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role of African philosophy/philosopher in the anti-Colonial struggle in Africa
Anti-Colonial Struggle and African Philosophers
In spite of moving into a post-colonial modern world, there continue to be issues about developed nations' engagement within the Under-developed. Along with massive invasions as well as prolonged occupations of nations such as Iraq, Afghanistan, along with speculation of designed invasions in other places, the concept of encouraging coups as well as propping up warm and friendly regimes carries on. Whilst help of coups has been not necessarily direct, instant acknowledgement of the coup-led authorities (as took place in 2002 where a new federal government briefly ousted Hugo Chavez from power) or perhaps a sluggish reaction accompanied by a sanguine approval of the brand-new status quo (like the current coup within Honduras in opposition to Zelaya) enhance the image of the U.S.A. And also the West as even now hesitant to allow the Under…… [Read More]
Mbiti and Tempels
There have been many religious theories previously based on the part of the world it originates from and the people it represents. One of such theories is the Africano theory which is further represented by two different theories which represent the religious beliefs of the African people. These theories have been named Mbiti and Tempels.
These theories have in common the fact that both of them believe that Africans and religiously notorious and people have their own set of beliefs and practices. Though Africa is a country which tend to represent people who have more or less a similar background but it is an undeniable fact all of them have their own sets of beliefs.
The major reason why Africa has so many religions is the fact that Africa is represented by tribal people and each tribe has its own religion. The renowned fact about African religions…… [Read More]
It also represents a series of extremely ingrained economic problems. The African Union proceeds from the OAU's ambition to bring some level of cohesiveness to the fiscal and monetary policies driving the continent. Like the EU and APEC before it, the AU takes the position that in the scheme of globalization, its interests are likely best represented in some mode of unity. Accordingly, we find that "economic and monetary union is one of the aims of the African Union. Current African development initiatives envision regional integration in the context of effective macroeconomic management and corporate governance, and enhanced partnership between Africa's best- performers and international development partners. This entails promoting increased regional trade and convergence of monetary policies." (Amoako & Essy, p. 4)
This more concrete orientation suggests that in many ways, the AU would be a natural point in the evolution of the modern African continent, bringing greater practical…… [Read More]
ecent proposals to privatize Social Security and cut Medicaid funding would thus exacerbate the equity gaps that already exist." (Center for American Progress, 2004)
When a young black man is accepted into a university-based wholly on quota requirements even though he may have had less success in High School compared to a young white man, then we must again redefine our word - inequality. Who is worse off in this case? Consider that in this scenario, it may in fact be an advantage for a person to be young and black but as the scale tips with age, that same advantage becomes a liability. The answer to our question then, at least for this example, is maybe.
Economic independence may be the outcome when wage work is an option. but, there are many scenarios where wage work puts people into an even worse economic setting. Consider that minorities…… [Read More]
Social dissent and unrest should not be the result of multiculturalism, the authors point out, but nonetheless those are the social realities, in many instances, of the new global picture. There is now, like it or not, a "blurring of cultural borderlines," the authors report; and as a result, the notion of culture within the word "multiculturalism" no longer refers to habits and customs of a people in anthropological terms. Rather, "culture" in the term "multiculturalism" alludes to race, creed, sexual orientation, gender, and lifestyles of various and divers groups within the greater culture.
A very poignant quote is offered in the conclusion of the editorial, a quote which cries out to be read to those reporting on, studying and/or dealing with today's dramatic cultural changes in estern societies; it is a statement by Aijza Ahmad, who reflects the perspective of "the less-well-to-do colonial states," according to the editorial. "It…… [Read More]
African-American Religious Movements
The African-American religious experience went through a period of "…extraordinary change" in the years between I and II (Fulop, et al., 1997, p. 314). Several "sects" and "cults" worshiped in storefront churches, moving from "mainline churches" into organizations that had political, fraternal and "benevolent" approaches to spirituality. But as to mainline Black churches, between 1926 and 1936, the Black Baptist movement grew from 3.2 million to 3.8 million and hence by 1936 the Black Baptist congregation had become the largest Christian church affiliated with the African-American community; indeed, 67% of "all Black Church members" were connected to the Black Baptist movement (Fulop, 315). This growth within the Back Baptist faith was partly due to the decrease in Black membership of the African Methodist church, the Churches of Christ and the Churches of the Living God (Fulop, 315).
Nation of Islam: allace D. Fard came to the United…… [Read More]
In keeping with the theme of individuality highlighted above, each of the main characters in the assigned readings struggle to define his or her identity in terms of the dichotomies in the society they observe. Each point-of-view differs according to the person's stage of life and background, and each person seeks to establish an identity by means of the cultural and social tools they have at their disposal. At times these tools comprise family members, friends, or teachers, and at others they are something much more focused and personal, such as the intellect or determination.
Sylvia, the main character of "The Lesson," establishes her identity in terms of the financial contrast between her own social construct and those who can spend $1,000 on a toy. For her, the concept of financial security provides a platform for constructing an identity. Her determination to contend with the rich for a place…… [Read More]
Self-esteem and self-efficacy are issues that are of primary importance. These are affected by a number of environmental factors, including immediate family, but also the environment in which a person moves, as well as the wider social environment.
Contextualism was promoted in 1942 by S.C. Pepper, and was previously known as "pragmatism." This term was often used in the work of Charles S. Peirce, William James, Henri
ergson, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead (Morris, 1997). In psychological development, contextualism suggests the influence of a broad number of categories, beginning with the immediate family, and broadening to the peer group, society, and global environment. ehavior is therefore to be seen in the context not only of immediate family and peer influence, but also in the context of broader society.
According to Morris (1997), Pepper's use of the term "contextualism" first occurred during 1932, where he referred to John Dewey's…… [Read More]
As with water methods of visually perceiving patterns, divination serves as a literal mirror for the cosmos. The visual cues of divination such as cowry shells or the patterns made by mice sometimes serves as a pictorial language spoken between nonhuman and human participants. That language is not one used in human communications, even though it may inform human social order and modes of cognition.
The language of divination represents communication between human and super-human forces. A diviner acts much like a translator would, communicating the perceived patterns of cosmic order to an individual or to the community. Divination is integral to all traditional African religions as well as to the religions of most other cultures. The function of divination is artistic, epistemological, and expressive. Divination also creates, maintains, and interprets social and spiritual order.
Bourgeois, Arthur P. "Insight and Artistry in African Divination - Book Review." African…… [Read More]
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]
four-year college, California State University Long Beach (CSULB) was my first choice. However, since CSULB could not accept my application, I decided to apply to California State University Dominguez Hills (CSUDH), which was listed as an alternative location option on the CSULB application. I took this decision independently after examining CSUDH's Human Services Program material. In fact, I did not even attend an orientation meeting, although I had received an invitation.
Thus, it is evident that I had decided on Human Services as my major before enrolling in classes at Dominguez Hills. My choice was influenced by my current career objective of working as a child counselor in Social Services. Therefore, my choice of major was shaped by my future career goals rather than any previous work experience. To be honest, however, I did not choose CSUDH because of the reputation of its Human Services program. Instead, I chose it…… [Read More]
African-American Perspectives on Education for African-Americans
Education has been an issue at the forefront of the African-American community since the first Africans were brought to the colonies hundreds of years ago. For centuries, education was forbidden to enslaved Africans in the United States with penalties such as whipping and lynching for demonstrating such skills as literacy. As the abolitionist movement gained strength and the Civil War commenced, more and more enslaved Africans saw education as a sign of freedom and a representation of the many ways in which they were held back yet simultaneously integral to American culture. Two African-American writers, scholars, and leaders, W.E.B. Du Bois and Frederick Douglass, discuss the power and the potential for education in the African-American Community. Douglass wrote his seminal work, his autobiography, in the middle of the 19th century, before the Civil War, econstruction, the industrial revolution, and the turn of the 20th…… [Read More]
features that characterize an "African" outlook to the world as represented by Mbiti and Tempels. How coherent and how convincing do you find them, and why?
For the Bantu, it appears that the unique experience which influence and shape an "African" outlook to the world is one which the African sees himself as a being of force. For the Bantu, a great deal of their specific perspective on the world is shaped by the fact that they find the concepts of being and force absolutely inextricable from one another. Tempels is quick to explain that this concept represents a truly fundamental difference between Western thought and the thought which largely shapes the world of the Bantu people. "Force' in his thought is a necessary element in 'being', and the concept 'force' is inseparable from the definition of 'being'. There is no idea among Bantu of 'being' divorced from the idea…… [Read More]
Whereas in 1963, 70% of all African-American families were headed by married couples, that rate had dipped to 46.1% by 1996. In 2001, the rate had increased to 47.9%, the first uptrend in 40 years (Kinnon, 2003). The rate of African-American crime and incarceration, which is closely linked to males from single-parent households, has also dipped since 1996.
Concerns about TANF and current welfare programs
While the statistics are compelling, there are a series of questions which have not been addressed by these welfare reforms. There are still about 50% of the former welfare population which has not been able to graduate from the welfare-poverty cycle, nor have they been able to find work. In states where the TANF provisions were enacted, including the 5-year limitation on welfare benefits, there has been a back-sliding on the part of state legislatures to extend welfare assistance for the "hard core" unemployed.
The…… [Read More]
However, conventional beliefs that there is low rate for African-American involvement in suicidal activities, there exists minimal focus on learning the possible suicide patterns among African-Americans. Social workers are not aware of the risks and protectiveness among African-Americans. This gives room for misinterpretation of facts concerning self-destructive activities of African-Americans. The research further stresses the importance of social workers to the study of suicide among African-Americans. They also have the capacity for influencing national policies and strategies for the mitigation of suicidal cases. Through the research, it was evident that there exists extremely little information about the empirical knowledge of social workers practicing in this sector with regard to the works featured by the social work researchers.
With the evidently increasing need for social workers, it is necessary to study the capacities of knowledge of social workers regarding issued of suicide. This is relevant to the increase of social workers…… [Read More]
Philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr.
As great a figure as the Noble-prize winning civil rights leader Martin King Luther Jr. may be accounted in the annals of world and American history, and in political, religious, and social rights activism, no man's thought stands alone -- no man's thought springs from simply his own brain in isolation. Every great thinker and leader is part of a larger and complex history of human thought and social influences. Martin King Luther Jr. was a Christian minister and philosopher whose nonviolent philosophy of civil disobedience was profoundly influenced by Biblical, New Testament documents of Jesus and other Christian spiritual writers, as interpreted through the African-American tradition. King also wrote during a time period when the philosophy of the Indian nonviolent leader Gandhi had shown the world how, through nonviolence, the oppressing power's wrongful influence could unintentionally act as a public relations force of…… [Read More]
value of studying philosophy?
According to Chapter 15 of Bertram Russell's tract The Problems of Philosophy: "The value of philosophy is, in fact, to be sought largely in its very uncertainty. The man who has no tincture of philosophy goes through life imprisoned in the prejudices derived from common sense, from the habitual beliefs of his age or his nation, and from convictions which have grown up in his mind without the co-operation or consent of his deliberate reason" (Russell, Chapter 15). One of the most common objections to studying philosophy is that it is a violation of 'common sense.' Critics state that philosophy has little or no use because philosophical debates do not address 'real' issues. Along such lines of thinking, 'real issues' include feeding the hungry, economic problems, and other materially-related concepts that philosophy's focus on abstraction does not address.
However, Russell's argument is that 'common sense' has…… [Read More]
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…… [Read More]
Does the research refine or add to a new theory?
The research adds to the quantitative material on the subject by adopting a qualitative, phenomenological approach. Suicide has increased alarmingly amongst African-American males (Thomas, 2009). The maternal voice is rarely, if ever, heard; Granting mothers of suicide victims this opportunity can help both practical and theoretical applied research in that social workers and counseling programs can be better structured to help families cope with the loss, as well as other programs aimed to alleviate the problem. The study may throw new light on suicide from a spiritual aspect, or from some other aspect, perhaps because it is considered taboo that has hitherto been overlooked. By describing the real experiences of African-American mothers who have lost a male child to suicide, underlying cultural and spiritual elements that render the subject taboo may emerge that will help us understand the phenomenon better.…… [Read More]
Much has been said about the history of Africa, and the centuries of slave trade which occurred at the expense of the African peoples. From the time of early colonization by the Portuguese, Dutch, and later the ritish, the African people were taken advantage of, and sold as slaves to fuel the growing economies around the western world.
While nothing can ever be said to correct, or make full reparations for the contempt shown to the black peoples, Ayi Armah's book The Healers takes a deeper look at the cultural issues which arose on the African continent which fueled the disintegration of the African culture.
When we look back at a difficult, unjust, or painful situation we have encountered, the tendency is to look for reasons outside of ourselves in order to explain the pain. When a child is caught smacking another playmate on the playground during recess, the…… [Read More]
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…… [Read More]
The Nineteenth Century brought dramatic changes to Africa and its people. The European powers divided up the continent among themselves. France took the lion's share, reserving most of Upper Africa to itself. Yet the French Empire in Africa was a diverse realm - Arab and erber in the Maghreb, and lack African in the lands to the south of the Sahara. Not only ethnic differences, but also differences in cultural and economic development divided the peoples north and south of the great desert. At one stroke, the French found themselves masters of a vast population of lack Africans who knew little of the modern world. Organized primarily into small kingdoms, and tribal units, their societies harkened back to those of the pre-industrial age. They lacked modern technology, transportation, communication, and education. Their social life revolved around the family group and time-honored traditions. Exposure to an alien…… [Read More]
goddesses Venus and Juno conspire and interfere in the lives of Aeneas and Dido to carry out their own plans
The struggle between the Gods is main theme of the narrative. There are many times that a reader might even fail to notice the actions of the human characters of the story due to over-interference from the gods. The conflict is between two gods, Juno and Venus. Juno is Saturn's daughter, Jupiter's wife and the patron god of Carthage. In the narrative he doesn't like Trojans because of a decision made by Paris (a Trojan) in a divine beauty competition. Juno is also aware of the prophesy that Carthage will be destroyed by the descendants of Aeneas (the Romans). On the other hand, Venus is the goddess of love, the patron god of Trojans and the mother of Aeneas. The conflict arises when Juno tries to destroy Aeneas (a mortal)…… [Read More]
History Of Theory Behind Curriculum Development
The evolution of curriculum theory by and large reflects the current of thought found in the academic-political landscape. The essence of the ancient maxim cuius regio, eius religio applies here: who reigns, his religion. In this case, who reigns, his curriculum. This has been true throughout all the centuries where education was deemed important by a group of individuals or a State. For example, in the West, the ancient Greeks (most notably Plato and Aristotle) devised a curriculum with the purpose of attaining knowledge and/or achieving "soundness" in the mind. Curricula are ever-tied to an aim -- and the objective of a curriculum may be ascertained by a review of what it contains or what its teachers hope to achieve. Therefore, the evolution of curriculum theory is related to the evolution of individual and societal objectives. Historically speaking, these objectives are manifest in every…… [Read More]
History of UNESCO
Philosophy and Objectives
Strategies to Achieve Vision and Mission
The Other Facets of UNESCO
Organizations abound the world over and they promote various objectives from agreements on free trade and commerce, cultural exchange, peace and security, and other worthwhile endeavors. One organization that can be deemed as primus inter-pares amongst all organizations globally is the United Nations (UN), whose membership includes close to 200 nations across the world and the overall objective thereof is the promotion and facilitation of international law, security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. Like any other major bureaucracy, the UN fulfills its mandate through the various agencies and sub-organizations under its auspices. Depending upon the specific thrusts or objectives, bodies under the UN will spearhead the implementation and fulfillment of these missions and goals.
In the milieu where the 'mission is to contribute to the…… [Read More]
Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans
The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.
hen overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is…… [Read More]
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…… [Read More]
Crime Punishment Philosophy
Since the beginning of the 70s, the number of people inducted in jails and state facilities has increased to an astonishing level. In the present, more than two million individuals are serving jail time in either jails or state prisons. The growth of crime rate and imprisonment can be greatly attributed to the African-American and Hispanic communities residing in the U.S., who still categorize as the poor communities in the urban areas of the country. Even though, the increasing number of arrests and incarceration should in theory have reduced the crime rate, considering that the incarcerated offenders are no longer free to rob, mug or assault (Ezorsky, 1972).
Historical Context of Crime elated Policies and Punishment
However, no large scale crime reduction was recorded till the 1990's, that's when an actual decrease in crime was observed throughout the country. The most important point to be noted here…… [Read More]
is an African post-colonial piece of jewelry that is both post-colonial and also possesses gender and class implications.
One can see this piece of jewelry as being either Mother-Earth, Mother-Universe or Female Guardian Orisha. It has definite gender -- based connotations with a maternal warmth and sympathy emanating form the image. At the same time is authentic primitive African art and is also class-based since its origins are tribal and would expect a certain lower class of Africans to more likely wear this piece than the upper class. Its connotations, too -- since this is a fertility goddess -- are of people who desire to have children or who have suffered loss in childbirth. This has often been the case of the 'regular African folk -- the lower class -- who due to hardships of regular life have often lost children during or after birth as well as in…… [Read More]
Duke Ellington: "Symphony in Black"
Symphony in Black, A Rhapsody of Black Life" is Duke Ellington's second motion picture. The film was directed by Fred aller at Paramount Pictures and then was released during the mid-1930s. One of the most thought-provoking features of this short film is the lack of stereotypical, racist representations of African-Americans which deface earliest jazz movies. This motion picture showed Ellington as composer that was on the same level as other famous composer of "Rhapsody in Blue." In the film, Duke Ellington and his Orchestra are depicted as skilled, and a dignified performer. ith that said, this essay will discuss how Richard right's characters in Down by the Riverside, or Long Black Song reflect both the version of history that Ellington describes, and the idea of history that Conn sees as so essential to 1930s American culture.
Richard right's characters in Down by the Riverside, reflect…… [Read More]
Malcolm X on education
A school dropout, Malcolm X illustrates the dichotomy between a formal and what he calls a "homemade" education: "In the street, I had been the most articulate hustler out there -- I had commanded attention when I said something. But now, trying to write simple English, I not only wasn't articulate, I wasn't even functional," (171). Street smarts vs. book smarts: Malcolm X's survival and success depended on both. Practically illiterate when he first entered prison, Malcolm X wrote letter after letter to Elijah Muhammad, forging for himself a homemade education: "It was because of my letters that I happened to stumble upon starting to acquire some kind of a homemade education," (171). His desire to communicate with Elijah Muhummad was the initial spark that inspired Malcolm X to teach himself how to read and write. Painstakingly, he would copy page after page from the dictionary…… [Read More]
This was true for example in the northern countries of Europe where Protestantism had firmly embedded itself an thrown off Church teaching. ars were the result as the Holy Roman Empire attempted to put down the Protestant Rebellions -- but the Peace of estphalia in 1648 finally and politically gave the Protestant countries in the north of Europe the right to exercise their new religions. Humanism, indeed, was spreading as a result of the Renaissance and many societies were willing to adopt it.
Bennett, Judith. Queens, hores and Maidens: omen in Chaucer's England.
University of London. 5 March 2002. Royal Halloway, Hayes Robinson Lecture Series No. 6. eb. 23 March 2011.
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Greece. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Jusserand, J.J. English ayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: &J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950.…… [Read More]
Others might allege that Mugabe has held elections, unlike John Locke's legitimate sovereign. But the presence of elections does not necessarily guarantee the existence of a good and fair representative government, or even the existence of a legislature. The BBC news reported that during the 2002 Zimbabwe election "some people from Europe were in Zimbabwe to watch how the voting was run. The Norwegian observers said the election was severely flawed and failed to meet international standards." (BBC News, 2002) the numbers also tell a sorry tale, as Mugabe's Zanu-PF party still dominates what is virtually a one party state occupying 147 out of the country's 150 parliamentary seats. (BBC News, 2000)
Lastly, John Locke above all stressed that the citizens of all nations have a property in their own persons, that the labor of the citizen's body and the work of the citizen's hands properly belong to the citizen,…… [Read More]
Hispanics and 40,375,000 African-Americans live in the United States and the respective percentages of these population groups are projected to continue to increase well into the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptions of these two cultures and why they are of interest as well as a comparison of similarities and differences related to time orientation, communication, physical and mental health, group relationships, and perceptions and measures of intelligence between these two population groups. The study also presents a description of the theoretical framework that guided the analysis of both of these cultures as well as an explanation concerning how each culture influences human development, identity development, and personality development within it. An examination concerning how each culture influences the expression of emotion, the development of morality, gender, aggression, and marital fidelity and an explanation concerning potential biases that may influence the analysis of these cultures…… [Read More]
Myth, Literature, and the African World
The book Myth, Literature, and the African World, was published in 1976, twenty years before the author, Wole Soyinka, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In his Preface, he clearly wants to convey that African academia has created a kind of "intellectual bondage and self-betrayal" by not facing up to truths about the fact that African literature must not be merely "an appendage of English literature." This was written twenty-eight years ago, of course, and because the instructions ask that "only this reference" be used, one cannot know if indeed African universities now have a section for "Comparative Literature" -- which would presumably allow for the inclusion of literature about Africa, by Africans. And that literature would, hopefully, be reflective of what African cultures were like during the continent was dominated by European colonial powers -- something that Soyinka clearly would like…… [Read More]
The stigmatization of African-Americans has caused terrible harm in many areas, and only exacerbates the perceived "problem."
T]hirty years of forced removal to prison of 150,000 young males from particular communities of New York represents collective losses similar in scale to the losses due to epidemics, wars, and terrorist attacks -- with the potential for comparable effects on the survivors and the social structure of their families and communities. (oberts, 2004)
By destroying African-American communities and social networks on a massive scale, law enforcement officials are contributing to the very problems they purport to be fighting.
The mass imprisonment of African-Americans further spreads and entrenches the notion that African-Americans are somehow incapable of conforming to the larger society's rules and regulations. The more common the prison experience becomes in African-American life, the more normative it becomes in both African-American and majority White culture. oberts underlines the terrible effects of this…… [Read More]
In the settlement houses, American women taught immigrant women about "American" culture and government and also educated Americans about the various cultures of the immigrants. These settlement houses also offered childcare for working parents, health care, English classes, community theater, and many other social outlets These settlement houses were perceived as "hotbeds of progressive reform" and "spearheads for reform."
eformers during the Progressive Era aimed to resolve the problems of American society that had developed during the major growth of industrial growth that was seen in the U.S. (USHistory.com. 2002). The frontier had been tamed, great cities and businesses had blossomed, but not all American citizens shared in this new wealth and optimism.
The majority of social problems during this era were addressed by professional social workers, most of which were female, who ran settlement houses in an effort to protect and improve the living and working conditions of the…… [Read More]
, in 1963 brought him worldwide attention. He spearheaded the Aug., 1963, March on Washington, which brought together more than 200,000 people. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize." (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2003)
However, King's leadership in the civil-rights movement was challenged in the mid-1960s as others such as Malcolm X grew more militant. Indeed, his life paralleled the life of his hero Mahatma Gandhi. The originator of the nonviolent protest, Gandhi too took criticism as more militant colleagues pushed against non-violence in his later years.
Martin Luther King Jr.'s interests, however, broadened from civil rights to subsume criticism of the Vietnam War and a deeper concern over poverty. His plans for a Poor People's March to Washington were interrupted (1968) for a trip to Memphis, Tenn., in support of striking sanitation workers. On Apr. 4, 1968, he was shot and killed as he stood on the balcony of…… [Read More]
acial Socialization Practices on the Cognitive and Behavioral Competence of African-American Preschoolers: Article eview
In the September issue of Child Development, the article The Influence of acial Socialization Practices on the Cognitive and Behavioral Competence of African-American Preschoolers discusses how African-American children are affected by their parent's acclimation to the African-American culture. In other words, how do young children react to being black in a predominantly white society. According to the authors of this study "African-American children and the parents raising them face many challenges, both unique to them as a specific ethnic group and shared across all racial or cultural groups." (O-Brien-Caughy et al., 2002)
African-Americans have a unique dilemma in raising their young children. They must deal with three realms of experience: mainstream society, being a minority in mainstream society, and maintaining their own African culture in mainstream society. Based on these three realms, the authors presented a…… [Read More]
Supreme Court Chief Justices Warren and ehnquist
Compare and contrast approaches to criminal procedures by U.S. Supreme Courts:
The Warren vs. The ehnquist Court
A common philosophical debate within the legal community is when the approach advocated by so-called 'conservative' justices (often called strict constructionism) is pitted against more 'liberal' and freer interpretations of constitutional words and history. Throughout much of the 20th century, it was often said that the more liberal interpreters of the Constitution were 'winning the war' in regards to this issue, thanks to the presiding intelligence of Chief Justice Earl Warren. "Following his appointment in 1953 Chief Justice Earl Warren led the Court into a series of decisions that drastically affected sexual freedom, the rights of criminals, the practice of religion, civil rights, and the structure of political representation. The decisions of the Warren Court reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly"…… [Read More]
During Catherine Beecher’s time, the extent to which women should be educated and the composition of that education was hotly debated. This short book is an outline of what should constitute an appropriate education for a young lady. Beecher spends equal time detailing a young woman’s moral education as she does the ideal young woman’s domestic education. The first half of the book is primarily devoted to theorizing about how women should be educated and a defense of a holistic approach to female education while the second half of the book details the specifics of how Beecher believes a house should be run.
According to Beecher: “We are not to annihilate the love of praise and admiration; but so to control it, that the favor of God shall be regarded more than the estimation of men” (Beecher 171). Also contrary to the commonsense wisdom of her day, Beecher suggests that…… [Read More]
For women, breastfeeding has the ability to bring back the shame of an attack or an occurrence of unwanted touching (Wood, 2010, pp. e137).
Additionally, the idea of sexual activity, for an individual who has experienced trauma and fear touch, can become an incurable fear should it not be addressed. For an individual who has suffered this type of trauma, an unsolicited touch from another human being as simple as a hand on their shoulder can bring back vivid memories of the trauma as well as the ability to place that individual right back into the emotional state of the trauma (Hatfield, 1994, pp.1). This type of situation is key to understanding personal boundaries despite the need for touch in the realm of humanity.
As seen in viewing the many facets of touch within humanity and the direct link to emotion that touch can provide for individuals, one can…… [Read More]
Cell Phones (Technology) On Communication
Cell phones and other cellular communication equipment are omnipresent in today's digital age, with roughly 1.5 billion cellular phones used, at present, across the globe; on an average, 75 billion SMSs are sent globally, in a month (Merry, Domlija & Mackenzie, 2005). While the use of cellular communication has greatly contributed to the area of communication, cellular interferences have hampered functioning in various contexts, including driving, parenting task completion, and enrolment in academic courses. Strayer and colleagues (2005) proved that cognitive impairments linked to cell phone usage while driving may be the same as those linked to drunken driving. Impacts of distractions from cell phones have been observed in laboratory as well as naturalistic settings. Here, the word 'distraction' implies the unintentional inattention to the task at hand, which is characteristic of unlooked-for events (e.g. a call on one's cell phone). By contrast, the word…… [Read More]
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the…… [Read More]
It is from this cultural paradigm that emerged the concept of "dread." This term was used as synonymous to "God-fearer," to describe the adherents to Rastafarianism. According to Rastafarian mysticism, JAH (God) was immediately present within each dread.
In European existentialism, the concept appears to be diametrically opposite to that within African philosophy. According to teven Kreis (2006), for example, existential dread is the result of the perceived absence of God or indeed any spirituality or deeper meaning in life. Whereas the Rastafarian dread immerses the soul within the consciousness of God, the existentialist searches for meaning in the very lack and absence of God. Like Rastafarianism, however, the existentialist concept provides meaning within itself: human life is meaningful because it is meaningless: meaning is found within physical and perceived existence.
Arrayed Roots Media (2002). Rastafarian Cultural Page. http://www.geocities.com/arrayedroots/ARCul.html
Kreis, teven (2006). Lecture 12: The Existentialist Frame of Mind.…… [Read More]
" (2009) Oguejiofor states that there is no understanding "exept if there is misunderstanding, a negativity that beomes the originative instane of hermeneutis…" (2009)
Oguejiofor writes that Senghor's onept of negritude is entered on the misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the Afrian and his heritage, a situation that has sine imposed enormous burden on all aspets of his life." (Oguejiofor, 2009) Oguejiofor states that negritude has been desribed "…as a philosophy of soial ation" and states additionally that in the view of Senghor "negritude was 'a weapon of defense and attak and inspiration." (2009) Speifially Senghor sates that negritude is the "sum total of the values of the ivilization of the Afrian world, it is not raialism, it is ulture." (Oguejiofor, 2009)
Oguejiofor writes that negritude as a philosophy "has the advantage of 'reognizing the situatedness of our lived historiity as the proper objet of refletion for Afrian philosophi thought. (Salhi…… [Read More]
Were such changes necessary? According to what Oelshlaeger explains in his book, it appears that much of these changes are interconnected. With agriculture "naturally" come other transitions in the society. In fact, "neo" or "new" implies the many changes that occurred 10,000 years ago with the advent of growing crops. The beginnings of this huge change can be traced to the food-producing cultures evolving on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest Asia, including today's Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and Iran and Iraq or what was later called Mesopotamia.
Near the end of the Neolithic period after the domestication of cereals and cultivation, domestication and breeding of stock was established and people developed farming methods especially for wide open landscapes. At that time metals, such as copper and gold, came into frequent use and technology advanced to the stage that large numbers of tools were being crafted…… [Read More]
Nature of Language / Heidegger
In "The Nature of Language" Heidegger (1982) posits that most people would say that they are close to language because they speak it -- but it is not that simple. He claims that our relation to language is "vague, obscure" -- and even -- "almost speechless" (p. 58). This notion makes our relationship to language much more complicated if we are to assume that what Heidegger says is correct. Not only is the idea complex, but it is nearly incomprehensible. Isn't language, after all, about speech? How can our relationship to it thus be something deemed as speechless? To complicate matters even further, Heidegger says that philosophers have come up with what is called "metalanguage" for which to use as the focus of their examination of different languages. Heidegger states: "Metalinguistics is the metaphysics of the thoroughgoing technicalization of all languages into the sole operative…… [Read More]
Community and Social Justice
Since the establishment of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), it has continued to be engaged with human rights as proven by the struggle for decolonization, self-determination, and independence of the African continent. Embodied with this, obviously, is the fact that those fighting and agitating for independence sought human right principles to justify their struggle because colonialism disregarded human rights of the colonized persons. In contrast to the OAU, the African Union (AU) made human rights an explicit component of its obligation as encoded in its Act and human rights in its mainstream programs and activities. However, with no doubt, the current approaches require strengthening with a perspective of creating a holistic, integrated and comprehensive methodology to ensure respect for all human rights.
OAU to AU: An overview
The OAU charter is grounded on the principle of non-interference and state sovereignty. It stipulates the battle for…… [Read More]
his League advocated the peaceful and friendly expansion and recognition of African-American culture and roots in Africa. It also helped pave the way for more militant African-American advocacy groups that found their way into popular African-American culture and society during the Harlem Renaissance. he Universal African Legion also had affiliate companies and corporations, which gave African-Americans more cultural, economic, and political clout and representation during this time period. Garvey was a crucial figure in the uniting of African-Americans toward the singular goal of improving their cultural and social conditions inside the U.S.
he New Negro movement was an over-arching hopefulness that African-American culture and society could successfully flourish in the post slavery era. Garvey played a major role in helped to culturally establish the African-American agenda of upward social mobility and desegregation (Locke, 1997). he Harlem Renaissance was a movement with limited scope that took place during the 1920's and…… [Read More]
This "education" convinces the white person to give up their sons for wars that oppress the dark peoples, votes money for the wars, makes him believe he should make up the lynch mobs and to oppress blacks with Jim Crow. The fact that his philosophy was realistic was because it was the activism of his NAACP exposing the reality of lynching in the South in the 1920s It was very realistic, because the in their face activism was what was reversing the trends in the South. Other African-Americans such as ashington saw him as a radical, but he know how to get what he wanted from the white through activism in the NAACP (DuBois, 2010).
Booker T. ashington had a very strange view of education for blacks. He had to apologize to the hites of the South in the Atlanta speech for blacks sought out political careers and teaching assignments…… [Read More]
In this sense, it is not simply a matter of theoretical approach, but also one that is accompanied by data. More precisely, for instance, in the 1960s, when, as stated previously, the afflux of the development aid had not been significant, the real GDP per capita was $1,049. Compared to the 1990s when the development aid was more consistent, the real GDP per capita fell to $1,016 and in 1991 to even $970 (Andrews, What foreign aid can and can't do in Africa, 2010). This can be interpreted as being the result of a series of development strategies that did not improve the condition of the society. Also, this period was indeed characterized by increased political distress that only contributed to the way in which development programs were constructed, managed, and implemented.
In later years, through the United Nations programs, the increased donor contributions, the GDP per capita increased substantially,…… [Read More]
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…… [Read More]
All of these are examples of the more dangerous and insidious effects of subtle, hidden persuasion. Yes, the Brown approach is to merely offer his product, but the product has many hidden side effects, such as the need to give up one's native gods. These effects are not immediately obvious to the unwitting consumer. At least Smith is honest about the lack of respect shown by Christian society to native faiths.
This poses a question of my own: are missionaries ever ethical, if they require a society to give up its native gods? Is missionary behavior unethical only when it is used as a tool of colonialism? Should persuasive advertising or missionary behavior in a free market or free society always be…… [Read More]
Notwithstanding its roots in African dance, in actuality, it was a fighting style designed by African slaves as a means of protecting themselves from government agents searching for them after their escape from enslavement. Likewise, Levine focuses heavily on the connection between the slave culture that was evident in the American South, while much of it may actually have been shaped by the need to conceal it from white society.
The mere fact that Christianity, and more specifically, Southern Baptism, became the predominant religion of the millions of descendants of the Africans enslaved in America would seem to provide the most support for Rock's position. It is difficult to know how many of the slaves who eventually (and ironically) adopted the very religious traditions of those who enslaved them and held them captive for generations. Certainly, there are elements of contemporary black religious culture that can be traced back to…… [Read More]
Thucydides is known as one of the greatest historians of ancient Greece. This paper focuses on the life, work and philosophy of Thucydides. The paper also discusses the influence and significance of his theories and principles in the field of education.
Thucydides was one of the greatest Greek historians who is known for his Magnus opus, "History of Peloponnesian War." This account of the great Peloponnesian War is not exactly complete as it only presents the events that took place during 431 to 411 B.C. But the reason why it is remembered and read as one of the most perfect Greek literatures is because it reflects Thucydides' genuinely original style interspersed with wisdom and objectivity which most other historians of that period lacked. There is still some confusion about the exact year of his birth as some ancient historians have given dates, which clash with dates provided by modern…… [Read More]
Vernacular hetoric has an element of discussion which ensures that there is hope of better and newer social circumstances to emerge as the ideologies behind social movements keep changing. The combination of hetoric and vernahas yielded the momentous Theory of Vernacular hetoric which embodies the teachings of persuasive use of inherent and familiar tongues to offer resistance by persons to bring social change.
Amos, . (1969). House Form and Culture. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin.
Aristotle. (2006). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse. Oxford University Press.
Boyd, T.E. (1991). Deep in the Shed: The Discourse of African-American Cinema. Iowa Journal of Literary Studies, 11(1), 99-104.
Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature and method. Univ of California Press.
Conley, T. (1994). hetoric in the European tradition. University of Chicago Press.
Hauser, G.A. (1999). Vernacular voices: Univ of South Carolina Press.
Hauser, G.A., & McClellan, E.D.…… [Read More]
Furthermore the rhetoric here is rich in symbolism. Dr. King draws parallels between the response of violence to his peaceful protests and other great personalities whose commitment to justice, truth, and love also had unintended and unfortunate consequences. Personalities like ocrates and Jesus, for example, could not be expected to deny their truth for fear of public reaction. Dr. King makes this argument even stronger by also drawing the parallel between himself and the completely innocent person, whose possession of money resulted in the evil of theft. By drawing these parallels, Dr. King points out that an argument regarding the actions of others cannot be used to condemn those who protest peacefully. Dr. King and his followers are innocent of the crime of violence. Dr. King's argument is therefore that they cannot be held accountable for the violence committed by others, who are neither followers of his, nor affiliated with…… [Read More]
fallacies and it is important to detect fallacious arguments and then form decisions. Below is an analysis of three such fallacies which have been described and examples are described to show why it is important to detect them.
This fallacy is on the principle that in the case there is a lack of evidence to prove it to be true, it is considered naturally to be false. An atheist might claim that as a creationist cannot prove that God exists therefore God does not exist. Similarly a creationist can say that because the atheist cannot prove that God does not exist, hence God exists. Basically this fallacy deals with the burden of proof and in the absence of any proof it labels the opposite to be absolutely true. This fallacy is used in the judicial systems that are based on the principle of "innocent until proven guilty."…… [Read More]
Amartya Sen, a noted scholar in the world of philosophical discussions and interpretations, is presenting counter arguments to John Rawls' approach to a theory of justice. In the process, Sen is also trying to cement his own approach to a theory of justice. He argues that asking, "hat is a just society?" is wasteful and rather, serious thinkers should "concentrate on comparative questions of justice" (Sen, 236). The philosopher thus opens the door to a discussion of what should bright, thinking people expect and desire from a theory of justice, which is likely what Sen intended, beyond tooting his own philosophical horn. Sen begins his article by referencing what he finds difficult to accept within iconic philosopher Rawls' view of justice.
The nuts and bolts of what Sen is arguing comes down to his departure from Rawls' theory of justice, not only the "substantive contend of the Rawlsian theory of…… [Read More]