation to the accounts receivable from the point of acquisition of products to the stage when the company or business organization receives full payment for the products (omney, 2012). One of the innovative technological changes that can transform the revenue cycle is leverage technology. This technology would allow the company or business entity to adopt appropriate way of providing crucial information to essential parties in relation to consumers or market audience. Application or adoption of this technology would allow the company to maximize consumer relationships and production or profit levels. The other innovative technological change is automation of the management systems of the firm or organization.…
Dolgui, A., & Proth, J.-M. (2010). Supply chain engineering: Useful methods and techniques. London: Springer.
Hall, J.A. (2011). Accounting information systems. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Langevin, A., & Riopel, D. (2005). Logistics systems: Design and optimization. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media.
Romney, M.B., & Steinbart, P.J. (2012). Accounting information systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
This particular report is an evaluation on AIS through case analysis and presentation involving AIS failure, possible alternatives the firm may have had and just how the management should have strategized to avert the failure. In the end, the paper reveals best practices for migration from another system to AIS.
To change the Accounting Information System (AIS) best practices
Accounting info systems (AIS) has transformed business processes on a worldwide scale. When financial data is entered into the AIS, financial statements and reports are created at several business levels to make profitability certain. Steinbart and romney (2012) revealed that the accounting systems process information to offer data to users so that they can not only plan, but also manage and operate respective businesses. Given this situation, accounting info system are viewed as a method which helps management in their planning and balance processes by offering data that is both…
Ethical Issues in AIS
Ethical Issues in Accounting Information Systems
This essay examines ethical issues in accounting information systems as presented in the case of DHB Industries. Now known as Point Blank Solutions, the company, which supplied body armor to the U.S. military and law enforcement agencies, was charged by the SEC on March 1, 2011 for engaging in "massive accounting fraud" (SEC, 2011). The agency filed separate charges against three of the company's former outside directors and audit committee members for their complicity in the fraud.
According to the SEC, DHB Industries engaged in "pervasive accounting and disclosure fraud through its senior officers" (2011), along with misappropriating company assets to the personal benefit of the company's former CEO. Their accounting and disclosure fraud resulted in the company's filing "materially false and misleading periodic reports to investors" (2011). The SEC charged that the company's senior management manipulated the company's reported…
Cohn, M. (2011, November 10). Body armor execs settle accounting fraud charges. Accounting Today for the Web CPA. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.accountingtoday.com/news/Body-Armor-Execs-DHB-Point-Blank-Settle-Accounting-Fraud-Charges-60767-1.html
Gantt, K., Generas, G., & Lamberton, B. (2007, September). Sarbanes-Oxley, accounting scandals, and state accountancy boards. The CPA Journal online. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2007/907/essentials/p18.htm
Norris, F. (2011, March 3). For boards, S.E.C. keeps the bar low. New York Times website. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/04/business/04norris.html?pagewanted=all
Securities and Exchange Commission. (2011, February 28). SEC charges military body armor supplier and former outside directors with accounting fraud. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://sec.gov/news/press/2011/2011-52.htm
Control and the AIS
Control and the Accounting Information System
This paper discusses the process of integrating controls into the accounting information system (AIS) using enterprise risk management (EM) components. EM is defined as "a process, effected by an entity's board of directors, management and other personnel, applied in strategy setting and across the enterprise, designed to identify potential events that may affect the entity, and manage risk to be within its risk appetite, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of entity objectives." (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, COSO, 2004, p.2).
According to COSO, EM encompasses:
Aligning risk appetite and strategy
Enhancing risk response decisions
educing operational surprises and losses
Identifying and managing multiple and cross-enterprise risks
Improving deployment of capital (COSO, 2004, p. 7).
EM integrates concepts of internal control and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Internal controls of accounting systems are intended to protect…
Enterprise Risk Management Framework. (2010). Retrieved on April 6, 2011 from http://www.emrisk.com/2010/12/20/enterprise-risk-management-erm-framework/
Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. (2010). Enterprise Risk Management -- Integrated Framework Executive Summary . Retrieved on April 6, 2011 from http://www.coso.org/Publications/ERM/COSO_ERM_ExecutiveSummary.pdf
Karimi, Sabah. (2011). About Internal Controls of Accounting. http://www.ehow.com/about_4571081_internal-controls-accounting.html
Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information. (2006). SOX-Online. http://www.sox-online.com/basics.html
A senior executive in a Fortune 500 firm along with their colleagues on the company's management team are dependent on accurate, timely, and pertinent financial information regarding the health of the organization. Accounting information has aptly been described as "the language of business, which is used in the management, planning, control, and decision- making processes integral to achieving organizational objectives" (Marshall, D. & McManus, W. 1996). In this regard accounting information falls into distinct categories: financial and managerial accounting; yet with considerable overlap in their utilization by management. Explication of these accounting areas provides considerable insight into their utility in providing effective quantitative data for analysis.
Financial and Managerial Accounting
Financial accounting concerns itself with the "preparation and reporting of financial statements for an entity" (Marshall, D. & McManus, W. 1996); while managerial accounting "is concerned with providing information to managers- that is, to those who are inside…
Likewise, managerial accounting also utilizes financial data to reach conclusions as to how the company is operating and what if any corrections are necessary to enhance profitability. In this vein managerial accounting concerns itself with the analysis of costs, budgeting, performance, and capital expenditures. Managerial accounting information is highly detailed and provides a platform from which to judge the company's revenue creation and its cost controls. As examples, an executive management team might take considerable time analyzing activity based-costing; a "system identifying the activity that causes the incurrence of a cost" (Marshall, D. & McManus, W. 1996). This data could lead to a discussion on the company's operating leverage based on their orientation of fixed or variable costs. While both financial and managerial accounting provides detailed data concerning company performance, managerial accounting has a distinctive narrowness to its scope of focus.
Communication of Information
With volumes of financial information generated by a Fortune 500 firm's accounting department, the question becomes how
The second question is the cost per unit to produce a given product or deliver specific service. Just as the total cost of revenues for a business, this figure will also provide a business owner with insights into how their business is operating, from the supply chain through pricing and distribution of gross margin assumptions (Hall, 2010). The cost per unit to produce is also a good measure of how well the efficiency of a given company is running at. Often a business owner will evaluate these from the standpoint over the long-term, looking for trends in hwo their business is operating at an efficiency level that makes the entire company profitable. For services business, the cost per service event or services deliver (as a plumber making a house call) needs to have a minimum charge level as costs are allocated across all forecasted calls in a given month. This…
Hall, M. (2010). Accounting information and managerial work. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 35(3), 301.
Jansen, E.P. (2011). The effect of leadership style on the information receivers reaction to management accounting change. Management Accounting Research, 22(2), 105.
Accounting Information for Decision Making
Corporate Confirming on Water isk (Feb 2010) indicates that the Global Confirming Initiative (GI) G3 Guidelines' five water-related indications (total withdrawal volume by source, ponds considerably impacted by distributions, percentage and total amount of water recycled and used again, total water discharge by quality and destination, and identification water physiques and related habitats impacted by discharges) make the perfect beginning point for assessing and confirming water risks. Within this section, we'll briefly discuss the relevance of all these standards (Power, 2010).
Total water withdrawal by source
Confirming the entire amount of water withdrawn by source adds for knowledge of the general scale of possible influences and threats connected using the company's water use. The entire volume withdrawn offers an indication from the organization's proper size and significance as a user of water and offers to set up a baseline figure for other information relevant to…
GRI, (Global Reporting Initiative). (2006) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Version 3.0, Accessed on September 27, 2012 from: www.globalreporting.org/NR/rdonlyres/ED9E9B36-AB54-4DE1-BFF2-5F735235CA44/0/G3_GuidelinesENU.pdf
Power, G. Paddling Upstream - Approaches to Corporate Water Reporting. Business and the Environment, 21. 6 (Jun 2010): 1-3.
Ideally, Zachman thinking pattern has been challenged by time and fails to address challenges in a real-time basis collectively. Such a basis would agree that a superior usage of technology is not near-change mechanism. Zachman argues that a communication breakdown exists in the organization (by that time) because it handled the frameworks differently. This was not in line with the requirements of a desirable organization. Further to this, communication channels inside the organization have improved and not according to Zachman's times in the 21st century. While responding to Zachman, it is good to establish whether the current approach (data modeling / and hybridism for large calls and the superior application of technology) is satisfying (Bowman, Godfrey, & Holt, 2000).
As a result, future studies should apply the future design system that will integrate Zachman's ideas into real time environment whilst acknowledging the impetus behind data modeling. The following research questions…
Bigot, L.L., Jamet, E., Rouet, J., & Amiel, V. (2006). Mode and modal transfer effects on Performance and discourse organization with an information retrieval dialogue system in natural language. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(3), 467-500.
Bowman, I., Godfrey, M., & Holt, R. (2000). Connecting architecture reconstruction frameworks. Information and Software Technology, 42(2), 91-102
Huysman, M. (2000). Rethinking organizational learning: analyzing learning processes of information system designers. Accounting, Management and Information Technologies, 10(2), 81-99
Raeesi, M., & Sadeghi-Niaraki, A. (2013). Gis-Based System For Post-Earthquake Crisis Management Using Cellular Network. ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XL-1/W3, 321-325.
EP systems are designed to provide this level of integration to enable process-centric workflows throughout companies (Kamhawi, 2008). In terms of data, EP systems deal with a multitude of different types, from supplier- and product-specific data to pricing and customer-based data in terms of orders and the status of shipments to customers. The most fundamental aspect of an EP system is its contribution in streamlining the distributed order management process (Walker, 2008). In terms of the network, EP systems often sit in the middle of company-wide internal networks that seek to integrate all legacy and 3rd party systems together and create a single system of record (Walker, 2008) for the company. The network topology is often in the form of a series of smaller clusters or "islands" of data and systems that the EP system is meant to integrate to and unify.
Section 3 - Write a summary to show…
Shih-Wei Chou, Yu-Chieh Chang. (2008). The implementation factors that influence the ERP (enterprise resource planning) benefits. Decision Support Systems, 46(1), 149. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1603626971).
Emad M. Kamhawi. (2008). System Characteristics, Perceived Benefits, Individual Differences and Use Intentions: a Survey of Decision Support Tools of ERP Systems. Information Resources Management Journal, 21(4), 66-83. Retrieved February 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1570039261).
Kenton B. Walker. (2008). SOX, ERP, and BPM: A Trifecta That Can Make Your Business Run Better. Strategic Finance, 90(6), 47-53. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1607404201).
0 are used in organizations to provide an access to high levels of the scale without an enormous costs of traditional infrastructure. Both increase performance given that the clients who are the organizations have data centers across the globe that keeps the processing reasonably close to accessing it over the network. Organizations use cloud computing and web 2.0 to strategically cut the cost of driving innovation and to be ready for the prime-time use in the enterprise environments (O'eilly, 2008).
Technologies required for web cloud computing and Web 2.0
Tim O'Reilly (2008). Web 2.0 and Cloud Computing - O'Reilly Radar. O'Reilly Radar - Insight, analysis, and research about emerging technologies. Retrieved March 17, 2013, from http://radar.oreilly.com/2008/10/web-20-and-cloud-computing.html
Information System holds in Accounting Industry's future?
Looking through the glass and estimating what the future holds for any individual or profession is always a difficult exercise as the trends in any business or profession may change and so the path of development. It is better to look at the experience of some companies whose systems have changed over the past few years and thus try to estimate what is likely to happen.
There are many changes that have come to the world through the development of Information Technology and Computers. All the changes have come over a relatively short period of twenty years, and in many cases both industry and concerned humans are yet to adjust to the changes. There are many changes which have come in the accounting industry also, and those changes give an idea of what is likely to happen in the future.
The organization where…
Anders, Susan B. (February, 2005) "Website of the Month: Legalbitstream" The CPA Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2005/205/essentials/p70.htm Accessed on 12 July, 2005
Anders, Susan B. (July, 2005) "Website of the Month: Kaplan CPA Review" The CPA Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2005/705/essentials/p70.htm Accessed on 12 July, 2005
For startup companies, the key business functions include: Sales and Marketing, HR, Finance and Accounting, and Manufacturing. Present-day startups require information systems for monitoring all their business operations, such as business planning, material acquisition, production, quality control and delivery to markets. In view of the aforementioned key business roles of startup companies, the chief information systems required are; Marketing and Sales Information Systems, Production and Manufacturing Information Systems, Accounting and Finance Information Systems, Strategic Information Systems, Enterprise Collaboration or Office Automation Systems and HR Information Systems (Al-Mamary, Shamsuddin & Aziati, 2014).
Functions of Information Systems
Sales and Marketing Information Systems
Marketing and sales departments are in charge of selling company offerings. Marketing chiefly deals with: determining buyers of the company's services/products, ascertaining their demands and requirements, planning and creating services and products for satisfying their demands, and conducting advertising and promotion activities for these services and products. The sales function…
information systems and its effects on business processes. Moreover, I have explained the several business components and their effectiveness as information systems. In addition, I have provided information regarding the effects of information systems on various business careers.
Information systems have brought revolutions and innovations in today's business' setups and also have developed a close relationship with globalization. The responsibility of these information systems in an organization is not to support the tasks of the individuals but to support business functions as a whole. Nowadays, business operations are conducted by using e-mail, online conferences (video/audio) and cell phones which have turned out to be the most fundamental tools in business execution. Information systems, if truth be told, are the basis of accelerating supply chains. The businesses today have the advantage of using internet for purchasing, selling, advertising and imploring the feedbacks from consumers/customers online. It is now the purpose of…
Alter, S. (2002). Information Systems: Foundation of E-Business, 4/e (4th ed.). New Delhi, India: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=ElXnQdPTEQ4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Information+Systems:+Foundation+of+E-Business&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8OkdUZaKN6XJ0AXE7oCADQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Information%20Systems%3A%20Foundation%20of%20E-Business&f=false
Chatterjee, I. (2010). Management Information Systems. Delhi, India: PHI Learning Private Limited. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=DOi2meoOKWsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+Systems&hl=en&sa=X&ei=998dUej2DIqL0AWQp4CgCA&ved=0CFsQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=Management%20Information%20Systems&f=false
Laudon, K., Laudon, J., & Dass, R. (2010). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm (11th ed.). Chennai: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=gx-LOQmKou8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+Systems:+Managing+The+Digital+Firm,+11/E&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KM0dUcjxNOW00QXAtIH4Bg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Lucey, T. (2005). Management Information System (9th ed.). Croatia: Thomson Learning. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=A0bu30rNgJsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+System&hl=en&sa=X&ei=svMdUcLkNoi10QXfmoHYBw&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Management%20Information%20System&f=false
Information Systems over the Last Century:
Synchronizing and Streamlining Transportation and Logistics Systems
The pace of change and its complexity continues to drastically redefine entire industries, with those reliant on supply chains, logistics and transportation services seeing the greatest benefits and risks. Globalization is also re-shaping industries the fastest who rely on transportation as a key part of their value chains. United Parcel Service is a company that is representative of the pace and complexity of change that has occurred in business processes, strategies, and information systems over the last one hundred years. UPS was founded in 1907 in Seattle, Washington by Jim Casey, and today is one of the leading transportations services companies globally. The intent of this analysis is to explain the differences between business information systems and methods widely used in 1910 and how they compare to the common enterprise-wide systems and methods of today. The telephone,…
Nabil Alghalith. (2005). Competing with IT: The UPS Case. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 7(2), 7-15.
Ata, B., & Van Mieghem, J. (2009). The Value of Partial Resource Pooling: Should a Service Network Be Integrated or Product-Focused? Management Science, 55(1), 115-131.
Barrett, J.. (2007, November). Demand-Driven is an Operational Strategy. Industrial Management, 49(6), 14-19,5.
Das, K.. (2011). Integrating effective flexibility measures into a strategic supply chain planning model. European Journal of Operational Research, 211(1), 170.
Information Systems for a Nostalgic ecord Store
Benefits and Drawbacks of Information Systems
Comparison of Five Systems' Cost and Benefits
Launching a new record store that concentrates on nostalgic music can potentially be lucrative as many music fans like to listen to their favorite musicians and artists who may not be played on popular radio today. For a small brick -- and mortar music store specializing in nostalgic music, it is recommended that a series of five systems be considered for managing the business. These five systems include the following:
E-Commerce Website and supporting system
Pricing and Merchandise Management System
The benefits and drawback of each of these systems id briefly described in this paper.
Benefits and Drawbacks of Information Systems
Each of the systems that the record store needs in order to operate profitably are defined in this section along with their benefits…
Sarapovas, T., & Cvilikas, A. (2008). The evaluation of e-commerce impact on business efficiency. Baltic Journal of Management, 3(1), 71-91.
Wichmann, H. (1983). Accounting and marketing - key small business problems. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 7(4), 19-19.
4). The strength associated with this approach is ensuring that an organization has access to its mission-critical data in the event of a disaster, with the concomitant weakness being the relatively modest costs involved.
The next step in developing the organization's information system recover plan is to take stock of existing hardware. As Cohen emphasizes, "If you have been hosting your company's Web site on an office computer, it is time to stop. For the cost of a cup of coffee per day, a Web-hosting center can fully protect your site off-site, where it will not tie up your company's bandwidth" (p. 3). This approach to maintaining important contacts with customers and an organization's intranet has several strengths over an organization's hosting the Web site in-house. For instance, eagan (2006) notes that, "A hosted solution provides an organization with the flexibility of deploying an IP-enabled system without the maintenance costs…
Cohen, B. (2004, November 17). Data recovery planning -- What you need to know.
SmallBusinessComputing.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.smallbusiness computing.com/webmaster/article.php/3436831.
Reagan, C. (2006, February). Using VOIP to recover telecommunications services: A new generation of disaster recovery processes and telecom systems can help your enterprise deal with a crisis. Business Communications Review, 36(2), 60-61.
Creating Organizational Value through the Integration of Information Technology: A Management Perspective
Change Management and the Construction of a eceptive Organization
Transformational and Participative Leadership
A Decentralized Organizational Culture
Effective Utilization of esources
Performance Monitoring Systems
isk Management and Support Strategies
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, firms must stay at the cutting edge of their respective fields in order to sustain profitability in the long-term. With the current exponential growth of technology and the computerization of business and learning, consumers and investors have become much more connected to the businesses they patronize (Kurzweil, 2001). Accordingly, companies are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of those customers and shareholders, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. In doing so, businesses must be able to efficiently integrate and utilize various sources of…
Aladwani, A.M. (2001). Change Management Strategies for Successful ERP Implementation. Business Process Management Journal, 7 (3), 266-275.
Anthony, S. (2010, May). Three Critical Innovation Lessons from Apple. Retrieved July 26, 2011, from http://hbr.org/anthony/2010/05/three_critical_innovation_less.html
Antonelli, C. (2000). Collective Knowledge Communication and Innovation: The Evidence of Technological Districts. Regional Studies, 34 (6), 535-547.
Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., & Bossidy, L. (2002). The Boundaryless Organization: Breaking the Chains of Organization Structure. United States: John Wiley and Sons.
The basic objectives of Information Systems in the future will be to focus on the design, construction and use of internal software and computer systems so as to increase the company's output from their people and technology. The internet has allowed IS to refocus its attention to what they historically have done best. When IS was focused on the needs of external systems development, they more than often were less than ideal so they did not facilitate optimum system implementations. The internet has reduced the need to focus on external program implementation and therefore internal processes benefit.
In conclusion, this report aimed to come back with an answer to the question of why so many Enterprise esource Planning projects fail and to focus on how the Internet has provided an opportunity to have businesses focus on the development of their internal applications.
Koch, Christopher. "The ABC's of EP." CIO…
Koch, Christopher. "The ABC's of ERP." CIO (2005): Retrieved on 18 March 2005, from http://www.cio.com/research/erp/edit/erpbasics.html .
Ross, Jeanne w. And Weill, Peter, "Six it Decisions Your it People Should Not Make" Harvard Business Review, Nov 2002, vol. 80 issue 11, p84, 8p.
Assessing the Current and Future State of The lifeblood of any business is the revenue it generates while managing costs, ensuring profitability of the business, and its long-term survival and growth. The catalyst of managing a business effectively is the use of accounting information, financial analysis, and increasingly in the 21st century, the use of real-time financial analytics on key performance indicators (KPIs) used to manage a business (Ferguson, Seow, 2011). Accounting systems continue to be the foundation of managing businesses to profitability while mitigating potential risks though insightful and real-time use of financial data. The future of accounting systems will be increasingly influenced by the real-time reporting and analysis as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has required the largest publically traded corporations in the U.S. To report their results through the extensible Business eporting Language (XBL) protocol (Tribunella, Tribunella, 2010). The SEC is setting a very…
Ferguson, C., & Seow, P. (2011). Accounting information systems research over the past decade: Past and future trends. Accounting and Finance, 51(1), 235.
Gill, R.. (2011). Why Cloud Computing Matters to Finance. Strategic Finance, 92(7), 43-47,1.
Salah A Hammad, Ruzita Jusoh, & Elaine Yen Nee Oon. (2010). Management accounting system for hospitals: a research framework. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 110(5), 762-784.
Tribunella, T., & Tribunella, H.. (2010). Using XBRL to Analyze Financial Statements. The CPA Journal, 80(3), 69-72.
Analyze the appropriateness of HM technologies and best practices to recommend applications and strategies for your selected organization, in order to improve organizational effectiveness, workforce productivity, and systems integration
HM technologies are essential towards reduction of the cost of operations as well as an increment in the level of consumer satisfaction hence effective management of the resources and available opportunities. Wal-Mart should focus on the quality and efficient automation of the processes and departments for the purposes of eliminating errors and overhead costs. This is essential through management of the HM technologies such as CM, FID, and EP with the aim of achieving maximum profit levels and revenues at the end of the fiscal year.
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an EP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production esearch, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The ole of Information Systems
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an ERP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production Research, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The Role of Information Systems
Resources in ERP Capability Building and Business Process Outcomes. Journal Of
Furuholt, (2006) argues that lack of management engagement to the acceptance of information systems has been a barrier to the implementation of information systems. The issues are even common with organizations in the developing countries where management does not give enough priority to the information systems implementation. Importantly, implementation of information systems requires management support since management will need to approve fund that would be used for IS implementation. Generally, younger people are more interested in the it tools than older people. In a situation where number of older working team outnumbers younger working team within an organization, the IS implementation may be cumbersome.
More importantly, lack of knowledge of information systems may serve as barrier to its implementation. In the developed countries, private and public organizations have already aware the importance of information systems to the organizations. Many organizations in developed countries already realize that it tool is a…
Abukhzam, M. & Lee, a. (2010). Factors affecting Bank Staff attitude towards E-banking adoption in Libya. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries: 42(2): 1-15.
Ali, S.N.A. (2010). E-government services: an exploration of the main factors that contribute to successful implementation in Libya. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.
Bartol, K.M. (1982). Managing Information Systems Personnel: A Review of the Literature and Managerial Implications. MIS Quarterly.
Boh, W.F. & Yelling, D. (2007). Using Organizational Architecture Standards in Managing Information Technology. Journal of Management Information Systems. 23 (3): 163 -- 207.
Reporting on Information Needs
This report aims at establishing the process for managing records within the organization and marketing products. This report was requested by Michael Duffy Administration and Business Support Manager, based on the numerous complaints raised by staff regarding the hurdles they face when trying to access information from the current information system. The staff have explained that it is difficult for them to find information that is correct and up-to-date. There are also numerous brochures, and the staff is uncertain what brochures are correct. This leads to the wrong information being shared and provided to potential students and clients. The sales teams have been using the old document versions, and they have not been aware of this problem since there is no version control being followed as stipulated by the organization it is difficult for them to know when documents are updated and what documents should be…
Future Development Trends
The pervasiveness of the Internet and the increasing availability of development tools for creating analytics applications are together serving as the catalyst for the development of an entirely new set of predictive analytic and modeling applications where the performance of specific strategies can be simulated and planned for (Gounaris, Panigyrakis, Chatzipanagiotou, pp. 615, 616). Second, the development of collaborative platforms based on the Internet is also making the data collection function of Marketing Information Systems much more streamlined that has been the case in the past.
Marketing Information Systems are transforming the accuracy and speed that companies' marketing, sales and senior management can react to market conditions effectively. The growth of these systems is in direct proportion to the increasing speed and uncertainty new markets and market conditions influence company's plans and results.
Kristof Coussement, Dirk Van den Poel. "Integrating the voice of customers through…
Kristof Coussement, Dirk Van den Poel. "Integrating the voice of customers through call center emails into a decision support system for churn prediction. " Information & Management 45.3 (2008) 164. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
Elizabeth Daniel, Hugh Wilson, Malcolm McDonald. "Towards a map of marketing information systems: An inductive study. " European Journal of Marketing 37.5/6 (2003): 821-847. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com.
Spiros P. Gounaris, George G. Panigyrakis, Kalliopi C. Chatzipanagiotou. "Measuring the effectiveness of marketing information systems:an empirically validated instrument. " Marketing Intelligence & Planning 25.6 (2007): 612-631. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
Ronald L. Hess, Ronald S. Rubin, Lawrence a West Jr. "Geographic information systems as a marketing information system technology. " Decision Support Systems 38.2 (2004): 197-212. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 27 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
ole of Accounting Information in Decision Making Process
Accounting information plays an influential role in guiding decision making process in an organization. Our research shows that not all organizations would use accounting information in the same manner even though they might all utilize it for making better decisions. However some organizations might limit those decisions to the area of cost control while others would be comfortable using accounting information for making all kinds of strategic decisions from expansion, contraction to downsizing and technological overhaul.
Thus accounting information indeed has a significant place in the decision making process. However it all comes down to the level of trust that exists in a firm between accountants and senior management. The senior management must fully accept the information presented to them and also be able to rely on that in order for it to take it seriously and make decisions based on that…
Emmanuel, C., Otley, D. And Merchant, K. (1990), Accounting for Management Control,
2nd edition, London: Chapman & Hall publishing
Horngren, C.T. Sundem, G.L. Stratton, W.O. (2002), Introduction to Management
Accounting, 12th edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall International
Nostalgic Record tore Information ystem Plan Recommendation
Recommended ystems Benefits and Drawbacks
Comparing Costs and Benefits of ystems
Creating a new music store that specializes in selling nostalgic music will have a myriad of potential albums, artists, songs, titles and formats to contend with. In addition to accurately pricing these many products to ensure a profit is made, having a very accurate measure of inventory positions will also be critical. As many fans of nostalgic music are in the older age groups and rely on the Internet do to their shopping. All of these systems will need to support e-commerce in addition to in-store retailing and selling as well. The five systems the store will need include the following:
Accounting and Financial Management ystem
E-Commerce and Online Catalog Management ystem
Merchandise Inventory Management and Pricing
ales Force Automation ystem
Transaction and Point-Of-ale Applications
The following is an analysis of the…
Starting with the accounting and financial management system which will be the center of the IT architecture for the music store, the advantages of this type of system are its ability to quickly generate financial reports, track inventory positions, and report on incoming supplier deliveries. In short this system acts as the central coordination point for all activity in the store from a financial standpoint, coordinating accounts payable, accounts receivable and payment schedules for suppliers and all expenses. The Microsoft AX Platform is well-known as a scalable platform for stores looking to automate their accounting and financial management systems (Lamont, 2008). The downsides or drawbacks of this system are its cost, the large amount of time it takes to keep the records current, and also the time it takes to learn each new edition of software.
The second system that is required is for tracking the customer activity both within the store and online. The Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems' benefits are the ability to create highly effective and targeted selling programs, the ability to track which promotion is generating with sale, and the ability to fine-tune product and promotion strategies to customers. There is also the advantage of being able to get up and running with the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) versions of CRM quickly as well, as Salesforce.com has been able to build nearly a billion-dollar business on (Limbasan, Rusu, 2011). The downsides of this type of system is the high cost to keep its information current, the costs involved in creating a more effective series of strategies over time that reflect customers' changing needs using analytics (Limbasan, Rusu, 2011) and the high cost of integrating these systems with e-commerce ordering systems to track purchases (Sarapovas, Cvilikas, 2008). They are invaluable however in understanding how and why customers buy products and their analytics can help define future strategies for selling with a very high level of precision when analytics are used.
An e-commerce system is also going to be invaluable for the retail store as well, as the unique product mix of music will be popular with fans globally. Having a website will drive retail traffic to the store and also serve as a secondary selling channel as well. The advantages of e-commerce and online catalog management systems are their ability to quickly report product introductions, manage pricing and specific aspects of a given music's unique characteristics, and also complete a transaction entirely online (Sarapovas, Cvilikas, 2008). The disadvantages are that
Strategic Information Systems'?
A strategic information system is a system that enables an organisation to alter the structure of its business strategy so that it can achieve a competitive advantage over others. This system also helps organisations in fastening the time it takes to react and adapt to several environmental changes that take place and makes the overall business structure more efficient. Within a strategic information system there exists a decision support system that helps align business goals and strategies with information systems and technologies.
Write down the various business models of internet.
The various business models of the internet include:
Advertising, Blogging, Affiliate, Community, Utility, Subscription, Brokerage, Merchant, Manufacturer.
Question 3: What is 'Network Bandwidth'?
The amount or volume of data which is being transmitted through a particular network at a given point in time is referred to as a network bandwidth. Network bandwidth's can be affected by software…
5). Although Web portals also provide executives with the ability to aggregate large amounts of data from various sources, there is still the issue of sorting out all of this information in meaningful ways. Indeed, many executives are faced with so much information that it is comparable to trying to sip from a fire hose. In contrast to Web portals, digital dashboards "is a personalized portal that provides consolidated information for an individual user" (Abel, p. 6). Finally, digital dashboards also provide executives with the ability to view the information offline, thereby adding portability to the EIS approach (Abel).
Examples of Executive Information Systems and Digital Dashboards. One of the more popular EISs in use today is SAS, described by one of its vendors as "the market leader in providing a new generation of business intelligence software and services that create true enterprise intelligence. SAS is the only vendor that…
Abel, T. (2008). Microsoft Office 2000: Create dynamic digital dashboards using Office, OLAP, and DHTML. Microsoft Corporation. [Online]. Available: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc301554.aspx.
Desouza, K.C. (2002). Managing knowledge with artificial intelligence: An introduction with guidelines for nonspecialists. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., Gerwehr, S. & Brannan, D.W. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Lilly Software. (2008). Infor Global Solutions, Inc. [Online]. Available: http://www.lillysoftware.com/software_solution/business_performance/executive_information_ system.asp.
Technical System: Information, Information Technology, And Information Systems
The Technical System:
Information, Information Technology, and Information Systems
The use of Enterprise esource Planning (EP) systems to manage the manufacturing and services processes with companies is one of the most critical areas of enterprise software there is. Google, Yahoo and other search engines, in their search taxonomies also classify EP systems as manufacturing systems, and this is because of the highly coordinated approach these applications bring to running an enterprise. The business activities and functions support, information the applications of an EP systems provide and the knowledge that users need to successfully manage based on its analysis and reporting are provided.
Fundamentals of EP Systems
At the center of EP systems are the accounting and finance modules that include Accounts Payable and Accounts eceivable, General Ledger and Financial eporting (Edwards, Coutts, 2005). These form the coordination point of the EP system…
J Edwards, & I Coutts. (2005). Easing the implementation and change of manufacturing software systems. International Journal of Production Research, 43(10), 1965-1981.
Law, C., Chen, C., & Wu, B.. (2010). Managing the full ERP life-cycle:
Considerations of maintenance and support requirements and IT governance practice as integral elements of the formula for successful ERP adoption. Computers in Industry, 61(3), 297.
Malhotra, R., & Temponi, C.. (2010). Critical decisions for ERP integration: Small business issues. International Journal of Information Management, 30(1), 28.
From the above three IS. It is advisable for Clambake Company to go for a CM system to be able to increase the sales and workforce to 80% and 40% respectively. CM integrates and automates the customer sales process such as marketing, customer services and sales that improve interaction with the Company's customers. CM provides better customer service; it gives the businesses strategic advantages such as the ability of personalizing the relationships with the customers.
CM too has a disadvantage since many companies find CM difficult to properly implement due to lack of adequate understanding and preparation by the management and employees (Bruggen & Wierenga, 2005).
ona, . (2012). Cross Functional Enterprise Information System | Free Articles Directory . Free Articles Directory . etrieved October 17, 2012, from http://mywhatis.com/cross-functional-enterprise-information-system/
Bruggen, G.H., & Wierenga, B. (2005). When are CM systems successful?: the perspective of the user and…
Rona, R. (2012). Cross Functional Enterprise Information System | Free Articles Directory . Free Articles Directory . Retrieved October 17, 2012, from http://mywhatis.com/cross-functional-enterprise-information-system/
Bruggen, G.H., & Wierenga, B. (2005). When are CRM systems successful?: the perspective of the user and of the organization. London: Erasmus Research Institute of Management.
Human esources Information Systems
This work in writing will provide a detailed description of the HIS application chosen for the business and will answer as to what type of HIS might create more efficient process for the H functions chosen.
The HIS type chosen for the present organization at issue is a Human esource and Payroll Software system suite that includes administration of Human esources and Benefits, Compensation, ecruiting, Training, Performance, Succession, Self-Service, eporting, Time Entry and Payroll. HIS software is reported to be in use in hundreds of industries for managing daily employee activities of a business. HIS software is vital for the organization that focuses on remaining effective and efficient and on in which information concerning organizational employees is managed well and easily tracked, discerned and accessed.
HIS Vendor Choice
The vendor chosen for the HIS solution is that of NuView Systems, Inc. The NuView…
Baran Muhtesem, Karabulut Elif, and Pekdemir Isil (2002) "The new HR practices in changing organizations": an empirical study in Turkey cited in: Boateng, Asofo-Adjei Agyenim (2007) The Role of Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) in Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). Swedish School Of Economics and Business Administration 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.pafis.shh.fi/graduates/agyasa05.pdf
Boateng, Asofo-Adjei Agyenim (2007) The Role of Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) in Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). Swedish School Of Economics and Business Administration 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.pafis.shh.fi/graduates/agyasa05.pdf
HR Software Solutions from NuViewHR (2010) NuView Systems, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.nuviewinc.com/ hr-solutions-from-nuviewhr.html
NuView Systems, Inc. (2010) Global Provider of HRIS/HRMS and Payroll Software Tools. Retreived from:
New Computer System for the 21st Century Business Office
It is impossible to imagine that any business can be run in the 21st century without an adequate computer system. And yet therein lies the rub: Determining what computer system is adequate for any business purpose is in fact a complex and difficult process in many cases. All too often what happens when a manager is faced with choosing a new computer system (usually at the point when the old one has completely crashed, losing valuable information that wasn't backed-up) is that he or she finds the brochure that's on the top of the pile and orders that computer system.
But this is not the way to proceed. Acquiring the right information system is essential in keeping a company healthy. This paper examines a real-world case of a corporation - in this case, Toys Us - adopted a new computer information…
1. How does or can HIT influence costs, quality, or access?
Health information technology (HIT) utilization, in the words of Shekelle, Morton, and Keeler (2006), “has been promoted as having tremendous promise in improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, quality, and safety of medical care delivery…” With regard to quality, the authors point out that thanks to the integration of tools of knowledge acquisition and automated decision making, HIT comes in handy in medical error reduction. HIT also reduces redundancy, thus effectively bringing down costs associated with obtaining healthcare. This is more so the case with centralized medical records made possible by HIT. The said centralization of medical records could, for instance, eliminate duplication (i.e. multiple tests and medications being prescribed by different doctors). In addition to easing electronic transactions, to the convenience of patients, HIT also enhances patient access to their medical records, and thus better information regarding follow-up care.
This approach to defining the platform will also alleviate the task of having to find Information technologies (it) staff to manage just these applications over time.
Ensuring Adoption of the Intranet
By far the greatest challenge however will not be technological, it will be in gaining the adoption of the Intranet across the eight locations, and having employees trust it enough over time. The most critical issue for Castle Family estaurants is to also get their store managers trained and involved early in the process to ensure they have a sense of ownership for the systems and their application. The greatest impediment for any hospitality or restaurant system is the need for alleviating resistance to change by concentrating on how to infuse ownership throughout both management and employee ranks (Wolff, 2006). The use of a SaaS-based application will significantly contribute to this aspect of the implementation as it can be…
AMR Research (2006) -- Making HCM Strategic: Aligning the Workforce with Business Goals. Christa Degnan Manning and Judy Sweeney. AMR Research Report. Boston, MA. October, 2006
Tanya V Bondarouk, Huub JM Ruel. (2008). HRM systems for successful information technology implementation: evidence from three case studies. European Management Journal, 26(3), 153. Retrieved March 30, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1497874931).
Karen Holcombe Ehrhart, Beth G. Chung-Herrera. (2008). HRM at Your Service: Developing Effective HRM Systems in the Context of E-Service. Organizational Dynamics, 37(1), 75. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1467751961).
Sheryl E. Kimes, Paul E. Wagner. (2001). Preserving your revenue-management system as a trade secret. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42(5), 8-15. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 101949209).
Knowing in advance the terrain, the vegetation, and the water sources prepares the mission teams with the knowledge to confront the elements associated with the geographical conditions of the site. Analysis provides information for determining in advance the best sites to set up base camps, where the terrain is less vulnerable to hostile advances. t demonstrates in advance how supplies will most efficiently and expeditiously be delivered to the site. The GS can indicate to military coordinators how many helicopters, ground armored vehicles, and other military transport vehicles the use of which is dependent upon conditions of terrain. Whether or not supplies can be delivered via ground or air is an important consideration in planning and supplying a military exercise or event. GS is a valuable tool for military logistical purposes.
f we look at the layered data GS is capable of delivering, we find that the information is essential…
Intoccia, Greogry F., and Moore, Joe Wesey, Communications, Technology, Warfare, and the Law: Is the Network a Weapon System?, Houston Journal of International Law, vol 28, 2006, p. 467.
GAO, 2003, op cit.
Sznaider, 2005, p. 5.
Second, the assumption of a phased roll-out in each of the global geographies of Cincom makes the most sense, concentrating on localization of languages and variation in key human resources processes by region prior to the formal introduction of the system. This is critical, in our experience, to ensure there is a higher probability of adoption of the system. Third, the assumption that the system will be integrated with payroll and accounting systems has been made in this initial business case. From our previous conversations it is clear you would like to manage human resources to a tighter budget given these difficult economic times, and the system we've chosen is flexible enough to allow for costing and integration. Fourth, the assumption that the outsourcing businesses of Cincom, now in its formative stages, will grow. Our criteria in the evaluation of the recommended system take the potential growth of this exciting…
Resources Management System. Our thorough review of potential systems have shown this to be the most cost-effective and best aligned with your company's needs. At your request our team can provide you with further analysis and potential cost and time savings to Cincom for adopting this potential strategy. Thank you and we look forward to hearing from you soon.
In other words, as coding begins, testing begins and continues as a parallel process to the coding activity. Even when the installation process has begun, testing should continue.
Installation is the process of actually replacing the current system or programs with the new system or programs. Thus, coding, testing, and installation processes create several deliverables that can be used as signoff points for management. The testing and implementation process should allow for back out points where new direction or error and bug elimination can occur. The deliverables are fail safes in a sense because a next task should not be started until a previous task has been given the okay by management. This process therefore puts a system of checks and balances in place.
Documentation and Training
Most people think that coding and testing are the only crucial aspects of implementation. Ironically, one of the more critical things to accomplish…
Canberra. (n.d.). System Implementation. Retrieved on January 27, 2005, at http://www.ise.canberra.edu.au/u8310/l17.htm
Grabski, Severin V. (2002). International Lumberyards, Inc.: An Information System Consulting Case. Journal of Information Systems, 9/22.
Knight, Ph.D., Linda V. (2001, November 1). System Development Methodologies for Web Enabled E-Business: A Customization Paradigm. Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://www.kellen.net/SysDev.htm
Peacock, Eileen (2004). Accounting for the development costs of internal-use software. Journal of Information Systems, 3/22.
Accounting and Intrusion Detection
In a report issued by Paladin Technologies, Inc., entitled: "Security Metrics: Providing Cost Justification for Security Projects," 273 organizations were surveyed on the topic of security. The report illustrates in quantifiable terms the depth and reach of intrusion detection on the financial viability of the organization. The combined reported losses from the firms surveyed totaled $265.6 million in 1999. The highest loss categories were reported as follows:
Type of Loss
Estimated Dollar Value
Number of espondents
Theft of intellectual capital
The average annual financial loss of firms surveyed was estimated at $40 million. Forty three percent of respondents were able to quantify financial losses, and seventy four percent were able to acknowledge financial loss. Ninety percent detected cyber attacks within the most recent twelve-month period and seventy percent reported serious breaches other than viruses, laptop theft, and employee abuse of…
Risk Assessment risk assessment involves estimating the likelihood and severity of an occurrence, the relative impact of risk on the facility, information handler, processing, support, and the mission of the organization. Assessing the likelihood means determining the probability that existing controls will be skirted. Pfleeger has identified a series of steps for examining the likelihood of adverse occurrences:
Calculate the probability that the risk may happen, found in the observed data for the specific system.
Estimate the likely number occurrences in a given time period. The analyst gives a rating based on several different risk analysis methodologies, and then creates a table to hold and compare the ratings.
The Delphi approach: several raters individually estimate the probable likelihood of an event, combine their estimates, and choose the best one.
The management accounting leads candidates into finance, risk management and even production management. hile CMA certification is not necessary to pursue a career in management accounting, it is recommended. The IMA claims that certified management accountants earn on average $25,000 more per year than non-certified peers (IMA, 2011).
As with the accounting profession in general, there is increased demand for management accountants. CMAs are in demand because of their ability to contribute to the profitability of businesses, and demand for CMAs is expected to grow in coming years. Because CMA job duties are less structured than those of financial accountants or auditors, CMAs enjoy greater career flexibility.
Both types of accounting positions are poised to enjoy significant growth. There is also a trend in business, particularly since Sarbanes-Oxley, of looking to accounting professionals to lead firms. More CEOs are coming from the accounting stream than ever before, which highlights the…
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Occupation outlook handbook 2010-2011: Accountants and auditors. BLS. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos001.htm
IMAnet.org, various pages. (2011). Institute of Management Accountants. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://www.imanet.org/ima_home.aspx
Taub, S. (2003) Now playing: CFO as CEO. CFO Magazine. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3007934
Systems Media Table: Comparison
The main purpose of this program is to construct sentences of the perceived information and manipulate paragraphs to form a word document. The program uses a display format 'what-you-see-is-what-you-get' to enhance the quality of the expected hardcopy.
WordPerfect and Microsoft Word are mostly superseded by both organization and personal computers to perform functions such as word formatting, letter processing and some simple designing. Accordingly, it is the most frequently used program in day-to-day operation.
It is used to type the text, save, and format and print the text.
It is used to insert pictures into the text page.
It is used to spell check the text document.
It is used to prepare letters and other word documents.
This kind of database system is to display a structure that would relieve the presentation of information using parent to child relationship. The…
AJ, W., & al, e. (2007). The role of decision aids in promoting evidence-based patient choice in Edwards A and Elwyn E (eds) Evidence-based patient choice:. O'Connor A and Edwards A.
European Commission DG Health and Consumer. (2012). Guidlines on the Qualification and Classification of Stand-alone Software used in Healthcare withing the Regulatory Framework of Medical Devices. Articles of Directive 93/42/EEC .
Eysenbach, G., Powell, J., Gunter, T.D., & Terry, N.P. (2005). The Emergence of National Electronic Health Record Architectures in the United States and Australia: Models, Costs, and Questions. Journal of Medical Internet Research: The Leading Peer-reviewed Internet Journal.
Fesenko, N. (2007). Compression Technologyes of Graphic Information. International Journal "Information Theories & Applications."
Describe the company, the business problem the company was addressing with the system implementation, the system chosen to implement, and the company's rationale for selecting the system to solve the problem.
Wal-Mart, a company that enjoys a significant market share in the U.S. food industry, rolled out its multi-phased project. This marked the beginning of implementing the company's long ditched in-house IT systems, which favored their operations with vendors. However, implementation of the SAP system is already raising red flags. This is because the system comes with costly financial works, which have strained the company (Scheck, 2010). While the project was aimed at leading the firm to growth, Wal-Mart recorded a significant sales decline. This was one of the company's worst performance over three decades now, been beaten by new corporations from Germany and South Korea. As local competitors maintained the pace set by Wal-Mart, most…
Hellens, L, Nielsen, S., Beekhuyzen, J., & Ebrary, Inc. (2008). Qualitative case studies on implementation of enterprise wide systems. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Pub.
Jacobs, A.J. (2012). Information system implementations: Using a leadership quality matrix for success. S.l.: Authorhouse.
Ramachandran, S. (2007). Digital VLSI systems design: A design manual for implementation of projects on FPGAs and ASICs using Verilog. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Scheck, D.E. (2010). Implementation project for traffic signal monitor/recorder and analysis system. Athens, Ohio: Dept. Of Industrial & Systems Engineering, Ohio University.
However, the company did feel it should develop its own Database infrastructure that would work with the new underlying database management system and would mesh with existing organizational skills and the selected enterprise software solution.
Because the company followed a standardized implementation process, they were able to successfully reengineer their existing business structure. The objective of the System Development Life Cycle is to help organizations define what an appropriate system development methodology should be in order for them to continue to meet the rapidly changing business environment. The specific research approach employed by International Lumberyards, Inc. was to follow the steps of the cycle and it helped them dramatically.
This report attempted to analyze a work-related project that used a systems analysis tool for a specific business system. The report focused on the use of the System Development Life Cycle to implement a business or information technology need as…
Grabski, Severin V. (2002). International Lumberyards, Inc.: An Information System Consulting Case. Journal of Information Systems, 9/22.
Knight, Ph.D., Linda V. (2001, November 1). System Development Methodologies for Web Enabled E-Business: A Customization Paradigm. Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://www.kellen.net/SysDev.htm
Peacock, Eileen (2004). Accounting for the development costs of internal-use software. Journal of Information Systems, 3/22.
Wikopedia. (n.d.). System Development Life Cycle. Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Development_Life_Cycle
"Management believes that the accounting estimates employed are appropriate and the resulting balances are reasonable; however, due to the inherent uncertainties in making estimates actual results could differ from the original estimates, requiring adjustments to these balances in future periods."
ased on the data retrieved and the projections made, the accounting division will proceed to the development of the consolidated statements for all of GM subsidies and the overall group. There are 24 consolidated statements, as follows: Discounted Operations; Asset Impairment; Investment in Nonconsolidated Affiliates; Marketable Securities; Variable Interest Entities; Finance Receivables and Securitization; Inventories; Equipment on Operating Leases; Income Taxes; Property - Net; Goodwill and Intangible Assets; Other Assets; Accrued Expenses, Other Liabilities and Deferred Income Taxes; Long-Term Debt and Loans Payable; Pensions and Other Postretirement enefits; Commitments and Contingent Matters, Stockholders' Equity; Earnings per Share Attributable to Common Stocks; Derivative Financial Instruments and Risk Management; Fair Value of…
1. 2007 General Motors Annual Report. Page 9. On the Internet at http://www.gm.com/corporate/investor_information/docs/fin_data/gm07ar/download/gm07ar_full.pdf.Last retrieved on February 15, 2009
2. General Motors Mission Statement, 2009, on the internet at http://www.samples-help.org.uk/mission-statements/general-motors-mission-statement.html . Ast retrieved on February 16, 2009
3. Supplier Diversity, Website of General Motors, 2009, on the internet at http://www.gm.com/corporate/dealers/diversity/index.jsplast retrieved on February 16, 2009
4. Management's Discussion and Analysis, Website of General Motors, 2009, on the internet at http://www.gm.com/corporate/investor_information/docs/fin_data/gm07ar/content/financials/mda/mda_10.htmllast retrieved on February 16, 2009
Accounting Theories and usiness Decisions: The usiness World
Application of theories
Other cases of stakeholder theory application
Accounting theories and business decisions: The business world
There are many theories that explain the complexity of relationship between different groups of people directly and indirectly related to an organization. Two of the most comprehensive and most discussed theories are stakeholder theory and agency theory. oth the theories describe what the main purpose of each group is and how these groups ought to manage these relationships. In agency theory, it identified that agency relationship takes place when one or more than one principal, acting as owners, delegate their power to make decisions, to a person acting as their agent or steward. Thus, agency theory principally revolves around the relationship of principal and agent. While the principal delegates the authority or decision making power to agent (managers) to act in the best…
Alessi, Chirstopher. 2013. "Understanding the LIBOR Scandal." Council on Foreign Relations, Feb 6. Accessed August 23, 2013. http://www.cfr.org/united-kingdom/understanding-libor-scandal/p28729
Dean, Cornelia. 2007. "Executive on a mission: saving the planet." New York Times, May 22. Accessed August 23, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/22/science/earth/22ander.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Jensen, Michael C. 2010. "Value maximization, stakeholder theory, and the corporate objective function." Journal of applied corporate finance 22: 32-42.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 2011. How great companies think differently. Harvard Business Review, November. Accessed August 24, 2013. http://hbr.org/2011/11/how-great-companies-think-differently/ar/2
Kaplan and Anderson (2005) notes that activity-based costing (ABC) systems are not as effective in practice as they are on paper. Among the grievances that Kaplan notes with respect to ABC, the system is not very scalable, losing power as the company gets larger. The textbook version is usually a very simple company with a handful of activities, but in the real world companies can have hundreds of products, thousands of activities and tens of thousands of customers. This presents a challenge, because activity-based costing requires a substantial amount of information in order to be effective. Past a certain scale of organization, activity-based costing does not deliver a good return on investment because of the costs associated with gathering and analyzing this information. Kaplan wrote this in 2005, mind you, when perhaps information gathering and processing capabilities were somewhat worse than they are today. Certainly doing ABC manually is…
Gilbert, S. (2007). Adding time to activity-based costing. Working Knowledge. Retrieved March 15, 2014 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5657.html
Kaplan, R. & Anderson, S. (2005). Rethinking activity-based costing. Working Knowledge. Retrieved March 15, 2014 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/4587.html
However, when a shock happens that changes that pattern, the information is no longer relevant. In periods of turmoil, only the most up-to-date information is relevant. The usefulness of the information wanes quickly as the behavior of the company becomes more erratic. After a period of erratic behavior and change, the company may be forced to make internal changes that affect the way they do business. They may make changes that affect their inventory management, sales cycle, stock levels, supply chain, distribution network or other fundamental business functions. New patterns may emerge and the old information no longer applies.
The term "relevancy" can have many different meanings depending on what is happening with the company. A new accounting regime may need to be instituted when a change takes place. Looking at the most recent historical information is one way to determine the relevancy of the accounting information. The analyst needs…
Cadwalader, Wickersham, & Tact LLP. 1999. Application of the Safe Harbor for Forward-
Looking Statements. Findlaw. Accessed April 23, 2009
Giroux, G. (n.d.). American Big Business and Cost Accounting. In a Short History of Accounting and Business. Accessed April 23, 2009
Technology on the Accounting Profession
Accounting and finance continue to see rapid improvements in the accuracy, efficiency and performance of systems as advances are made in the fields of analytics, big data, system integration and reporting, mobility and cloud-based platforms including Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). All of technologies taken together are accelerating the pace of change in accounting today. The intent of this analysis is to provide a description of these technologies, explaining their effects on accounting processes. These technologies are also discussed from the standpoint of how they are changing how accounting is being performance at Cincom Systems, a provider of enterprise software.
Analysis of How Technologies Are Changing The Accounting Profession
The most significant advances in technologies impacting the accounting profession are occurring in the area of cloud computing and SaaS, as cloud architectures are fundamentally changing the economics of how software is purchased and used (Arnesen, 2013). The growing…
Arnesen, S., C.P.A. (2013). Is a cloud ERP solution right for you? Strategic Finance, 94(8), 45-50.
Brands, K., C.M.A. (2013). XBRL and big data. Strategic Finance, 95(2), 64-65.
Christensen, M., & Skaerbaek, P. (2010). Consultancy outputs and the purification of accounting technologies. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 35(5), 524.
Collins, J.C. (2013). Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy, 216(2), 68-70,72.
Ackoff's Management Misinformation Systems
How corporate leaders may make improper assumptions related to accounting information systems and the related information
In most cases, there lacks materials, which, directly pinpoints the Ackoff's Management, challenges faced by the organization. Many companies and their leaders experience challenges that are related to a weak human resource department. In the recent past, the many companies have experienced various mechanical failures that cause these organizations to recall appropriate measure of performance. The mechanical issues are attributed to H issues as the root causes. Organizational employees' failure to make good decisions shows a problem with reward processes, training processes, performance management processes and the hiring processes. Many corporate leaders engage in improper assumptions to accounting information systems when they engage in the following measures (Bauer, 1994).
Poor rewards and recognition system
Many corporate leaders focus on cost cutting characterized by massive retrenchment worldwide as a cost cutting…
Bauer, A. (1994). Shop floor control systems: From design to implementation. London:
Chapman & Hall.
Bruggen, G.H., & Wierenga, B. (2000). Marketing management support systems: Principles, tools, and implementation. Boston [u.a.: Kluwer Acad. Publ.
Jackson, M.C. (2000). Systems approaches to management. New York, NY [u.a.: Kluwer