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" To understand African-Americans we must understand where they came from, what they gave up (besides of course their freedom), and what they hoped for. I believe that understanding more about the roots of this culture can only create more acceptance and tolerance among all people.
Finally, I hope to achieve a good grade in this class! It is an interesting topic to me, and I feel that I will get a lot out of learning more about African-American culture, society, and historical context. I know that black Americans have a colorful and varied history of triumphs and failures, and I think this class will give me a stronger foundation of knowledge to build my own thoughts and ideas regarding African-American culture and experience. I know there is much more to the history than slavery and civil rights, and I hope to come to a better understanding of the entire…
African-American Studies Chapters 9-12
Discuss the myths and realities of the Underground Railroad.
There are a number of myths associated with the Underground Railroad. One such myth was about the use of coded quilts which has been discredited by scholarly research. Another myth concerns the number of slaves who were conducted to freedom by way of the Underground Railroad. Precise numbers are just unknown because of the secrecy required for successful operation. Still, local underground groups that published figures on the number of fugitives they helped over time made it possible to develop estimates for the network as a whole. For the sixty-odd years that the underground existed, it probably was responsible for assisting in the escape of 100,000 fugitive slaves to the northern states and Canada (Bordewich, 2005).
Another pervasive myth about the Underground Railroad was that it operated primarily in the Deep South. In reality, most successful fugitives…
Bordewich, F. (2005, July 27). Underground Railroad: Myth & reality. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from: http://www.fergusbordewich.com/blog/archives/2005/07/testing_the_blo.html
Scholastic Inc. (2012). Myths of the Underground Railroad. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from: http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/underground_railroad/myths.htm
That makes sense, but it was new information to me. I also knew about the desperate lives of slaves in the South, and how they were treated like animals, but to actually see the words of the advertisement that called them "breeding stock" like they were cattle or something was really eye opening and frightening. It was (and is) frightening to me that people could have treated each other this way. It is also frightening that it was condoned and even encouraged among masters who needed the cheap labor. I think that slavery was one of the darkest times in American history, and that we should never forget what happened to Africans who were shipped to America as slaves. Reading a book like this keeps this history alive, and it should. Americans should never forget what happened to African-Americans and they should be ashamed that something like this could happen…
It seems funny that free slaves would organize troops to fight against the North, but I also understand that they were defending the only way of life they had ever known, and that life was in the South, not the North. The Civil War was a horrible conflict, and I know that thousands, even millions of men - black and white - died, and reading about the strength of the fighting men and how they fought so hard and so long is really difficult to read. I think that it is important that the book includes so many illustrations because they help make the people and the situations more real and more interesting, too.
I think that the film "A Dry White Season" really shows the difficulties of the blacks in South Africa, who really received civil rights so much later than American blacks that it is just stunning. The…
Race and Education
Appreciation of the value of an education, upholding high family values and morals, and displaying the physical characteristics is associated with the European culture. Upper class values are viewed as adopting the European culture, which is also known as acting white. An African-American dressed in business attire, and holding a white-collar job is considered to have adopted the European culture values. High achievement is expected among the western culture. Identifying white collar African-Americans as Eurocentric is racism, because it diminishes the importance of the tradition among the black culture. White collar, well-educated African-Americans should not be identified as adopting the Eurocentric lifestyle, because it would eliminate much of the prejudiceness, and high achiever's accomplishments and capabilities would not be predetermined by their race.
The western culture will always be considered as the highest social status of all cultures. This belief and tradition has developed through history and…
Kelley Robbin, Mama's Disfunktional, 1998.
Pradshad, Vijay, Everybody was Kung fu Fighting (Article from book), 2002.
Pradshad, Vijay, Race Discrimination, 2000.
Aikins, Racism, May 2002.
Whereas in 1963, 70% of all African-American families were headed by married couples, that rate had dipped to 46.1% by 1996. In 2001, the rate had increased to 47.9%, the first uptrend in 40 years (Kinnon, 2003). The rate of African-American crime and incarceration, which is closely linked to males from single-parent households, has also dipped since 1996.
Concerns about TANF and current welfare programs
While the statistics are compelling, there are a series of questions which have not been addressed by these welfare reforms. There are still about 50% of the former welfare population which has not been able to graduate from the welfare-poverty cycle, nor have they been able to find work. In states where the TANF provisions were enacted, including the 5-year limitation on welfare benefits, there has been a back-sliding on the part of state legislatures to extend welfare assistance for the "hard core" unemployed.
Bush, L. (2000). African-American Mothers/African-American Sons: A Critical Examination of the Social Science Literature. Western Journal of African-American Studies, 145-167.
Cherry, F. & . (1977). Physical and cognitive development in children of low-income mothers working in the child's early years. Child Development, 158-166.
Garfinkle, I. a. (1986). Single Mothers and their children: A new American dilemma. Washington: Urban Institute.
Haskins, R. (1989). Beyond metaphor: The efficacy of early childhood education. American Psychologist, 274-282.
African-American Culture in the 1980s
An article in the peer-reviewed journal Progressive deals with the political and social culture of the African-American community in the 1980s. It was a peer-reviewed article that reported that "…large numbers of African-American elites were elevated…" into corporate executive position, into the "federal judiciary" and also were elected to state legislatures across America (Marable, 1991). However, the 1980s were also a time when AIDs was becoming a major medical scourge and many African-Americans believed that AIDs was a conspiracy in order to "systematically destroy" the black culture (Marable, 18).
The thesis of this article by Manning Marable -- the late professor of public affairs, African-American studies and history at Columbia University in New York City -- is that there was a "crisis in the black political culture" and a belief that AIDs was a "white supremacist medical conspiracy." Moreover, his thesis was that there was…
Marable, Manning. "Black America in Search of Itself." Progressive, 55.11, 18-23. 1991.
The 1950s was a time when the last of the generation of slaves were beginning to disappear from communities but their first generation children were attempting to make sense of the lives they led and the cautionary tales they had applied to their lives as a result. The work shows that for the 1950s African-American family it was a time of remembrance and resolution as well as a time to reflect on change and hope for even greater change in the future, with the inclusion of the fact that defacto segregation and suppression was still occurring in a rampant manner all over their lives.
Jewell, K. Sue. 2003. Survival of the African-American Family: The Institutional Impact of U.S. Social Policy. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jewell develops a social history that demonstrates all the many disparities of the African-American vs. majority culture and how these disparities, legal, social and economic…
McLoyd's work brings to mind the manner in which the 1950s conservative slant echoed the discrimination of the past and present. The work demonstrates that during the 1950s academic work began to be even more direct with its assassination of the individual as the source of limited progress. In other words the period demonstrates an extreme prejudice, where African-American Families themselves were in short blamed directly for their inability to succeed in the American landscape, regardless of the fact that the social, legal and economic conditions were almost completely against them.
Itagaki, Lynn M. 2003. Transgressing Race and Community in Chester Himes's if He Hollers Let Him Go. African-American Review 37, no. 1: 65.
Itagaki's work is a literary and social criticism of the works of Chester Himes, an African-American man who moved his family to Los Angels in the late 1940s and through the 1950s and 60s experienced contradictions in the ideal and the actions of those living there. The white community rejected and repressed the African-American family with all the same and worse segregation and discrimination when they were attempting to grow and become stronger, many by leaving the south. The work describes the volume of Himes' works but looks most closely at his beloved novel if He Hollers Let Him Go. The message of the work is distinctly responsive to the 1950s as a period of social transition for the African-American families, as they are told one thing and treated in a manner altogether different.
African-Americans History And Culture
The false and misleading notion that "African-Americans created themselves" completely ignores and invalidates the rich history of those whose ancestry lies in the great African continent. While African-Americans have adopted and incorporated many cultures into their own (not unlike any other cultural group in America) that in no way signifies that African-American's have no culture or history of their own.
"Black people have no history, no heroes, no great moments," this was told to a young Arthur Schomburg by his 5th grade teacher. Schomburg, with both African and Puerto ican ancestry went on to become a great historian and curator of African-American history; helping to dispel the very "truth" that his teacher tried to feed him about his own history and culture many years prior. The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" simply means that the Black American is devoid of history and a culture to call…
Bascom, L.C. (1999). A renaissance in Harlem: Lost voices of an American community. New York, NY: Bard.
Painter, N.I. (2006). Creating Black Americans: African-American history and its meanings, 1619 to the present. London: Oxford University Press.
At the same time, however, the ghettoes resulted from the people's desire to form a united community to which they could relate and that could offer comfort from a society that, despite its more opened views, still viewed blacks from the point-of-view of the segregation policy.
The ghettoes however represented an environment that would later offer one of the most important and relevant elements of the American culture: the music and religious atmosphere that was traditional for the black community. As a means of resisting the struggle against segregation and inequality, many communities saw music as the connection that united all black people in their suffering. The soul music thus became a means of expressing both sorrow and joy, hope and despair among the black communities. Even though such practices had been seen in the South as well, once the Great Migration started, the black people exported their core values…
African-American World. The Great Migration. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 2002. 28 April 2007 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
Crew, Spencer R. "The Great Migration of Afro-Americans, 1915-40." Monthly Labor Review,
Encyclopedia Britannica, Jim Crow law, 2007. 28 April 2007 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9043641/Jim-Crow-law/
Grossman, James. "Great Migration." The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. 2004. 28 April 2007 http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/545.html
African-Americans in the News
From some of the articles that I have studied, it seems that many articles on the African-American community focus on their problems, on analyzing them and on suggesting possible solutions by which the community can improve its condition.
One of these articles, for example, addresses the problem of HIV / AIDS as it is reflected in the African-American community, suggesting that the best solution may actually revolve around taking responsibilities rather than pointing fingers to the people who are to blame. Taken from the Philadelphia Inquirer and quoting directors from the lack AIDS Institute, the article is keen to point out that "in 2005, AIDS in America is mostly a black disease"
. However, even more worrisome is the perception existing at the community level according to which HIV / AIDS was a white manmade disease, specially created to eradicate and/or control the community. In this…
1. African-Americans Should Take More Responsibility in Fight Against HIV / AIDS, National Conference Speakers Say. March 2005. On the Internet at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=20606
2. Spriggs, William. African-Americans and Social Security. Dollars & Senses. Issue #256, November/December 2004. On the Internet at http://www.dollarsandsense.org/1104spriggs.html
4. Study: Hispanics a Key News Target. On the Internet at
African-American Heritage & the Amish
African-American people traditionally have different communication patterns and family roles than their white counterparts. They are more likely to have families headed by single parents (usually single mothers) and they are also more likely to have poor communication skills and not express their deepest feelings so that they can get help for the family problems they are facing (Franklin & Moss, 2001). Unemployment and underemployment runs high through the African-American community, although there are certainly exceptions. Because the culture of the majority of African-American people is different from the culture seen in the white community, the interaction between the two groups can sometimes be more complex than one would expect. African-Americans are more likely to be part of the high-risk population when it comes to health and well-being (both mental and physical), and they are more like to live in areas of the country and…
Franklin, J.H., & Moss, A. (2001). From Slavery to Freedom. A History of African-Americans. New York: NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Kraybill, D.B. & Olshan, M. A, ed. (1994). The Amish Struggle with Modernity. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
Salzman, J., ed. (1996). Encyclopedia of Afro-American culture and history, New York, New York: Macmillan Library Reference USA.
African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and…
Tamar Lewin. Growing Up, Growing Apart. New York Times, June 25, 2000. http://query.nytimes.com/search/article-page.html?res=9402E1DF1730F936A15755C0A9669C8B63
Thomas Dolan. Newark and its Gateway Complex. Rutgers Newark Online, September, 2002. http://www.newarkmetro.rutgers.edu/reports/2002/09/gateway/gateway2.php
George Breitman (Ed.), Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, published in 1990 by Grove Weidenfeld: New York, NY. pp 4-17 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/malcolmxgrassroots.htm
High Rises Brought Low at Last. The Economist: July 9, 1998. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=142018
e learn that art can indeed reflect life but it can also inspire it beyond what the human mind can dream.
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.
Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.
Richard Powell. African-American Art. 2005 Oxford University Press. http://www.aawc.com
Rodriguez, Junius P.. "African-American Experience: Art." African-American Experience. 12 September, 2008. http://aae.greenwood.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, (1990). 278.
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, (1994). 69.
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a…
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.
Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.
" (Seitles, 1996)
Seitles claims that integration has been a success in the fight against racial prejudice and states that: "Social consequences of racial isolation intertwine with grim economic realities for minorities. Due to the lack of interaction between racial groups, African-Americans are unprepared to work and socialize in a white majority society, while conversely, whites are not relating to, working with, or living with blacks. Prospects for African-American children raised in such communities are greatly diminished because of the lack of interaction between blacks and whites. Moreover, minority possibilities for advancement consequently decline from the lower quality of education afforded to them in ghetto schools, precluding them from competing for high-income employment. Although these inequalities are not always directly caused by intentional discrimination, residential racial segregation perpetuates these inequalities. Thus, minorities who live in racially homogeneous communities are faced with disadvantages beyond the present economic and social inequalities associated…
Thomas Lee Philpott, The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Middle Class Reform, 1880-1930 New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Appendix A, 407-410. Online available at: Plotkin (1997) http://www.public.asu.edu/~wplotkin/DeedsWeb/newberry.html
Wilen, William P. & Stasell, Wendy L. (2000) Gautreaux and Chicago's Public Housing Crisis: The Conflict Between Achieving Integration and Providing Decent Housing for Very Low-Income African-Americans Copyright 2000 by National Center on Poverty Law. All rights reserved. 34 Clearinghouse Rev. 117. http://www.povertylaw.org/legalresearch/articles/free/wilen.htm
Ranney, D. & Wright P. (2000) Race, Class, and the Abuse of State Power: The Case of Public Housing in Chicago Nathalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement 2000 March, Publication#: V172 http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/voorheesctr/racepaper.htm
Gautreaux and Chicago's Public Housing Crisis:
Perceived and real institutional barriers, a lack of awareness and real availability of need-based aid thus have a clear effect upon many students' perceptions about the role of the medical profession. Medicine is a demanding but rewarding field, and it is necessary that students dare to dream about becoming doctors, to ensure that African-American health outcomes do not continue to fall short of those of other minority groups, and to ensure that community concerns are addressed by the profession as a whole. Role models can be made more available by increasing access of African-American youth to African-American physicians, through visits to schools like the young doctors. Social barriers can be overcome by increasing educational awareness about scholarships and programs to help minorities navigate the challenges of medical school. Specific, culturally aware education about the barriers and ways to overcome financial barriers to medical school is essential to change the…
Ryan Blitzstein. "Racism's hidden toll." Miller-McCune Magazine. June 14, 2009.
November 8, 2009.
Davis, Sampson, Rameck Hunt, & George Jenkins. The Pact: Three young men make a promise and fulfill a dream. Prentice Hall, 2006.
If someone returns a questionnaire with identifying personal information, then it will not be used in the study and will be destroyed. The questionnaires will also be constructed so that there will be no questions that could potentially violate the participants privacy in any way. For instance, there will be no questions asked about the particulars of the child's suicide, where the mother works, what particular community she's from and what church she is a member of, etc. Questions such as these could deter the target audience from responding because of fear that their privacy could be jeopardized.
The introductory letter sent with the questionnaire plays an important role in weeding out any ethical issues that may arise. The letter will clearly define the survey and discuss why the prospective participants were chosen. They will know that none of their personal information was used in order to send them the…
African-American MOTHES AND THEI DAUGHTES
Ethical Issues in Gumdrop Northern
The Executive Officer, ABC Company
Ethical Issues in Gumdrop Northern
It has come to my attention that the actions and functions of the Gumdrop Northern are not up to standards. The company besides afflicting the American citizens, particularly the military, has lacked a sense of corporate social responsibility to both their employees, customers and the natural environment. Notably, the business world faces the notion of corporate social responsibility in all aspects of business undertakings (Bitektine, 2011). In a wide assortment of issues, corporations get motivation of to behaving in a socially responsible manner. In the contemporary world, corporate businesses focuses on the interest of the society through taking responsibility for the effect of their actions on employees, shareholders, communities and customers in all facets of their operations (Bitektine, 2011).
Nevertheless, this is contrary to what Gumdrop Northern is doing to…
Bitektine, A, 2011, "Toward a theory of social judgments of organizations: The case of legitimacy, reputation, and status," Academy of Management Review, 36: 151 -- 179.
Crouch, C. 2006," Modelling the firm in its market and organizational environment: Methodologies for studying corporate social responsibility. Organization Studies, 27:1533 -- 1551.
Pike, J. (2010). Mine resistant ambush protected (MRAP) vehicle program. Global Security. Retrieved from http://www.globalsecurity.org
Sleeer, J.(2012). Business ethics and stakeholder management: Developing a structured approach for small business owner-managers. New York: GRIN Verlag
African-American males between the ages of 15 and 24 are at relatively higher risk of suicide according to Center for Disease control and prevention. Since 1980s the suicide rate has increased tremendously and many young seemingly successful males are committing suicide following years of suffering from chronic depression. Such cases highlight the importance of recognizing signs of depression young males but since researches and studies do not always reach parents on time, they fail to stay on top of it. This is how Gina Smallwood felt when in 2008 her young son shot himself right before his 20th birthday. (Thomas, 2009) Gina had no idea Kelvin was at the risk of suicide or that there were any statistics that placed African-American youth at greater risk of suicide. Instead she felt that since her son had been an honor student and had a bright future ahead of it; suicide would be…
Poussaint, A., & Alexander, A. (2000). Lay my burden down: Unraveling suicide and the mental health crisis among African-Americans. Boston: Beacon
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control.
Suicide injury deaths and rates. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov
Barnes, DH (2006). The Aftermath of Suicide Among African-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(3), 335-348.
LEADING CAUSES OF MOBIDITY:
Some of the diseases which often result in early death in African-Americans, provided that the go untreated or undiagnosed, include hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, dementia (i.e., Alzheimer's disease), diabetes and certain types of cancer, most notably lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer (in men). Exactly why the morbidity rates for these disease are so much higher in African-Americans than in other ethnic/racial groups include a lack of education, lower incomes and the inability to access professional health care providers and clinics ("Health and Health Care," 2009, Internet). At the top of the list, there is hypertension, coronary heart disease (especially arterial blockage), stroke and some major types of cancer. With hypertension, some studies have shown that if a black male lives in poverty, his chances of being stricken with high blood pressure increases, perhaps because of the stress which goes…
"Health and Health Care of African-American Elders." (2009). Internet. Accessed June 24,
2009 from http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/african.html .
Spector, Rachel E. (2008). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness. New York: Pearson
In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York, NY: Springer.
Carroll K.M. (1997). Enhancing retention in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments: Practical strategies. In L. Onken, J. Blaine, & J. Boren, (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. [NIDA Research Monograph Series #165, 4-24]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Chou C.P., et al. (1998). Interaction effects of client and treatment program characteristics on retention: An exploratory analysis using hierarchical linear models. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(11), 2281-2301.
Goldkamp, J.S., White, M.D., & Robinson, J.B. (2001). Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court blackbox. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(1), 27-72.
Snyder, H., Finnegan, ., Stahl, A., & Poole, R. (1999). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1988-1997 [data presentation and analysis package]. Pittsburgh,…
The Developmental Pathways Model (2005) Health Services Technology Assessment Text HSTAT Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat5.section.18578
Deborah Prothrow-Stith, M.D., Deadly Consequences "An Endangered Species -- Young Men of Color Living in Poverty" Chapter 5,-page 64-79 (1991).
African-American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse
The fact that this figure remains a guess says something important about what orrison was up against in trying to find out the full story of the slave trade. uch of that story has been ignored, left behind, or simply lost.
Through her works she attempted to retell the stories of grief associated with slavery and terror, her characters living their lives with greater understanding of its value than almost any other set of characters in fiction today.
Within the genre of the autobiography there is a different tenor of thought the words and deeds are that of the author and the message is clearly self, devolvement. Angelou in the Heart of a Woman demonstrates the ideals of her time, as a civil rights organizer and protestor. She clearly spells out the strife that exists between whites, and blacks and the dangerous dance they are doing during what most would…
Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 97.
Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 191.
Alice Walker in love & Trouble: Stories of Black Women (New York Harcourt Press, 1973) 47-59.
Self-esteem and self-efficacy are issues that are of primary importance. These are affected by a number of environmental factors, including immediate family, but also the environment in which a person moves, as well as the wider social environment.
Contextualism was promoted in 1942 by S.C. Pepper, and was previously known as "pragmatism." This term was often used in the work of Charles S. Peirce, William James, Henri
ergson, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead (Morris, 1997). In psychological development, contextualism suggests the influence of a broad number of categories, beginning with the immediate family, and broadening to the peer group, society, and global environment. ehavior is therefore to be seen in the context not only of immediate family and peer influence, but also in the context of broader society.
According to Morris (1997), Pepper's use of the term "contextualism" first occurred during 1932, where he referred to John Dewey's…
Blunden, Andy. (2001, February). "The Vygotsky School." Spirit, Money and Modernity Seminar. http://home.mira.net/~andy/seminars/chat.htm
Blunden, Andy (1997). "Vygotsky and the Dialectical Method."
Domitrovich, Celene E. (2001, April). "Parenting practices and child social adjustment: Multiple pathways of influence" In Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Wayne State University Press
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
S. news magazines between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1998. They concluded that the images of the poor in these news magazines "do not capture the reality of poverty, but instead provide a stereotypical and inaccurate picture of poverty that results in a misconception of beliefs about the poor, antipathy toward blacks and lack of support for welfare programs.
Similarly, Dixon and Linz (2000) researched the content of a random sample of local TV news programming in Los Angeles and Orange counties to determine representations of blacks, Latinos, and whites as lawbreakers and law defenders. "Intergroup" comparisons of perpetrators found that blacks and Latinos are significantly more apt than whites to be shown as lawbreakers. "Interrole" comparisons, lawbreakers vs. law defenders, similarly found that blacks and Latinos are more likely to be shown as lawbreakers than as defenders, whereas whites are significantly more apt to be portrayed as defenders…
Chavous, T.M., Green, L., Harris, a, Lumas, H., and Rivas, D. (2004). Racial Stereotypes and Gender in Context: African-Americans at Predominantly Black and Predominantly White Sex Roles. A Journal of Research. 51(1-2), 1.
Clawson, R.T., (2000) Poverty as we know it; Media portrayals of the poor. Public Opinion Quarterly 64(1) 53-65
Dixon, T., and Linz, D.(2000) Overrepresentation and Under representation of African-Americans and Latinos as Lawbreakers on Television. Journal of Communication. 50 (2), 131
Fogel, R.W. (1989).Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery New York W.W. Norton.
A cannot live on tomorrow's bread." (Langston Hughs)
The poem of Hughs ends by expressing that freedom comes to be needed by those who are deprived the most of freedom.
CULLEN: UNCLE JIM
In the work of Cullen entitled "Uncle Jim" the entirety of understanding this poem is in the first line which states:
White folks is white," says Uncle Jim" (Countree Cullen)
In just the first line of this poem it is expressed how all the blacks were not ready at the time of this poem for feeling or accepting that they were, just as the white people, Americans.
ROWN: "ITTER FRUIT OF THE TREE"
Many of Sterling rowns first works have been called "...lighthearted narratives...' To be followed by "itter Fruit of the Tree" which has been termed to be a "...spiteful vendetta..." In which he speaks of the suffering of his family, specifically his grandmother and grandfather…
Claude McCay (1919) Review of "If We Must Die" Online available at http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/mckay.html
Langston Hughs - "Democracy" Online available at http://www.poemhunter.com/p/m/poem.asp?poet=6691&poem=32573
Countree Cullen - "Uncle Jim" http://www.ragistan.com/cgi-bin/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=next_topic&f=7&t=002198&go=newer
The Poets: Sterling Brown (1901-1989) Online available at http://education.yahoo.com/homework_help/cliffsnotes/american_poets_of_the_20th_century/56.html
As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.
Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.
It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.
Institutional networks continue to play…
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December
1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
Some might argue that the movies and television depicting African-American and white adolescent girls reinforces stereotypes and can only negatively affect body image. This argument is supported by the fact that the vast majority of media and film sexualizes young women, African-American or white (Baker 13-15). It is true that women are held to a higher ideal because of advertising and media. However, the difference in the advertising of African-American and white women is the submissive sexiness of white women opposed to the independent sexiness of African-American women (Baker 13-15). It is true that both back and white girls feel compelled to emulate sexiness. However, African-American girls are also given an ideal that includes the tools for self-acceptance. That is, the independence and assertiveness found in the advertising depicting African-American women helps girls to feel confident and self-assured.
Close family relationships may be another factor in positive body image in…
Baker, Christina N. "Images of Women's Sexuality in Advertisements: A Content analysis of African-American- and White-Oriented Women's and Men's Magazines." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 52.1-2 (2005): 13-15.
Girls' Body Images Depend on Moms." Family Practice News 36.2 (2006): 51.
Hylmo, Annika. "Girls on Film: An Examination of Gendered Vocational Socialization Messages Found in Montion Pictures Targeting Teenage Girls." Western Journal of Communication 70.3 (2006): 167-85.
Rosenthal, Doreen a., Anthony M.A. Smith, and Richard de Visser. "Personal and Social Factors Influencing Age at First Sexual Intercourse." Archives of Sexual Behavior 28.4 (1999): 319.
Selling in public obviously can result in an arrest far easier than selling in a dorm, or a bar, or a workplace, as whites tend to do. Police can stop a black man on the street and frisk him without a warrant. And so if African-Americans are far more likely to be selling crack in the open air, and crack sales result in far longer jail sentences than powder cocaine sales, there is at least part of the answer as to why African-Americans serve longer sentences in some cases.
A ashington Post analysis of 79,000 federal sentences between the years 1993 and 1995 (referenced in Jet Magazine) reflects that "Blacks received 2% longer jail terms than whites" nationally, and in the District of Columbia Blacks received sentences that were 12% longer than whites (Jet Magazine).
Meantime, in the publication Sentencing Law and Policy (a participant in the law Professor Blogs…
Contexts. "Black/White Disparities in Prison Sentences." Sociological Images. Retrieved January 30, 2009, from http://contexts.org .
Doege, David. "Drug Sentences Worse For Blacks." Journal Interactive. Wisconsin State
Jet. "Federal Prison Study Reveals That Black Defendants Still Get Longer Sentences.
The questions that follow will guide the study. By responding to these two questions, the study will have addressed the problem cited in the problem statement and at the same time achieved the purpose of the study:
1). What perceptions are held by school administrators as regards the influence that cultural difference has on the placement of students in the special education programs?
2). what theme informs the perceptions held by teachers and social workers in their dealing with African-American and Hispanic students?
Guided by the research questions, the research hopes to finding whether there is an overriding theme in teacher perception of the students from the minority groups. The response from interviews with teachers will provide a good set of data that can be used for its qualitative plus quantitative significance (Bursztyn, 2007). A candid look at the factors leading to teachers referring students to referral…
Anderson, T., & Stewart, J.B. (2007). Introduction to African-American studies: Transdisciplinary approaches and implications. Baltimore, Md: Inprint Editions.
Arnold, M., & Marie, E.L. (2003). Overrepresentation of minority students in special education. Education, 124(2), 230-236. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/196430282?accountid=35812
Brandon, R.R., & Brown, M.R. (2009). African-American Families in the Special Education Process: Increasing Their Level of Involvement. Intervention in School and Clinic, 45(2), 85-90. SAGE PUBLICATIONS, INC. Retrieved from http://isc.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1053451209340218
Bursztyn, a.M. (2007). The Praeger handbook of special education. Westport: Conn.: Praeger.
African-American Perspectives on Education for African-Americans
Education has been an issue at the forefront of the African-American community since the first Africans were brought to the colonies hundreds of years ago. For centuries, education was forbidden to enslaved Africans in the United States with penalties such as whipping and lynching for demonstrating such skills as literacy. As the abolitionist movement gained strength and the Civil War commenced, more and more enslaved Africans saw education as a sign of freedom and a representation of the many ways in which they were held back yet simultaneously integral to American culture. Two African-American writers, scholars, and leaders, W.E.B. Du Bois and Frederick Douglass, discuss the power and the potential for education in the African-American Community. Douglass wrote his seminal work, his autobiography, in the middle of the 19th century, before the Civil War, econstruction, the industrial revolution, and the turn of the 20th…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1845. Available from http://www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/f-douglas/Narrative-Douglass.pdf. 2012 May 05.
Du Bois, W.E.B. "Of Our Spiritual Strivings." The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. Available from http://www.bartleby.com/114/1.html . 2012 May 05.
Rowley, Stephanie J., Sellers, Robert M., Chavous, Tabbye M., & Smith, Mia A. "The Relationship Between Racial Identity and Self-Esteem in African-American College and High School Students." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 3., 715 -- 724, 1998.
Sellers, Robert M., Chavous, Tabbye M., & Cooke, Deanna Y. "Racial Ideology and Racial Centrality as Predictors of African-American College Students' Academic Performance." Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 8 -- 27, 1998.
African-Americans in Major Historical Events
Although African-Americans have been seen as being the catalysts of major historical conflicts such as the Sectional Crisis, the Civil ar, and Reconstruction, they actually impacted these events. For example during the Sectional Crisis, African-American presence in the U.S. Courts, as they sued for their freedom, brought the injustice that African-Americans faced to the national spotlight. In addition, during the Civil ar, African-Americans' presence was widespread as they fought on the field and worked behind the scenes. Finally, African-Americans shaped the period of Reconstruction as they continued their fight for equality through their presence in government politics. This essay will discuss these specific contributions of African-Americans during each of these eras.
The Dred Scott Decision
The Sectional Crisis was the period preceding the Civil ar that began in the 1840s and peaked during the 1850s. During the period of the Sectional divide contributions of African-Americans…
Murphy, Heather K. "African-Americans in the Civil War." Web. 14, Dec. 2010.
United States v. Dred Scott, 60 U.S. 393 (1856). Web.
Worth, Richard and Schwarz, Philip. African-Americans During Reconstruction. New York,
New York: Infobase Publishing, 2006. Print.
African-American and Mexican-American
Civil Rights in Texas
This essay discusses African-American and Mexican-American civil rights in Texas. The goal is to discover what some of the key events was in each the African-American and the Mexican-American battles for their group's civil rights. The secondary objective is to see how these movements resembled each other and how they differed from one another and if one was more effective than the other. As the United States and its individual states like Texas become more racially diverse, all new criteria will arise that may be more closely linked to India's caste system than to what we understand and take for granted here in the United States. Economic barriers and not racial barriers are gradually becoming the underlying motivator of the civil rights movement. In other words, being black or Mexican will not matter in regard to civil rights. If the respective…
Arnoldo De Leon. (1982). "The Tejano Community, 1836-1900." Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Alwyn Barr (1973). "Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971." Austin: Jenkins.
Michael L. Gillette. (1978). "The Rise of the NAACP in Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 81, April.
David Montejano (1987). "Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986." Austin: University of Texas Press.
The impact of slavery on the sexuality of African-American women has been largely overlooked for many years. In addition, the negative manner in which African-American Women are portrayed in the media has been a topic of debate in recent years.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore how the experience of slavery shaped the development of African-American women's sexual identity and self-esteem. In addition, we will examine how the larger American public views and portrays black women in the media.
How the experience of slavery shaped the development of African-American women's sexual identity and self-esteem
How slavery impacted the Family Unit
The Slavery in America is one of the most heinous events in history.
What many fail to realize is that the experience of slavery has fashioned the way that African-American women view their sexuality and body image. efore we can fully understand the impact that slavery had…
Bay, Mia. The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Davis, Olga Idriss. "A Black Woman as Rhetorical Critic: Validating Self and Violating the Space of Otherness." Women's Studies in Communication 21.1 (1998): 77+.
African-American people from a qualitative perspective. The literature review will provide a brief background on African-American people and leading health problems they face along with a brief inclusion of census data to create a general picture of health from the perspective of an African-American person. One African-American man was interviewed. His answers provide a means of generating a construct that will be used to draw conclusions for nursing practice and standard of care development.
African-American People: Literature Review
A website called: 'Dimensions of Culture', examines cultural patterns existent in many African-American communities. Those that recently immigrated from Africa show an even different culture compared to African-Americans that have lived in the United States for generations. One common cultural pattern experienced by African-Americans is the 'Black' Experience, which is diverse, representing a wide array of skin tones and backgrounds. The next is the social structure. The social structure often takes on…
African-American women are at greater risk for contracting HIV than other races. Stemming from this hypothesis, it will be investigated whether race, in this case being African-American, impacts the course of HIV after infection. Past research has indicated that African-American women, including both adults and adolescents, are disproportionately at risk for the contraction of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the resultant development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011; Johnson et al., 1994). esearchers have explored the impact that sex-related issues have on the increases risk among this population, and it has been determined that sexual assertiveness is an interpersonal predictor of sexual behavior that poses increased risk for contracting HIV (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011). Furthermore, research has indicated that women demonstrated low sexual assertiveness are at a greater risk for the development of HIV (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011). It may be suggested that research in this…
Kennedy, B.R., Jenkins, C.C. Promoting African-American women and sexual assertiveness in reducing HIV / AIDS: an analytical review of the research literature. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 18(4), 142-9.
Johnson, E.H., Jackson, L.A., Hinkle, Y., Gilbert, D., Hoopwood, T., Lollis, C.M., Willis, C., Gant, L. (1994). What is the significance of black-white differences in risky sexual behavior? Journal of the National Medical Association, 86(10), 745-59.
African-Americans have experienced higher rates of recidivism in contrast with other segments of the population. Evidence of this can be seen with a study conducted by the U.S. Justice Department. They found that those individuals in this demographic and between the ages 18 to 35 have a 32% chance of being incarcerated. Once they are released from prison or placed on probation, the odds of them committing another crime are double in contrast with other population groups. (Kury, 2011) To fully understand why this is occurring requires examining the root causes of the problem. This will be accomplished by conducting a literature review on the subject. These findings will illustrate the primary causes as to why this segment has higher recidivism rates.
The target population is focusing on African-Americans from ages 18 to 35. This study will examine how the lack of education, substance dependency and criminal history are influencing…
Andrews, D. (2010). Rehabilitating Criminal Justice Policy. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 16 (1), pp. 39 -- 55.
Bellair, P. (2011). Low Skill Employment Opportunities. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48 (2), pp.
176 -- 208.
Kury, H. (2011). Punitivity. Munich: Borckmeyer.
ichard Pryor was one of the most influential comedians of the 1970s and 80s. He rose to prominence in the early1970s, bringing a style that echoed elements of Dick Gregory and edd Foxx, while serving as a counterpoint to Bill Cosby. Pryor's use of harsh language was heavily influential on the trade, and his style fit well with the social attitudes of the 70s.
Pryor grew up in the 1940 and 1950s in Illinois and had a troubled childhood in a racially-segregated part of the country. This influenced Pryor significantly, and by the time the civil rights movement gained steam he was in New York working on his standup. An early influence was Dick Gregory, who approached social issues in his comedy, and sough to change stereotypes of black people that existed in white America. A further influence during the 1960s was Bill Cosby, whose approach was more inclusive than…
Haggins, B. (2007). Laughing Mad: The Black Comic Persona in Post-Soul America Pescataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Pryor, R. (2013). Richard Pryor -- comedic influences. YouTube. Retrieved November 18, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NX5KB5yNcRU
However, conventional beliefs that there is low rate for African-American involvement in suicidal activities, there exists minimal focus on learning the possible suicide patterns among African-Americans. Social workers are not aware of the risks and protectiveness among African-Americans. This gives room for misinterpretation of facts concerning self-destructive activities of African-Americans. The research further stresses the importance of social workers to the study of suicide among African-Americans. They also have the capacity for influencing national policies and strategies for the mitigation of suicidal cases. Through the research, it was evident that there exists extremely little information about the empirical knowledge of social workers practicing in this sector with regard to the works featured by the social work researchers.
With the evidently increasing need for social workers, it is necessary to study the capacities of knowledge of social workers regarding issued of suicide. This is relevant to the increase of social workers…
Anderson, J.A. (2010). Clinical research in context: Reexamining the distinction between research and practice. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 35(1): 46-63.
Andrews, P.W. (2006). Parent-Offspring Conflict and Cost-Benefit Analysis in Adolescent
Suicidal Behavior: Effects of Birth Order and Dissatisfaction with Mother on Attempt
Incidence and Severity. Human Nature, 17(2), 190-211. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Emergency room usage [...] why African-Americans utilize emergency departments instead of primary doctors. What are the age, gender, and income of the African-Americans that come to E.D? What type of insurance (if any) do they have? Why do they utilize the E.D. (chronic conditions vs. acute conditions)? How is the health system viewed by the African-Americans and what if anything is being done to change and/or correct their conception? What obstacles exist and what accommodations are needed in African-American teaching? The use of emergency rooms by African-Americans is well documented and studied. There are many reasons African-Americans turn to emergency rooms rather than their own primary care physicians, and many ways the United States could turn this healthcare problem around.
Studies have clearly documented that African-Americans on the average receive less health care than whites, and there are several reasons for this dissimilarity in the health care process. One of…
Belgrave, F.Z. (1998). Psychosocial aspects of chronic illness and disability among African-Americans. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Daniels, S. (1996). 11 Reproductive rights: Who speaks for African-American women?. In African-American women's health and social issues, Collins, C.F. (Ed.) (pp. 187-194). Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Davidson, R.A., Giancola, A., Gast, A., Ho, J., & Waddell, R. (2003). Evaluation of access, a primary care program for indigent patients: Inpatient and emergency room utilization. Journal of Community Health, 28(1), 59+.
Rust, George, MD, MPH; George E. Fryer Jr., MSW, PhD; Robert L. Phillips Jr., MD, MSPH; Elvan Daniels, MD;Harry Strothers, MD, MMM; and David Satcher, MD, PhD. (2004). Modifiable determinants of healthcare utilization within the African-American population. Retrieved from the National Medical Association Web site: http://www.nmanet.org/OC1169.pdf8 Oct. 2004.
African-American Vernacular English
There are a couple of theories as to the origin of African-American Vernacular Englsh (AAVE). Some linguists believe that the language derives from est African languages. This dialect theory is based on the knowledge that most African-Americans who were brought to the United States from Africa had to learn how to speak English by ear. The may have picked up some of the English words incorrectly and incorporated the incorrect words in their language. Another theory is called the Creole Hypothesis. This theory bases its origin on the thought that slaves developed the language themselves. The slaves, who came from many different countries in Africa formulated AAVE so that they may talk amongst themselves. They developed with is called a pidgin by combining words from their own language with new words from America. They used grammar and speech patterns that were known to them from their own…
Jackson, Jenny Ebonics and Gullah, One and the Same? (http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~petersj4/jenny.htm)
Labov, William Academic Ignorance and Black Intelligence (Labov (http://www.arches.uga.edu/~bryan/AAVE/).
Rickford, John. "Creole Origins of AAVE http://www.stanford.edu/~rickford/papers/CreoleOriginsOfAAVE.html
Where Did It Come at (http://www.arches.uga.edu/~bryan/AAVE/).
Metacognition and Effective Study Strategies Among African-American College and University Students, Bernadette Nwafor discusses the fact that many African-American students have trouble with basic concentration and retention skills and how the implementation of various study techniques could enhance student concentration. Nwarfor purports that those students that try to understand what they are reading through "meaningfulness, collaboration and establishment of relationships between new ideas and old experiences" are more likely to do better on tests than those who learn by merely reading through text or memorization It is her perception that African-American students learn better when they can relate to the material in question. In this article she studies the three kinds of memory (sensory, short-term and long-term memory) as she shows that if a person associates something familiar with new material they are able to retain it better in their long-term memory. She cites for her example a study by…
against the emerging concept pertaining to the Racial Privacy Initiative, abbreviated as RPI. The orks Cited seven sources in MLA format.
Just like other constant processes accompanying change, global politics has been in a constant changing state since times immemorial. Not only that, politics that we observe worldwide based on different rules and regulations as well as outlining distinct policies unique to every age, Stone Age, Middle Age as well as Modern Age is highly rich in history. On the same account African-American politics has also witnessed various changes. African-American politics, however, is largely based on issues pertaining to the racial differences and color prejudices that the blacks in America have had to face since for good. This mercurial political sphere while undergoing change gives birth to various phenomenon and activities. The recent one being the issue related to the Racial Privacy Initiative.
The Racial Privacy Initiative is…
Staff Editorial, EDITORIAL: Racial Privacy Initiative deserves close scrutiny., University Wire, 05-06-2002.
Burden P. "Connely Initiative Would Ban Collection of Racial Data," BLACK ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION.
WASSERMAN J., Associated Press Writer, Race Proposal Won't Make Calif. Vote., AP Online, 05-31-2002.
Coleman T.W. "Race Matters," NEW CRISIS.
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
This fact and the preceding quotation proves that Maggie views heritage as an interactive process, unlike the viewpoint of her sister. The fact that Maggie's mother ultimately gives her the quilts alludes to the fact that she shares this belief as well.
The conclusion of this story in which Maggie's mother gives her the valued quilts appears to suggest that the author believes that the more interactive application of heritage, as opposed to the passive reverence of heritage as art, is more valid. Walker does not seem to pose the notion that these two views of heritage are incompatible with one another, however. Instead, she indicates that Dee is simply not able to understand the value in the form of heritage that her mother and sisters represent and practice. The following quotation which ends the story and precedes Dee's departure, alludes to this fact.
"You just don't understand," she said,…
Education is an essential component of having a successful and prosperous life. However, in many cases students drop out of high school and never receive the diplomas that they need to better their lives. Fortunately there are programs that will provide these individuals with GED's which are equivalent to high school diplomas. The need to acquire a GED is of particular importance to the African-American male. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the research pertaining to the success of this population in such programs. We will also review which programs are the most successful and what element of the programs work the best. We will conclude by discussion the funding that is available for such programs.
What do we know about this population's performance in such programs?
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, approximately 830,000 individual took the GED in 2000. There were 719,000…
Venezky, Richard L., Page S. Bristow, and John P. Sabatini. "Measuring Change in Adult Literacy Programs: Enduring Issues and a Few Answers." Educational Assessment 2.2 (1994): 101-132.
Weirauch, Drucie, and Gary Kuhne. "Satisfying the Itch: Addressing Problems in Adult Literacy Programs with Action Research." Adult Learning 11.3 (2000): 9.
I have two observations- one small but interesting and one for which I would like a response.
The first- you have transposed the authors names as Ingram and Schneider- in deed this is small but important - you will want to cite them as Schneider and Ingram going forward- as I said - small but important
Next I think you can develop your response to item 3 regarding your research interest.(my research interest is African-American women in the gas and oil field and how minority set aside programs fail them)
You have made a few claims that public policy is weak and that public policy fails- What is the weakness you have identified? How are you understanding failure? What kind of policies are you including in these statements and what is the connection to your research? I ask that you spend a bit more time on this section and…
Auer, M. R. (2014). Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms: The Principled
Optimism of Elinor Ostrom. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 6(4), 265-
271. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19390459.2014.941177 ?
Baytop, C. M. (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Programs to Improve Educational
African-Americans and AID Risk
The increased incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency yndrome (AID) among the African-American population is an alarming issue. 35% - more than one third - of all cases reported in the United tates and 43% of newly reported AID cases are among African-Americans, even though this population only comprises 12% of the American population (PR Newswire, 1998). Among all new AID cases reported by women, African-American Women account for 60%, and African-American men comprise 39% of all new cases among men. This latter rate is six times the rate of reported AID cases by white men (PR Newswire, 1998). Overall, African-Americans have the highest transmission rates of HIV in the United tates (Adimora & choenbach, 2002), and AID is the leading cause of death of African-Americans between the ages of 25 and 44 (Hodge, 2001). What are the factors underlying these distressing statistics,…
Sanders-Phillips, K. "Factors Influencing HIV / AIDS in Women of Color." Public Health Reports 117.1 (2002): S151-6.
Sterk, C.E. "The Health Intervention Project: HIV Risk Reduction Among African-American Women Drug Users." Public Health Reports 117.1 (May - June 2002): S88-95.
Stoskopf, C.H., Richter, D.L., Kim Y.K. "Factors Affecting Health Status in African-Americans Living With HIV / AIDS." AIDS Patient Care and STDS 15.6 (June 2001): 331-8.
African-Americans and Diabetes
Diabetes in the African-American Adult Population
Diabetes is a serious public health issue, and often seen in the African-American adult population. According to the CDC, African-Americans are twice as likely to have type II diabetes as Caucasians (Diabetes, 2011). This is highly significant, since 90 to 95% of new diabetes cases each year are type II (Diabetes, 2011). There are several reasons for these cases, and genetics is one of them. Additionally, people can develop type II diabetes from obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, age, and poor eating habits. In order to thoroughly address the issue, it is important to look at what African-Americans know and do not know about diabetes, and how they handle the disease if they do develop it or are told they are at risk for developing it. Many of them have pre-diabetes, and can avoid the disease if they are conscientious regarding the…
Agurs-Collins, T.D., Kumanyika, S.K., Ten Have, T.R., Adams-Campbell, L.L. (1997). A randomized controlled trial of weight reduction and exercise for diabetes management in older African-American subjects. Diabetes Care, 20(10): 1503-1511.
Baptiste-Roberts, K., Gary, T.L., Beckles, G.L.A., Gregg, E.W., Owens, M., Porterfield, D., & Engelgau, M.M. (2007). Family history of diabetes, awareness of risk factors, and health behaviors among African-Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97(5): 907-912.
Diabetes. (2011). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/ddt.htm.
McCleary-Jones, V. (2011). Health literacy and its association with diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy and disease self-management among African-Americans with diabetes mellitus. The ABNF Journal: 25-32.
Survival of Racist Customs and Mores Into the 21st Century: Analysis of the American Correction and Sentencing Trends
Increasing awareness of the US's unsuccessful mass imprisonment experimentation has effected federal and state level modifications aimed at decreasing the nation's detention scale. Experts and policymakers have been suggesting "smart on crime" public safety strategies which support alternatives to imprisonment and decrease re-offense chances[footnoteRef:1]. Despite simultaneous fruitful bipartite dialogues on the subject of decreasing jail populations and bringing improvements to crime justice policies, the nation still struggles with disturbing racial frictions. The latest concern concentrates on frequent reports of law enforcement violence inflicted on non-Whites, some cases ending in fatalities of African-American males at the hands of law enforcers, with scant to no evident provocation. In this paper, the many fields in which racist values and traditions continue in the current era will be examined, with particular emphasis to the American corrective…
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…
Du Bois, W.E.B. DuBois, W.E.B. 1903. "The Talented Tenth." Pp. 31-75 in the Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of to-Day. Contributions by Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, W.E. Burghardt DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and others. (NY: James Pott & Co., 1903
Lincoln, a. "13th amendment to the U.S. constitution: abolition of slavery." Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40
Mack, K.W. (1999). "Law, Society, Identity and the Making of the Jim Crow South: Travel and Segregation on Tennessee Railroads, 1875-1905.," 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 377 . http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2790089/Law%2c%20Society%2c%20Identity%20and%20the%20Making%20of%20the%20Jim%20Crow%20South.pdf?sequence=2
Maidment, R.A. (1973). "Plessy v. Fergueson re-examined." Journal of American Studies. 7 (2): 125-132.
The media world had advanced a lot near the half of the twentieth century, and this made it possible for African-Americans to be heard through means such as the television, the radio, and the newspaper. The culture and trends promoted by black people no longer seemed to be resentful for the white public. Even if the majority of black people continued to experience financial problems, they did not feel intimidated. They took advantage of every opportunity to express themselves and their artistic abilities.
hile racism had not yet become history, its presence could no longer be felt as it was several decades earlier. Racist incidents were rarer and the U.S. had finally learnt that racism did not pay, and furthermore, that it had been pointless. Black people succeeded in accomplishing what they had been searching for more than a century. Their illiteracy and the fact that they had…
1. Coleman Dixon Angela, Schoonmaker Christopher T., and Philliber William W., "A Journey toward Womanhood: Effects of an Afrocentric Approach to Pregnancy Prevention among African-American Adolescent Females," Adolescence 35.139 (2000): 425.
2. Coulter Charles E., Take Up the Black Man's Burden: Kansas City's African-American Communities, 1865-1939 (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2006) iii.
3. Kelley Robin D.G., and Lewis Earl, eds., to Make Our World Anew: A History of African-Americans (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000) iii.
4. Encyclopedia of African-American Civil Rights: From Emancipation to the Present, ed. Charles D. Lowery and John F. Marszalek (New York: Greenwood Press, 1992) ii.
e. The lack of a collective intellectual voice. In response to this and in part as a result of new affluence gained by some as well as a growing exposure to education, albeit mostly segregated, many began to develop what is known as the Harlem enaissance.
The 1920s in American history were marked by a sociocultural awakening among Afro-Americans. More blacks participated in the arts than ever before, and their number increased steadily throughout the decade. This florescence of creative activity extended to many areas -- music, poetry, drama, fiction. In literature, the few Negro novels published between 1905 and 1923 were presented mainly by small firms unable to give their authors a national hearing. However, in the succeeding decade, over two dozen novels by blacks appeared, and most of them were issued by major American publishers. (Singh, 1976, p. 1)
The Harlem enaissance came about for many reasons not…
Golay, M. (1999). A Ruined Land: The End of the Civil War. New York: Wiley
Jonas, G. (2005). Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. New York: Routledge.
Jim Crow Laws. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia
Kivel, Paul. (1995) Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice.
Du Sable Museum
A Reflection of African-American History
The DuSable Museum of African-American History is the oldest major museum related to African-American legacy. Founded by Margaret Taylor in 1961, the museum runs on a self-governing model with focus on collection, interpretation and achievement of African-American history. Its location in Chicago provides it an edge over other museums entailing artifacts related to this subject as Chicago was one of the prime cities where the major migration of African-American migration took place. Therefore, the city has African-American blood and heritage in its roots. This is the reason why the organization receives donations from local communities which ranges from single artifact to entire collection. The Diaspora of black people and the regions that black communities were related to, is well-reflected by the collection of Artifacts provided by local African-American communities. Its extensive collection of African-American heritage gives it a status of connoisseurship in…
Wade, B.(1991). "Practical traveler; tracing the trail of black history." The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CEFDC173DF937A25754C0A967958260 .
Williams, L. (1988). "Black memorabilia: the pride and the pain." The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEFDC1338F93BA35751C1A96E948260 .
DuSable Museum Page 2
Economic, Political, and Social History
African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture is unique in that it was forged under the pressure of bondage. People with different cultures and languages formed new identities relative to their subordinate social, economic, and political status—their culture therefore being in part defined by the experience of oppression and the determination to overcome it. Bereft of social, political, or economic independence for centuries, African American culture nevertheless emerged as organically as any other, but flourished especially after emancipation.
Yet the economic history of African American culture cannot be divorced from the human capital model of slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation laid the first foundation stones for African American economic, political, and social empowerment but Reconstruction failed to fulfill the objective of genuine liberation (DuBois, 1994). African Americans in…
His plan to create a black regiment in the South failed, but black regiments were created during the war, and some of them were vital to certain battles and victories.
Perhaps the most notable black regiment formed during the war was the 1st hode Island egiment, which has become legendary in the fight for freedom. Colonel Christopher Greene commanded the egiment, and it was one of only three black regiments to fight during the war. In fact, many historians feel the war might have ended sooner if more regiments like the 1st hode Island had been formed and utilized. The Kaplans note, "Colonel Christopher Greene's First hode Island egiment distinguished itself for efficiency and gallantry throughout the war -- perhaps the war would have ended sooner if its example had been heeded" (Kaplan, and Kaplan 1989, 64). hode Island was unable to fill its quota of fighting men for the…
Bradley, Patricia. 1998. Slavery, Propaganda, and the American Revolution. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Dunmore, Lord. 1775. Lord Dunmore's Appeal to the Slaves of Virginia (1775).
Editors. 2005. Black Loyalists: Our History, Our People. Government of Canada's Digital Collections. http://collections.ic.gc.ca/blackloyalists/story/our_story.htm
Kaplan, Sidney, and Emma Nogrady Kaplan. 1989. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution. Revised ed. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
This story clearly outlines the level of difference and separation that is experienced by many members of the African-American community in a variety of ways, and most clearly deals with the economic impact and institutional nature of the racism this community has experienced.
Another very interesting perspective is provided in McPherson's memoir regarding his own experiences, Crabcakes (1999). Many different episodes reflecting sometimes subtle and sometimes quite obvious differences in perspective appear in this memoir, yet one strain that appears significant several times is the role of religion -- and more specifically, of Church -- in the development of the African-American community and African-American individuals. Again, a clear lack of consensus amongst the community is seen here, as some individuals are very religious while others regard it with outright contempt, yet there is also a cohesion in the Church-centered communities that exist. This makes for an interesting juxtaposition of perspectives…
Flinn, E. (1999). It Happened in Hoboken. BookSurge.
McPherson, J. (1977). Elbow Room. Fawcett.
McPherson, J. (1999). Crabcakes. New York: Touchstone.
Lived Experiences of African-American Women who have lost a male child to suicide
he lived experiences of late-adolescent female suicide survivors: 'A part of me died' by Willem a. Hoffmann; Chris Myburgh; and Marie Poggenpoel.
Explain how the study tested the constructs of the new theory.
Over the years there have been two precise sampling strategies used by numerous researchers. hese two strategies are the probability and a non-probability sampling strategies. he main distinction between these two strategies is that the former is more casual and does not have a specific target or segment of the population in mind; whereas the non-probability sampling procedure is very official and very purposeful in its choice of who the researcher studies and why. he researcher used non-probability purposive sampling to hand pick students. More specifically, the research participants were five female late-adolescents (aged 17 -- 22 years) who were recruited by means of…
The researcher points out that there is a paucity of research on suicide survivors and even fewer studies exist on African-American suicide survivors. He conceptualizes suicide survivors as individuals who have lost a family member to suicide. Furthermore, he illustrates that although suicide is a relatively rare event, particularly among African-Americans, the recent dramatic increase in suicide among African-American youth makes it critical to understand this phenomena.
Subsequently he signifies the phenomenon of suicide survivors by highlighting various facts. For instance, he highlights that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), between 1980 and 1995, rates for African-American youth aged 15 to 19 increased 128% compared to 19% for Whites. Furthermore, he argues that although there has been a recent decline in the suicide rates among African-American youth, suicide continues to be the third-leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old African-Americans (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2004).
He conceptualizes that bereavement with regards to suicide and points out that it has many emotional complexities that may evoke such symptoms as anxiety, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbance, and depression. Lastly, he conceptualizes the awareness o suicide figures amongst African-Americans and points out that unfortunately, some African-Americans continue to deny that suicide is a problem within the Black community; this view is buttressed by the fact that suicide is a relatively rare behavior among all ethnic groups. Lastly, he linked grief and suicide strongly and argued that grief when associated with suicide differs from grief from other forms of death because of the emotional complexities that go along with losing someone this way.
HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.
Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…
African-American male unemployment: Robert Carmona. (2007). Congressional Testimony.
Retrieved May 12, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P135839035.html
Algernon Austin. (2008, January 18). What a recession means for black America. EPI Issue Brief
#241. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/ib241/
2009). The interventions used in this research study proved to be ineffective, however, and it has been suggested that more culturally relevant study leading to the development of more highly-culturally-specific practices is needed in this regard (Pekmezi et al. 2009).
Certain studies have also demonstrated a reduced efficacy of certain blood-pressure regulating pharmaceuticals in the African-American community, with certain individuals responsive to one type of medication but not others (Lackland 2004). This is significant in the area of hypertension prevention in the African-American community for several reasons, not the least of which is the fact that it is evidence of certain mechanisms at work that are still not fully understood or even necessarily identified in the medical literature (Lackland 2004). In addition, this suggests that there are certain predispositions that both affect hypertension and interrupt the mechanisms of drugs proven efficacious in other communities, which could provide greater insight into…
Douglas, J., Bakris, G., Epstein, M., Ferdinand, K., Ferrario, C., Flack, J…. & Vidt, D. (2003). Management of High Blood Pressure in African-Americans: Consensus Statement of the Hypertension in African-Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Archives of Internal Medicine 163(5): 525-41.
Glover, M., Greenlund, K., Ayala, C. & Croft, J. (2005). Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999-2002. JAMA 293(8): 923-5.
Harvard. (2003). High blood pressure isn't color-blind. Harvard heart letter 13(10):1.
He, J., Klag, M., Caballero, B., Appel, L., Charleston, J. & Whelton, P. (1999). Plasma insulin levels and incidence of hypertension in African-Americans and Whites. Archives of internal medicine 159(5): 498-503.