168 results for “Adolf Hitler”.
Adolf Hitler. This name is a symbol of bloody terror, symbol of wars and millions of casualties as a result. Everybody in the world knows the name of the cruelest dictator in history. Adolf Hitler. We know the price of his politics and his attitude to people.
Historians always discuss one question about this unusual personality. How did it happen that such evil creature absolutely legally received political power in one of the most civilized European countries? Let us try to find out how charisma and leadership helped Hitler to become a Chancellor and Fuhrer.
First of all we have to pay attention to his speaking skills that made him so popular. We should admit that he was excellent orator. When you listen to his speeches you feel he is a strong and self-confident personality, you feel strong energy of his rude words. His speaking skills are amazing. He knew…
Rosenbaum, Ron 1999. Explaining Hitler: The Search of the Origins of His Evil Perennial
Marrus, Micheal R. 1989.The Holocaust of History. New York: A Meridian Book.
What could the Allied nations have done to prevent the Holocaust or to stop it once it began?
There has been much discussion regarding what the Allied nations could have done to prevent the Holocaust or to stop it once it began. With the benefit of 20/20 hindsight, one theory has included the bombing of the largest gas chambers of the Nazi regime -- Auschwitz -- as one of the possible efforts that would've saved lives. Clearly, Allied bombings had a significant impact on the eventual winning of World War II, but some theorize that had the gas chambers been actually bombed, the more than million people who lost their lives in these execution rooms may have been saved.
A fleet of American bombers dropped more than one thousand bombs on the Auschwitz factory areas, on August 20, 1944. A few weeks later, on September 13th, the U.S. bombers…
Encyclopaedia Britannica "George Smith Patton." (2009). Online; available from http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-9058757 [accessed 12 May 2009].
Encyclopaedia Britannica "Holocaust." (2009). Online; available from http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-9040821 [accessed 12 May 2009].
Encyclopaedia Britannica "Holocaust: The Extermination Camps." (2009). Online. Available from http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-215490 [accessed 12 May 2009].
Medoff, R. "New Evidence Concerning the Allies and Auschwitz." American Jewish History 89, no. 1 (March, 2001). p. 91-102.
Hitler was also politically astute. He understood that "power lay with the masses." (Bullock 55) Therefore, if he was to obtain the allegiance of the people he would have to do so through the subtle use of propaganda. "The Key, Hitler became convinced, lay in propaganda." (Bullock 55) He therefore devoted a great deal of thought and time into developing his understanding of propaganda. This can be seen in his book Mein Kampf, where an entire chapter is devoted to war propaganda.
He also played on a number of themes to advance his aims. One of these was the illusion that he was a man of the people. This served to convince the general public that he had the same experiences, desires and goals as they had. As Bullock and others point out, he had in reality very little concern or fellow-feeling for the ordinary German citizen (Bullock 69/70).…
Bullock a. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. London: Penguin.1952.
National Socialist Germany. October 7, 2009.
Propaganda. October 7, 2009.
Apparently, Hitler had undergone major transformations subsequent to being hospitalized there and after having been treated by a psychiatrist. (Coolidge, Davis, Segal)
One of the factors which had influenced the experts into questioning Hitler's mental status has been that Hitler had troubles in making decisions.
During his last days, Hitler had expressed excessive paranoia by fearing that everyone had been lying to him and that there was a conspiracy created in order for his own men to deliver him into the hands of Germany's enemies. His restlessness was increased by the assassination attempt that had taken place not long before.
Psychologists that had analyzed Adolf Hitler had found several reasons for his supposed madness. Apart from considering his dead brother, his sexual deviances, his hospitalization in Pasewalk, some believe that Hitler had also been a creation of the German society of the time.
Reasons like alcohol or drug use, and…
Coolidge, Frederick, Davis, Felicia, Segal, Daniel. (2007) Individual Differences Research. Understanding Madmen: A DSM-IV Assessment of Adolf Hitler. Retrieved December 9, 2008, at http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citapa.htm
It appears that while the opinion of Hitler became worse during his Chancellorship election, it became a foregone conclusion after the rise of the Nazi party itself. Many nations believed at the time, that the Nazi's were a "phase" for the German epublic, which would eventually repudiate its xenophobic policies and demagogue leadership of Hitler.
Understanding of what it meant in large picture
In the larger picture the rise of Hitler as the German Chancellor was extremely important to the context of world history within the 20th century. Once Hitler became Chancellor he was able to foil all attempts for a party to gain a majority within the Legislature. As a result, the President was forced to dissolve the eichstag for elections and campaigning. During the interim, the eichstag was burned to the ground and the blame placed upon a Dutch communist who was inside the building. These events led…
Rabbis Fear Hitler as Enemy of Jews." New York Times 31 Jan. 1933. 9 Oct. 2007. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10610F73D5F1A7A93C4A91789D85F478385F9 .
The Times, Saturday, Feb 11, 1933; pg. 9; Issue 46366; col B
Herr Hitler on His Mission the Salvation of the German People FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT
Adolf Hitler vs. Joseph Stalin
Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin are two individuals that most people think about when they come across terms like genocide, warfare, and absurd cruelty. These people demonstrated that it is actually possible for a human being in the twentieth century to influence millions of others into adopting hostile attitudes in regard to morality. Although the two fought against each-other and influenced many others in doing so, they are not as different as one might be inclined to consider that they are. Their character and their obsession with power made it possible for both of them to enter the pages of history as the cruelest individuals of all times.
Hitler and Stalin were raised in critical conditions and they witnessed events that influenced them in employing extremist attitudes. Stalin emerged during the Russian Revolution while Hitler came into the public's attention as he started to express…
Cooley, Thomas, "The Norton Sampler: Short Essays for Composition," Pennsylvania State University, 2010
Thatcher, Ian, "Nazism and Stalinism: Ian Thatcher Argues That Surface Similarities between the Regimes of Hitler and Stalin Disguise Deep-Seated Differences,"History Review
Hitler Created Anti-Semitic Laws
Adolf Hitler is often viewed as the poster-child of anti-Semitism. ut to understand why this is so we should look at why Hitler created so many anti-Semitic laws. I believe that Hitler created many anti-Semitic laws because, as Paul Johnson notes, anti-Semitism 'was to him a complete explanation of the world'.
In other words, Hitler made laws that expressed his concept of the world. y the 1920s, Europe, Russia and the United States had seen the spread of the Protocols of Zion. These Protocols were said to be the blueprint of the Jewish plot to take control of the world. Anti-Semitism in Europe, Russia, and the United States was a natural reaction to the Protocols. So it is no surprise to find that the Nazis under Hitler made anti-Semitic laws 'the centre and end of their programme (though they varied the emphasis according to their audience).'…
'The Great War.' PBS. 2004. Web. 20 Dec 2011
Haffner, Sebastian. The Meaning of Hitler. NY: Macmillan, 2004.
Jarecki, Eugene. The American Way of War. NY: Free Press, 2008.
Johnson, Paul. A History of the Jews. NY: Harper and Row, 1988.
The Treaty was the agreement in Europe after World War I. It stipulated that Germany could not produce military machinery, so by ignoring it, Hitler created a massive invasion force by the time he was ready to invade Poland, and Britain and France essentially ignored the process, allowing it to continue (Kreis, 2004). Hitler's real aim was not to conquer France and England, he wanted ussia. He refused any alliances that ussia offered before the war, and he thought when France surrendered, England would soon follow and that he could concentrate all his manpower and focus on ussia (Weinberg, 1996, p. 158-160).
The war really began in March 1938, when Hitler forced Austria to join Germany, and then he went after the German-speaking areas of Czechoslovakia. Historian Kreis continues, "The area also contained key industries and was vital to the protection of Czechoslovakia. Without this area heavily fortified Czechoslovakia could…
Editors. (2009). Adolph Hitler. Retrieved 20 April 2009 from the Wikipedia.org Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler .
Kreis, S. (2004). Hitler and World War Two. Retrieved 20 April 2009 from the HistoryGuide.org Web site: http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture11.html .
Murphy, D.M., & White, J.F. (2007). Propaganda: Can a word decide a war? Parameters, 37(3), 15+.
Tooze, A. (2006, November). Hitler's gamble? Did Hitler intend to provoke a general war over Poland in September 1939 or was it a serious miscalculation? History Today, 56, 22+.
His rage was motivated by something else, something more personal; indeed, from the point-of-view of Adolf Hitler, the Second World War was merely an extension of "Mein Kampf" (my struggle). No sane leader would have dared to take on the leader of the free world at that point in time. By declaring war on the United States of America at that point in the war, Hitler was effectively taking on the Soviet Union, the British Empire, and the United States all at once. The United States was the world's greatest industrial and financial power, the Brits claimed the world's largest empire at the time, and the Soviet Union boasted the world's largest army. There was no way Germany was prepared to fight for this war, as they were not even capable of providing their soldiers with adequate clothing and supplies against the harsh ussian climate.
It is clear that Hitler…
Adolf Hitler was born in Austria on April 20, 1889. From an early age he wanted to be an artist, though he also considered entering the clerical life and becoming a priest (Shirer). His father was a practical man and wanted to see his son enter into government service and eke out a decent living for himself. His father had not had much luck with work, having tried farming and various other activities, and had been required to keep moving his family from place to place. Hitler did not have a practical vision, however. He was moved by a romantic vision of life and, deciding against the applying to the clergy, he insisted on becoming an artist, much to his father’s displeasure. Hitler relied upon his mother for moral support and when his father died in 1903, Hitler’s mother permitted him to leave school and pursue training…
But there cannot be any doubt that in harnessing that energy to extraordinary projects and horrible crimes, Hitler placed his stamp on that war and on the twentieth century. (einberg)
He captures it succinctly in that we cannot think of war, rulers, and mass murder without attaching those thoughts to Adolf Hitler. A smart man with a deadly mission means trouble and Hitler shows us why. He was able to catch waves of people at a time when they needed something to believe in and convince them that he was their answer. He was, in one word, evil. He used people's fear against them; he killed indiscriminately; he believed that he was right. These are just a few traits that make Hitler stand out as one of the most evil and detestable individuals to walk the earth.
Adolf Hitler." Encyclopedia of orld Biography. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed…
Adolf Hitler." Encyclopedia of World Biography. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed March 28, 2008. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/
Bessel, Richard and Kershaw, Ian. "Hitler and the Germans: Life in the Third Reich." EBSCO History Resource Database. Site Accessed March 28, 2008. http://search.epnet.com
Evans, Richard J. "Hitler's Dictatorship." EBSCO History Resource Database. Site Accessed March 28, 2008.
The way in which Hitler took over Germany was very open, but yet it was not thwarted by others in the political realm. By the time they realized what was taking place, it was already done.
Hindenburg was still president of Germany at that time, but right before he died a law was passed that the presidency would be abolished with his death, and all power over the government and the country would go to the chancellor (Hitler) (Benderwky, 62). This was a very insidious way to get the remaining power that he was still lacking, and it provided him with completely political and legal control over Germany and its people. In 1934, Hitler told a reporter how people had laughed at him 15 years prior, when he stated that he would become ruler of Germany (McNab, 70). At that time, he said he would remain in power, and his…
Aigner, Dietrich. Hitler's ultimate aims -- A programme of world dominion? In Koch, H.W. Aspects of the Third Reich. London: MacMillan. 1985. Print.
Bendersky, Joseph W. A History of Nazi Germany: 1919 -- 1945. NY: Rowman & Littlefield. 2000. Print.
Maser, Werner. Hitler: Legend, Myth, Reality. London: Allen Lane. 1973. Print.
McNab, Chris. The Third Reich. NY: Amber Books Ltd. 2009. Print.
The latter was an important member of this party, and also a staunch anti-Semite. The association with Eckart therefore further solidified Hitler's prejudice against Jews and other non-Aryan races (Fuchs 12)
Like many Germans, Hitler was deeply shocked by Germany's surrender. At the time, he was lying in a military hospital, recovering from a mustard gas attack. Recalling the anti-Semitic and political pamphlets he read as a teenager, Hitler came to believe that Jewish politicians had signed the armistice, thereby surrendering Germany at the point of victory (Schwaab 46).
The German surrender thus served as a catalyst for Hitler's entry into politics
Hitler believed that these Jewish politicians were preparing the way for a communist takeover of the German nation.
Shortly after meeting Eckart, Hitler produced his first anti-Semitic writing, advocating for a solution to the growing German problem. Hitler's solution involved "rational anti-Semitism." He vowed not to use traditional…
Fuchs, Thomas. A Concise Biography of Adolf Hitler. Boston: Berkly, 2000
Haffner, Sebastian. The Meaning of Hitler.
Boston: Harvard University Press, 2004
Housden, Martyn. Hitler: Biography of a Revolutionary? New York: Routledge, 2000.
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…
"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current
File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03
In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.
It started in the fall of 1932, Evans explains; Jewish businesses were bombed, Jewish synagogues and other Jewish places were destroyed. In the weeks after Hitler's appointment as Reich Chancellor "…stormtroopers broke into synagogues and desecrated the religious furniture, smashed the windows of Jewish shops, and subjected Jews to random acts of humiliation," like forcing them to drink castor oil and shaving their beards forcibly in public, Evans goes on.
The Jewish judges and lawyers were not spared from this violence. All over Germany, the Nazi stormtroopers "burst into courthouses… dragged Jewish judges and lawyers out of the proceedings and beat them up…" (Evans). It is hard to imagine the horror that participants must have experience during court proceedings, to have armed storm troopers burst in and grab the judge, drag him into the street and beat him. Of all the outrageously violent and terrifying events in Nazi Germany --…
Barsam, Richard Meran. 1975. Filmguide to Triumph of the Will. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
Evans, Richard J. 2005. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Books.
Hegi, Ursula. 2000. Stones from the River. Madison, WI: Demco Media.
Hitler, Adolph. 1926. Mein Kampf. Retrieved May 30, 2011, from http://www.hitler.org /writings/Mein_Kampf.
Marie Corelli writes in her article: Poisoning Young Minds in Nazi Germany: Children and Propaganda in the Third Reich about a math problem taught in the German schools under the Nazi regime: "The Jews are aliens in Germany -- in 1933 there were 66,060,000 inhabitants in the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the percent of aliens?"(Corelli, 2002).
Another important age group, the youth, received full attention from the part of the Nazis and the first youth organization was established in 1922 and was called the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler. It went through a series of transformations and had several different names, till it finally became the name: Hitler Yugend. y 1935 over a half of the total German youth was member of this organization. After 1939 it became compulsory for the young Germans to join the organization.
It is obvious that children, young people, mothers were only…
1. Eher, Franz. On the German People and Its Territory.Nazi Propaganda: 1933-1945. 2007. Retrieved: Oct. 21, 2007. Available at http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/hjhandbuch.htm
2. Spielvogel, Jackson J. Hitler and Nazi Germany a History 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. 2004
3. Welch, David. The Third Reich Politics and Propaganda 2nd edition. London. Routledge. 2002.
Prior to compulsory membership the belief was that membership would serve to advance them in the world around them which was quickly evolving and on a basis of "uniformity and solidarity." (Kater, 2004) Just as in American civic organizations for youth whom enjoyed wearing "spiffy uniforms" the same can be said of the German youth. As well the satisfaction in belonging to a safe community that was dominant in the world around them and that offered protection the participation in camping, marching, and communal singing in groups was appealing to these youth and the presence of the "omniscient and omnipotent father, Adolf Hitler, who provided immense guarantees of safety at a time shaken by continued economic depression and recurrent fears of war." (Kater, 2004)
V. und Deutscher Madel (MD) - the League of German Girls
Included in the Hitler Youth groups were the DM which was established in 1930 and…
Bund Deutscher Madel (BDM) the League of German Girls (2009) Jewish Virtual Library Online available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/BDM.html
Dearn, Alan and Sharp, Elizabeth (2006) the Hitler Youth 1933-45 Osprey Publishing, 2006. Google Books online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=EP54o1ERi9cC
Kater, Michael H. (2004) Hitler Youth. Harvard University Press, 2004. Google Books online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=v9xJPe0QchcC
Abraham Ascher was a noted author of history and distinguished Professor Emeritus at City University of New York until his death in 2012. is scholarly article in The Journal of the istorical Society discusses in great depth the failure of European leaders to recognize the harmful intentions of Adolf itler and the Third Reich -- until it was too late.
Ascher points out with well-crafted narrative and well-verified sources that itler should not have been a riddle at all -- albeit the Nazi leader had a "penchant for contradictory pronouncements" and few European leaders had read Mein Kampf -- because all the signs showed itler's villainous obsession with power and his ability to stir up extreme nationalistic emotions (Ascher, 2009).
The purpose that Ascher had in writing the article was to carefully, thoroughly review the way in which European leaders (in particular, British leaders) came to slowly understand itler's…
Here are quotes that present the principal supporting arguments from Ascher vis-a-vis Britain's appeasement policies: a) officials in London (in 1938) "…shied away from confronting him as a leader unscrupulous in the pursuit of his goal, the enhancement of Germany's Power" (p. 14); b) ambassador Nevile Henderson reported (1938) that Hitler "…may have crossed the border-line of insanity" (p. 16) and yet Henderson also said Hitler "hates war as much as anyone" (p. 17); c) Prime Minister (PM) Neville Chamberlain was "the chief architect of appeasement"; and after visiting with Hitler three times in September, 1938, the PM said Hitler could be "relied upon when he had given his word" (p. 17-18); d) "It had taken Chamberlain over six years" to fully understand what "Rumbold and Phipps" had been saying (p. 19); and e) had the advice of ambassadors in the early 1930s been "heeded" the British "could have stopped Hitler… history of the twentieth century might well have been different…" (p. 19).
Critique on the article: Ascher makes his points without using emotional language, and every new point is logically linked to the last point. The author's juxtapositions (pointing to Hitler's madman outbursts contrasted with Britain's apparent indifference to vividly presented dispatches from its ambassadors) are very effective. I really enjoyed reading this article and most of the points Ascher makes are credible. I most certainly bought into his narrative approach to identifying appeasement towards Hitler. The article achieves its goal and there were only a couple points in his conclusion that were less than totally believable.
In conclusion, as Ascher points out in his last pages, and as this paper points out, if the leaders of Western Europe had heeded the dispatches from Britain's ambassadors in the early 1930s, things might have been different. However, I do feel that Ascher's last paragraph was very speculative and uncharacteristic of the rest of the piece. That is, even if Europe had been totally up to speed early on what Hitler was planning, there is -- contrary to Ascher's assertion -- absolutely no assurance that using economic measures against the Nazis would have stopped Hitler's war machine. Yes, there was a failure of "political will" but hindsight is indeed 20-20 and there is absolutely no certainty that had those ambassadors' warnings been transitioned into Britain's foreign policies that Hitler could have been stopped. Hitler was not a riddle, but explaining how and why early assessments of his fanaticism were ignored is a kind of riddle itself.
Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Austria, just near the country's border from Germany. He lived a life in poverty during his childhood and adolescent years. After his parents died, he lived his life alone, working precariously as a painter while transferring from one place to stay to another (HTRC). According to HTRC online, the early life of Hitler is already characterized by the disturbed person that he came to be. Following are some of Hitler's characteristics (HTRC).
A inability to establish ordinary human relationships;
intolerance and hatred both of the established bourgeois world and of non-German peoples, especially the Jews; tendency to passionate, denunciatory outbursts; and a readiness to live in a world of fantasy to escape from his poverty and failure.
Adolf Hitler had been a volunteer soldier in World War I. eing in the military gave him a relief from his poverty and provided…
Grobman, Gary M. Adolf Hitler.
1990. Teacher's Guide. 23 July 2004. http://www.remember.org/guide/Facts.root.hitler.html
Sauer, Wolfgang. Hitler.
University of California, Berkeley. 23 July 2004. http://www.grolier.com/wwii/wwii_hitler.html
This included the
annexation of Czechoslovakia. He reneged on areas in Poland which had been
ceded from German in the Versailles treaty. While Britain and the Soviet
Union were unable to come to an alliance, Germany was able to develop a non-
aggression pact with Stalin, negotiated over the partitioning of Poland.
Hitler continued to work against significant disbelief on the part of the
general European public and conquered France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg
and Belgium. Hitler took advantage of Europeans disbelief that another war
to the extent degree of World War I was possible, and certainly not
possible under the restrictions placed on Germany by the Treaty of
Versailles. Hitler's victory brought France and Italy to his side.
Hitler was unable to obtain air superiority over Britain, despite
blistering attacks on British cities. The ability of the British to hold
out against the rest of Europe was a rallying cry…
Hitler's early life as well as his rise to power in Germany. This paper will discuss the Nazi Party and the start of the Second World War.
Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, in Braunau, Austria, a small town across the nn River from Germany. He was the fourth child of his father's third marriage. His father, Alois was born illegitimate and this would later have bearing on Adolf's mental state. Years later, some of Hitler's political opponents would insult him by calling him Schicklgruber or German for bastard. Adolf received good marks in elementary school, but did poorly high school. This greatly disappointed his father who wanted his son to have a career as a civil servant. nstead Adolf wanted to study art.
n 1907, Hitler went to Vienna where he wanted to be an art student. He failed the entrance examination of the Academy…
In closing, many think Adolf Hitler was a mad man. Still he displayed amazing leadership skills. He is considered one of the great villains of modern times.
World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. New York: World Book, Inc., 2003.
During this period, Austria also continued industrial expansion, but at a slower pace than Germany.
With growth came further instability. Investment and founding of new organizations exploded since 1867, with over 400 new corporations being founded (Pulzer 1964) from 1867 to 1872. This was the age of the Gruender, which meant "entrepreneur," but also came to be associated with financially shaky schemes which resulted in the bursting of a speculative bubble in 1873.
The period of the Liberal government spanned from 1867 to 1879, a period during which Austria lost its power and prestige, unemployment and economic insecurity reigned, and newly-vociferous minorities were exerting their rights to equality in language and culture. In the meantime, Germany seemed to be growing from success to success, as its liberalization engendered national unity and a growth in wealth and military power.
Conservative Ascendancy in Austria
The nature of the conservatives in Austria was…
Burant, S.R. Hungary: A Country Study. Washington: Library of Congress, 1989.
Campbell, D.P. The SHADOW of the HABSBURGS: MEMORY and NATIONAL IDENTITY in AUSTRIAN POLITICS and EDUCATION 1918-1955. PhD Thesis, College Park: University of Maryland, 2006.
Grandner, M. Conservative Social Politics in Austria, 1880-1890. Working Papaer 94-2, Vienna: University of Vienna, 1994.
Habe, H. Our Love Affair with Germany. New York: Putnam, 1953.
Contest, enter, entering. Who bravely opposed Adolf Hitler Holocaust? Use 3 simple sentence: bold, 3 complex sentences: italicize, 3 complex sentences: underline, proposal.
White ose Essay Contest Proposal
A true heroine: Miep Gies
Miep Gies is one of the great heroines of World War II. During World War II, Jewish people living in the Nazi-occupied nations lived in fear. The Nazis rounded up Jews and sent their prisoners to concentration camps. All Jews were forced to wear a yellow Star of David to identify them as Jewish. The Nazis were relentless, and there was only so much even good gentiles could do to help their fellow Jewish citizens. But the Dutch woman Miep Gies did more than the average person to help the Jewish people of Amsterdam.
The definition of a hero is someone who goes above and beyond what is expected of an average person to help others. The…
Frank, Anne. The Diary of a Young Girl. New York: Bantam, 1993.
At the same time, Hitler had very old-fashioned ideas when it came to his behavior towards the opposite sex. He believed that women belonged in the home, and had no role in public life of the Reich. Their main role was to mother racially pure Aryan children.
If Hitler were to have removed himself to a German-speaking part of Argentina in order to pursue an art career rather than remain in Europe and become leader of the Third Reich, one can only assume that he would have limited his contacts to Argentineans of German descent. Hitler felt that Jews, Slavs, and other racial "undesirables" were polluting the purity of the German race. Add to that his repressed nature that surfaced in the form of traditional attitudes towards sex and procreation, and it seems readily apparent that he would attempt to ground his Argentinean art career among German-speaking "pure" Argentineans.
Welch, David. Hitler: Profile of a Dictator (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), 79.
Victor, George. 1998. Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's), 13-20.
Victor 1988, 62.
Hitler was a good leader who sacrificed his life for the German people.
Open answer: negative assessment only.
Open answer: not only a negative assessment.
Israeli and German Students' Reactions to a Dictatorial Regime
Support the dictatorial regime
Indifferent to the dictatorial regime
Resist the dictatorial regime
Israeli and German Students' Views on the Frequency of Discussions About the Holocaust
There are too many discussions.
There are sufficient discussions.
There are not enough discussions.
There is no/hardly any discussion.
Israeli and German Students' Views on the Possible Rise of Nazism in Germany
There is no chance that someone like Hitler
41% will rise to power again in Germany. The Germans have learned a lesson from their history.
I do not believe that someone like Hitler
41% will take power again in Germany; the Germans have learned from their history, but I cannot be…
Ezell, Elizabeth D., Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, and Edward a. Tiryakian. "National Identity Issues in the New German Elites: A Study of German University Students." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 44.4 (2003): 280+. Questia. 1 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006600449 .
Marzynski, Marian. A Jew Among Germans. Film documentary, 2005. PBS: online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/germans/view/,retrieved 1 Dec. 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008550817
Shamai, Shmuel, Eran Yardeni, and Benjamin Klages. "Multicultural Education: Israeli and German Adolescents' Knowledge and Views regarding the Holocaust." Adolescence 39.156 (2004): 765+. Questia. 1 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008550817 .
e was a member of the middle-class, but his father was from the lower class. There were hints of incest in the family, and some have even suggested that itler's father was also his mother's natural father. Furthermore, it is widely reported that itler's father beat him. Therefore, the two men had very different private lives as children.
owever, the men shared common elements in their childhood. For example, itler suffered from lung problems as a child. Guevara had asthma. As a result, both men had to avoid some aspects of physical activity during their childhoods, which may have fueled their intellectual pursuits. Guevara was a voracious reader, while itler turned his attention to the arts.
Porter, Dan. 2002. The Revolutionary Cult of Che Guevara. PilotGuides.com. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/central_america_and_caribbean/cuba_and_haiti/che_guevara.php, accessed 18 September, 2007.
Coetzee, J.M. 2007. Portrait of the Monster as a Young Artist. New York: The New…
However, the men shared common elements in their childhood. For example, Hitler suffered from lung problems as a child. Guevara had asthma. As a result, both men had to avoid some aspects of physical activity during their childhoods, which may have fueled their intellectual pursuits. Guevara was a voracious reader, while Hitler turned his attention to the arts.
Porter, Dan. 2002. The Revolutionary Cult of Che Guevara. PilotGuides.com. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/central_america_and_caribbean/cuba_and_haiti/che_guevara.php , accessed 18 September, 2007.
Coetzee, J.M. 2007. Portrait of the Monster as a Young Artist. New York: The New York Review of Books. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/19851,accessed 18 September, 2007.
Nevertheless, Hitler was also perceptive enough to accept full credit for the economic turnaround and the German people readily considered Hitler to be the source.
The political success of Hitler in the years leading up to the beginning of the Second orld ar was unprecedented. He acquired territory after territory through the appeasement efforts of the leaders from the other European nations. Germany entered the 1930's a defeated and demoralized nation suffering from the effects of a major economic depression and within a few short years was transformed into a nation enjoying full employment, welcoming family and friends from the Sudetenland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia, and a renewed sense of national pride. For a people who had suffered through two decades of uncertainty and economic depravity, Hitler took upon a mythological image (Ascher).
One of the other areas that contributed heavily to the popularity of Hitler was his ability to restore…
Abel, Theodore. "The Pattern of a Successful Political Movement." American Sociological Review (1937): 347-352.
Ascher, Abraham. "Was Hitler a Riddle?" The Journal of the Historical Society (2009): 1-21.
Klemperer, Victor. I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years: 1933-1941. New York: Modern Library, 1999.
Myerson, Roger B. "Political Economics and the Weimar Disaster." Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (2004): 187-209.
World War II -- Eastern Front
While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II.
Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa
Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against…
Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
They each impacted the world in unique yet powerful ways and therefore I chose to invite these three leaders to dinner.
Hitler was of course one of the most nefarious men in history. I did not invite him to dinner to hear him rant about enemies to the Aryan people. Rather, I wanted to understand who Hitler was, to recognize what qualities could turn a human being into such a monster. Hitler was enormously successful at his military campaigns too, and I thought it would be interesting to pit him and his foe, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, together. Both impacted the course of World War Two. To Roosevelt I would like to ask more about his disability and about how he felt about the current state of affairs in America.
Similarly, I would like to ask Dr. King what he thought about America today. He would probably be proud of his…
The ban on Mein Kampf has become less effective because of the Internet. The Internet allows German citizens to access copies of Mein Kampf online. More importantly, the legal rights to Mein Kampf are controlled by the state of Bavaria. Those rights expire in 2015, at which point the book becomes public domain and may be republished at will. The German government currently faces a controversial decision: whether or not to republish Mein Kampf.
The strongest argument in favor of republishing Mein Kampf is that the book has historical and educational import. Scholars hope to publish annotated copies that clarify key facts and illustrate context. The online copies do not contain any scholastic notes that inform the reader of the false data contained in Hitler's autobiography. Just as Hitler inflated his hatred of the Jews, the autobiographical data is often "inaccurate," ("Mein Kampf: Nazi Germany"). Hitler painted a positive image…
"Mein Kampf: Nazi Germany." Spartacus International. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 from http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERmein.htm
Paterson, Tony. "German Jews want 'Mein Kampf' Reprinted.'" The Independent. 10 Aug 2009. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/german-jews-want-mein-kampf-reprinted-1769960.html
Sautter, Ursula. "Should Mein Kampf be Un-Banned?" Time. 13 Aug 2008. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 from http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1831786,00.html
Smith, David Gordon. "Should Germany Republish 'Mein Kampf'?" Spiegel Online. 17 Jul 2007. Retrieved Nov 13, 2009 from http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,494891,00.html
One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist or psychiatrist who actually examined Hitler, although his political opponents in Germany allegedly had reports from military psychiatrists in the First World War that Hitler was no promoted above private first class because of mental and emotional instability. In spite of the lacunae of evidence, Waite offered a convincing medical and psychological portrait of Hitler, and he has gathered considerable evidence to demonstrate the irrationality of his subject, who he diagnosed as a borderline psychotic. George Victor asserted in Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (2007) claimed that he had a depressive nervous breakdown in 1909 and a schizophrenic breakdown in 1918, when he was in the Pasewalk military hospital in Berlin. In A First-ate Madness, Nassir Ghaemi found that Hitler…
Ghaemi, N. (2011). A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links between Leadership and Mental Illness. Penguin Press.
Housden, M. (2000). Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.
Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton.
Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. NY: HarperCollins.
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source
Documents, History 100.
Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.
Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
King might be one of the only persons in history with the rhetoric powerful enough to chip away at Hitler's cold heart, to find out why Hitler believed what he did and just possibly persuade him to think differently. Even if King could not get through to Hitler, it would be a fascinating conversation. The only direct question I might ask to Hitler might be about his interest in the occult. I have heard rumors that his dabbling in the occult led to his distorted ideas about the Aryan race.
Over dessert, I would try to find some common ground between the four of us. That common ground, if anything, would be a defining feature of human nature. Dr. King helped awaken America to the reality of racism. President Roosevelt introduced New Deal legislation that left a long legacy of social services in America. Hitler left a trail of blood,…
Following their dramatic loss in the First orld ar, the people of Germany were suffering greatly, both emotionally and physically during the period of the 1920s and into the 1930s. The harsh stipulations of the Treaty of Paris forced the German government into a fragile and fragmented institution which was ripe for the abuse of power-hungry would-be tyrants. The people, eager for a strong figure to look up to, would have accepted almost anyone with perhaps any political agenda so long as the person said the right things and gave the people hope. Enter onto the world stage one Adolph Hitler. Between 1932 and 1933, Adolph Hitler was able to rise from the position of relative insubordinate in the government, to fuehrer and leader of the entire country of Germany. The only way that one man could have achieved such political success in so quick a time has…
Bergen, Doris L. War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2007. Print.
Bessel, Richard. Life in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford University, 1989. Print.
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb. "To the German Nation." Modern History Sourcebook. 1806. Print.
Goebbels, Joseph. "Our Hitler: a Radio Speech to the German People in Honor of the Fuhrer's
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…
Burns, Michael. France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History. Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999.
Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1981.
Comparing Characteristics of Leaders and Managers
The term leader and manager is often used in an interchangeable manner and it is likely that at some point most leaders have undertaken a management role. However, when looking at leaders and managers there are some distinct differences. These can be considered in terms of their characteristics and the way these characteristics manifest. A common theme in much literature is the way in which leaders may be identified as they have followers and inspire others
This refers to the concept of leaders having charisma. In this context there are many examples of leaders both good and bad. Leaders which fit in with this context include, John F. Kennedy former U.S. President, Nelson Mandela the South African leader, Richard Branson founder of the Virgin empire and Howard Schultz the CEO and inspiration behind Starbucks. These are all examples of charismatic leaders
The Germany Army also condoned what had happened in the purging of the Night of the Long Knives, showing that their side was with Hitler and thus they began their association with him that would nearly lead them to a world conquest (1996). The two-hour, highly emotional speech that Hitler gave at the Reichstag explaining his behavior to the German people as well as to the disbelieving foreign press would be one of the most important speeches of his career (1996). The "brownshirts" were either brought into Hitler's army or they just simply disappeared while the would become Hitler's main tools of mass murder that would go on for another eleven years (1996).
ection E: Conclusion.
The Night of the Long Knives was absolutely vital in Hitler's consolidation of power. Before the purge, Hitler had opposition in the A party who were still interested in some of the original ideas…
Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power. New York, NY: Penguin, 2006.
History Place. The Night of the Long Knives. World War II in Europe, 1996. Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from the Website,
Maracin, Paul R. The Night of the Long Knives: Forty-Eight Hours That Changed the History of the World. Guilford, CT: First Lyons Press Paperback Edition, 2007.
Hitler gestures are emotional and unpredictable, rather than designed to hit home certain intellectual or even rhetorical points.
This excess of emotion found in Hitler's body language, combined with his total conviction in his words that is underlined in his gesture, is the most striking clue of what was to come in Germany. There is no rationality evident even in the physical dramatization of his speech. However, this is not to say that the entire National Socialist legacy is evident in Hitler's body language, because there is also something 'weak' about his lack of commanding stasis. He gyrates in front of the podium, virtually frothing at the mouth. He begs the audience to listen to him as he calls to them, making far-flung gestures, rather than has confidence they will listen to his words on their merit, and his merit as a leader alone.
The eyes of the women... showed how cruelly one was once again torn from the illusion of a normal middleclass existence.... That more and more each day the Jew was becoming fair game was the devastating realization that underscored every experience of this kind (Kaplan, 1998, p. 52)."
The look of the German woman, on the other hand, became one of increasing masculinity with their sense of superiority, which could not have been achieved without denigrating all things Jewish, including Jewish women. Irene Guenther (2004) writes"
On May 10, 1933, Propaganda Chief Goebbels met with Bella Fromm to discuss a fashion show that was being planned at the racetrack club in Berlin. Fromm, the social columnist for the Vossische Zeitung, one of several newspapers published by Ullstein Verlag, had been staging these shows for quite some time. At their meeting, Goebbels informed Fromm that he was satisfied with her…
Cosner, Shaaron, and Victoria Cosner. Women under the Third Reich: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29226652 .
Fox, Jo. Filming Women in the Third Reich / . Oxford: Berg, 2000. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102309122 .
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…
Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights
Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.
King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,
Mein Kompf was regarded as the "Bible" of the Hitlerjugend. On entering the Jungvolk at the age of 10, children took the following oath: In the presence of this blood-banner which represents our Fuehrer I swear to devote all my energies, and my strength to the Savior of our Country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God. One People, one Reich, one Fuehrer." (Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression)
Nazi Youth formal agreement between the ehrmacht and the Hitlerjugend was published 11 August 1939. It recites that whereas 30,000 Hitlerjugend leaders had been trained annually in shooting and field exercises, the number would be doubled; that 60,000,000 shots had been fired in Hitler Youth training courses in 1938 and that a considerable increase in the figure was expected. The agreement recognized the close cooperation that existed between…
Works Cited continued
Simpson, Christopher. "Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann's "Spiral of Silence" and the Historical Context of Communication Theory." Journal of Communication Vol. 46 (1996).
Stein, Howard F. "Disposable Youth: The 1999 Columbine High School Massacre as American Metaphor." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society Vol. 5 (2000).
The Adolf Hitler Historical Archives. 2003. 29 Apr. 2004 http://www.adolfhitler.ws/ .
Williamson, David. "Was Hitler a Weak Dictator? David Williamson Examines Two Seemingly Irreconcilable Schools of Thought." History Review. (2002).
Meanwhile, Adolf Hitler took advantage of the people's dissatisfaction with the treaty and in the hands of the Nazis, this issue was used to rationalize brutal persecution of entire ethnic minorities and political groups. This effort against previous international settlements enabled a junction of their political programs, war aims, and racist ideologies.
Hitler has also decreed that the SS were to be treated as "organizations in the service of the State," and thus, achieved a very high status in the society. The special position of the SS man meant that he must be dealt with in a special way. With that, no state court, nor even a Nazi Party court, had the right to judge an SS man. If so, this was to be the sole privilege and responsibility of SS judges and high ranking officers.
It was so obvious that because of the privileges that were granted to the…
Hofer, Walther (ed.). Der Nationalsozialismus Dokumente 1933-1945 (Frankfurt (I am Main: Fischer Bucherei KG, 1957), p. 71.
Oath of Loyalty." Taken at http://ddickerson.igc.org/oath-of-loyalty.html, Retrieved on November 15, 2006
Snyder, Louis L. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich (New York: Paragon House, 1989), pp.
156 and 257.
Those who are not familiar with such conditions can hardly imagine the results, especially when the mutual differences express themselves in the form of brutal attacks on the part of the father towards the mother or to assaults due to drunkenness." (Langer, "Mind of Adolf Hitler"). He also seems ha have been his mother's favorite and the beneficiary of generous flows of love from her part, contrary to his father's severity. Langer also draws the conclusion that Hitler was influenced in a very serious degree by his father's personality and often confusing way of behaving. His father's deeds seem to contradict themselves in his attempt to present an entirely different image to the society than what he really was at home: an unreliable drunk who physically and verbally abused all the members of his family.
As Langer also points out in his study, Hitler looked in his first adult years…
Kershaw, I.(2000). Hitler. 1936-1945: Nemesis. London, England. Penguin Books.
Langer, W.C.(ca. 1934) a Psychological Analysis of Adolphe Hitler. His Life and Legend.. Retrieved: September 5, 2007. from the Nizkor Project 1991-2005. Web site: http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/h/hitler-adolf/oss-papers/text/profile-index.html
Waite, R.G.L.(Winter 1971). Adolf Hitler's Guilt Feelings: A Problem in History and Psychology. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp 229-249 from Jstor. The Scholarly Journal Archive.
" Military History. [online]
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.
Carr, p. 117.
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.
Hickman, p. 1.
Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.
Corum, p. 4.
Corum, p. 5.
Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…
Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great
War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic
Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
Friends of mine were killed for their beliefs. Of course, by that time I had distanced myself from them because our beliefs no longer matched, and talking with them about the great country that Hitler was going to create had become uncomfortable. So I put on the brown uniform of the SA and joined fellow Germans in doing everything we could to ensure that Hitler's dream of what Germany could be would become a reality in the near future.
One of the reasons that I and the rest of the SA admired Hitler so much was because of his childhood. He was frequently whipped by his father and mistreated, but he did not become defeated because of it; he instead grew stronger and more determined (Nardo, 2002). With that being the case, it was easy to see how the adversity that he would face as a leader would also help…
Dufner, a. (2003). Rise of Adolf Hitler. Greenhaven Press
Gogerly, L. (2003). Adolf Hitler. Heinemann/Raintree.
Nardo, D. (2002). Adolf Hitler. Lucent Books.
Leni Riefenstahl. The writer explores the topic of Riefenstahl and her unethical art. The writer examines the catastrophic consequences and her lack of integrity that lead to horror for millions. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Leni Riefenstahl: Her Unethical Art and The Catastrophic Consequences
The reign of Adolf Hitler is one that history will never forget. Under his terrorist reign of terror millions of people died. Those who did not die suffered from the loss of loved ones, loss of privacy and loss of financial stability. It was a time in which the world was introduced to the dangerous side of charismatic politics. While there were many who were fooled in the beginning by Hitler's manipulation tactics they soon learned his true motivations and spent the rest of their lives working to unseat the inhumane dictator. There is one person however, who admired him from the…
JANE SUMNER / Staff Critic, The Riefenstahl riddle: At age 100, famed Germanfilmmaker Leni Riefenstahl still stirs an enigmatic cocktail of emotions., The Dallas Morning News, 08-18-2002, pp 1C.
John Anderson, Leni Riefenstahl, Film's Queen of Denial., Newsday, 03-16-1994, pp 65.
Author not available, THE WONDERFUL HORRIBLE LIFE OF LENI RIEFENSTAHL; DIE MACHT DER BILDER., Magill's Survey of Cinema, 06-15-1995.
In Psychology, paranoia is defined as 'a mental illness in which somebody wrongly believes that they are hated or badly treated by others'. In this context, Adolph Hitler and Osama bin Laden do not have commonality of thought. Although leaders of their respective groups or nations, both the men, were poles apart. Adolph Hitler and Osama bin Laden belonged to two stark opposite backgrounds, performed differently, were brought up in absolutely opposite environments and functioned in this transitory world thereby spending their lives with a cause. However, the motives behind their actions were as different in the two cases as their actions were. In short, Hitler and Osama bin Laden have little comparison; our thesis statement that will be backed with sufficient evidence in the following passages of our research paper.
Adolf Hitler was the head of the state and he brought much anguish as well as created extreme…
The psychology and development of Adolf Hitler. Retrieved September 22, 2003 at http://www.abelard.org/hitler/hitler.html
Bernhardt (2001). Osama Bin Ladin, Anthrax and the Psychology of Terrorism.
Lauryssens S (1999). The Man Who Invented the Third Reich.
Speech at Kulmbach on 5 February 1928, quoted in Hitler, A Study in Tyranny
Spot a Liar, a presentation given by Pamela Meyer (2011) as part of the TedTalks series, Meyer provides a lecture on the different types of lies individuals are exposed to everyday and the signals that present when an individual is not telling the truth. Meyer presents her lecture in an easy to follow format and provides examples and visuals that allow the viewer to better understand lying and how to spot it.
In "How to Spot a Liar," Meyer (2011) argues that there are two truths about lying: lying is a cooperative act and although people are against lying, they are "covertly" for it. The first truth about lying, that it is a cooperative act, argues that a lie is effective because the person that is being lied to is willing to accept what the liar is telling them. Furthermore, Meyer (2011) argues that not all lies are harmful and…
Hall, A. (2009, Dec 20). Adolf Hitler's hatred of Jews 'stemmed from First World War.' The
Telegraph. Retrieved 9 April 2013, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/6852245/Adolf-Hitlers-hatred-of-Jews-stemmed-from-First-World-War.html
Meyers, P. (2011). How to spot a liar. TEDtalks. YouTube. Uploaded 13 October 2011.
Retrieved 9 April 2013, from http://youtu.be/P_6vDLq64gE
In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,
The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."
So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…
Bailer-galanda, Brigitte. "8." In Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, edited by Kurthen, Hermann, Werner Bergmann, and Rainer Erb, 174-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103409458
Bosworth, R.J.B. Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990. New York: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103664388
Crew, David F. Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945. London: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33602574
He joined an existing conspiracy because other German officers knew that Germany was going to lose the war and that a more orderly, civilized government had to be in place when they did in order to negotiate with the Allies.
There is one noted misconception displayed in the film. It involves General Fritz Erich Fellgiebel, who, at the time was the head of Hitler's signal corps -- his main communications guy. He was also deeply involved in and committed to the conspiracy to kill Hitler. It was his function to cut off communications from the Wolf's Lair to the outside world after the bomb exploded.
The film treats him as if he is reluctant to become involved and desiring not to participate in the assassination plot at all. This is inaccurate. Fellgiebel had been committed to the conspiracy since 1939 -- long before von Stauffenberg came onboard. Fellgiebel was court-martialled…
American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. "Operation Valkyrie and the July Plot to Assassinate Hitler." 2009. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 26 July 2009 .
American-Israieli Cooperative Enterprise 2. "Claus von Stauffenberg." 2009. Jewish Virtual Library. 27 July 2009 .
Gisevius, Hans Bernd, Allen W. Dulles and Peter Hoffmann. Valkyrie: An Insider's Account of the Plot to Kill Hitler. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press, 2008.
Kershaw, I. Hitler: 1936-45: Nemesis. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2000.
World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany, Italy and Japan.
Leaders of the War
There were several leaders that made decisions that contributed to the start and end of WWII. Adolf Hitler, who became the leader of Germany during the Great Depression, is blamed for WWII. He raised German spirits by telling them of a better future and a better Germany. ut in reality, he gave them a war. Hitler planned to expand Germany by taking Austria, Poland, and many other countries. He believed that German people were superior to the rest of the world and wanted everyone to prove this. (Keegan)
efore Hitler, the spirit and nationalism of the German people was very low, but he was able to get the German people to take pride in…
Keegan, John. The Second World War. Penguin Books, 1989.
Allen, Thomas. World War II: The Encyclopedia of the War Years, 1941-1945. Random House, Inc., 1996.
A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War. Atheneum, 1983.
John Keegan. The Face of Battle. Penguin Books, 1987.
It is an undeniable fact that the Marshal Georgy Zhukov is the most commended and highly-praised military commander of the Soviet Union, especially for his services in the World War II. It was due to his relentless efforts that the German army was defeated in the East and the war was brought to an end quickly. A good number of historians acknowledge that "the name of Marshal Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov, the distinguished military leader of World War II and a controversial figure in the postwar military and political hierarchy, conjures up a picture of an outstanding, often ruthless commander, one of a few who led massive armed forces and never lost a battle."
Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov was born Strelkovka (near Moscow) to a peasant family on December 1st, 1896. In 1906, he finished school and was then sent to Moscow to pursue a career in fur-making.…
Barbier, M.K. Kursk: the Greatest Tank Battle. London: Amber Books, 2013.
Provides background information of the Battle and comprehensive knowledge about the preparations of Germans and Soviets
Chaney, Otto Preston. Zhukov. Rev. ed. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.
The account of Zhukov's life is provided in detail along with the history of Russian Federation.
Spear of Destany
The history of civilization is full of legends and myths that have cut across cultural barriers and are nowadays some of the most well-known stories related to the old times of religion and civilization. One of these myths include, among others, the Holy Graal, the Shroud of Turin, or the Spear of Destiny, both of them linked to the life and death of Jesus Christ.
The present research provides a detailed account of the history of the Spear of Destiny, or the Holy Spear, which is considered to have been the one that eventually killed Jesus on the Cross. The accounts of this artifact is important and to some extend crucial for the history of Christianity in particular because of the role it played in the final hours of Jesus' life and, at the same time, due to the mysticism and meaning that has been attributed to…
Above Top Secret. (2014). The Spear of Destiny and Its Victims: From Jesus to Hitler . Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread914336/pg1
Bible Probe. (n.d.). Search for the real Holy Lance. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from http://www.bibleprobe.com/holy_lance.htm
Charney, N. (2013, Dec 21). Hitler's Hunt for the Holy Grail and the Ghent Altarpiece. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/12/21/hitler-s-hunt-for-the-holy-grail-and-the-ghent-altarpiece.html
Don Schwager. (n.d. ). Daily readings and Meditation. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from The Gospel of John: a commentary & meditation: http://www.rc.net/wcc/readings/john1931.htm
Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art
How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art
One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…
Adolf Hitler: Biography and Character. (2015, September 20). Retrieved from www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/hitlerbiography.pdf
Brown, J. (2008). Educating the whole child Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and.
Clark, E. (2012). A Psychological Analysis of Adolf Hitler. Washington DC: University of Mary.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino
History has been known to repeat itself. Today in Iraq for example, United States and Allied troops are torn when drawing up plans to win the war in the holy land. The problems stem from their not being able to directly attack certain Muslim holy locations or shrines even though Iraqi insurgents are constantly utilizing these positions as sanctuaries and initiation points for waging battles against the allied forces or the new Iraqi government. During World War II, the Axis powers with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi army also attempted to use similar tactics to fend off attacks by Allied forces.
This report discusses the Battle of Monte Cassino and the pros and cons of the Allied Forces' actions during World War II. A historic shrine was completely destroyed by the events of the Allied forces during the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian…
Colvin, David, & Hodges, Richard (1994). Tempting providence: the bombing of Monte Cassino. History Today, Vol. 44.
Eagle19. (n.d.). The Battles for Monte Cassino and the Defense of the Gustav Line. Retrieved October 15, 2004, at http://www.eagle19.freeserve.co.uk/cassino.htm
Griess, Thomas E. (2002). The Second World War Europe and the Mediterranean. The West Point Military History Series.
Hapgood, David, & Richardson, David (1984). Monte Cassino: The Story of the Most Controversial Battle of World War II. Add City: Add Publisher.
In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…
Goldstein, Joshua and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations, 10th Editon. Longman, 2002.
Heinrichs, Waldo, "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
McDermott, Rose. Presidential Leadership, Illness, and Decision Making. Cambridge, 2008.
Waite, Robert G.L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. De Capo Press, 1993.
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…
Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.
Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.
Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.
Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
orld ar II broke out, Russia was not prepared, nor did she manage to be the military threat she could have been, because the nation was weakened by lack of industrialization, the defeat by Japan in 1905, and a lack of support by the people for involvement in this new war. hat seems clear is that Russia was not prepared when the war began and had to work to muster its army, provide war materials, and protect its own territory against the German advance. The fact that Germany was indeed stopped cold in Russia shows how well the Russians did their job, but the issue is why they did not do what they could before the war started given that the whole world could see war coming long before it reached Russia. More recently, though, the question of unpreparedness has been given a new look, and a new theory of…
McTaggart, Pat. "Winter Tempest in Stalingrad." World War II 12(4)(November 1997), 30-36.
Raack, R.C. "Stalin's Role in the Coming of World War II: Opening the Closet Door on a Key Chapter of Recent History." World Affairs 158(4)(1996), 198-211.
Taylor, a.J.P. The Origins of the Second World War. New York: Athenaeum, 1985.
Tucker, Robert C. Stalin in Power. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.
The authorities in charge of Lodz sought to completely separate the Jewish population from the non-Jewish population. Business were marked with the nationality and ethnic identity of the proprietors, which made it easier for Germans to target Jewish-owned stores and Jews were required to wear arm bands and forbidden to leave their houses between 5:00pm and 8:00am. In fact, Lodz was the first area to institute the armbands that would distinguish Jews from non-Jews. Jews could not use public transportation, public parks, or work at non-Jewish businesses. Furthermore, Jewish property was pillaged and taken, with official sanction. If the Jews abandoned any real property, that property went into receivership. Jews were prohibited from withdrawing substantial sums of money from their bank accounts or from keeping substantial sums of money in their homes. The government confiscated raw materials from Jewish workshops and prohibited them from engaging in certain trades. People began…
Bauer, Y. (2000). Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Browning, C. (1992). The path to genocide: essays on launching the final solution. Cambridge:
Browning, C. (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution. Omaha:(University of Nebraska Press.
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. (2007). The Lodz ghetto. Retrieved February
After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…
Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.
Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.
Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm . Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
Drama - World
Adolf Hitler. This name is a symbol of bloody terror, symbol of wars and millions of casualties as a result. Everybody in the world knows the name of the…Read Full Paper ❯
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3. What could the Allied nations have done to prevent the Holocaust or to stop it once it began? There has been much discussion regarding what the Allied nations…Read Full Paper ❯
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. Hitler was also politically astute. He understood that "power lay with the masses." (Bullock 55) Therefore, if he was to obtain the allegiance of the people he would…Read Full Paper ❯
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Adolf Hitler vs. Joseph Stalin Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin are two individuals that most people think about when they come across terms like genocide, warfare, and absurd cruelty.…Read Full Paper ❯
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Hitler Created Anti-Semitic Laws Adolf Hitler is often viewed as the poster-child of anti-Semitism. ut to understand why this is so we should look at why Hitler created so…Read Full Paper ❯
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The Treaty was the agreement in Europe after World War I. It stipulated that Germany could not produce military machinery, so by ignoring it, Hitler created a massive invasion…Read Full Paper ❯
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His rage was motivated by something else, something more personal; indeed, from the point-of-view of Adolf Hitler, the Second World War was merely an extension of "Mein Kampf" (my…Read Full Paper ❯
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But there cannot be any doubt that in harnessing that energy to extraordinary projects and horrible crimes, Hitler placed his stamp on that war and on the twentieth century.…Read Full Paper ❯
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The latter was an important member of this party, and also a staunch anti-Semite. The association with Eckart therefore further solidified Hitler's prejudice against Jews and other non-Aryan races…Read Full Paper ❯
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It started in the fall of 1932, Evans explains; Jewish businesses were bombed, Jewish synagogues and other Jewish places were destroyed. In the weeks after Hitler's appointment as Reich…Read Full Paper ❯
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Marie Corelli writes in her article: Poisoning Young Minds in Nazi Germany: Children and Propaganda in the Third Reich about a math problem taught in the German schools under…Read Full Paper ❯
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Prior to compulsory membership the belief was that membership would serve to advance them in the world around them which was quickly evolving and on a basis of "uniformity…Read Full Paper ❯
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Appeasement Abraham Ascher was a noted author of history and distinguished Professor Emeritus at City University of New York until his death in 2012. is scholarly article in The…Read Full Paper ❯
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Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Austria, just near the country's border from Germany. He lived a life in poverty during his childhood and adolescent years.…Read Full Paper ❯
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This included the annexation of Czechoslovakia. He reneged on areas in Poland which had been ceded from German in the Versailles treaty. While Britain and the Soviet Union were…Read Full Paper ❯
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Hitler's early life as well as his rise to power in Germany. This paper will discuss the Nazi Party and the start of the Second World War. Early Life…Read Full Paper ❯
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During this period, Austria also continued industrial expansion, but at a slower pace than Germany. With growth came further instability. Investment and founding of new organizations exploded since 1867,…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
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At the same time, Hitler had very old-fashioned ideas when it came to his behavior towards the opposite sex. He believed that women belonged in the home, and had…Read Full Paper ❯
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Hitler was a good leader who sacrificed his life for the German people. Open answer: negative assessment only. Open answer: not only a negative assessment. Israeli and German Students'…Read Full Paper ❯
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e was a member of the middle-class, but his father was from the lower class. There were hints of incest in the family, and some have even suggested that…Read Full Paper ❯
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Nevertheless, Hitler was also perceptive enough to accept full credit for the economic turnaround and the German people readily considered Hitler to be the source. The political success of…Read Full Paper ❯
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) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival. c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up…Read Full Paper ❯
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The Germany Army also condoned what had happened in the purging of the Night of the Long Knives, showing that their side was with Hitler and thus they began…Read Full Paper ❯
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Family and Marriage
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" The Aftermath Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine…Read Full Paper ❯
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Nazi Youth Prelude Mein Kompf was regarded as the "Bible" of the Hitlerjugend. On entering the Jungvolk at the age of 10, children took the following oath: In the…Read Full Paper ❯
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Meanwhile, Adolf Hitler took advantage of the people's dissatisfaction with the treaty and in the hands of the Nazis, this issue was used to rationalize brutal persecution of entire…Read Full Paper ❯
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Those who are not familiar with such conditions can hardly imagine the results, especially when the mutual differences express themselves in the form of brutal attacks on the part…Read Full Paper ❯
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" Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm. Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Snell, J.L. (1962). The…Read Full Paper ❯
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Friends of mine were killed for their beliefs. Of course, by that time I had distanced myself from them because our beliefs no longer matched, and talking with them…Read Full Paper ❯
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Leni Riefenstahl. The writer explores the topic of Riefenstahl and her unethical art. The writer examines the catastrophic consequences and her lack of integrity that lead to horror for…Read Full Paper ❯
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Paranoia In Psychology, paranoia is defined as 'a mental illness in which somebody wrongly believes that they are hated or badly treated by others'. In this context, Adolph Hitler…Read Full Paper ❯
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Spot a Liar, a presentation given by Pamela Meyer (2011) as part of the TedTalks series, Meyer provides a lecture on the different types of lies individuals are exposed…Read Full Paper ❯
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In his study of the camp doctors, he noted, The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to…Read Full Paper ❯
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He joined an existing conspiracy because other German officers knew that Germany was going to lose the war and that a more orderly, civilized government had to be in…Read Full Paper ❯
World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany,…Read Full Paper ❯
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Soviet Marshall It is an undeniable fact that the Marshal Georgy Zhukov is the most commended and highly-praised military commander of the Soviet Union, especially for his services in…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Spear of Destany The history of civilization is full of legends and myths that have cut across cultural barriers and are nowadays some of the most well-known stories related…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood…Read Full Paper ❯
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WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino History has been known to repeat itself. Today in Iraq for example, United States and Allied troops are torn when drawing up plans to…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
IR Theory In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
orld ar II broke out, Russia was not prepared, nor did she manage to be the military threat she could have been, because the nation was weakened by lack…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
The authorities in charge of Lodz sought to completely separate the Jewish population from the non-Jewish population. Business were marked with the nationality and ethnic identity of the proprietors,…Read Full Paper ❯
Nervous Conditions After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and…Read Full Paper ❯