Adam Smith Essays (Examples)

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Smith and Classical According to

Words: 1090 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94889755



Classical economists succeeded in developing basic concepts of political economy, which defined the laws of production and consumption development; economic relations, which are resulted by such activities. The founders of modern political economy Smith, Ricardo and Marx defined the processes and conditions of long cycles in development of economies, especially the issue of surplus distribution. Principles of free and comparative consumption, which were developed by Smith, Ricardo and later supplemented by works of Say and Marshall, laid into the fundamentals of modern political economy and modern international market regulations.

The main tenets of classical economics thought are the following:

According to Say's law, surplus also creates demand. Prices on goods behave the following way: value of produced commodities is always equal to the whole expenditures spent on commodities. Say developed a theory outlining three major production factors: land, labor and capital. On the base of natural order, under conditions of…… [Read More]

Development of trade requires universal form of payment is the form of paper money. Such concept was called Real Bill Doctrine, which stated that "so long as a bank issues its notes only in the discount of good bills, at not more than sixty days' date, it cannot go wrong in issuing as many as the public will receive from it." (Fullarton, 1845) This monetary doctrine was widely criticized in the 19th century because in case of the mass issuing of paper money it was impossible to avoid inflation, as the real value of money was decreasing. The problem of Real Bill Doctrine is the problem of presence of enough amount of physical assets which can be equally exchanged on paper money.

Most of the follwing tenets are widley critized nowdays by Keynesian school as they have a number of defiencies, which can not solve, predict or explain certain isues faced by the modern economies inlcuding overporduction, unemployemnt or stagnation during full employemnt. So it's important to understand that the ability to study correlations within economy becomes wider if to take into consideration different and even contradictory economic theories.

History of Economic Thought
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Dugald Stewart's Assessment of Adam

Words: 3009 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67622186



The reference to Montesquieu (as well as to Smith) in that part of the 'Dissertation' which deals with the 'Progress of Philosophy during the Seventeenth Century' was made just as a digression, and the further development of Jurisprudence by writers on Political Economy as well as 'the mighty influence which his [Montesquieu's] writings have had on the subsequent history of Scottish literature' (Stewart, 1854) were to be explained in the third Part of the 'Dissertation', which was never to be published.

eform

A major task of the state is thus to ensure that the conditions of economic freedom are in fact satisfied, so far as possible, by sweeping away all legal and institutional impediments to it. Generally speaking, these obstructions can be condensed to four main groups. First, there is the problem that, in all societies subject to a course of evolution, 'Laws frequently continue in force long after the…… [Read More]

References

Arrow, Kenneth. 1951. Social choice and individual values. New York: Wiley.

Arrow, Kenneth. 1983. Social choice and justice: Vol. 1 of Collected Papers of Kenneth J. Arrow. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press.

Becker, Gary. 1976. The economic approach to human behavior. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Hopfl, H.M. 1978. From savage to Scotsman: Conjectural history in the Scottish enlightenment. Journal of British Studies 17:19 -- 40.
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Abigail Smith Adams This Is

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92893500

d.). They moved among several homes before settling on a large farm they named "Peacefield." With Adam's absences, Abigail not only helped maintain the farm but managed it and handled the finances along with raising their three sons and two daughters -- three of which she would outlive.

After his election, Abigail Adams, despite her "activist" roles, was quite aware of her position as the President's wife and First Lady of the land. She served as hostess to the public. She greeted guest seated formally, a technique she learned at uckingham Palace. It was not that she considered herself royalty, but Abigail was a short lady at 5'1" and she felt more comfortable seated. Like all first ladies, she influenced fashions of the day, believing that the mode of dress in that day was too revealing (The National First Ladies Library, n.d.).

She was the first Lady to reside in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, J.Q. (n.d.). Abigail Smith Adams. Retrieved July 9, 2009, from John-adams.org: http://www.john-adams.org/abigailadams.net/

The National First Ladies Library. (n.d.). First lady biography: Abigail Adams. Retrieved July 8, 2009, from Firstladies.org:  http://www.firstladies.org/biographies/firstladies.aspx?biography=2 

Vinci, J. (2004, January 5). Abigail Smith Adams. Retrieved July 9, 2009, from Colonialhall.com:  http://colonialhall.com/adamsj/adamsAbigail.php
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Abigail Adams in a Thorough

Words: 1846 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67412799

The manner in which she coped with the travails of traveling overseas in a time far before airplanes underscores the strength of character of this remarkable woman. The trip also marked the first time she had been away from her children for any length of time, solidifying her independence and contributing to her overall psychological development. Furthermore, Akers notes how Abigail was able to analyze, criticize, and incorporate ideas, concepts, trends, styles, and material objects from the Old orld. "Her confidence in herself as a person had been bolstered by the many opportunities to test her mind and values in the intellectual and social capital of Europe," (91). Furthermore, based on her letters, Akers infers that her trip abroad strengthened her already deep affection for America, the new nation she watched being born and growing with the help of her husband. Her travel abroad also indicated to Abigail how the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akers, Charles W. Abigail Adams: An American Woman. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.
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Joseph Smith and the Book

Words: 6695 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24061704

On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).

At Joseph's death, righam Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bowman, Robert N., ed. Mormonism. Christian Research Journal, 1989. http://www.mustardseed.net/html/tomormonism.html

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Joseph Smith: a Prophet of God. Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2004. http://www.lds.org/library/display/0,4945,104-1-3-2,00.html

Griffith, Michael T. The Book of Mormon - Ancient or Modern? Could Joseph Smith Have Written the Nephrite Record? Refuting the Critics: Evidence of the Book of Mormons in Authenticity. Horizon Publishers, 1993. http://ourworld.cs.com/mikegriffith1/id108.htm

Institute for Religious Research. Translation or Divination? Mormons in Transition. Institute for Religious Research, 1999. http://www.irr.org/mit/divination.html
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Change at Smith & Falmouth

Words: 1200 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41920850

The offering of financial incentives, in the form of salary increases, premiums and bonuses, is often the most popular means of employee motivation. Non-financial means, such as flexible working schedules or promotion opportunities, also constitute a powerful source of stimulated employees (Bruce, 2002).

The realization of the important role played by the staff members within the Smith & Falmouth Company would lead to several beneficial effects. At an individual level, the employees would feel better valued and they would as such increase their loyalty to the organization, their commitment to supporting the entity achieve its goals and their performances. At the group level, the teams would be more united and better prepared to deal with organizational chores. In terms of the entity, it will be better able to pursue its interests.

b) Communications

The ability to communicate effectively and efficiently is the pillar of any successful organizational outcome. Communication in…… [Read More]

References:

Bruce, a., 2002, How to motivate every employee: 24 proven tactics to spark productivity in the workplace, McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN 0071413332

Hickman, C.R., 2005, Management malpractice: how to cure unhealthy practices that disable your organization, Adams Media, ISBN 1593373503

Noe, R.A., 2004, Fundamentals of human resource management, ISBN 730209683X
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Dearest Friend a Life of Abigail Adams

Words: 1214 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95797952

Abigail Adams

Lynne ithey prefaces her biography of Abigail Adams by noting that the first Lady was "a tiny woman ... with ... A forceful personality that belied her size," (ix). Abigail Adams was, as ithey describes her, a "maddeningly contradictory" individual who defied conventional gender norms during her time, waged fierce rhetorical political battles against what she viewed to be British oppression of the colonies, and was unmistakably at the heart of the changing social and political realities of revolutionary America. One of the proto-feminists in the United States, Abigail Adams also championed similar civil rights causes such as the emancipation of slavery, but like most in her time, often seemed to straddle the fence on both of these contentious issues. ith one foot in one world and one in another, Abigail Adams did defy definitions and deserves to be remembered as ithey portrays her: as a quintessential American…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster/Touchstone, 1981.
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Home Midterm ECO54 Spring 2008

Words: 2350 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83856237

Smith believed this would lead to inefficiency.

However, unlike Plato, Smith did not believe that the ideal republic should decide from birth what occupation an individual should follow, rather that the individual must freely choose by his or her own will, how to direct his or her energies and labor in the most efficient and self-interested fashion, which would ultimately result in the advancement of the nation as a whole. Plato's social structure, although not based upon birth, was still based upon a monopoly of philosophers dictating the lives of others according to their state-generated power, unlike Smith's more democratic ideals. Smith's analysis more perfectly echoes that of illiam Petty, who stressed how breaking down tasks, like Smith's pin-manufacturing plant, could generate higher levels of efficiency in economic production. Petty also placed a strong emphasis, as did Smith, upon the vital need of a nation to practice free trade.

Question…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. 1999. 8 Mar 2008.  http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html 

David Ricardo." The New School. 8 Mar 2008. http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/profiles/ricardo.htm

Economics." Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2007. 8 Mar 2008. http://encarta.msn.com.

Mill, John Stuart. Principles of Political Economy. Library of Economics and Liberty.
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History of Economic Thought Mercantilist

Words: 2556 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47524446

It offers a good theory as it emphasizes on the production and export of those items for which a country possesses a comparative advantage. Furthermore, through its focus on the reduction of taxes and tariffs in international trade and the adherent practices, the theory of comparative costs has set the basis for the contemporaneous processes of market liberalization and globalization.

But the theory has not been spared from criticism. Oumar Bouare states that "the market price of a commodity does not converge toward its natural price. (Then) the outcome of complete specialization in icardo's framework locks third world and developing countries out of industrialization; and free trade could destroy the industrial base of a country, which in the long run could generate more wealth for the country than an imported product. This might also lock the country out of industrialization." b) in 1848, utilitarian economist John Stuart Mill wrote the…… [Read More]

References

Bancroft, S., Clough, C.W., Economic History of Europe, Heath, 1952

Berdell, J.F., Adam Smith and the ambiguity of nations, Review of Social Economy, Volume 56, 1998

Bouare, O., an Evaluation of David Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Costs: Direct and Indirect Critiques, Retrieved from Policy Innovations

http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/01445on March 6, 2008
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Mercantilist School To What Extent

Words: 2521 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91620383

Therefore, a country which is able to produce one good with a lower opportunity cost than another country, should specialize in producing that good which will turn into a competitive advantage.

However, when assessing this theory at the level of international trade, it is harder to depict the competitive advantages. The model may seem to be unrealistic. The resources employed in real world are not restrained to labor and the markets in which the goods are supplied are not perfectly competitive. Moreover, there may be countries able to specialize in the production of one or several goods and other countries unable to find any competitive advantage. Other disadvantages are the ones assembled when trying to form a general framework of the labor costs. Due to the fact that these costs are similar within the boundaries of a certain country and vary from one country to another, it is problematical to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

LaHaye, Laura. "Mercantilism." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. The Library of Economics and Liberty. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.econlib.org/library/enc/Mercantilism.html

Mercantilism." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05. 11 Mar. 2001 http://www.bartleby.com/65/me/mercanti.html

Biography of Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. The Library of Economics and Liberty. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.econlib.org/Library/Enc/bios/Smith.html

Korten C., David. "The Betrayal of Adam Smith." When Corporation Rule the World, 2nd Edition. 11 Mar. 2007  http://www.pcdf.org/corprule/betrayal.htm
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Globalization and Its Impact on

Words: 2057 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20564016



Another well-known economic analyst Milton Friedman, believed that everything wrong in the world could be righted with free market trade. He promoted such ideas of private utilities and removing government involvement from society and business in every conceivable area (the Great Experiment: The Facts About Globalization (http://www.americanassembler.com/issues/globalization/index.html).

ecent studies indicate that such ideas, while looking good in theory are not conducive to successful society. California is a classic example of what can happen if free market utilities are allowed to roam unfettered by government standards of any type.

Friedman believes that complete free growth opportunities without boundaries, such has been the case in some areas of globalization actually harm the worldwide economy and in turn society in general (the Great Experiment: The Facts About Globalization (http://www.americanassembler.com/issues/globalization/index.html).

Conclusion

While globalization has been occurring since the beginning of time the recent expansion of electronic communication has caused the concept to explode with…… [Read More]

References

History of globalization (Accessed 6-10-07)

 http://www.answers.com/topic/history-of-globalization 

The Adam Smith address: what difference does globalization make? - speech delivered at the 30th annual meeting of the National Assn. Of Business Economists, Sept. 10-13, 1995 - Transcript Business Economics, Jan, 1996 by Paul Krugman (Accessed 6-10-07)

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1094/is_n1_v31/ai_17900497/pg_5
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George Magnus Is a Leading Economic Advisor

Words: 3253 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53675455

George Magnus is a leading Economic Advisor at the UBS Investment Bank and has been a rebel around different systems in the world. George was employed in the UBS investment bank from 2004 till 2012. Along with being the senior economic advisor, he also played the highest level economist from 1997 till 2004. Prior to working for the UBS, he was working as a chief economist in SG Warburg from 1987 till 1995. Magnus is known for his work and cooperation with famous banks of both America and United Kingdom. The economist has authored many books and uploaded regular reviews which can be found at his website. George Magnus did his Masters in economics from the School of Oriental and African Studies from the University of London. He is also known for teaching the subject at the University of Illinois and University of Westminster.

The way he put out his…… [Read More]

References

Bloomberg. "Give Karl Marx a Chance to Save the World Economy: George Magnus." N.p., 2012. Web. 27 Nov 2012. [http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-08-29/give-marx-a-chance-to-save-the-world-economy-commentary-by-george-magnus.html].

Johnson, L. E et al. "Keynes' Theory of Money and His Attack on the Classical Model." International Advances in Economic Research 7.4 (2001): 409-416. Print.

Johnson, L.E and Thomas Cate. "The Analytical Preconditions for Keynes' Theory of Money." International Advances in Economic Research 6.1 (2000): 84-94. Print.

Magnus, George. "Ageing in a Crisis." The World Today 2008: Print.
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History of Economic Thought Provide

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53640012

In addition, he argued that human behavior is mainly based on the pursuit of material profits.

According to Smith the society could develop only in case of existence of freedom and equality. These rational principles according to Smith could stimulate objective development of society and development of economical relations. His philosophical and moral ideas of course influenced his political economy. Smith's political economy based on freedom of competition and Smith principles of political economy based on the natural needs of developing capitalist society of Great Britain in many respects defined the economical policies of the major 19th century capitalist states.

3. Provide a sense of the historical context and the nature of the main debates in political economy during the first quarter of the 19th Century in Britain and how these debates shaped the complexation of early classical economic thought.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century there still existed…… [Read More]

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Benificence the Concept of Beneficence

Words: 1319 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50145032

Indeed, businesses today pride themselves upon their charitable, humanitarian and environmental efforts. Indeed, the very concept of "social" and "corporate responsibility" is built around this. Businesses today are recognizing the importance not only of functioning at an optimal profit margin, but also of doing so in a way that recognizes themselves as part of a larger and integrated whole in terms of human beings and the environment.

Kenneth Lux adds a further dimension to these ideas. Rather than directly disagreeing with Smith, as was my first instinct to do, Lux analyzes the specific elements in what Smith says and identifies a specific oversight. Firstly, Lux notes that Smith does not give due consideration to the paradigm of cheating. Cheating is self-serving, but does not serve the public good and is certainly not beneficial for the economy. Indeed, if Smith's assertions about self-servitude were to be believed, not cheating would be…… [Read More]

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Home Exam During the Long Development of

Words: 1847 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93578257

Home Exam

During the long development of economic science, many doctrines appeared which very often explained economic processes and connections in different ways. This created basis for development of different economic systems. Crisis of one economic system demands the thorough study of its' qualitative and quantitative parameters to effectively implement this experience in the future. That is why time-proven theories and models of economic development are looked from different angles at different points of times. In this essay I shall try to discuss the relevance of the views of major economics thinkers and criticism that might occur.

Adam Smith himself would be probably surprised, if in his time he would be called an economist: in the era of Enlightenment intellectuals, as it is known, always had very wide scientific interests and encyclopaedical knowledge with philosophy as the base for it. His research was possible only thanks to the sociological-political and…… [Read More]

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Historical Perspective on Ethics

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94351705

Business Ethics in Precapitalist America

Precapitalist America

The American evolution was kindled by a growing dissatisfaction with the way colonial merchants were being treated by the English ruling class (Collins, 2011). In response to the Ottoman Empire's capture of Constantinople and the levying of onerous tariffs on trade goods coming from Western Europe, the Spanish Monarchy funded an exploratory venture that took Christopher Columbus west to map out a new trade route to Asia. The goal was gold at any cost, even at the expense of human life. One of the new markets that Columbus helped to establish was the Atlantic slave trade, with 'goods' moving east instead of west.

Over the next several centuries many of the Europeans arriving on the eastern shores of North America were indentured servants (Collins, 2011). When the number of European servants became insufficient to meet the demands of colonial merchants and farmers, more…… [Read More]

References

Collins, Denis. (2011). Business Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Bassiry, G.R. And Jones, Marc. (1993). Adam Smith and the ethics of contemporary capitalism. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(8), 621-627.
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Will Diminishing Supplies of Natural Resources Limit World Economic Growth

Words: 2202 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31178406

Macroeconomics

For most of the time since the subject of economics was first studied, the idea of resource constraints has been irrelevant. The world was simply not viewed as a finite place. The concept of resource constraints was limited, more or less, to the consideration of constraints on an individual economy. Adam Smith recognized that all economies would face resource constraints of one type or another. As Snowdon (2003) points out, "to Smith, it was obvious that all economies were faced with resource constraints and that free trade was a policy that would allow any nation to achieve the most efficient allocation of its scarce resources." This notion was built into the Ricardian trade theory and classical economics. It has not been until recent times, however, that the concept of worldwide scarcity has become relevant. The idea of peak oil and a world with seven billion people (or more) has…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Alexandratos, N. (2005). Countries with rapid population growth and resource constraints: Issues of food, agriculture and development. Population and Development Review. Vol. 31 (2) 237-258.

Asheim, G., Buchholz, W., Hartwick, J., Mitra, T. & Withagen, C. (2005). Constant savings rates and quasi-arithmetic population growth under exhaustible resource constraints. CESInfo Working Paper No. 1573

Ellis, K., Cantore, N., Keane, J., Peskett, L., Brown, D. & te Velde, D. (2010). Growth in a carbon constrained global economy. Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=4984&title=growth-carbon-constrained-global-economy

Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from  http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
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History of Human Civilization the Scientific Revolution

Words: 2161 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52464720

history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.

Studies and…… [Read More]

References

Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.

History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com.
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Taxes Direct Democracy and Federalism

Words: 1986 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18339951

This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off of the government. (Wolf, 2005)

How might a socialist and a capitalist government differ in its treatment of the problem of unemployment?

Socialists want to see massive amounts of government spending to create new jobs, training programs and provide unemployment benefits. A capitalist is opposed to these kinds of programs and believes that charities / private enterprises can address these issues.

In your opinion, should the government have the responsibility of providing health care for every citizen? Why or why not?

Yes, the government should provide health care. The reason why is because prices are increasing exponentially and the number of uninsured is rising. These factors are a sign that there is very little competition inside the sector. To address these…… [Read More]

References

2012 Puerto Rico Statehood Amendment. (2012). Boards. Retrieved from:  http://www.boards.ie/vbulletin/showthread.php?p=77582334 

Commerce Clause. (2012). Britannica. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/127865/commerce-clause

Principles of Constitutional Construction. (2010). Constitution.org. Retrieved from:  http://constitution.org/cons/prin_cons.htm 

Sin Taxes. (2005). Six Taxes. Connecticut Voices for Children. Retrieved from: http://www.ctkidslink.org/publications/bud05sintax02.pdf
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What Potential Entrepreneurs Should Know

Words: 1455 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33369477

Entrepreneurs Should Know bout Federal Taxes for Corporations

ll corporations are subject to the corporate income tax on their net income. Taxable income is the gross income of the corporation, less the deductions allowed. Major sources of corporate income include: gross profits from sales; dividends received; interest; rents; royalties; and gains and losses. Still, there can be other factors that must also be considered in determining the corporation's income. There include: receipts that are actually contributions to capital; property distributions received by the corporation; rentals paid to shareholders of a leasing corporation; and income from a sinking fund.

Each business's tax liability is based on a graduated tax rate scale. Depending on individual factors, a corporation may also be subject to penalty taxes in addition to their regular income tax. The form of business that is operated determines what taxes must be paid. The four general kinds of business taxes…… [Read More]

Adam Smith believed that there should be limitations on what corporations should and shouldn't be allowed to get away with. He pinpointed a solution to the complex nature of taxes -- a simple and fair system that minimizes compliance and administrative costs. The U.S. tax code has one of the most complex tax codes in the world, which has become a burden on its economy. Smith's ideas should be used by the U.S. To design a tax code that would ease the collection burden and force interest groups to look for money elsewhere.

Appendix A Corporate Income Tax Rates -- 2002

Taxable income over Not over Tax rate
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Slavery Among Women and Children

Words: 2646 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18732287

Globalization and Social/Human Injustices

Human slavery/sex trafficking

The menace of slavery and trafficking for purpose of sexual exploitation is a menace that greatly neglected or not talked about by the high and mighty yet it is a problem that ravages families on a daily basis. Across the globe, there are people who benefit from the modern day slavery and there are countries that act as source, most of them being the underdeveloped nations where poverty is high and unemployment is also significantly high. These two factors when combined, often push affected families to willingly or otherwise let go of their daughters into the forced labor or sex slavery in more developed nations. The women and children are the most affected groups in the slavery business since they are the most vulnerable in the society. Against the common belief that slavery is obsolete, the opening up of more borders and easy…… [Read More]

References

Buchholz T.G., (2007). New Ideas from Dead Economists. An Introduction't Modern Economic Thought. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://www.docdroid.net/miuc/newideas-deadeconomists.pdf.html

French H.W., (2013). The Not-So-Great Professor: Jeffrey Sachs' Incredible Failure to Eradicate Poverty in Africa. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://www.psmag.com/navigation/books-and-culture/smart-guy-jeffrey-sachs-nina-munk-idealist-poverty-failure-africa-65348/

Gates Foundation, (2012). Theo Sowa: We Need the Voices of African Women-TEDxChange. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfIQgPb7pQs

ForaTv, (2008). Muhammad Yunus: The Social Business Model. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0C3XQ3BTd4o
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International Trade Mercantilism Is the

Words: 368 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51814525

The primary advantage of trade, he argued, was that it opened up new markets for surplus goods and also provided some commodities at less cost from abroad than at home.

Mass perception of free trade in the United States is rarely positive. Immediately, people think of lost jobs and our growing trade deficit instead of the free trade promises of a higher standard of living brought about by the theory of comparative advantage and economies of scale. Therefore, many feel that free trade makes this country worse off.

ibliography

Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available:

http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).

David Hume (1711-76)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Hume.html (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).

Mercantalism." Available:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercantilist (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005)

David Hume (1711-76)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Hume.html (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).

Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available:

http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html (Accessed 19…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available:

 http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html  (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).

David Hume (1711-76)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available:  http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Hume.html  (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).

Mercantalism." Available:
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Economy Design Features of My

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5600429

S. consumers. Although the government should not support protectionism and protect inefficient American industries simply because they are American, it should require that companies selling products in the U.S. Or even partially based in the U.S. meet certain basic human rights standards (no slave labor, for example) and safety standards. This is necessary to protect U.S. consumers and also to ensure that America's reputation for freedom as well as economic growth is sustained.

Redistributing income

Some unintentionally redistributive effects, such retaining a progressive income tax system to help poorer families survive while still remaining part of the workforce seem to be beneficial and necessary. Making charitable contributions tax-deductible is also an excellent idea to encourage redistributive effects, but no government can or should engineer a system where everyone is the same economically, without taking away the incentive to work.

Individualistic minimum

However, government production would be acceptable when private marginal…… [Read More]

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Marx Weber Politics Economy and

Words: 1208 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94881364

. . ' Their authority may only be of the order and breadth determined by the Idea of the whole; they may only 'originate from its might'. That things should be so lies in the Idea of the organism. But in that case it would be necessary to show how all this might be achieved. For conscious reality must hold sway within the state." (Marx, 77)

This suggests that independence is a pathway to authoritarian tyranny, whereas the 'might' of the state is accorded only by a collective population supporting this right. this resonates most closely with my own personal perspective, denoting something of a universal order in which central authority is necessary to retain civility but in which collectivism is elevated over materialism as a way of empowering such leadership.

2.

The spread of capitalism as both a chief ideology and an aggressive response to the mores of socialism…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Eksteins, M. (2000). Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age. Mariner Books.

Gerth, H.H.; Mills, C.W. & Weber, M. (1958). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Oxford University Press.

Hachmeister, L. (2006). The Goebbels Experiment. First Run Features.

Marx, K. (1992). Early Writings. Penguin Classics.
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Obesity in Bellingham WA a

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38967722

The other 48 have their own standards and only 2/3 of them require, according to the 2010 report of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This report said that almost 2/3 of high school students do not get enough exercise and more than a third watch TV for at least 3 hours a day. The report recommends students to perform PE or at least an hour each day, 150 minutes a week for elementary-age students, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students. Washington State schools are required 100 minutes of PE per week in the first to 8th grades. However, they are not required daily recess or a report card for each school. It also recommends that PE classes be handled by certified and licensed PE teachers. ut this is not always complied with. In 2010, parents sued the school board for allowing non-certified specialists to…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CDC (2011). Overweight and obesity. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: National Center for Chronic Disease, Prevention and Health Promotion.

Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/stateprograms/fundedstates/washington.html

-. Strategies and solutions. Retrieved on April 14, 2012 from  http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/solutions.html 

- (2010). National obesity trends. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
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Economics of Public Policy

Words: 4599 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40440193

Monopolies and Trusts:

Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?

Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…… [Read More]

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Marx on Labor Heilbroner's Honesty at the

Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57541915

Marx on Labor

Heilbroner's honesty at the onset of his writing on Karl Marx reveals the flaws and distortion contained within the often complex, if not mystical tone of Marx's philosophy. The admitted sheer immensity of work produced by Marx and his partner Engels cannot be completely understood. The author confessed " the collected works compromise forty volumes, each 700-1000 pages in length. I have no room for many documents of great historical importance." This dismissal is proof of the limited value of Marx and his theory. Cherry picking this and that from any collection suggests an inconsistency, if not cloaking, of the true essence of Marx's art.

Regardless of the irrationality behind the author's analysis, there are still worthwhile ideas contained within the writing. The alignment of Marx and Adam Smith's appreciation for the value of labor and the corresponding explanations of each demonstrated a quality of humanity in…… [Read More]

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Political Science Rousseau's Doctrine of

Words: 2859 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19227637

- these actions are not punished by the law because, while immoral according to many, they do not cause injury to the rights of others.

Adam Smith further emphasizes the centrality of property rights. For Smith, the ownership and acquisition of private property is an essential right that contributes to and maintains individual well-being. Individuals who do not own property are individuals with no real say in their own affairs, and no voice in their government. Smith cites the case of the plebeians in the Roman Empire as an example of a class of people who were purposely kept from ownership of the land as a means of keeping power in the hands of the patricians.

He also makes reference to the slaves of his own day, and to residents of nations where a king may, at his own discretion, dispose of his subjects' property, as examples of conditions under…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8772886

Kant, Immanuel. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals. Trans. Thomas K. Abbott. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1949.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10553988

Locke, John. A Letter concerning Toleration. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Liberal Arts Press, 1955.
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Macro Vision of Jefferson vs

Words: 2374 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12612725



Hamilton's Arguments in Favor of the Debt and the Bank

Jefferson would have no position against witch to argue had not Hamilton made the argument for the national debt so eloquently and so forcefully. Essentially, Hamilton and Jefferson entirely disagreed on the proper course to put the nation on a prosperous track. The greatest issue was whether the multitudinous colonial debts piled up by the individual colonies during and since the war with England should, in the spirit of e pluribus unum, be taken on by the federal government.

Hamilton postulated that the assumption of these colonies' - now states' - debts was essential to make the nation a credible, operating reality, deserving of trust in seeking credit from other countries. Also, Hamilton felt that "monied men" - those wealthy Americans who had made the loans to the state governments and how had in many instances not been paid yet…… [Read More]

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Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.
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Economic Society and New World

Words: 2145 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40030140

(Zinn 8)

Human societies within the context of civilization most always are organized into deference periods. The Constitution is a product of worldviews developed within such a limited paradigm, as paradigms tend to be, whether individuals -- including the Founders -- were and are aware of it. This condition, in part, touches on what Heilbroner frames as "The Unresolved Problem of Economic Power." He accepts that the wonderful free market system of Adam Smith is tainted by "giant oligopoly." The logic positing the market economy "as the servant of the consumer," therefore, might as well be null-and-void, but, still, "the emergence of these new attributes," Heilbroner argues, "can be seen as new functional mechanisms for the support of that system." (Heilbroner 18)

To make natural the influence of "giant oligopolies" to the free-market economy, Heilbroner borrows examples from the world of advertising and the manipulation of consumer wants. He admits…… [Read More]

3. Chomsky, Noam. (3 March 1993) Notes of NAFTA: "The Masters of Man." The Nation.

4. Zinn, Howard. (1980) a People's History of the United States. Boston: HarperPerennial

5. ____. (1997) Britain and America: Studies in Comparative History 1760-1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Weber and Marx on Labor in the

Words: 2981 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67220502

eber and Marx on Labor

In the 19th century, leading social theorists such as Karl Marx and Max eber believed that because its many inherent contradictions, the capitalist system would inevitably fall into a decline.

More than a century later, however, the capitalist system is far from dead. Rather, it appears to be further entrenched, encircling the world in the stranglehold of globalization.

Despite the continued growth of capitalism, however, this paper argues that both Marx and eber's writings remain relevant to explaining many aspects of advanced industrial capitalism. In this paper, the Marx and eber's writings on estranged labor are explored in detail, to examine if the labor theories both men used to analyze capitalism and the plight of workers in the 19th century can also be applied to 21st century capitalism.

The first part of this paper discusses Marx's theory of estranged labor, as written in The Economic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alarcon-Gonzales, Diana and Terry McKinley, "The adverse effects of structural adjustments on working women in Mexico" Latin American Perspectives, 26, 3, May 1999, 103-117. Available from Proquest Database.

A ore, Tom, ed. A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Second Edition. London: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

Coser, Louis. Masters of Sociological Thought. New York: Harcourt Brace Janovich, 1977.

Lee, Matthew T. And Ermann, David. "Pinto madness as a flawed landmark narrative: an organization of and network analysis." Social Problems, Feb 1999 v46 i1 p30(1). Proquest Database.
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Future of Capitalism

Words: 3549 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6749909

Future of Capitalism

Current Economic Crisis according to Schumpeter and Keynes

A justification of the economic crisis can be precisely explained by shedding light on the perspectives of famous economists. The information gained through this method will not only be informative but will also motivate further research. The two economic theorists chosen are Joseph Schumpeter and John Maynard Keynes (Blankenburg & Palma, 2009). Their thoughts appear to be most pertinent to this crisis. Keynes presents a very keen insight into the crisis through his rationalization of market psychology and concentration on cumulative demand. On the other hand, Schumpeter's thought on improvement and business cycle offers a different informative justification.

The existing economic crisis has its origin rooted in the assumption about the real estate sector. The review of the incidents that have happened, began with the permission of quite low interest rates to financial institutions for borrowing. By a small…… [Read More]

References

Audretsch, D.B., & Link, A.N. (2012). Entrepreneurship and innovation: public policy frameworks. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(1), 1-17.

Bezemer, D.J. (2009). "No One Saw This Coming": Understanding Financial Crisis Through Accounting Models. Routledge.

Bibow, J. (2009). Keynes on monetary policy, finance and uncertainty: Liquidity preference theory and the global financial crisis. Routledge.

Bichler, S., & Nitzan, J. (2010). Systemic fear, modern finance and the future of capitalism.
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Outsourcing and the Global Economy

Words: 2205 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24491068

By not offering an artificial incentive to stay in business (the subsidy), product would not have been over-produced and wasted (perhaps an environmental impact), new and in-demand skills would have been acquired, real demands would have been met, and the price for those demands would have fallen (helping the consumer). Thus, by removing the artificial barrier to real and free trade (perhaps influenced by political pressure), economic well-being is ensured for all parties.

Now, consider labor, itself to be a similar commodity as the milk. Perhaps a certain software company employed 5000 employees to write code for a popular program. However, due to better education, increased drive, and longer work days in another country, the company could instead employ 1000 employees abroad (i.e. through "outsourcing"). Given the right political and legal conditions, the company could either allow fewer foreign employees to do the same work, or allow more employees to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cannan, Edwin. Ed. Smith, John. (1994). "The Wealth of Nations." Modern Library, New York.

Federal Reserve Board (2005). "Remarks by Alan Greenspan on Globalization." States News Service. Retrieved from Web site on July 2, 2005, from,  http://www.knowledgeplex.org/news/78622.html 

Grard, Larry. (2002). "Farmington, Maine, Dairy Farmers Hope Milk Dumping Will Lead to New Contract." Portland Press Herald. 11 Nov. Retrieved from WIU Library, http://web4.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/infomark/743/228/69930978w4/purl=rc1_ITOF_0_CJ120064363&dyn=3!xrn_2_0_CJ120064363?sw_aep=uphoenix

Joyce, Helen. (2001). "Adam Smith and the Invisible Hand." +Plus Magazine. March. Retrieved from Web site on July 3, 2005, from, http://plus.maths.org/issue14/features/smith/
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History of Economic Thought

Words: 2814 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79839236

socialist economic thought and that of Marx

Socialist Economic Theories

In order to develop the different theories of socialist economic thought and that of Marx, we look at a description of the contributions by different socialists in the field of economics. These socialists include Sismondi, Proudhon, Godwin, Owen, and Ricard. We also look further into Marx's economic thoughts and his contributions to the history of economic thought.

Sismondi and Proudhon

The socialists made significant contributions to shaping the history of economic thought in the former half of the 19th century. They developed a set of fairly similar doctrines, despite a diversity of cultural backgrounds and approaches to economics. The element that unified these authors was the Ricardian economic thought that was felt, at diverse levels and in diverse ways, by all of the socialist economists belonging to the age, from Sismondi, Owen, and Rodbertus to Proudhon and the economists labeled…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Medema, Steven and Samuels, Warren, Eds. The History of Economic Thought: A Reader. 2nd Edition. London: Routledge, 2013. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?id=Kac2ipOWHk8C&pg=RA1-PT1078&dq=Medema,+Steven+and+Warren+Samuels.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dpAxVceuD8bboATDwoHgDg&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Medema%2C%20Steven%20and%20Warren%20Samuels.&f=false

Screpanti, Ernesto and Stefano Zamagi. An Outline of the History of Economic Thought . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.

Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976, Vol. I. 50. Print.

Takenaga, Susumu. Structure of the Theory of Value of David Ricardo. Tokyo: University of Daitobunka, n.d. Retrieved from: http://www.bing.com/search?q=Takenaga%2C+Susumu.+Structure+of+the+Theory+of+Value+of+David+Ricardo.&form=U303DF&pc=U303
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Secularization on Scientific Theory in

Words: 2640 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77205887

The industrialist 19th-century Europeans frequently put this to the difference between private and state-sponsored religion. In 1837, an Austrian visitor to the United States observed:

In America, every clergyman may be said to do business on his own account, and under his own firm. He alone is responsible for any deficiency in the discharge of his office, as he is alone entitled to all the credit due to his exertions. He always acts as principal, and is therefore more anxious, and will make greater efforts to obtain popularity, than one who serves for wages (Powell 1967).

This should be no surprise to those who have seen populations stick to their religions despite sanctions from the state, such as in Poland. At the time of the fall of the erlin Wall, Polish participation in Catholic ceremonies was quite high; after independence and the establishment of an official relationship with the state,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.

Bazillon, R.J. The Zollverein 1834-1870. Historical Report, Leiden: Leiden University, 2007.

Clout, H.C. "An Historical Geography of Europe 1800-1914." Geographical Review, 1987: 115-117.

Diderot, J. Encyclopedie. Paris: Andre le Breton, 1743.
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History of Economics Is a

Words: 4610 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17851639

These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25)

It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available. This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches. Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available. (History of Economics Society, 25)

History…… [Read More]

References

Canterbery, E. Ray. A Brief History of Economics: Artful Approaches to the Dismal

Science. World Scientific. 2001.

History of Economics Society. Complexity and the history of economic thought: Selected

Papers from the... Routledge. 2000.
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What Is the Market-State

Words: 3079 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24148627

Market-State

oth Phillip obbit and Richard Robison offer accounts of what a market-state is. obbit contends that the core features of the market-state are a crisis of the nation-state, a transformation of core state functions, relations of national states to transnational markets, and cosmopolitan culture. Finance is at the center of the culture, the money economy. Governments are more centralized but weaker because power is allocated by the money men, the banks, the managers of finance and capital, and governments are merely their footstools. According to Robison, on the other hand, market-states are neo-liberal, techno-managerial and instrumental, and citizens are clients and consumers. oth describe the materialistic, consumerist society, yet each has its own theoretical approach and unique conceptualization. This paper will compare obbit's and Robison's accounts of market-states and use the writings of Smith, Keynes, Marx and others to help illustrate the nature of the two.

Differences of What…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bobbit, P (2011) The Shield of Achilles: War, Peace, and the Course of History, NY:

Anchor Books

Keynes, JM (1920) The Economic Consequences of the Peace, NY: Harcourt Brace.

Pabst, A (2010) The Crisis of Capitalist Democracy, Telos 152: 44-67.
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Market in Marxist Political Economy

Words: 3905 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95015033



An important contribution to the market ideology is that the authors recognized the existence of a relationship between employment and the market. This relationship was based on that the employment, the division of labor and the "human material progress had proceed in parallel with the growth of the market." Otherwise put, there existed a direct relationship between the market and the employment, with the market being the feature which set the tone. An increase of the market would generate an increase in employment and vice versa. However, an increase or decrease in employment would not affect the market as the relationship between the two is unilateral.

Engels, Moore and Jones believed that the future successful implementation of the communist policies would see no major use of the market; "in the society of the future, there would be no mediation through the market. Wealth would satisfy needs directly. It would be…… [Read More]

References

Callinicos, a., 2004, the Revolutionary Ideas of Karl Marx, 3rd Edition, Bookmarks Publication Ltd.

Engels, F., Marx, K., 2006, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, Mondial

Groenwegen, P.D., 2003, Classics and Moderns in Economics: Essays on Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Economic Thought, Routledge

Marx, K., 2005, the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, Mondial