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Aerobic and Anaerobic Training on the Performance of Female High School Soccer Players
The purpose of this study is to look at aerobic and anaerobic conditioning and exercise. Female soccer players are used for this study and the results of how well they do on specific tests are measured. The goal then becomes to see whether those that perform better on these tests are also better soccer players and to therefore conclude whether this type of training and exercise has an effect on the performance of female high school soccer players.
Since the researcher is a coach for a high school female soccer team, the ease with which this data can be collected and analyzed is significant. The importance of a study such as this should not be underestimated, as there are many athletes that could likely benefit from both aerobic and anaerobic exercise if it is found that there…
Bangsbo, J. (1994). The physiology of soccer: With special reference to intense physical exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 150(suppl. 619), 1-156.
Borrie, A. And Bradburn, D. (1998). A correlation of two aerobic power tests and three sprint performance tests. Journal of Sports Sciences, 16, 20-21.
Carter, J.E.L. And Heath, B. (1990). Somatotyping: Development and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Deshaies, P., Pargman, D. And Thiffault, C. (1979). A psychobiological profile of individual performance in junior hockey players. In Psychology of Motor Behavior and Sport - 1978 (edited by G.C. Roberts and K.M. Newell), pp. 36-50. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
aerobic exercise or resistance training to a very low calorie diet are Donnelly JE, Jacobsen DJ, Jakici JM, and Whatley JE, "Very low calorie diet with concurrent vs. delayed and sequential exercise" published in 1994 in the 18th volume at page 469 of the International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolism Disorders (Donnelly et al.) and Bryner RW, Ullrich IH, Sauers J, Donley D, Hornsby G, Kolar M, and Yeater, R, "Effects of Resistance vs. Aerobic Training Combined With an 800 Calorie Liquid Diet on Lean Body Mass and Resting Metabolic Rate" published in 1999 in the 18th volume at page 115 the Journal of the American College of Nutrition (Bryner et al.). Both publications examined the hypothesis of whether the addition of either aerobic exercise or weight training to a very restricted diet increased various desirable measurements such as weight loss, fat free or lean mass body weight, and…
(MRN, 1) This is to indicate that brain cells
are more actively produced by physical activity, convincing neurological
theorists that regular athletic orientation will improve one's academic
capacity and intellectual clarity. Still, as with other beneficial aspects
of an athlete's physical and intellectual growth, sporting activity must be
pursued in at least some degree of moderation. For both the implications
of what Metzl refers to as overuse and the consequences of an overly
centralized focus on athletic activity, there may be real and long-term
repercussions to failing to balance this emphasis with other healthy or
meaningful activities. Especially concerning bone and joint injuries,
overuse of specific parts of the body in a continuous and monotonous manner
will result in chronic pains and ultimately, lifelong localized injuries.
Therefore, especially when training for an endurance event, where sustained
energy is crucial, in training moderation can be a key to the prevention of…
Beginner Triathlete (BT). (2008). The Original 13 Week Sprint Training
Plan. Beginner Triathlete.com.
Harr, E. (2003). Triathlon training in four hours a week: from beginner
to finish line in just six weeks. Rodale.
Hiller, W.D.B.; O'Toole, M.L.; Fortess, E.E.,; Laird, R.H.; Imbert, P.C. &
Physiological Effects of Endurance Training
Endurance training produces many physiological changes, both during training and after the training period is complete. These changes are biochemical and also involve changes in the cardio-pulmonary system. The correct way to perform endurance training has been a subject of controversy in recent years. There are many differences in training methods. These differences and the effects of endurance training will be the subject of this research. The jury is still out as to what constitutes the perfect duration and intensity of training program.
Studies have shown that a focused training program can increase maximum oxygen intake by 15-30% over a three-month period (7) and that can increase to 50% if the training is sustained for over 2 years. The body makes many metabolic adaptations as well. These adaptations drop rapidly in the first few weeks after training is stopped (1).
Duration and Intensity of Different…
1. Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med and Sci in Sports Exercise, (21), 563-568, 1998
2. Finn, C, Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Endurance Performance. Sportscience (5)(1), sport sci.org. Jour. 1-3, 2001.
3. Foss M.L., and Keteyian S.J. Fox's Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport. WCB Boston, Mass., McGraw-Hill. 1998.
4. Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, and Dennis, SC. Training Techniques To Improve Fatigue Resistance And Enhance Endurance Performance. Jour of Sports Sci, (15), 325-333, 1997.
Training Programme) (30%)
Strength/flexibility exercises test ubric (5%)
The instructor (NOT student) will choose 5 strength/flexibility exercises from the student's Written eport that the student states he will use over the 3-month hypothetical training period. The Instructor will ask the student to perform the exercises in turn and name the muscle(s) being stretched or strengthened. This is NOT a physically demanding test (only 1 repetition is performed).
Conducted exercise correctly
Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched
Conducted exercise correctly
Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched
Conducted exercise correctly
Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched
Conducted exercise correctly
Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched
Strength/flexibility exercise 5
Conducted exercise correctly
Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched
(Total marks will be rounded down (not up). For instance, if you score 4.6, your TOTAL will be recorded as 4.0)
Written eport (Strength and Flexibility Training…
CDC. (2013). Why strength training? Retrieved from CDC.gov:
Heart.org. (n.d.). Flexibility Exercises. Retrieved from heart.org:
Glycogen Storage and Use
Exercise and diabetes: Beneficial effects
Diabetes is increasing in the United States and throughout the world due to the ever-growing adoption of an unhealthy lifestyle, including poor diet and lack of physical activity. Obesity is a characteristic often present in individuals with diabetes, and in order for the occurrences of diabetes to be reduced and the effects of diabetes to be minimized, efforts must be put in place to encourage weight loss and the maintenance of a healthy weight. It is expected that obesity and diabetes will reach epidemic proportions unless prompt action is taken to counteract these conditions (Albu & aja-Khan, 2003).
Lifestyle factors have been identified that are associated with glycemic control and body mass in individuals with diabetes. Grylls et al. (2003) found that reducing dietary saturated fat and excess body weight may be useful for improving glycemic control in older adults with…
Albu, J. & Raja-Khan, N. (2003). The management of the obese diabetic patient. Primary Care, 30(2), 465-91.
Borghouts, L. & Keizer, H. (2000). Exercise and insulin sensitivity: A review. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(1), 1-12.
Casteneda, C., Layne, J., Munoz-Orians, L., Gordon, P., Walsmith, J., Foldvari, M., Roubenoff, R., Tucker, K., Nelson, M. (2002). A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25(12), 2335-41.
Cradock, S. (1997). The role of exercise in diabetes management. Community Nurse, 3(3), 23-4.
(Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, p. 8)
esults from this study relate a moderate quality evidence that aerobic-only exercise training at recommended intensity levels produces positive effects "global well-being (SMD 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13 to 0.75) and physical function (SMD 0.68, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.95) and possibly on pain (SMD 0.94, 95% CI -0.15 to 2.03) and tender points (SMD 0.26, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.79)." esults noted that flexibility and strength and flexibility remain under assessed. (Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, pp. 11-13)
According to criteria Melnyk Fineout-Overholt (2005) present, this study is a Level II study. From the Cochrane review, the following relates what research notes regarding the effect of exercise for FMS:
moderate intensity aerobic training for 12 weeks may improve overall well-being slightly and physical function.; moderate intensity aerobic exercise probably leads to little or no difference in pain…
Antai-Otong, Deborah, MS, APRN, BC, FAAN. (2005). "Depression and Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS): Pharmacologic Considerations." Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. Volume: 4, Issue 3, 146+. Retrieved April 29, 2008, at http://www.questia.com/read/5011211783?title=Depression%20and%20Fibromyalgia% Syndrome%20(FMS)%3a%20Pharmacologic%20Considerations
Busch AJ, Barber KAR, Overend TJ, Peloso PMJ, Schachter CL. Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003786. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003786.pub2.
Burckhardt, Carol S. Mannerkorpi, Hedenberg, Kaisa, Lars and Bjelle, Anders. (1994). A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Education and Physical Training for Women with Fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology; 11:4, 714-719
Costa1, D. Da., Abrahamowicz, M., Lowensteyn, I., Bernatsky, S., Dritsa1, M., Fitzcharles, a., and Dobki, P.L.. Advance Access Rheumatology; 19 July 2005, 44:1422
Obesity increases the risk for many fatal diseases, including cardiovascular disease, and is recorded in the United States, as being the second preventable leading cause of death (smoking is the first) (World Health Organization, 2000). One of the recommendations for weight-loss is exercise. The Consumer eport (2002), for instance, showed that exercising at least three times a week was a strategy that 73% of successful dieters shared (Brannon & Feist, 2007).
Many people, however get intimidated at the very thought of exercise due to the required self-discipline and immensity of the project. Then, too there is gym membership that is costly for the average working person, aside from which there is the element of time too. For someone, for instance a single mother whose life orbits around her job and her children, attending a gym would mean an hour less of work that she, patently, can barely afford to do.…
Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Hakim, A.A. et al. (1998). Effects of walking on mortality of nonsmoking retired men, New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 94-99.
Stofan, J.R., DePietro, L., Davis, D., Kohl, H., & Blaie, S.N. (1998) Physical activity patterns associcated with cardiorespiratory fitness. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1807-1813.
World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO Technical Report Series, 894.
Proteins are often called the building blocks of life. In fact, the very word "protein" implies their importance in the body: it is a Greek word meaning "first place." Approximately fifty percent of the dry weight in animal cells is comprised of protein (Campbell 71). They play a roll in almost everything the body does and "are used for support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances." (Campbell 71). Proteins are essential to the proper functioning of every organism known to man.
The human genetic code holds the instructions for the making of over ten thousand different types of proteins; all with specific purposes. Additionally, "Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules known." (Campbell 71). In comparison to other molecules, proteins are enormous and come in nearly every shape imaginable. However, despite their variety and size, proteins…
1. Berning, Jacqueline R. And Suzanne Nelson Steen. Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. Gaithersburg: Aspen Publications, 1998.
2. Campbell, Neil A. And Jane B. Reece. Biology: Sixth Edition. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2002.
3. Ronzio, Robert, PHD. The Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health: Second Edition. New York: Facts On File Inc., 2003.
4. Ryan, Monique. Complete Guide to Sports Nutrition. Boulder: VELO Press, 1999.
On his weight training days, I would encourage Jack to "shake up" his typical walk by instead doing two or three sessions weekly on a recumbent bicycle. Given Jack's weight and age, a recumbent bike would minimize stress on his joints while adding variety to his aerobic routine. Finally, in older adults in particular, flexibility is key. I would focus on stretches that do not require bending over (to prevent falling), but would spend at least five to ten minutes per session working on stretches that Jack could also perform at home while seated. During each session, I would frequently ask how Jack was feeling to make sure he was not pushing too far past his limits. ith older adults, checking how hard they feel they are working on a scale of one to ten (perceived exertion) helps to prevent injury or worse.
Jack's nutritional strategy would be key to…
"Beating Mindless Eating." Cornell University. 20 March 2011.
"Eight Functional Mobility Tests for Predicting Falls in Older People." Medscape.com. 20 March
"Physical Activity and Older Americans: Benefits and Strategies." Agency for Healthcare Research
There are many positive effects of exercise during pregnancy. It can decrease the time it takes to get back into shape after giving birth. It may also decrease the amount of time spent in the hospital. In addition, it can increase Apgar scores and birth weight, as well as decrease discomfort during pregnancy. Women who exercise during pregnancy also find that they have less difficulty and length of labor. Research shows that exercise has many benefits for pregnant women.
However, as both exercise and pregnancy exert stresses on the body, the cumulative effects must be taken into consideration when analyzing the relationship between exercise and pregnancy. In general, research about this topic is sparse, and animal studies have presented conflicting findings. Chronic disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are the most obvious reasons to discourage persons at risk from intense rehabilitative exercising while pregnant. In addition, small…
Araujo, David. (April, 1997). Expecting Questions About Exercise and Pregnancy? The Physician and Sports Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 67-69.
Kramer MS. (February 12, 2002). Aerobic exercise for women during pregnancy (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1. Oxford: Update Software.
Smith, James. (1998). Exercise During Pregnancy. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
South-Paul, J. Rajagopo, K. Tenholder, M. (1988). Exercise and Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol: 71:175-179.
Please list sections according to instructions
Exercise 1.1: eview of esearch Study and Consideration of Ethical Guidelines
Option 1: Stanford Prison Experiment
Go to: http://www.prisonexp.org, the official site for the Stanford Prison Experiment.
What do you think the research questions were in this study? List 2 or 3 possible research questions (in question format) that may have been the focus of this experiment.
What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph? Does natural or innate evil exist, or is evil situational? Are certain people simply born "bad apples" or are they made evil by "bad barrels"?
What is "reality" in a prison setting? This study is one in which an illusion of imprisonment was created, but when do illusions become real? How quickly and easily will 'ordinary men' adjust to the roles as prisoners, guards and…
Asby, M.D. And S.A. Miles (2002). Leaders Talk Leadership: Top Executives Speak their Minds. Oxford.
"Frederick W. Smith: The Entrepreneur Who Created an Industry." (2003). IBS Center for Management Research. http://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Leadership%20and%20Entrepreneurship/Frederick%20W%20Smith-The%20Entrepreneur-Leadership%20and%20Entrepreneurship.htm
Holstein, W.J. (2007). "Fred Smith's Golden Rule for CEO's." BNet, November 19, 2007. http://www.bnet.com/blog/ceo/fred-smiths-golden-rule-for-ceos-be-selfless/1061
Lussier, R.N. And C.F. Archua (2010). Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. South-Western Cengage Learning.
Bernard B. Kerik offer a sobering view of the criminal justice system. Even Kerik, a veteran of several conservative administrations, notes that his experiences in prison convinced him that prison does little to rehabilitate prisoners, only hardens them. He also notes that the presumption of prosecutors in the criminal justice system is that offenders are guilty, not innocent until proven guilty, and this often results in violations of defendants' rights. After his own corruption scandals, Kerik takes a more chastised and compassionate view of individuals who commit crimes, noting that many of them have grown up in environments which have set them up for failure, not success. However, as the title of the article indicates, Kerik is also seeking to capitalize upon his former reputation as a criminal justice professional as well as the knowledge he has gained from an insider's perspective as an inmate, indicating that to some degree…
The aged can also be accommodated near the bottom of the building, with low-impact aerobics and other targeted activities offered here. The medical and emergency facilities should also be incorporated close to these locations.
Young children, on the other hand, can be accommodated closer to the top floor of the facility, as they should have no difficulty accessing the higher levels of the building. Employees should be trained in providing them with adult supervision while they take part in the activities here. wimming pools of various sizes and depth levels can be included in this location. Daycare facilities can also be located on this floor, or close to it. It is important to include an intercom system from the children's and daycare floors, so that parents can be notified instantly if a child is in need of direct parental intervention. Baby changing rooms, and breastfeeding space can also be provided…
Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council. (2005-2007). "Crystal Leisure Centre - Facilities for the Disabled." http://www.dudley.gov.uk/leisure-and-culture/sports-clubs-and-centres/dudleys-leisure-centres/crystal-leisure-centre/facilities-for-the-disabled
North Ayrshire Leisure (2006-2007). "Magnum Leisure Centre. http://www.naleisure.co.uk/default.aspx?pageID=48
Public Employment Office (1999, May) "Workplace Adjustments for People with a Disability." Fair Ways Newsletter, Iss 1320-5471. http://www.eeo.nsw.gov.au/disabil/adjust.htm
Report of the Head of Property Services (2004, March 2). "North Lincolnshire Council; Leader of the Council; Disabled Access." h ttp:/ / www.northlincs.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/1F293BD4-2CA0-4354-9D9A-F3B89AA2E6B4/4409/DisabledAccess.pdf.
athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.
When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…
Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.
Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.
Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.
Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.
* The effects on normal aging and metabolism is that after the age of forty, metabolism usually decreases by about 5% every ten years. That does not mean that metabolism cannot be controlled to some extent; it can. Metabolism is loosely defined as the chemical workings within our bodies that help us to maintain a certain level of energy use, calorie burning and general energy (even at rest). As we age, our metabolism rate slows down, meaning that we burn less calories and the ones we do burn are burned at a slower rate. It also means that we may have less energy and our overall health slows as well.
* As individuals grow older their muscle mass is less likely to maintain its composition. Bill Sonnemaker, the 2007 IDEA Health and Fitness Personal Trainer of the year states that building muscle mass at any age provides a number of…
American College of Sports Medicine (1995) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 5th Ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 1-373
American Diabetes Association (2011) Hyperglycemia, accessed on May 5, 2011 at http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html
Van Dusen, A. (2011) Tips to build your muscle mass at any age, accessed on May 1, 2011 at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20515088/ns/health-forbescom/
The prescriptions include wisdom, honesty, and courage, as well as human dignity, integrity, respect, health, and independence.
Part 3: Formulate possible evidence-based practices and an action plan that could work towards achieving improvement outcomes.
Provide insight into the diagnostic processes (e.g., root cause analysis) used to determine the primary causes of the problem. Consider both qualitative (cause-effect diagram, barrier analysis), and quantitative (theory testing or drill down analysis) methods.
Analyze the cost-effectiveness of your initiative and how your initiative mitigates risk and improves health care outcomes.
Countless interventions have been used for fall prevention amongst the elderly population. These include risk-assessment and management programs, I.e. Designed to screen those who are most at risk and to design interventions that will reduce their risk of falling; exercise programs slanted dot enhancing flexibility, endurance, and strength; education programs (including one-to -one counseling on methods to prevent falls); environmental modification in homes or…
ANA Nursing-Sensitive Indicators. http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/PatientSafetyQuality/Research-Measurement/the-National-Database/Nursing-Sensitive-Indicators_1
Butts, JB Ethics in professional Nursing Practice
Broe, K et al. (2007) a Higher Dose of Vitamin D Reduces the Risk of Falls in Nursing
Deliberately reducing the amount of PO2 circulating in the breathable atmosphere around a person -- such as Kara accomplishes at sea-level with her tent -- ultimately produces a lowered rate of hemoglobin oxygenation in the arterial blood. This condition, hypoxia, can be dangerous and can, of course, impair aerobic physical exercise -- however the trick that Kara is taking advantage of is the body's ability to undergo acclimatization, in which the body's physiology and metabolism will engage in adjustments that improve the body's ability to tolerate the low-PO2 levels through different means, such as adjusting its own acidity (to change the level of interior biochemical reactivity in order to boost absorbable oxygen levels) but also -- more importantly for Kara and her endurance training -- by improving metabolism on the cellular level and blood circulation (to maximize the value of the oxygen actually obtained) and, most importantly, by "increased synthesis…
McCardle, WD, Katch, F, and Katch, VL (2009). Exercise physiology. 7th ed. New York: LWW.
Murphy, K. (2011). Janeway's immunobiology. 8th ed. New York: Garland Science.
runners world: CASE STUDY
Sue Koenig established Runner World in 1987 at age of 24. The Shop was an immediate success due to certain reasons that are still part of her present strategy. One of the most important factors that contributed to her success was herself: a nationally acknowledged runner. This helped her attract customers as people find it easier to trust someone who was well aware of the needs of runners.
Secondly, when she started her business the fitness craze has just hit the country and people were ready to buy shoes specifically design for running. Thirdly, she had super quality Nike shoes that boosted her profits and added to the number of her regular buyers. However, soon her profits stabilized and her shop has entered the maturity stage of its life cycle.
However, the market in which operated is at a different stage. It is expanding rapidly and…
Within Human esources Development
The literature which describes and analyzes the important aspects of adult education - within the Human esources Development genre - is vitally important in relating to today's employees who seek - and deserve - learning opportunities within their workplace environment. It provides a point of reference, it offers stimulating ideas for digestion and analysis, and it zeros in on the issue at hand, which is that learning should be encouraged and facilitated by employers, and it should be done in such a way that gains in individual learning and knowledge will transfer to competency on the job, and ultimately, profitability for the employer.
An exceptionally useful article by Theodore J. Marchese, entitled, "Insights from Neuroscience and Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies": e.g., the brain is "remarkably plastic across the lifespan..."
Early experiences and genetic inheritance are very important," Marchese writes in his piece,…
Glastra, Folke J; & Hake, Barry J.; & Schedler, Petra E. "Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning." Adult Education Quarterly 54 (2004): 291-306.
Hodkinson, Phil; & Hodkinson, Heather; & Evans, Karen; & Kersh, Natasha; & Fuller,
Alison; & Unwini, Loma; & Senker, Peter. "The significance of individual biography
In workplacelearning." Studies in the Education of Adults 36, (2004): 6-26.
patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in social and emotional defects (such as delayed word recall) that result in frustrating and embarrassing moments for the victim. Of all counseling and intervention programs, rehabilitation therapy (CT) is the one that is commonly used and, therefore, this literature review will conduct a meta-analytic search (focusing on quantitative studies within the last five years) in order to assess the efficacy of CT in helping TBI individuals with their social and emotional skills and perceptions.
The essay identified and reviewed seven randomized trials of language, emotional and social communication cognitive rehabilitation. Inclusion terms were that participants had to possess sufficient cognitive capacity to be included in a group and impairment in emotional and social skills was evidenced either by a questionnaire or by the clinician's reference.…
Bell, K et al. (2011) Scheduled Telephone Intervention for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 1552 -- 1560
Bornhofen, C., and S. McDonald. 2008a. Treating deficits in emotion perception following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 18(1): 22-44.
-- -- . 2008b. Comparing strategies for treating emotion perception deficits in traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 23(2): 103-115.
Chard, K et al. (2011) Exploring the efficacy of a residential treatment program incorporating cognitive processing therapy-cognitive for veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 347 -- 351,
Diabetes is regarded as one of the most problematic and major health concerns that has become prevalent across the globe. According to Kam et al. (2016), in 2012, diabetes resulted in the deaths of 1.5 million people throughout the world. Given its prevalence and devastating impacts, effective prevention and management of diabetes has become a major issue, especially among high-risk individuals/populations. Based on existing findings in the public health sector, dietary and lifestyle changes have been identified as the most suitable prevention and management techniques of diabetes. This study focuses on examining whether an intervention consisting of a traditional, organic, and all-natural diet of locally grown/produced foods plus exercise is more effective in addressing the body's issues in creating or absorbing insulin than insulin injections. In this regard, the researcher has identified relevant studies that will be synthesized based on their relevance, rigor, and level of evidence in…
Aguiar et al. (2014, January 15). Efficacy of Interventions that include Diet, Aerobic and Resistance Training Components for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(2), 1-10.
Ajala O., English, P., & Pinkney, J. (2013). Systemic Review and Meta-analysis of Different Dietary Approaches to the Management of Type 2 Diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(3), 505-516.
Cunningham-Myrie, C., Theall, K., Yonger, N., et al. (2015). Associations Between Neighborhood Effects and Physical Activity, Obesity, and Diabetes. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, 2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(9), 970-978.
Kam et al. (2016, September 27). Dietary Interventions of Type 2 Diabetes: How Millet Comes to Help. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7(1454), 1-14.
In addition, the Marines have a much smaller force than the army.
On the other hand, the army cannot be as selective as the marines because it needs to maintain a much higher number of troops. The article explains that the army "needs 80,000 new soldiers this year and must find them in a populace that is in many ways less willing and less able to serve than earlier generations were (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." The article explains that teenagers and young adults are overweight and less fit than any previous generation. In addition, this generation of young Americans eats more unhealthy foods, watches more television, and engages in less physical activity than previous generations. The article further asserts that this generation is "more individualistic and less inclined to join the military. And with the unemployment rate hovering near historic lows, they have other choices (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)."
Overall it is…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+.
Body Mass Index. http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
Belkin D. (February 20, 2006) Struggling for recruits, Army relaxes its rules: Fitness, education, age criteria change. The Boston Globe Retrieved March 16, 2008 from; http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/02/20/struggling_for_recruits_army_relaxes_its_rules/?page=1
Daniels, S.R. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47+.
People are now looking ways to fight this problem of stress. Some people take help of drugs to control the stress issue but the side effects of drugs create more problems rather than solving one. Exercise has been proven as a natural solution to the problem of stress with no side effects. In certain cases of other psychological problems combining exercise and music can be helpful.
Effects on Mental Performance: esearches have also shown that both music and exercise combined together have positive effects on cognitive abilities. In a research including 33 men and women in the final weeks of a cardiac rehabilitation program after bypass surgery, angioplasty or cardiac catheterization, the effects of classical music and exercise were studied. All participants were asked to complete a verbal fluency test before and after two separate sessions of exercising on a treadmill. Vivaldi's 'The Four Seasons', a classical music piece, was…
Henderson, S. (August, 2005). The Rhythm of Capoeira: Aerobic Workout Combines Cultural Music and Dance for an Effective Exercise. Ebony. 60(10): 94+.
The Effect of Music on Exercise', Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://www.anselm.edu/internet/psych/theses/2004/hall/webpage/
Morris, a. Myers, S. Schaumburg, L. Schrage, K. And Veasey, M. (2006). The Perceived Effects of Music on Exercise Performance. Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/541.asp
Little Music with Exercise Boosts Brain Power, Study Suggests' Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/hartsong.htm
statistical analyses used.
List the statistical procedures used to describe the sample.
Power analysis was used in order to discover power of effect. The power was set to 0.8 with a significant level of 0.05. Differences between the intervention and the control group were tested with Pearson's Chi. A t-test was used for the other perimeters. ANCOVA was used for testing changes between the two groups over time.
Was the level of significance or alpha identified? If so, indicate the level (.05, .01, or .001).
The level of significance was described. The power of the effect size was set to 0.8 with a significant level of 0.05. 0.05 was used throughout as perimeter of significance.
Complete the table below with the analysis techniques conducted in the study:
Identify the purpose (description, relationships, or differences) of each analysis technique.
Power analyses was used in order discover whether the test actually did…
Exercise promotes higher self-esteem in individuals of all ages and/or physical capabilities as long as the individual enjoys the particular exercise program or feels there are definite and measurable benefit to participating in the program.
Professional athletes are some of the most self assured individuals in our society. There have been many studies that have shown that these individuals are highly paid yet the majority of them would continue to work at their sport for free. One of the main reasons for these phenomena is that these specialists really enjoy what they do and they feel they get an obvious reward for doing what they do. They literally get paid for exercising.
Exercise provides many benefits. These athletes receive a unique benefit that many laymen simply are unaware that it comes with the turf so to speak. Professional athletes get the benefit of added self-esteem. "Speculation regarding the interactions…
Boyd, Michael and Yin, Zenong. "Cognitive-Affective And Behavioral Correlates Of Self-Schemata In Sport" Journal of Sport Behavior (1999).
Douthitt, Vicki L. "Psychological Determinants Of Adolescent Exercise Adherence" Adolescence 22 Sept. 1994.
Gavin, Jim, and Avi Mark Spitzer. "The psychology of exercise: studying recent trends in exercise psychology research gives clues on how to promote participation." IDEA Health & Fitness Source 01 Nov. 2002.
Guthrie, Sharon R. "Defending the Self-Martial Arts and Women's Self-Esteem [Part 1 of 3]" Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal (1997).
Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).
A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. egular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…
8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u - _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC7qpvhhCL0&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2005/03000/Exercise_and_well_being__a_review_of_mental_and.13.aspx
Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.
By far, the most trafficked area of the gym were the personal training areas, which were always quite busy. Generally, gym members who use trainers make appointments with them and spend approximately an hour or an hour and a half working with their trainers on a one-on-one basis. In many cases, they do the same types of workouts as members who workout independently, but they do so under the guidance and instruction of trainers. In my opinion, the floor layout did seem designed for the benefit of the trainers, including the fact that the front entrance provides a direct-observation vantage point of the main personal training area. That makes sense, since the gym does make money from booking personal training sessions and the front desk area all but requires prospective members to watch the personal trainers in action.
Generally, the majority of members I observed work out by themselves and…
This is very clear from the consistently over 50% level of activity for cardio training for example. It is noteworthy this is the first time activity levels across the respondent base have stayed over 50% for any factor. This leads to the conclusion that the greater the concentration on a given area or specialized fitness program the greater the commitment over time.
The fourth question is which type of activity is least likely to lead to a high level of commitment on the part of respondents. Previous analysis indicates that the more specialized the activity the greater the long-term commitment. The contrarian view is supported through nonparametric correlation analysis of the activities measured in the response. When aerobics and basketball are combined by the same respondent there is a very high negative correlation of -.306, significant at the .01 level of confidence.
The fifth question is whether respondents participate in…
"A step backward -- or is it forward?" Diabetes Care, 31, 1093-1096.
Huan-Cheng C., Yue-Cune C., Su-Mei, L., Mei-Fang, C., Mei-Ching, H., & Chin-Lin, P. et al. (2007). The effectiveness of hospital-based diabetes case management: an example from a northern Taiwan regional hospital. Journal of Nursing esearch, 15, 296-309.
Khamaisi, M., az, I. (2006). Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: the role of proteik kinase c. Vascular Disease Prevention, 3, 305-312.
Loganathan, ., Searls, Y.M., Smirnova, I.V., & Stehno-Bittel, L. (2006). Exercise-induced benefits in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Physical Therapy eviews, (11), 77-89.
Ohman-Strickland, P.A., Orzano, a.J., Hudson, S.V., Solberg, L.I., DiCiccio-Bloom, B., & O'Malley, D. et al. (2008). Quality of diabetes care in family medicine practices: influence of nurse-practitioners and physician's assistants. Annals of Family Medicine, 6, 14-22.
Ohshiro, Y., Takasu, N. (2007). ole of protein kinase c-? activation in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes, 24(3), 61-64.
Sharma, S., Kulkarni, S.K., &…
Balagopal, P., Kamalamma, N., Patel, T.G., & Misra, R. (2008). "A community-based diabetes prevention and management education program in a rural village in india." Diabetes Care, 31, 1097-1104.
Bloomgarden, Z.T. (2007). Screening for and managing diabetic retinopathy: current approaches. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(S), S8-S14.
Chang, K., Davis, R., Birt, J., Castelluccio, P., Woodbridge, P., & Marrero, D. (2007). Nurse practioner-based diabetes care management. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 15, 377-385.
Davis, S., Asch-Goodkin, J. (2007). Heart failure risk climbs with use of glitazones. Geriatrics, 62(9), 11-11.
Patient, Mr. D., is a 74-year-old male Caucasian, married and retired. Mr. D. complains of dizziness and weakness. Type-2 diabetes was diagnosed in 1994, hypertension in 2002, and arthritis in 2007. Mr. D. is currently taking 20mg Lipitor/daily; 81 mg Aspirin/daily; 333mg Calcium/daily; 5mg zinc/daily, and 500mg Vitamin C/3X day. He denies any drug or herbal use, and uses 650 mg of Tylenol for pain as needed. He has no known food allergies, does not use tobacco or illicit drugs, but has a family history of diabetes and heart disease with both mother and father. His general health acuity is strong (bowels, urinary, etc.), but has occasional slurred speech, weakness in right lower limb, syncope, vertigo, and vision fluctuations. Mr. D. reports that his wife complains he asks the same question repeatedly within a short time period.
Areas for Focused Assessment- The combination of syncope, vertigo, vision, and memory issues…
Hypoglycemia. (2012). Web MD. Retrieved from: http://symptoms.webmd.com/#./conditionView
Ezzo, J., et.al. (2001). Is Massage useful in the Management of Diabetes? Diabetes Spectrum -- The American Diabetes Association. 14 (4): Retrieved from: http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/14/4/218.full
Madden, S., Loeb, S. (2009). An integrative literature review of lifestyle interventions for the prevention of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(2), 2243-56.
Polin, B. (2011). Why Water Aerobics is Good Exercise. Diabetic Lifestyle. Retrieved from: http://www.diabeticlifestyle.com/exercise/why-water-aerobics-good-exercise
Optimal Health and Obesity for Older Adults
In older adults, obesity can aggravate physical function deterioration that comes with age, and result in frailty. However, appropriate obesity treatment in older adults is controversial, owing to decrease of corresponding health risks in relation to increased body mass index (MI) and concerns that loss of weight could potentially have harmful impacts on older individuals. Thus, it is especially vital to take into account therapies for weight loss, and alter one's lifestyle to nutritious food for improving obese older adults' physical function, as well as potentially improving or preventing medical complications linked to obesity. Health promotion strategy at individual and societal levels would enable older adults to adopt a changed and positive lifestyle, in addition to creating awareness among individuals of different age groups to urge older persons to keep up a healthy, nutritional lifestyle.
At present, 7% of global population is…
Corzine, J., & Jacobs, F. (2006). The New Jersey Obesity Prevention Action Plan. New Jersey:
The Department of Health and Senior Services. Retrieved from:
Feeney, M.J. (2010). Optimal Health Throughout the Life Span. Health Connections, 1.
Endurance Exercise Training and the Heart – the Risk versus Benefits
Endurance exercise training is still something of a controversial topic when it comes to assessing its risks vs. benefits on the heart. Some researchers argue that the so-called risks of endurance exercise training on the heart are poorly understood outcomes of tests, whose data is incorrectly interpreted (Kindermann & Scharhag, 2016). Others indicate that “prolonged exercise and exercise training can adversely affect cardiac function in some individuals” (Eijsvogels, Fernandez & Thompson, 2015, p. 99). As always, there is no hard and fast rule that applies to every body type. For most individuals endurance exercise training has a positive effect on the heart (Nummela, Hynynen, Kaikkonen & Rusko, 2016). However, for some people with certain body types, medical history, and family health history, endurance exercise training may pose certain risks for their heart health. So it is really a…
Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible. Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs. Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care.
Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians. In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life.
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire:…
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. "Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers
in Their Homes" The New York Daily News, March 30, 2008. Retrieved February
Medical Conditions -- There are a number of factors that can increase the likelyhood of type-2 diabetes: hypertension, eleveted cholesterol, and a condition called Symdrome X, or metabolic syndrome (combination of obesity, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, stress, and poor diet). Cushing's syndrome, cortisol excess and testosterone deficiency are also associated with the disease. Often, it is a number of co-dependent conditions that seem to give rise to diabetes (Jack & Boseman, 2004).
Genetics -- There is ample evidence that there is a strong inheritable genetic condition in type-2 diabetes. In addition, there is a genetic mutation to the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide gene that results in early onset diabetes (Lee & Hasim, 2001). There is a stronger inheritance pattern for type-2 diabetes with a significant association between family members. Typically, this is excacerbated by cultural and lifestyle factors that, while not inherited, are culturally shared. Gene expression promoted by a diet…
Migraine, also known as hemi crania and megrim, is a severe and recurring headache. Commonly known as sick headache, it often affects only one side of the head, and is usually accompanied by nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, and sensitivity to motion, light sound and odors.
'The, International Headache Society (HIS) has created a checklist by which migraine can be diagnosed. This is a simplified, standardized and globally accepted diagnostic test for migraine. The following criteria define common migraine, which is the migraine without aura:
A patient should have had at least five of these headaches.
The headache lasts from 4 to 72 hours.
The headache must have at least two of the following:
a. One sided location.
Pulsing or throbbing quality.
c. Moderate or severe intensity, making daily activities difficult or impossible to perform
d. Headache is worsened by routine physical activity. Such a bending over or climbing…
1. Stewart J. Tepper, M.D, 2004, Understanding Migraine and Other Headaches, Jackson, Ms. Publication, University Press of Mississippi.
2. Kathleen M. Heins, April 2003, Stopping migraine pain: don't let the doctor dismiss your migraine symptoms. New medicines and treatments are giving millions of women relief from the worst headache of all - Second Opinion, Better Homes and Gardens.
3. Ben Harder, Feb 19, 2005, Against the migraine: a procedure's serendipitous success hints that some headaches start in the heart, Science News.
4. Karen Goldberg Goff, August 1, 1999, HEADING OFF Migraine pain: Finding "Trigger," Right Treatment for debilitating pain, The Washington Times, pg: 1.
Woman in the Military
Although their numbers are still disappointingly small, military women now serve with distinction in every service. The women who served in Operation Desert Storm flew planes into enemy territory, fired weapons, commanded combat support units, ferried troops in to the combat zone and carried them fuel and supplies. At the end of the war, Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney applauded the women's performance: "They did a bang up job....They were every bit as professional as their male colleagues." He also noted that he "wouldn't be at all surprised to see the role of women in combat expanded in the year ahead." Yet, more than a decade later, women are still prohibited from direct combat. Recently, Jessica Lynch's actions on the battlefield in Iraq are once again fueling the debate over the role of women in the military. Many are in favor of letting women join men…
Active Duty Servicewomen by Branch of Service and Rank, 2001." Infoplease. 23 May 2003. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004600.html .
Hoar, William P. "Case Against Women in Combat." The New American. 8 Feb. 1993. Vol. 9,
No. 03. 23 May 2003. http://www.thenewamerican.com/tna/1993/vo09no03/vo09no03_women_combat.htm .
Jones, Rebecca. "Women in the Face of War." Oak Park and River Forest. 23 May 2003. http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:QX4Uem6XEmsJ:oprfhs.org/division/history/inter pretations/2000interp/Jones, Rebecca.doc+military+and+%22combat+exclusion%22+and repeal&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Heart Rate and Exercise
The leading cause of death in America is cardiovascular disease. This particular disease was responsible for 960,000 deaths in this country last year, accounting for 41.5% of all deaths. Studies have shown that exercise reduces the risk of heart disease. Indeed, people who are less fit have between a thirty and fifty percent greater risk for the development of high blood pressure. (Just Move, PG 1)
Unfortunately fifty-four percent of all Americans are overweight and only ten percent follow a regular exercise regimen. (Ask Yahoo, Pg 1) Currently only twenty-two percent of all Americans get enough exercise to protect their hearts. Fifty-three percent get some exercise, but nowhere near enough to cut down their probabilities of disease and twenty-five percent are not active at all. (Just Move, Pg 1) Numerous studies have shown throughout the years that exercise and physical fitness lowers the heart disease risk…
Frequently Asked Questions." Just Move. http://www.justmove.org/fitnessnews/faqbodyframe.htm
Heart Rate." Heart Rate Basics. http://www.heartmonitors.com/heart_rate_basics.htm
Ask Yahoo." Ask Yahoo. http://ask.yahoo.com/ask/20001229.html
Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients
The objective of this study is to construct a health promotion program for Alzheimer's Patients. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is "a form of dementia that interferes with a person's intellectual and social functioning." (NCPAD, 2012) One of the primary concerns for the individual with Alzheimer's is weight loss "due to eating problems such as poor-fitting dentures, problems in swallowing, and loss of appetite. Weight loss or loss of appetite may be caused by noise, odor, and/or conversation distractions while eating." (NCPAD, 2012) Caregivers are faced with many challenges in providing care for the Alzheimer's Patient. Findings in this study state that the primary components required for the health promotion program for the individual with Alzheimer's disease are those of: (1) nutrition; (2) physical activity; (3) mental activity; and (4) social activity and participation.
Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients
The objective of this study…
Adopt a Brain-Healthy Diet (2012) Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/we_can_help_adopt_a_brain_healthy_diet.asp
Berkman, LF (1995) The Role of Social Relations in Health Promotion. Psychosomatic Medicine. Vo. 57, Issue 3. Retrieved from: http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/content/57/3/245.short
Gillett-Guyonnet, Sophie, et al. (2000) Weight Loss in Alzheimer Disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 71 no. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.ajcn.org/content/71/2/637s.full
Growing Stronger -- Strength Training for Older Adults (2011) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/growingstronger/index.html
In fact, she already had all of that information written in the margins right next the photographs. Every picture had a description of how many calories, and how many grams of protein, carbohydrates, and fats she consumed in between the consecutive pictures. She explained that her diet changed much more than her training during that time and I was very surprised at the difference that could be seen so clearly from picture to picture, and especially at the differences in her physique and muscularity from the beginning to the end of each contest preparation cycle. According to her, she maintains the same basic workout routine all year long and the real difference that accounts for the extreme changes in her muscularity before contests is almost exclusively a function of her diet.
My friend helped me understand that I had arrived at narrow-minded conclusions about the relationship between exercise, diet, and…
A general plan for a person who is seeking to maintain a 2000 calorie/day diet must ensure that the proper nutrients are being consumed form optimum health. The following is a useful template that can be uses to help provide the necessary guidance for such a plan.
One cup of a whole grain cereal with 1 cup of low fat milk with one slice of whole wheat toast with peanut butter, can provide a nutritious breakfast that provides enough calories and vitamins to help begin the day. A 6 oz glass of orange juice or other fruit drink can also be added to help provide the Vitamin C that is necessary as well. Calorie count: 450
To help keep the metabolism moving at a quick pace, a mid morning snack is required. This should include, 1 cup of low fat yogurt and an apple. Calorie…
Deurenberg, P., Weststrate, J.A., & Seidell, J.C. (1991). Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age -- and sex-specific prediction formulas. British journal of nutrition, 65(02), 105-114.
Prentice, A.M., & Jebb, S.A. (2001). Beyond body mass index. Obesity reviews, 2(3), 141-147.
Quality of Life Measures
Quality of life is measured using a variety of surveys. The most common of these surveys is the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), which measures several categories of physical functioning, as well as containing a Mental Health Component (MCS). Another commonly used quality of life measure is the Dutch AND-36. Masala, etl al (2012) used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study as well as the SF-36. The van Ginneken et al. (2010) study employed the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68), Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in addition to the AND-36.
Physical Activities Measures
Physical activity is measured with a number of self-assessment and objective tools including peak oxygen uptake during cycle ergometry, walking distance in a timed exercise, "isokinetic muscle strength of knee extensors, body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness," and…
Krasnoff, J.B., et al. (2006). A randomized trial of exercise and dietary counseling after liver transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 2006(6): 1896-1905.
Masala, D. et al. (2012). Quality of life and physical activity in liver transplantation patients. Transplant Proceedings 44(2012): 1346-1350.
Roi, G.S. et al. (2014). Physical activity in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 46, 2345-2349.
Rongies, W., et al. (2011). Physical activity long-term after liver transplantation yields better quality of life. Ann Transplant 16(3): 126-131.
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…
Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.
Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.
Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.
Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.
cultural diversity issues and its impact on nursing professionals' practice. It assesses a client hailing from a different culture, and employs information derived from the assessment determining and reflecting on health practices and beliefs of the client's culture. Lastly, nurses' role in the care of patients hailing from diverse backgrounds care is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn.
Client Interview Data
Client's health beliefs in relation to cultural diversity
The client comes from a family-focused background, in which she plays the role of chief household organizer and attends to her family and their needs. She believes one ought to lead a life of a good and virtuous individual, and support one's family, particularly in times of need. In her opinion, sickness must be tended to, for preserving life. She believes in healthcare professionals and services they offer, for leading a healthy life. She is comfortable having healthcare professionals take care…
American Nurses Association. (1998). Discrimination and Racism in Health Care. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.
Anderson, L. (2012, October 10). Cultural Competence in the Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competence-nursing-practice
Coe, S. (2013, January 15). Cultural Competency in the Nursing Profession. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competency-nursing-profession
Graue, M., Dunning, T., Hausken, M. F., & Rokne, B. (2013). Challenges in managing elderly people with diabetes in primary care settings in Norway. Scand J Prim Health Care, 31(4), 241-247.
Physical Program for Virginia Fire Fighters
The Need for a Physical Fitness Program for Virginia Fire Departments
Fire fighters hold a special place within American society. They help keep our urban and rural landscapes safe from blazes of all kinds. Yet, even in a much more rigid bureaucratic environment, many firefighters within certain departments like here in Virginia failed to meet the physical standard that would provide the utmost level of safety. Although the physical requirements for entering the fire department are strenuous, the state of Virginia lacks a mandatory physical fitness program for its fire fighters that would ensure a continuous level of physical fitness and thus the highest level of performance in the most dangerous situations.
Significance of the Problem: Lack of Available Physical Fitness Programs
To think of an unfit fire fighter is an extremely dangerous problem. Currently, there is only an entry physical exam test (Virginia…
Biddle, Daniel A. & Bell, Stacy L. (2011). Using work-sample physical ability tests to maintain fitness standards of incumbent fire fighters. Fire and Police Selection, Inc. Web. http://www.fpsi.com/pdfs/physical-ability-test-maintenance-standards-article-fpsi.pdf
Calcagno, Guido. (2012). Physical fitness in the fire service. Fire Engineering. Web. http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/print/volume-165/issue-12/features/physical-fitness-fire-service.html
NIOSH. (2009). Death in the line of duty: Fire fighter trainee suffers sudden cardiac death during maze training in Virginia. Faculty Assessment and Control Evaluation Investigation Report F2009-02. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/fire/pdfs/face200902.pdf
Sherek, Becky. (2009). The four components of firefighter fitness. Firehouse. Web. http://www.firehouse.com/article/10473909/the-four-components-of-firefighter-fitness?page=3
Pulmonary Disease and Exercise
Exercise may benefit pulmonary patients in a variety of ways. Pulmonary patients however face many unique challenges to exercising that other disease patients do not.
Pulmonary disease may affect the lungs and in a variety of manners. The condition includes respiratory disorders such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary hypertension. In the article "Comparison of Specific Expiratory, Inspiratory, and Combined Muscle Training Programs in COPD" from Chest Journal, Dr. Weiner and his colleagues explore the idea that weakness within the respiratory muscles may actually contribute to shortness of breathe, which in turn may limit the ability of patients with this disorder to exercise regularly at a significant pace (Weiner, 2003). In a second article, "Comparison of Effects of Strength Endurance Training in Patients with COPD, from the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical care, Francisco Ortega and colleagues examined the effects of different exercise modalities as…
Weiner, Paltiel, MD; Magadle, Rasmi, MD; Beckerman, Marinalla MD., Weiner,
Margalit PhD and Berar-Yanay, Noa, MD. "Comparison of Specific Expiratory, Inspiratory, and Combined Muscle Training Programs in COPD" Chest. 2003;124:1357-1364 Retrieved from, http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/124/4/1357
Ortega, Francisco. Toral, Javier. Cejudo, Pilar, Villagomez, Rafael. Sanchez, Hildegard.
Castillo, Jose and Montemayor, Teodoro. Comparison of Effects of Strength and Endurance Training in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care MedicineVol 166. pp. 669-674, 2002. Retrieved from, http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/166/5/669
Then, light exercise, preferably cross-training if the athlete is dealing with overuse issues, may be undertaken. During the initial phase, aerobic exercise should be confined to "heart rates of 120-140 beats per minute ...this can be slowly built up over the period of 6-12 weeks. The emphasis is increasing volume rather than intensity, and volume should be increased gradually up to one hour per day. Once this is volume is reached, intensity can be gradually increased above the lactate threshold" (Peterson 2011).
Preventing overtraining requires moderating the intensity and the duration of work days, and building in one 'cross-training' or rest day into the training schedule. The mental component of overtraining should not be ignored. Not all athletes who train hard experience the syndrome and one reason some athletes are thought to be more vulnerable to overtraining than others is because of personal stresses that can enact an additional toll…
Meehan, Heidi. (2011). Overtraining syndrome. Sports Injury Bulletin.
Retrieved November 17, 2011 at http://www.sportsinjurybulletin.com/archive/overtraining-causes.html
Peterson, Andrea. (2011). Overtraining. Curtin University. Retrieved November 17, 2011 at http://physiotherapy.curtin.edu.au/resources/educational-resources/exphys/00/overtraining.cfm
FIBA world championship
Factors Determining Success in the FIBA orld Championship
Since the last decade basketball has become a popular sport and it has gained growing amount of interest from the general public, fans, scientists, media and academic researchers as well. It is a sport that provides the people with elevating amount of excitement and entertainment. (Koh and John et al. 1-12)
Basketball can be regarded as one of the most popular games in the world. It is regarded as a game in which the most number of things occur per second as compared to any of the other games. It is indicated by a number of studies that more than 70 million people play basketball and about 210 countries are members of FIBA. (Kamble and Daulatabad et al. 1404-1406)
It has, however, been observed by a number of researchers that the physical and psychological characteristics of successful players and…
Deshaies, P. Mental Preparation: A Key to Success in Officiating. Mies: FIBA: International Basketball Federation, 2003. 40-43.
Fattorini, I. Body Composition and Vertical Jump Performance in Junior Players. Mies: FIBA: International Basketball Federation, 2005. 57-58.
FIBA: International Basketball Federation. "Fcom - About FIBA - history - Quick facts." FIBA.COM, 2013. Web. 6 Dec 2013. .
Foran, B. Conditioning: The Key to Success. Mies: FIBA: International Basketball Federation, 2003. 59-60.
Descibe the effect of execise on blood suga levels. How will this effect you execise ecommendations fo both insulin dependent and non-dependent clients food intake?
Execise cetainly helps to monito and assue healthy blood suga levels. It can help to decease cuent glucose levels in the blood as well as buning stoed blood suga, which is a leading facto in helping individuals lose weight. Moeove, execise can incease muscle mass and cadiovascula enduance. The addition of muscle can futhe help in egulating blood suga levels and glucose usage duing execise sessions.
When making ecommendations fo execise schedules fo clients with diabetes and othe insulin elated disodes, I would cetainly begin with a solid examination of the individual's specific backgound. While I would cetainly be inteested to know about any potential poblems even with non-diabetic clients, I would like to know about the seveity and specificity of the diabetic…
references - Each client has a preferential learning style involving a dominant sensory channel. The trainer should take an active approach to learning style of each participant.
29) Give an example of each rule of professional conduct for teachers of older adults.
1. Professionalism -- Trainers should do their best to maintain the utmost levels of professionalism during sessions. An example of a commonly made mistake would be perhaps taking a cell phone call during a session.
2. Punctuality -- Knowing that many older adults are chronically early, it is critical for trainers to be on time and ready to begin their sessions.
3. Appropriate Language and Terminology -- Being that many older clients will not likely recognize most modern fitness terminology, it is important for trainers to convey their messages in a clear and understandable way. Failure to do so could potentially result in injury.
But I only did this for twenty minutes. I started on my cardiovascular workout by doing exercise on the elliptical for thirty minutes again. I will consistently use elliptical in my daily workout because it exercises my whole body more than the treadmill does. Also, elliptical machines are not high impact exercise machines, which means that unlike the treadmill, I could workout with the same level of effort in the elliptical as in the treadmill, but with less impact and not feeling as tired as I could have been on the treadmill. To start my weight training, I decided to use some free weights first. Using fixed-weight dumbbells with 5 lbs-increments (5lb, 10lb, 15lb and 20lb), I did six repetitions of sixteen count exercises for each dumbbell and each arm. I progressed from the 5lb- to the 20lb-dumbbells.
On the third day of my workout, I did my routine cardiovascular…
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…
Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.
Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.
Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.
Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
Chronic Fatigue in the Aviation Industry
Fatigue is the mental and/or physical state of being weak and tired. Mental and physical fatigue is different, but the two will often exist together. A person becomes mentally tired if they are physically exhausted for a long period. A person being unable to function physically at their normal levels manifests physical fatigue Jackson & Earl, 2006.
Mental fatigue will manifest itself by a sleepy feeling and inability to concentrate properly. In medical terminologies, fatigue is not a sign, but rather a symptom. This means that a person suffering from fatigue is able to feel and describe the condition. Experts have indicated that around 10% of people globally suffer from persistent tiredness at any one time. Females are more prone to persistent tiredness than males. It is not easy to define fatigue in humans because of its large variability of causes. The…
Avers, K., & Johnson, W.B. (2011). A review of Federal Aviation Administration fatigue research: Transitioning scientific results to the aviation industry. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 1(2), 87.
Bennett, S.A. (2003). Flight crew stress and fatigue in low-cost commercial air operations -- an appraisal. International journal of risk assessment and management, 4(2), 207-231.
Caldwell, J.A. (2003). Fatigue in aviation: A guide to staying awake at the stick. 110 Cherry Street: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Caldwell, J.A. (2005). Fatigue in aviation. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3(2), 85-96.
Business Case Quality for Athens Medical Center
A cost reduction, and high quality healthcare delivery are paramount to the values of a healthcare organization. Typically, a cost reduction is driven by operational quality, and clinical improvement leading to removal of harm, variation and waste. The objective of this paper is to present a business case to achieve quality improvement for Athens Medical Center to deliver optimal quality improve patients outcomes. Moreover, the business case develops the implementation plan to enhance the quality of healthcare delivery for our Medical Center. The implementation plan will focus on health education for diabetes patients. After 6 months of the plan implementation, the paper previews that 50% of diabetes patients who receive the health education will record a lower HA1C by 1 point. At least, 25% of the patients will be able to lower their HA1C by 2 points. (Homer et al., 2004, Swensen et…
Bailit, M., Dyer, M. B. (2004). Beyond bankable dollars: Establishing a business case for improving health care. The Commonwealth Fund.
Finkler, S. A., Jones, C. B., & Kovner, C. T. (2013). Financial management for nurses and executives (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Goudreau, K. A. & Smolenski, M. C. (2014). Health policy and advanced nursing practice. New York, NY: Springer.
Henriksen, K., Battles, J. B., Keyes, M. A., Grady, M. L., Hagg, H. W., Workman-Germann, J., ... & Doebbeling, B. N. (2008). Implementation of systems redesign: approaches to spread and sustain adoption.
As a top manager, the person possesses three distinct categories of self-efficacy beliefs (Yun, 2007). These are his individual participant's abilities, his team's capabilities, and the organization's capabilities. Team capabilities are not simply the sum of the abilities of the individual members. And organizational capabilities are different from team capabilities. These being distinct from one another, the top manager can build his efficacy beliefs on himself, the team and the organization. Organizational efficacy can then proceed from the top manager's belief in the organization's capabilities to create competitive advantage as well as attain high performance (Yun).
Self-Efficacy in the Work Environment
According to Newstrom and Davis, self-efficacy is the conviction that one can successfully perform a given task and make meaningful contributions (Edralin, 2004). Causes of powerlessness and low self-efficacy in the workplace are job-related, boss-related, and reward system-related. Unclear roles and expectations, lack of opportunity to…
Bandura, a. (1994). Self-efficacy. Vol 4: 71-81 Encyclopedia of Human Behavior:
Academic Press. Retrieved on March 24, 2010 from http://www.des.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html
Beckman, R.H., et al. (2007). Effect of workplace laughter groups on personal efficacy beliefs. 28: 167-182 The Journal of Primary Prevention: Springer Science- Business
Media. Retrieved on March 23, 2010 from http://www.laughterlinks.com/research/AuthorsFullText.pdf
9. Supporting organizational teams provides employees with a medium to discuss concerns and problems as well as an opportunity to help discharge emotional pressure. Sharing in a group serves as a catharsis and stress release system.
10. Guarantying employees have the freedom to work effectively as well as ensuring they sense their work contributes to a greater purpose decreases workplace stress (Raitano and Kleiner).
hen implementing secondary prevention method, the organization moderates the stress response. Some ways the organization may apply these strategies include:
1. Aerobic exercise and weight training as well as other physical fitness techniques and/or sports opportunities help monitor the body's adverse reactions to stress.
2. Providing access to relaxation training can contribute to reducing workplace stress. hen the individual participates in exercises like deep breathing and engages in mental imagery; focusing on a relaxing environment, this helps enhance his moods and permit him to…
Noblet, Andrew and Anthony D. Lamontagne. "The role of workplace health promotion in addressing job stress." Health Promot. Int. 2006 21: 346-353. Oxford Journals. 9 Aug.
"A Positive approach to workplace stress; This world-renowned researcher explores anxiety at work and how support systems can alleviate it.(Shelley E. Taylor)(Interview)." Gallup
Management Journal. Gallup Organization. 2007. HighBeam Research. 9 Aug. 2010
They find talking while walking difficult because of the attention talking demands. This is why less than 24% of trips were made by them without company. Researchers pointed to this as an important aspect of training mobility in disabled adults who travel with a companion and engage in multi-task conditions Furthermore, community mobility also requires many postural transitions, such as starts and stops, changing direction and reorienting the head accordingly, and reaching out for certain objects. These transitions are believed to be a basic part of mobility that exacts a lot from the balance control system beyond the requirement of steady walking. Disabled older adults were observed to take fewer postural transitions than those without disabilities. They make fewer transitions partly because of deficiencies in postural control mechanisms and partly because most of them have company when they shops and do the reaching out for distant objects for them (Cook).…
Carlson, J.E. (1999). Disability in Older Adults 2: Physical Activity as Preventive. Behavioral Medicine, Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOGDC/is_4_24/ai_55052020
Cook, a.S. (2002). Environmental Demands Associated with Community Mobility in Older Adults With and Without Mobility Disabilities. Physical Therapy: American Physical Therapy Association. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3753/is_200207/ai_n9104853
Harper, D.C. (1996). Emerging Rehabilitation Needs of Adults with Developmental Abilities. Journal of Rehabilitation. National Rehabilitation Association. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_n1_v62/ai_18562553
Lewis, M.A. (2002). The Quality of Health Care for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. Public Health Reports: U.S. Government Printing Office. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0835/is_2_117/ai_94042627
Elliptical Machine, Treadmill, and Recumbent Bike Use
Every machine will provide a signup sheet to allow members to avoid conflicts without having to waste time waiting idly by a machine currently in use by other members. While there is no rule requiring sign-up to use any machine, members doing so will always be presumed to have rights of use in any conflict over rightful order. No machine may be used for more than 30 minutes at a time during peak hours (6:00 -- 10:00 AM and 4:00 -- 8:00 PM weekdays) or for more than 60 minutes at any time when another member is waiting for the same machine. Every member will wipe down every machine used immediately after use.
Non-employee Professional Trainers
Non-employees will be strictly prohibited from training other members for monetary remuneration. Any member who is believed to be violating this rule will be warned only once…
The assessment was done in one session which included estimation of verbal, attention, memory, working memory, intellectual and language functions of the participants. The researchers used the American Adult eading Test to estimate the premorbid verbal intelligence of the participants where they were required to read irregular words which cannot be pronounced correctly using the rules of phonics out loud. This provided a good estimate of the Verbal IQ of the participants on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. It was also a stable and valid measure of the premorbid intellectual functioning of the older demented and non-demented adults.
The verbal intelligence and general intellectual ability of the study participants was estimated through the administration of the information subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and it provided a stable and valid measure despite the advanced age of the participants. The performance of the subject's verbal memory was measuring using the…
Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda, and Alicia MacKay. "The Relation between Instrumental Musical Activity and Cognitive Aging." Neuropsychology 25.3 (2011): 378 -- 86. Print.
Over the last several years, many Americans have become more health conscious. This is because the obesity epidemic is having a dramatic impact on everyone's thinking. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than a study that was conducted by International Health, acquet & Sports Club Association (IHSA). They determined that 16% of the U.S. population is currently members of health clubs. However, in the past three years the total number of enrollments has increased by 10% to 50.2 million members. Moreover, three out of every ten Americans is planning on renewing their membership or joining a health club within the next year. This is illustrating how demand for these services has increased dramatically and will continue to rise in the future. ("Health Club Trends for 2012," 2012)
For Hoffman Estates, Illinois; there are tremendous opportunities in being able to successfully operate this business in…
Gyms Hoffman Estates. (2012). Yelp. Retrieved from: http://www.yelp.com/search?cflt=gyms&find_loc=Hoffman+Estates%2C+IL#l=p:IL:Hoffman_Estates ::
Health Club Trends for 2012. (2012). IHRSA. Retrieved from: http://www.ihrsa.org/media-center/2012/1/11/top-health-club-trends-for-2012.html
Multi-Form Fitness. (2012). BBB. Retrieved from: http://www.bbb.org/chicago/business-reviews/health-and-fitness-program-consultants/multiform-fitness-in-elgin-il-88274704
Prairies Stone & Wellness Center. (2012). Prairie Stone Sports. Retrieved from: http://www.prairiestonesports.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1&Itemid=9
The American economy is undergoing fundamental change. Due primarily to globalization, industries continue to innovate and change. In particular, the rise of the information age has altered the manner in which business is conducted. Technology has now become an integral aspect of all business operations. In many industries however, technology has had very little impact on the fundamental operations of the business. It is these businesses that are unlikely to undergo fundamental change that are particularly appealing to me. For one, these businesses are relatively stable over the long-term. Earnings, profits, and revenues may increase or decrease over subsequent periods. The underlying business however will remain intact. As such, the business that I will own will be a fitness center.
A fitness center is relatively stable in its value proposition to society. More than one billion adults worldwide are overweight. In the United States alone obesity is responsible…
1) Lee, IMin ( July 2012). "Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy." The Lancet.
2) Morris J.N., Margaret D. Crawford Coronary Heart Disease and Physical Activity of Work British Medical Journal 1958; 2 pages1475 -- 1486
3) Reamy, Walker BV (April 2009). "Diets for cardiovascular disease prevention: what is the evidence?." Am Fam Physician 79-569 -- 578.