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The subject of adultery is a fairly touchy subject in the United States and this has been true for the duration of the country's existence for one reason or another. More recently, the Christian positions on lifestyles and sex have come more and more under fire. hile most of that ire is directed towards their common stance on gay relationships and gay marriage, even the subject of adultery has come into question from some circles. This report will cover the traditional Christian position on adultery as well as some opposing views and some other dimensions of the subject and the argument that centers on the same (Cherry).
Many feel that the Christian position is monolithic but that is simply not the case. After all, the Christian religion is fragmented in many ways based on denominations and other separating factors. Examples of different denominations include the Catholics, the…
Cherry, Mark J. "Sex, Abortion, And Infanticide: The Gulf Between The Secular And The
Divine." Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies In Medical Morality 17.1
(2011): 25-46. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.
Gros, Jeffrey. "Hope For Eternal Life: The Lutheran-Catholic Dialogue." Journal Of
adultery and its causes. The writer focuses on the empty nest syndrome and brings various points to the paper about the syndrome and how it may contribute to the affair. In addition the writer provides suggestions on how to avoid empty nest syndrome based adultery.
There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
In recent years the topic of adultery has moved from hushed whispers behind closed doors to the evening news and presidential inquests. Adultery has been splashed on every magazine cover, and discussed on every talk show and is no longer the taboo topic that it used to be. There are many situations that trigger adultery including the empty next syndrome. When children grow up and move away the parents are often left with an almost bottomless pit of loneliness and emptiness. This can cause someone to turn to outside companionship in an effort to fill that…
Rokach, Ami; Brock, Heather, Loneliness and the effects of life changes.. Vol. 131, The Journal of Psychology, 05-01-1997, pp 284(15).
Rubenstein, C, & Shaver, P. (1982). The experience of loneliness. In L.A. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy (pp. 206-223). New York: Wiley Interscience.
Sadler, W.A., & Johnson, T.B. (1980). From loneliness to anomia. In J. Hartog, R.J. Audy, & Y.A. Cohen (Eds.), The anatomy of loneliness (pp. 34-64) New York: International Unversities Press.
Shaver, P., Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1985). Transition to college: Network changes, social skills, and loneliness. In S. Duck & D. Perlman (Eds.), Understanding personal relationships: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 193-219). London: Sage.
Anna Karenina is one of the best novels in the world literature ever written as it's a very deep psychological, social and very moral novel that touches different aspects of the society's life and the role that an individual plays in the society. Besides it's a novel that describes social contradictions and contradictions that appear in one's soul when the individual decides to act contrary to social norms.
The Anna Karenina is one of the best works of the author as it continues several themes that were touched in the previous masterpiece "War and Peace" but if by the words of Leo Tolstoy he liked "the national idea" in War and Peace then in Anna Karenina he liked "the family idea." After all the changes Tolstoy made while writing the novel and after all changes put in the image of Anna Karenina, Anna remains to be at the same time…
Butler, Sara M. (Sara Margaret). "Runaway Wives: Husband Desertion in Medieval England."Journal of Social History 40.2 (2006): 337-59. Print.
During medieval times, women accepted their way of life. The husband in the relationship was the one that provided women with the financial support and the social status backing to succeed in their life. However, this article gives a glimpse into the hopelessness that some women felt in their marriages. Because women who did not follow the biblical definition of a marriage could in no possible way succeed on their own financially, very few women actually left their marriages. Some women did leave however. This paper examined the ways that women left, the repercussions that leaving brought to them, and what the risks involved in leaving in the first place entailed. Women who left their husbands due to a poor relationship were not respected. Because of the gender dynamics that existed,…
Marriage and the Bible: Understanding the Concept
In ancient Israel, marriage was largely a social construct arranged between parents for their children -- divorce was possible but largely for the very rich, and even the Old Testament presumption was that marriage was a lasting, lifelong covenant (Elwell 1996: 346). The custom of marriage was often that of a "family" affair, with the parents governing the union rather than the personal will of the participants (Elwell 1996: 740). Today, marriage is largely considered a matter of personal choice without theological significance, much less an analog to the relationship of humanity and God (Elwell 1996:743). Although some aspects of the modern conception of marriage may seem to have positive benefits, in terms of its stress upon the spiritual bonds between individuals rather than social needs, the Biblical concept of marriage as that of a permanent union that cannot be dissolved because of…
Elwell, W. (1996). Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Baker Publishing Group.
Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert
Bovaryism came to mean a dream that is as self-serving to the reality it aims to replace and therefore the face of reality becomes diminished.
What does the term bovaryism mean when it is thought about? A few years after the publication of Gustave Flaubert's works known as Madame Bovary the term Bovaryism was adopted by the French language (Paper Guidelines). The 19th century novel's heroine defines herself through common cliches that the world looks at to this day. Bored housewife syndrome, romantic fantasy delusions, and adultery are just a few of those cliches (Paper Guidelines). Bovaryism came to mean a dream that is as self-serving to the reality it aims to replace and therefore the face of reality becomes diminished (Paper Guidelines).
The concept of ennui comes into play. Ennui in short simply means the idea of boredom which is seen constantly throughout the…
Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary. 8th ed. Vol. 2. New York: WW Nortan, 2006. Print.
Shakespeare's Sonnet # 138
Shakespeare's "Sonnet 138"
illiam Shakespeare's "Sonnet 138" provides audiences with the opportunity to get a more complex understanding of the speaker's relationship with the Dark Lady and concerning the insecurities that come to dominate his thinking as a result of him growing older. It seems that this relationship has become platonic and it influenced the speaker to experience an emotional detachment as he concentrates on turning a blind eye to what goes on around him -- he simply prefers to ignore the fact that she lies to him and that she is cheating on him with other men. The sonnet actually puts across a psychological study with regard to ideas like love, adultery, and acceptance of one's position in the world.
The speaker focuses both on himself and his mistress in trying to provide audiences with a thorough account about their affair. Even with the fact…
Islamic government may be defined therefore as the rule of divine law over men."(Khomeini, 29) God is the true authority in the state, and the sole legislative power: "In Islam the legislative power and the competence to establish laws belongs exclusively to God Almighty."(Khomeini, 30) it is obvious therefore that Khomeini believes in the realization of a Platonic, almost utopian republic in which everything should be ruled only on the principle of divine absolute justice. In this idealist view, the state is a reflection of the divine order. The Islamic republic endeavors to make absolute knowledge and absolute truth a form of government. Thus, the definition of the Islamic republic resembles that of the Platonic republic much more than the estern correspondent. As Khomeini himself notes, the main difference between the estern republic and the Islamic one is that the estern government is based on human social rights, while the…
Khomeini, Imam. The Governance of the Jurist. Islamic Government. http://www.iranchamber.com/history/rkhomeini/books/velayat_faqeeh.pdf
Plato. The Republic. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
As Jason states,"Twas not for the woman's sake I wedded the king's daughter, my present wife" (Euripides 547). This shows that he has no real regard for his new wife. He also goes on to describe how they will benefit from the marriage. In part, Jason is telling the truth. He has married to further his position. His lie to Medea is that he pretends he has done it for their family, when his only real concern is himself. This shows that Jason is driven and unscrupulous, focused on getting what he wants and willing to manipulate and wrong others to achieve his own needs. This difference in what they want from life is part of the reason that Jason is an adulterer and Charles is not. Jason's drive for success is the reason he is not faithful to Medea. Jason's focus exclusively on his own personal success also means…
Euripides. Medea. New York: Dover Publications, 1993.
Flaubert, Gustav. Madame Bovary. New York: Penguin, 1982.
Therefore we see through Nick's eyes the ways and lifestyle not only of Tom, Daisy, Jordan and others, but also the mysterious, nouveau riche Gatsby, wealthy from bootlegging and other criminal activities. hen Gatsby seduces Daisy, she, too, is drawn into his orbit, which later results in Myrtle's and Gatsby's deaths. hen Tom learns Daisy is involved with Gatsby, he becomes furious. Gatsby is later killed by the husband of Myrtle, who erroneously believes Gatsby struck and killed Myrtle while driving (this was not Gatsby, but Daisy).
Reflecting on the decadence all around him Nick decides to head back to the Midwest, realizing Gatsby's love for Daisy had been not only illicit, but corrupted from the start, by Gatsby's shady past. Moreover, as Nick reflects near the end of the novel, the soul of the American Dream itself is now dead, having been replaced by pursuit of money.
Bass, Ellen, and Laura Davis. The Courage to Heal. 3rd Ed. New York: Harper And Row, 1994. 24.
Brooks, Gene. "The Effects of Adultery." Retrieved August 16, 2005, at http://www.geocities.com/genebrooks/adultery.html.
Eaker-Weil, Bonnie. "Fearful Attraction."
March 2005. Retrieved August 16, 2005, from: http://www.infidelity.com/why-cheaters-cheat/articles/fearful-attraction.htm >.
Theology: evelation and John
evelation and John: Theology
A lot of debate and controversy surrounds the proper interpretation of the Book of evelation. There are four main interpretations of the apocalyptic work, with the four differing on the question of whether the events in evelation have already been fulfilled, and whether the symbols relate to any historical events (Pate, 2009). We discuss three of these interpretations:
The Idealist View
the book of evelation does not relate to any historical events; it only symbolizes the ongoing struggle between evil and good (Kreider, 2004)
Symbols not tied to specific events, but point to themes in the history of the church - the battles represent the spiritual warfare manifested in wars and the persecution of Christians; the catastrophes represent God's displeasure with man's sinful nature and a manifestation of how God emerges victorious in the end; the trumpets represent natural disasters occurring as…
Instone-Brewer, D. (2002). Divorce and Remarriage in the Bible: The Social and Literary Context. Grand Rapids, MI: W. B. Eedrmans Publishing Company.
Kreider, G. R. (2004). Jonathan Edward's Interpretation of Revelation 4: 1-8: 1. Lanham, MA: University Press of America.
Mayes, B. T. G. (2011). Counsel and Conscience: Lutheran Casuistry and Moral Reasoning after the Reformation. Berlin, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Publishers.
Pate, M. C. (2009). Reading Revelation: A Comparison of Four Interpretive Translations of the Apocalypse. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic Publishers.
Ten Commandments, The Torah, And Judaism
When people speak of the Judeo-Christian tradition and the development of ethical values and mores, they frequently cite the Ten Commandments as an example of commonality between Judaism and Christian. In fact, the proponents of such an argument contend that the Ten Commandments represent one of the first attempts at codification of the law. As such, the argument continues, it is valid for those commandments to govern the behavior of people, whether they are Jews, Christians, or another religion. Such an argument fails to acknowledge that there is a significant difference in how the Ten Commandments are viewed by people in the two religions. To Christians, the Ten Commandments are a simple list of things to do or to avoid. Compliance with the Ten Commandments is necessary and sufficient to keep one within the grace of God. In contrast, to Jews, the Ten Commandments…
Divorce and Marriage
Divorce and remarriage
Divorce and Marriage is Permissible
In the current modern society, a breakup of the traditional marriage is the most significant challenge. Prior research on this matter suggests that 43% of first marriages end separation and possible within 15 years. Although these results are disputable, it is undisputable that the divorce is on the rise across the globe. The increase in divorce is the main cause of societal problems such as early pregnancies (teen pregnancies), suicide, alcohol, and substance abuse, and the hesitation of young people to engage in marriage. Therefore, divorce has resulted into many societal problems, and children have to pay the price. Disturbingly, a comparison between the Christians and non-Christians show that Christians are more prone to divorce (Paechter, 2013).
Therefore, it is clear that the divorce is a church problem. Considering that, Christianity teaches that lasting faithful marriages are part of…
Clark, A. (2004). Parallel Classic Commentary on the New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG
Clark, K.D., & Rakestraw, V.R. (1995). Readings in Christian ethics: Issues and applications.
Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic Publishers.
Eldredge, R. (2002). Can Divorced Christians Remarry? Camarillo, CA: Choice.
Death Penalty II
The Death Penalty and the Bible
The Bible is an important and valuable book providing a wealth of information, and it should be used as a determination as to whether the death penalty should be chosen for certain, specific crimes, despite the often-cited issue of separation between church and state.
f. Other Crimes
The Death Penalty
ansom From the Death Penalty
The Separation of Church and State
The death penalty has been around since biblical times, during which it was commonly used for a number of offenses. It is important to point out, however, that these offenses were punishable by death, meaning that the death penalty could be used. That does not mean that it had to be used, and there was discretion available. Here, several common crimes will be looked at in the context of biblical death…
Anderson, B.W., Bishop, S., & Newman, J. (2006). Understanding the Old Testament. NY: Pearson.
Anderson, E. (2007). If God is dead, is everything permitted? In Hitchens, Christopher. The portable Atheist: Essential readings for the nonbeliever. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press.
Dershowitz. (2000). The Genesis of Justice. NY: Grand Central Publishing.
Freedman, D.N., Myers, A.C., & Beck, A.B. (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. NY: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Pericopes From Mark and Matthew on Divorce
A pericope, hermeneutically speaking is defined as a selection or extract from a biblical book such as one of the gospels. It is especially used to reference a selection from the Bible, appointed to be read in the churches or used as a text for a sermon used to teach or instruct upon a specific rather than a general matter of Church doctrine and comes from the Greek meaning a "cutting" or a textual extract. ("Pericope," The American Heritage Dictionary, 2004) The synoptic Gospels of Mark and Matthew show many parallels in their relating of the events of Jesus' life in their selection of such textual extracts. However the order of these two gospels is slightly different in terms of the way they set and vary the different blocks of Jesus' teachings. ("Introduction to the New Testament," p. iii)
The overall chronology of…
"Introduction to the New Testament." The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Third Edition. Michael D. Coogan, Editor. Oxford University Press: 2001.
"The Gospel According to Matthew." The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Third Edition. Michael D. Coogan, Editor. Oxford University Press: 2001.
"The Gospel According to Mark." The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Third Edition. Michael D. Coogan, Editor. Oxford University Press: 2001.
This sentence, although it talks about bowels, is really describing the mother's love of the baby.
This story is written like a detective story. It is very difficult to determine which woman is telling the truth and to determine if King Solomon is actually a bad person or a good person. It does not give the names of the women. They are simple referred to as one woman and the other woman. It does say that they were "harlots," but it does not give any background information about who the women are or how they got involved in this argument. They were simply two women in the same place that had babies at the same time.
Also, it is not clear to the reader rather King Solomon is a bad person or a good person. He does propose to slay the baby and divide it into two half to settle…
Adultery and any sort of infidelity turns out to be a different story for men as Rosenthal stresses: "prohibition against adultery is not about property, pregnancy, misdirected male desire, or bloodlines, as one might have thought, but about the prevention of female comparison" (Rosenthal, 2008) as sharing men would be established by the size of their sexual organs.
A recurrent theme in the play from a gender perspective relates to the fact that the play is generally a patriarchal type of play in which paternal figures are predominant and the evolution of the other characters is a direct result of this way of using power. The women in this play, especially Doralice and Melantha are victimized as women had lesser rights to speak their minds or act according to their decisions. The paternalistic environment is also observed in the way Palamede and Rhodophil behave, as all four of them find…
Denman, J. (2008) "Too hasty to stay": Erotic and Political Timing in Marriage a la Mode. Restoration: Studies in English Literary Culture, 1660-1700, Volume 32, Number 2, pp. 1-23
Dryden, J. (1981) Marriage a la Mode. University of Nebraska Press
Frank, M. (2002) Gender, Theatre, and the Origins of Criticism: From Dryden to Manley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Hansen, C. (1993) Woman as Individual in English Renaissance Drama: A Defiance of the Masculine Code. New York: Peter Lang
She answered that no one had condemned her. Jesus then said to her, "Then neither do I condemn you," Jesus declared. "Go now and leave your life of sin" (John 8:11).
Because the woman was not stoned in the end, many interpret it to mean that Jesus changed Mosaic law and then this argument is extended to capital punishment in general. However, Jesus still left the opportunity for her to be stoned. If one of the people in the crowd had been without sin, then the woman would have still been stoned. He did not tell them not to stone her, he only set a condition on who should cast the first stone. He said nothing about the second or third stone, only the first. Luckily, for the woman, there were no qualified takers who could cast the first stone. Therefore, Jesus did not abolish capital punishment in this passage.…
Anderson, Kerby. "Capital Punishment." Leadership U. 2010. Web, 5 May 2010.
Croucher, Rowling. et al. (2003). "Death Penalty in the Bible." John Mark Ministries. Web, 5
It also widened her female audience much further than the small group of upper-class women with whom she was acquainted (ibid).
Overall, this work represented Lanyer as a complex writer who possessed significant artistic ambition and "who like other women of the age wrote not insincerely on devotional themes to sanction more controversial explorations of gender and social relations" (Miller 360).
In her work, Lanyer issued a call to political action by noting several Old Testament women who changed the course of ancient Jewish history through their bravery, humor and valor, and she recalled the favor Christ demonstrated to women in a variety of actions and by electing them as custodians of his salvational message (ibid 362). The story covered Christ's betrayal by male apostles, the arraignment before male authorities to whom Lanyer addressed complaints, and the account of Christ's procession to Calvary, the crucifixion and the drama of the…
Barish, Jonas. Ben Jonson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1963.
Braun, Lily, and Meyer, Alfred. Selected Writings on Feminism and Socialism. Gary: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Castiglione, Baldassare. "The Courtier." In Three Renaissance Classics. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953, 242-624
De Vroom, Theresia. Female Heroism in Thomas Heywood's Tragic Farce of Adultery. NY: Palgrave, 2002.
Anthony Blond in his book A Scandalous History of the Roman Emperors (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2000), a book originally published in 1994, the author seems to have written a history of Rome for the current tabloid age, though in truth, the Roman Emperors lived that sort of life and were not shy about letting the world know it. The book is both a history of the Emperors and a characterization of the age, and the author manages to create a picture of the Roman era against which to set the stories he then tells of the Emperors from Julius Caesar to Nero. This is followed by a discussion of Rome as a city and an empire. The book covers the subject in a shorter space than many other books have done, and the tone taken by the author is less reverent than many other authors have used. The…
Blond, Anthony. A Scandalous History of the Roman Emperors. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2000.
The purpose of this review of Dante's Inferno was to detail two cantos from the tale and derive how accomplished a writer Dante actually was because of his use of imagination and reality. In canto five, after entering the second circle of hell and coming across the gatekeeper and Infernal judge named Minos, Dante and Virgil meet and converse with two tormented souls called Paolo and Francesca of Rimini. Dante hears there troubled story of adulterous love and how they were murdered. In canto thirteen, after having been carried across a river by a centaur, Dante and Virgil enter the second level and seventh circle to discover it houses the tormented souls of those who have committed suicide to end the natural lives. Dante hears the tale of soul called Pier delle Vigne and discovers the reason for his presence in the dreadful place. hile on that level,…
(DANTE)(DANTEALIGHIERI Inferno )DANTE, ALIGHIERI. Inferno. New York: CASSELL, PETTER, GALPIN & CO., n.d.
Modern day movies rarely do justice for the classics. The Scarlet Letter by Nathanial Hawthorne falls into that category. Even Demi Moore could not meet the genius of the original writing. "Demi Moore plays the strong-willed Hester Prynne brilliantly, and Gary Oldman (I want to marry him) turns Reverend Dimmesdale into an extremely complex and passionate character. The love between Hester Prynne and Reverend Dimmesdale lasts throughout the movie with great intensity - all of it rooted in the one amazing love scene which leads to Prynne's pregnancy." (hen Love Becomes Sin) I loved reading The Scarlet Letter much more than the I did seeing the movie and this report is an attempt to explain why I think so highly of the written work.
Nathanial Hawthorne was a writer from Salem, Massachusetts where his famous home, the House of Seven Gables, still stands to this day. Surprisingly, Hawthorne…
Eagen, Jr., Ken. "The adulteress in the market-place: Hawthorne and The Scarlet Letter." Studies in the Novel 22 Mar. 1995.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: Bantam Dell, 1850.
Savoy, Eric. "Filial duty": reading the patriarchal body in 'The Custom House." Studies in the Novel (12/22/1993).
Traister, Bryce. "The bureaucratic origins of The Scarlet Letter." Studies in American Fiction (2001).
In the Bible, it talks about divorce, marriage and birth. This is designed to provide humankind with a blueprint as to areas that should be respected and those tactics which are most effective in the process. To fully understand what is taking place requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by looking at these concepts in order to gain a greater understanding of them. Together, these elements will highlight theological principles and their impact on stakeholders.
In the Bible, divorce is designed as an avenue to prevent couples from effectively running away from their problems and not respecting the institution of marriage. This is occurring with God discouraging these practices and associating them with adultery. Evidence of this can be seen in Deuteronomy 24: 1 -- 4 which says, "If a man marries a woman who becomes displeasing to him because he finds something indecent about…
Holly Bible New International Version. (2007). Lebanon, TN: The Gideon's
law should be used as a tool for shaping a shared moral climate? Why or why not? Should moral values be written into the law and enforced? Can you think of any examples where a change in the law seemed to improve the moral climate of society?
In general, I would say that the government should stay away from enforcing a moral climate in the sense that there has to be the question asked whether someone is harmed or not. However, "harm" is a very loaded term when it comes to some topics and this includes some things that are entirely legal. For example, adultery is assailed as a wrong thing to do. It can obviously break up relationships/marriages and any kids in the mix can be greatly impacted. However, while such tawdry details may (or may not) matter when a divorce or child custody hearing is done, it is…
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=elD1IBevvWM
Does the Nick Naylor character utilize the same forms of arguments he previously advocated? What about the Senate Committee? What strategies are they using to gain their points? Do you think there are any problems with the way the Senate Committee conducts the public discourse?
He does shift quite a bit in that he turns the attention to different things. For example, as a way to deflect about cigarettes being bad, he points to the fact that cheese can clog arteries and fatten people. He is also asked whether he would let his son smoke. Again, he deflects and says that it would be illegal. When the question shifts to what would happen if his son was 18, he admits he would buy him one. The questioning of the committee was a little unseemly because the questions were made personally. It is a textbook case of a Senator or other person in government using strident or even incendiary questions. Going after someone's family or the feelings for the same is below the belt and should never happen. The Senator should have stuck to the facts, the studies and so forth and not been such a crass person. Their strategy is to use "gotcha" questions and/or to get the person to say something controversial so as to discredit them. The admission by Naylor that he would give his son a cigarette would surely be used against them both in that committee and outside of it.
sex, power, alcohol and money on moral and ethical acts
Ethics, Sex, and Morality
Sex is still a subject that is a victim of human irrational treatment of an otherwise clear functional human phenomenon. Such incidents as homicide, and insanity gold and gems have also been subjected to such irrational treatment but, luckily, the mysteries around these have been dispelled over time. Sex has not been so lucky though as there is still a cloud of mystery and deliberate misrepresentation, perception and near-superstitious handling of the phenomenon. Sex is the most emotionally involving aspect of human existence. It is not a wonder then, that there is so much confusion directed at it. Lately, though, it seems that the wind of change is sweeping fast to affect people's view of sex. Some forces in operation around the subject of sex are clearly defined now. It is increasingly impossible to have a…
Dobrin, A. (2012, Jan). To Drink or Not to Drink: Is That a Moral Question? Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/am-i-right/201201/drink-or-not-drink-is-moral-question
Green, B. (2011, Feb). Is Power Evil? The Ethics of Power. Retrieved from https://moralmindfield.wordpress.com/2011/02/25/is-power-evil-the-ethics-of-power/
Moore, W. (2009, Aug). Ethics involved in Sexual Morality: Adultery and Fornication. Retrieved from https://wbmoore.wordpress.com/2009/08/24/ethics-involved-in-sexual-morality-adultery-and-fornication/
Porter, E. (2013). How Money Affects Morality. Retrieved from http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/06/13/how-money-affects-morality/?_r=0
This is where Katya meets Boris in the garden for the first time and although she feels guilty, she admits that she does love Boris. The music during this act was more peaceful than the first act. The melody and harmony were a little more cheerful and at times, romantic. The orchestra played in such a way that the listener could close his eyes and imagine a garden on a spring day full of singing birds and beautiful flowers. The use of this type of music forced the listener to imagine the beauty of a new love and the excitement of doing something wrong and not fearing its consequences. The volume was moderate to soft and it created an atmosphere of peace and tranquility. The purpose was to describe the beauty of the relationship that was forming between Katya and Boris
Finally, Act 3 also contained 2 separate scenes. This…
The Lyric Opera of Chicago. Katya Kabanova. Retrieved December 14, 2009 from http://www.lyricopera.org/tickets/production.aspx?performanceNumber=9040
Katya Kabanova. Retrieved December 14, 2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%A1%C5%A5a_Kabanov%C3%A1
Katya Kabanova. The Chicago Reader. Retrieved December 14, 2009 from http://www.chicagoreader.com/chicago/the-list-december-3-9-2009/Content?oid=1244938
But because of her own inner strengths as a woman of character, Hester goes against all of the principles of Puritan society and ends up spoiled and ruined by bigotry and prejudice.
As to the themes found in the Scarlet Letter, it is clear that Hawthorne meant to tell a moral story with Hester Prynne as the main focus. Perhaps Hawthorne was attempting to tell the reader that Hester Prynne, due to her innate compassion and defiance of Puritan law and customs, stands as a literary symbol of non-conformity which in the end of the story causes her to be cast out and admonished for her sins. After all, Hester's physical beauty appears to have created in the eyes of the men in her village a "halo of misfortune and ignominy," two negative traits which "enveloped" her entire inner and outer self, much like the scarlet "A" on her dress.
The only material similarity between Prynne's scarlet "badge" and Faith's pink ribbons is that both are made of cloth and adorn some type of clothing, i.e., Faith's ribbons are part of her cap while Prynne's "badge" is sewn into her dress as needlework.
The reader is first introduced to Prynne's "badge" in Chapter Two of the Scarlet Letter when she emerges from jail -- "On the breast of her gown, in fine red cloth, surrounded with an elaborate embroidery and fantastic flourishes of gold thread, appeared the letter a." Upon being led to her "place of punishment" for committing adultery with Arthur Dimmesdale, all eyes are immediately drawn to the scarlet "A" which "had the effect of a spell, taking (Hester) out of the ordinary relations with humanity and enclosing her in a sphere by herself" (ell, 163-164). Obviously, this scarlet emblem upon Hester's dress seems to emit a life…
Bell, Millicent, Ed. Nathaniel Hawthorne: Collected Novels and Short Stories. New York: The Library of America, 1983.
Richardson, Robert D., Jr. "Ralph Waldo Emerson." Dictionary of Literary Biography. Vol. 59: "American Literary Critics and Scholars, 1800-1850." Ed. John W. Rathburn. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Research, Inc., 1987, 108-129.
This discovery was maliciously divulged by the Cardinal Richelieu, who wanted to bring disgrace to the Queen as his way of scheming against King Louis XIII's leadership in France. Adultery was a practice acknowledged to occur rampantly but done with discretion, because this remains a taboo in 17th century society, wherein the novel was set. That is why the Musketeers deemed it necessary that in order to help the Queen 'save face' from potential embarrassment, they must be able to re-procure the diamonds the Queen had given her lover, which the Cardinal maliciously requested the Queen to wear in a social, public function for the King. As reflected in the novel, the apparent disquiet that this revelation about the Queen's extra-marital affair was explicated by Dumas in the novel: "...the redness of the queen's eyes donated that she had been sleepless or tearful. ut this last circumstance was not striking,…
Collington, T. (2002). "History is not just a thing of the past: The chronotopic transpositions of La Reine Margot." Literature Interpretation Theory, Vol. 13.
Dumas, a. E-text of "The Three Musketeers." Project Gutenberg web site.
Fromkin, D. (2006). "Dumas gastronomique." The New Criterion.
Valiunas, a. (2003). "Dumas among the gods: the three Musketeers and other French fantasies." The American Spectator.
The French tradition of the Arthurian legends, however, are far less overtly political in their approach to the tales and to Guinevere in particular, and though politics and loyalties are still important elements of these stories the aspects of romance, love, and sexuality are far more prominent. Beginning with the poet Chretien de Troyes, Guinevere began to take on a more active role that at once justifies the feminine and begins to suggest the degradation and un-holiness of the female body and intent. Though Man might still be the more active and potent partner, Woman can corrupt and influence Man, these tales suggest, and the character of Guinevere seems a brand new creation given her immensely increased prominence when compared to all known earlier forms of the legends (Fulton, 3).
Erec and Enide is the tale of one of Arthur's knights and the peasant maid he loves and marries, but…
Bruce, J. Douglas. The Development of Arthurian Romance in Medieval France. The Sewanee Review 13(3)(1905): 319-35.
Chretien de Troyes. Erec and Enide. Accessed 5 June 2012. http://omacl.org/Erec/
Chretien de Troyes. Lancelot or, the Knight of the Cart. Accessed 5 Juen 2012. http://omacl.org/Lancelot/
Fulton, Helen. A Woman's Place. Quondam et Futurus 3(2)(1993): 1-25.
From the narrator of the story, the readers find out that Alcee's family was unconventional in that their living arrangements are peculiar, for his wife and children chose to live in another place instead of with him. In the same manner that Calixta becomes the unconventional mother and wife to Bibo and Bobinot, respectively, Alcee has also achieved freedom by agreeing to the peculiar arrangements of his family right after he has resumed relations with Calixta.
On a nutshell, Chopin extends the message that it is only through Calixta and Alcee's unconventional relationship that their respective families have achieved happiness not only for themselves, but for the characters as well. As a minor character of the story, the author has effectively reflected in Alcee's character every ideology and belief that society holds as deviant or unconventional: his agreement to live separately with his family and his commitment to re-establishing romantic…
Chopin, K. (1898). E-text of "The Storm." Available at http://www.geocities.com/short_stories_page/chopinstorm.html.
hile Indian women and those of mixed races were certainly lower class citizens, they could easily become elite through their marriage to a white male of Spanish decent (Mabry 1990). Marriage was often seen to transcend any race or class issue, and thus prompted many women to act in non-virtuous ways in order to secure a future (Johnson 1998).
This difference in virtuous intent also relates to the very real danger for women in Bahia who committed acts considered to be sexually outlandish or improper, whether married or single. For married women, the punishment for adultery could include death until 1830. Prior to that time, men who killed their adulterous wives were often acquitted, since they were defending their honor in the eyes of the social system of the time (Caulfield 2000). Further, even single women found to be concubines could be killed by their families, to prevent a loss…
Arrom, Silvia Marina. 1985. The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
Burns, Kathryn. 1999. Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Caulfield, Sueann. 2000. In Defense of Honor: Sexual Morality, Modernity, and Nation in Early-Twentieth-Century Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Fisher, John. 2003. Bourbon Peru, 1750-1824. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press.
However, the ability to criticize and gain depth into a subject was the key factors involved in qualitative research. In order for qualitative research methods to be applied to qualitative research, these methods had to undergo some form of transformation to make them acceptable to the empirical mindset. ainwright argues that in order to achieve this, qualitative methods had to sacrifice some of their critical elements in favor of validity and reliability. He argues that one cannot have criticism and validity at the same time.
However, this is a difficult viewpoint to accept and if one examines the method to be employed in this research, the presence of validity and controls does not limit the ability to criticize the results. Increasing validity and reliability in the qualitative research means the development of criteria on the data collection. This may be a hindrance in the traditional sociological setting, such as field…
Beattie, G. 2002. Head Counts. Guardian Unlimited. May 28, 2002. Retrieved January 15, 2007 at http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/universityguide/story/0,721013,00.html .
Dehnart, a. 2001. Celebrating Classic Sociology: Pioneers of British Qualitative Research. A symposium organized by Qualidata and held on 5-6 July 2001 at the University of Essex. Aug. 6, 2004. Retrieved January 15, 2007 at http://www.esds.ac.uk/qualidata/news/symposium.asp
Fielding, N. 1993. Ethnography. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching social life. London: Sage.
Hammersley, M. 1992. What's wrong with ethnography? London: Routledge.
Black Elk's Journal
The offering of the pipe
Black Elk believes himself as a symbol of his tribal values. According to him, he embodies the spiritual forces which have been bestowed upon him by the superiors of his tribe. In the first chapter, he has mentioned how the sacred pipe came to his tribe and the values borne by it.
"Behold!! She said. "ith this you shall multiple and be a good nation. Nothing but good shall come from it. Only the hands of the good shall take care of it and the bad shall not even see it." Then, she sang and went out of the tepee; and as the people watched here going. (Niehardt 3)"
In most of the religions of the world, there is always a character who is message bearer. It is amazing to see this similarity in the tribal history of Black Elk as well.…
Niehardt, John, G. Black Elk Speaks, The Life History of the Holy Man of Ogalala Sioux. 1932. Print.
Homosexuals Should Not Be Ordained Into the Christian Ministry
To believe that the laws written in the Bible came directly from God, as Christians do believe, is also to accept that all the laws stated in the Bible should be obeyed and that it is not up to man to decide what laws in the Bible should be obeyed and which can be ignored. hile some attempt to justify lifestyles by stating the Bible does not apply to the modern world, these individuals fail to understand the consequences of these views. Though many have chosen to accept homosexuality and argue that same sex marriages and even ordination to the ministry should be acceptable, 1 Corinthians states, "Don't you realize that those who do wrong will not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't fool yourselves. Those who indulge in sexual sin, or worship idols, or commit adultery, or who are male…
Davis, John Jefferson.2004. Evangelical Ethics. Philipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing.
Frame, John M. 2008. The Doctrine of the Christian Life. Philipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing.
Hekminiak, Daniel A., Ph.D. What the Bible Really Says about Homosexuality. Episcopal Bishop of Newark NJ. 1994
Siker, Jeffery S. Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate. Westminster John Knox Press Louisville, Kentucky. 1994
omen are often portrayed as inferior to men within Ford Maddox Ford's famous novel The Good Soldier. This inferiority is symbolized through Edward's desire for young, attractive women, the description of the minuet, and also the reference to the shuttlecocks. Further, this female inequality plays a large part in developing the women's motivations, desires, and interactions with other characters. Female inequality to men plays an important role in the outcome of Ford's classic story, in setting into play the motivating factors behind Edward's desires, and Leonora's reactions.
Ford's diction often makes us subtly aware of the inequality of women within the novel. In describing Edward, the narrator notes "He wanted only moral support at the hands of some female, because he found men difficult to talk to about ideals. Indeed, I do not believe that he had, at any time, any idea of making any one his mistress. That sounds…
Ford Maddox Ford. 1999. The Good Soldier: A Tale of Passion. Oxford University Press.
unter and the unted:
Courtly Love and the Many Faces of the ero
Literature abounds in depictions of the hero.
Solomon, Esther, Gawain, and countless others call to mind tales of strength, valor, and passion. Whether a text's purpose is religious, instructional, or purely a matter of entertainment, a single character stands out. Emotion is often overpowering, as too, are the choices between what is right and what is wrong. Morality plays an equally important role in each of these "superhuman" stories. Frequently, the path of virtue is crossed by the highways of desire. A hero may take the high road, or he may take the low road, but which choice is correct depends upon the specific circumstances of the narrative, and upon the central figure's point-of-view. A bewildering array of problems, impossible tasks, and larger-than-life villains can turn closely-held beliefs inside out, and cause a hero to commit acts…
Heide Estes, "Bertilak Reads Brut: History and the Complications of Sexuality in Sir Gawain and the Green
Knight," Essays in Medieval Studies, 17, 72, Allen J. Frantzen, Ed. Illinois Medieval Association, 2000.
Guinevere Shaw, "Interpretations of Honor in the Medieval Period," URL: http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Hall/1170/medhero.html.
Islam Religion and Death Penalty:
Islam is a term that comes from an Arabic root word that means peace and submission that have always been used as the universal Muslim greeting. Based on the origin of this word, the Islamic religion teaches that peace can only be found through submission to Allah (Almighty God) in soul, heart, and deed. As a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion, Islam is articulated by the Qur'an, which is a book regarded as the precise word of God. The religion is also articulated by various teachings and example of Muhammad who is regarded as the last prophet of God. An individual who believes in and consciously adheres to the teachings of the Islamic faith is called a Muslim (Huda par, 2).
Muslims believe that Islam is the total and universal mode of prehistoric faith, which was revealed in the ancient days across the globe. In addition,…
Huda. "Introduction to Islam." About.com - Islam. About.com, n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. .
"Islam and Capital Punishment." BBC News - Religions. BBC, 16 Sept. 2009. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. .
"The Role of the Death Penalty in the Quran." Human Rights in General. OCADP, n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. .
Schabas, William A. "Islam and the Death Penalty." William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 9.1 (2000): 223-36. 2000. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. .
Women in the Old Testament
The Bible never says that women are evil, sexually wanton or inferior to men; instead, it says a lot of good things regarding women. In the Old Testament / Hebrew Scriptures, most women are described as enterprising, resourceful, intelligent as well as, courageous. However, there are some many stories in the Old Testament that involve demeaning treatment of certain women. For instance, women were restricted to roles of no authority as well as, not allowed to testify in court. In summary, this paper will discuss on the depiction of Women in the Old Testament using two sources; Bible Harper Collins Study Bible and the Encountering Ancient Voices by Corrine Carvalho.
In Leviticus 12:1-5, a woman who gives birth to a boy is considered to be ritually unclean for 7 days. However, if the woman gives birth to a girl, the mother is unclean for 14…
Carvalho, C. (2006). Encountering Ancient Voices. A Guide to Reading the Old Testament Second Edition. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from http://www.anselmacademic.org/Excerpts/EncounteringAncientVoicessampler.pdf
Willis, M. (1995). The Role of Women As Revealed In the Old Testament. The Role of Women As Revealed In the Old Testament. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from http://www.truthmagazine.com/archives/volume39/GOT039034.html
Therefore what God has joined together, man must not separate." 7 Why then," they asked Him, "did Moses command [us] to give divorce papers (I) and to send her away?" 8 He told them, "Moses permitted you to divorce your wives because of the hardness of your hearts. But it was not like that from the beginning. 9 and I tell you, whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery."
Divorce was taught to be a last resort, not the 'I am tired of you' choice. Children are hurt and devastated by the divorce and more psychological trauma is being placed on the child. Children are losing context on the meaning of love and what to expect from it.
The Bible also states the expectation on men and women in regards to the family. In Genesis 1:28, it is written, "God blessed them, and God…
Bertolet, Timothy J. 2002. "Truth or Consequences: The Promise and Peril of Postmodernism." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. Evangelical Theological Society. Retrieved May 06, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-275630471.html
Dawson, Lorne L.. 1998. "Anti-modernism, modernism, and postmodernism: struggling with the cultural significance of new religious movements." Sociology of Religion. Association for the Sociology of Religion. Retrieved May 06, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-20913875.html
Erickson, M.J. (1995). Evangelical Christology and Soteriology Today. Interpretation, 49(3), 255+. Retrieved May 6, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037673963
Holy Bible (King James Version). 1972. Thomas Nelson Inc., Camden, New Jersey.
hen Hester is first alone with Chillingworth, for instance, and in several preceding descriptions, she appears to be undergoing a process of destruction herself. She is immensely ashamed, and very aware of the eyes that dart furtively towards the letter emblazoned on her chest; she is too weak to think straight when Chillingworth administers a medicine to Pearl that could, for all Hester knows, be poison, and she is far too weak to resist Chillingworth's insistence that she keep his secrets.
Hester is the first of the three major characters, however, to make a transition to a stronger and more secure position with herself and with her sin; she has clearly found an inner redemption long before the others. The reason for this is the same as the reason that she is the first, and for the bulk of the book the only, character to acknowledge her sin -- Pearl.…
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: Dover, 1994.
This again stresses that God's love has nothing to do with Israel's attractiveness and everything to do with God's grace.
"Kept the oath" (v. 8). God's love is faithful. We should not be surprised that God chose Israel in its weakness. This is exactly what God did in Genesis 12:1-3. The promise of children and a land made to an old, childless couple seemed impossible. Yet they conceived, and the promise of land is about to be fulfilled for Israel now, on the verge of the Jordan, attesting to God's faithfulness.
"Covenant loyalty" (v. 9) is an excellent rendering of the hendiadys "the covenant and the loyalty." (Hendiadys consists of two nouns joined by "and," expressing a single idea.) The word for "loyalty" (hesed) is of the essence in covenantal situations, since it refers to the mutual commitments pledged by each of the parties. On the human side, it becomes…
"Aseret Hadiberot," Cited in:
Berrigan, D. No Gods But One: Deuteronomy. Eerdmans, 2009.
Bevan, D. Literature and the Bible. Rodopi Press, 2006.
In verse 13, God directly challenges the false Gods to save the Israelites. God tells them that their idols will do them no good and that he can and will destroy them. God also reiterates his promise to the righteous that he will keep them safe and the land will be theirs. This verse demonstrates God's ultimate authority and superiority over the old pagan gods. It proclaims his undisputed position and his intolerance for the worship of other deities.
Chapter 57: It's Place in Isaiah
According to Isaiah, it is the duty of every Israelite to adhere to the morals and commandments of God
. Isaiah viewed Assyria as God's tool for doling out punishment to the rest of the world for transgressions
. Isaiah, Chapter 57 is a plea for the Israelites to take action as a nation so that they do not collectively suffer as sinners.
Dancy, J. The Divine Drama. The Old Testament as literature. Cambrridge, UK. Lutterworth press. 2001.
Gordon, C. And Rendsburg, G. The Bible and the Ancient Near East. W.W. Norton and company.
Jackson, W. The ACU Commentary and the Unity of the Book of Isaiah. February 24, 2009.
" However, when Mary moves with William to the country, it shows another aspect of English life that is not as lavish as the court. The author writes, "She taught me how to churn butter and how to make cheese. She taught me how to bake bread and to pluck a chicken, a dove, or a game bird. It should have been easy and delightful to learn such important skills. I was absolutely exhausted by it" (Gregory 507). This shows how hard the people work every day just to survive, while the royal court really has very little to do but amuse themselves.
This was not a time of great industrialization and invention. England was more medieval than adventuresome during this time, and there were still knights and jousting tournaments. While England was becoming a European force, it was through wars and political maneuvering rather than in industrialization and exploration.…
Editors. "Philippa Gregory." Bookbrowse.com. 2009. 14 April 2009.
Gregory, Philippa. " Philippa Gregory Watches as her Bestseller 'The Other Boleyn Girl' Gets the Hollywood Treatment." Times Online. 2008. 14 April 2009.
The actual sins are thus not Hester's adultery, but the minister's cowardice and her former husband's plans of revenge. Society as a whole could not help, but act according to the laws one thought fit to protect it from destruction. The community was blind, but not nearly as guilty of sin as the two men in Hester's life. The narrator reminds the reader of the two most important things a new colony was first raising on its new founded ground: a prison and a cemetery. Death and punishment were the two tools that gave people a certainty and the power to believe in their future as a community. That is why, although they are guilty of hypocrisy and prejudice, they are having the excuse of being blinded by their struggle to keep their community alive at all costs.
Hester is the element that seemed to threaten the very existence of…
The author points out that there were more commoners than nobles but the commoners were often at the mercy of nobles and were expected to serve them. Although this was the case, it was also true that commoners had a great deal of control over their lives and in most cases they had enough to meet their basic needs and the needs of their family.
One of the most interesting aspects of Aztec civilization is Aztec religious practices. According to an article found in the Journal of the Southwest, the Aztec religious system dominated the way of life for the Aztec people. The research indicates that the religious system of the Aztec people was very much associated with the Aztec Calendar. This calendar was based on the yearly agricultural cycle.
For instance when the winter solstice occurred the Aztec people would participate in fire festivals. The purpose of such…
Ancient Aztec Government. 16 April, 2008 http://www.aztec-history.com/ancient-aztec-government.html
Aztec Society Family. 16 April, 2008 http://www.aztec-history.com/aztec-society-family.html
Hassig Ross. Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control-Book by. University of Oklahoma Press; 1988
James, Susan E. "Some Aspects of the Aztec Religion in the Hopi Kachina Cult." Journal of the Southwest 42.4 (2000): 897.
Their respective roles were regarded as complementary, and both were necessary for the maintenance of society" (Joy, n.d.).
There is a sense of evolution in the position of the Jewish woman in the sense that in time they came to be given certain rights to be part of the society and not only as part of the family environment. However, even so "as the roles of women came to be socially constructed, women's human contributions appeared to be of less significance" (Joy, n.d.). Therefore, it is rather hard to consider the Jewish woman as being equal to the man, particularly because the nature of their relation was one based on environments of manifestations which could not be compared.
Nonetheless, although women were considered to be of limited use in the traditional way of perceiving life and they were seen as equal only through the perspective of the role they played…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994.
Dickerman, Lysander. "The Condition of Woman in Ancient Egypt." Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York, Vol. 26, No. 1 (1894), pp. 494-527.
Furseth, Inger. "Women's Role in Historic Religious and Political Movements." Sociology of Religion. 2001. 3 April 2008 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0SOR/is_1_62/ai_73692411
Geffen, Rela M. Celebration & Renewal: Rites of Passage in Judaism. Jewish Publication Society, 1993.
This is so strong of a correlation in their analysis that it generated an R2 correlation coefficient of.84 at the.01 level of confidence according to Niehuis & Huston (1999). In summary, the escalating divorce rate is attributable to the action of partners, yet more fundamental than that, where a difference in religiosity occurs at any point, yet most typically at the later stages of a marriage, the higher the divorce rate.
Amato & Wallin (2001) - People's reasons for divorcing: gender, social class, the life course, and adjustment. Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Conference of the National Council on Family Relations, November 8-11, 2001, Rochester, New York, USA. Paul Amato and Denise Wallen. Penn State University.
CDC (2001) - National Center of Health Statistics. Advance Data, Number 323. ay 31, 2001. First arriage Dissolution, Divorce, and Remarriage:
United States. Dr., osher and Bramlett. Division of Vital Statistics.
McCarthy (1978) - a comparison of the probability of the dissolution of first and second marriages. Demography Journal. 15 (3):345-59. 1978.
Niehuis & Huston (1999) - Premarital origins of the risk of marital disruption. 8p; 1999 Presented at the 61st Annual Conference of the National Council on Family Relations, Irvine, CA, Nov 12-15, 1999. Niehuis, Sylvia;
Huston, Ted L.
Although Paul may create a hierarchy of man over woman in terms of their place in church, many women found not marrying at all, as advocated by Paul, as a source of liberation from the social strictures of marriage. Paul's emphasis on staying 'as you are' in a state of chastity enabled some women to cast off their supposedly innately sinful bodies and Eve's curse of childbirth:
Why did women turn their backs on their households in favor of the risks of poverty and the hostilities of their families...Rosemary Radford Ruether...according to her analysis, asceticism was a liberating choice for women in the fourth century, for not only did it allow women to throw off the traditional female roles, but it offered female-directed communities where they could pursue the highest self-development as autonomous persons...[Even] some men of the period...recognized the importance of celibacy for freeing women from domestic restrictions and…
Bible Gateway. [October 7, 2011]
Clark, Elizabeth. Women and the Early Church. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press,
Collins, Adela Yarbro. Crisis and Catharsis: The Power of the Apocalypse. Philadelphia:
A normal pro-life campaign is less complex than Catholic anti-abortion principles because of the religious aspect of the matter. The connection between the Catholic Church and morality has come to be stronger in the recent years in spite of the fact that it does not essentially function based on morality alone. To a certain degree, one might be inclined to consider that the Church is wrong in promoting anti-abortion simply because it wants to follow Christian tradition. Catholic teachings are essentially derived from the Bible and "whatever the "moral" teaching of the Church might be, it is, in the final analysis, a function of how to read the Scripture. Christian morality is not, in short, a "stand-alone" moral position" (O'Brien 92). In promoting anti-abortion messages, Catholic representatives practically go against the general message that the Gospel is trying to convey.
Catholics have recently been more determined than ever to fight…
Faundes, Anibal and Barzelatto, Jose, "The human drama of abortion: a global search for consensus," Vanderbilt University Press, 2006.
John Paul II, "Evangelium Vitae: The Gospel of Life," St. Pauls Publications, 2009.
Mitchell, Alan C. "Choosing life: a dialogue on Evangelium vitae," Georgetown University Press, 1997.
O'Brien, George Dennis, "The Church and abortion: a Catholic dissent," Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.
The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…
Backscheider, Paula R. Moll Flanders: The Making of a Criminal Mind. (Twayne's
Masterwork Studies). Twayne Publishers, 1990.
Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Oxford University Press, 2009.
Dupre, Louis K. The Enlightenment and the Intellectual of Modern Culture. Yale University Press, 2005.
Shades of Grey: Love and Contradiction in "The Lady with the Dog"
Anton Chekhov's story "The Lady with the Dog" is a portrait of a love affair that is intended to be brief, but its reverberations change both its participants' lives. In Gurov, the male protagonist, Chekhov has created a character that is at once pitiable, despicable, and relatable. He is relatable mainly because one often feels both pitiable and despicable when it comes to love; it just depends on whether you are the one who is lovesick or the one in control/doing the hurting. The central purpose of the story is to ask more questions than it answers. It leaves the reader wondering where the story will go after its end: ill the main characters continue their affair or is it doomed to fail? Chekhov plays with his audience by challenging them to make moral judgments about the characters…
Chekhov, Anton. "The Lady with the Dog." Ibiblio. Web. 4 Apr. 2011.
Chekhov, Anton. "The Lady with the Dog." Ibiblio. Web. 4 Apr. 2011. .
Precopius: The Secret History
Procopius view of women in his "The Secret History" is summed up best by his own comments. Because this work totally refutes all that was written by him before about women and the rule of Emperor Justinian. Procopius wrote that he was certain that this writing would ruin his credibility as a historian and that his legacy would only be seen as fiction or prose at best (By the Historian 1). He said further that they he would be seen as simply "Worse yet, it occurs to me that what I am now about to tell will seem neither probable nor plausible to future generations" (By the Historian). It is true that much of "The Secret History" is so absurd that they to a certain extent appear unbelievable. He refutes his earlier comments about the Justinian Empire giving as excuse the fact that during the…
Evan J.A.S. "Procopius Wars." Thomas Gale. 1972-1984)
Atwater, R. "Translation Procopius: Secret History." Chicago: P. Covici, 1927; New York: Covici Friede, 1927), reprinted, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
XV were Christian is beyond doubt; and it is equally certain that Beowulf was composed in a Christianised England, since conversion took place in the sixth and seventh centuries. Yet the only Biblical references in Beowulf are to the Old Testament, and Christ is never mentioned. The poem is set in pagan times, and none of the characters is demonstrably Christian. In fact, when we are told what anyone in the poem believes, we learn that they are pagans. Beowulf's own beliefs are not expressed explicitly. He offers eloquent prayers to a higher power, addressing himself to the "Father Almighty" or the "Wielder of All." Were those the prayers of a pagan who used phrases the Christians subsequently appropriated? or, did the poem's author intend to see Beowulf as a Christian Ur-hero, symbolically refulgent with Christian virtues" (Yeager)
Interesting though Vis and amin share some characteristics with Hellenistic romances written…
Dick Davis, Panthea's Children: Hellenistic Novels and Medieval Persian Romances, New York, 2002.
Vladimir Minorsky, "Vis u Ramin: A Parthian Romance," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. XI, 1943-46, pp. 741-63; Vol. XII, 1947-1948, pp. 20-35; Vol. XVI, 1954, pp. 91-92; "New Developments." Vol. XXV, 1962, pp. 275-86.
Abrams, M.H.; Greenblatt, Stephen (2000). The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Middle Ages (Vol 1), Beowulf. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 30.
Yeager, Robert F.. "Why Read Beowulf?." National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 2007-10-02.
Compare and contrast their approaches to the question of faith.
One of the features of the age of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky was the emergence of philosophical and religious thoughts that promoted spirituality without religion. The tendency to reject organized religion in favor of personal spirituality or a direct relationship with God gained prominence at this age in ussia because of widespread disillusionment with the state-supported religion, corruption and hypocrisy of the official clergy. None perhaps popularized such spirituality in ussia more than Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. Both of these figures had a complicated relationship with the official Orthodox Christianity. Tolstoy was excommunicated by the Holy Synod of the ussian Patriarch in 1901. But while Dostoevsky's criticism of organized religion remained subtle and he emphasized the importance of faith, Tolstoy was scathing in his attacks on ussian Orthodox religion and at times he directly questioned the existence of God. Tolstoy was a…
Boot, a. (2009). God and man according to Tolstoy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dostoyevsky, F., & Dostoyevsky, F. (1960). Notes from underground: And the grand inquisitor. New York: Dutton.
Jackson, R.L. (1993). Dialogues with Dostoevsky: The overwhelming questions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Rancour-Laferriere, D. (2007). Tolstoy's quest for God. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Despite these differences, there are also many similarities between the two. The plot similarities are obvious, including the fact that both have affairs beginning and continuing in similar circumstances. Both have husbands that they do not wish to leave, partly out of habit and partly out of pity. They compartmentalize their lives and are able to think of themselves as somehow different people when with their husbands and with their lovers. In this, as in their inability to choose a partner, to overcome their fear and guilt and shame, or to find something in their lives that makes them truly happy, both of these Annas are very ineffectual and weak. In both cases there is a sense of guilt and shame associated with the affair, even though in the Russian Anna's case this sense of shame is far greater than in the modern Anna's. She obsesses constantly on her shame…
Anger is a dated film. It is not simply dated because of its gritty, black and white texture, and its stark and somewhat schematic portrayal of class conflict in 1950's postwar Britain. It is dated by the lack of importance it gives to race in Great Britain, and also by the pitting of men against women, with working class men becoming 'the good' that is the radical sex, while women are cast in subordinate, subservient, and constraining roles.
In terms of the plot of "Look Back in Anger," the protagonist, an educated working class lad of taste, talent, and verbal alacrity, named Jimmy Porter, is reduced to selling sweets to make a living in an England that denies him advancement because of his class. He is constantly angry at the limited life he leads, and takes to lashing out at his wife and playing the trumpet to release his anger.…
"Look Back in Anger." Directed by Tony Richardson. 1958.
Roxana as Tragedy
"Roxana" stands unique among Daniel Defoe's work in that it ends a tragedy. The work is a lot more than that, however. "Roxana" dispenses with the formalities associated with many texts and paints sex as a commodity from the very get-go. Roxana ends up a tragedy not so much because of what transpires at the end of the novel, but because Roxana herself cannot deal with her decision to prostitute herself: Roxana is a tragic figure because at the end she cannot reconcile her morals, her guilt and the fact that although she has been able to achieve wealth through her actions, through social upward mobility has eluded her, partly through her own eyes. In fact, her reliance on her beauty and body compound this desire for social upward mobility, and eventually result in a sort of manic race to delude not only her daughter, newest Dutch…
The subtlety of their actions make their affair all the more romantic, because, set in the real world, who would consider the actions of two people committing adultery as romantic? Thus, a closer look at how love is given meaning by Dmitri and Anna opens the reader's eyes to the realization that one need not be verbalize or explicitly show his or her feelings in order to feel that love is present between two people. Thus, the author spared the readers any romantic words and dialogues, and provided them with incidents in the story that may seem trivial, yet significantly important to the lovers in the story. This is exemplified in the scene where the author narrates their rendezvous: "She was pale; she looked at him, and did not smile, and he had hardly come in when she fell on his breast. Their kiss was slow and prolonged, as though…
Chekhov, a.E-text of "The Lady with the Dog." Available at: http://www.online-literature.com/anton_chekhov/1297/ .
" Further, as previously stated, in the Jewish tradition, it is believed that the Messiah (whom Christians believe is Jesus), must be a descendent of David's line.
The New Testament in fact introduces Jesus as the son of David and of Abraham (Mt. 1:1). Further, in the Gospel of Luke, he describes how Mary, the mother of Jesus, was descended from King David through one of his sons, Nathan. This leads contemporary Christians to believe that Jesus is the prophesied messiah, as well as the rightful king of Israel.
It is interesting that Jesus, despite the fact of David's obviously sinful nature, follows him in matters of conduct. Indeed, the reader notes that Christ used the actions of the pre-descent David as justification for his own (Luke 6:1-5) concerning the eating of wheat from the fields on the Sabbath. (McCall, 1999). However, even more interesting than David's use as a…
Aish. Aish.com. Staff. "Jewish History." Web site. 1995. Retrieved on July 8, 2005 http://www.aish.com/literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_Part_19_-_King_Solomon.asp
Alter, R. "The David Story." Chicago, Norton. 1999.
Bible History.com. Staff. "Biblical Archaeology: Tel Dan Stele." Web site. 2005. Retrieved on July 8, 2005 http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/tel-dan-stele.html
Biran, Aaron and Joseph Naveh, "An Aramaic Stele Fragment from Tel Dan," in Israel Exploration Journal 43 (1993), pg. 81-98