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The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire consists of twenty-nine statements designed to assess four factors: physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility. It is a self-scoring test, and subjects are asked to evaluate themselves according to the degree to which they agree with the statements. The questionnaire uses a five point scale, with one point indicating a statement is "extremely uncharacteristic" and five points indicating "extremely characteristic." A score of three on any statement is considered neutral. Two statements are reverse scored; "5" on either or both statements indicates a lower level of aggression.
For the purpose of this study, four family members and four randomly selected individuals evaluated themselves according to the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. All the names have been changed to protect individuals' privacy.
Don, age fifty-two, is a real estate attorney who enjoys sailing in his spare time. His wife Betty, forty-nine, is a real estate agent…
Archer, J., and Webb, I.A. (2006). The relation between scores on the Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire and aggressive acts, impulsiveness, competitiveness, dominance, and sexual jealousy. Aggressive Behavior 32, pp. 464-473.
Aggression and Violence
Expression of aggression: Japan
Although the aggressive impulse may be hard-wired into the human brain, the various ways in which cultures view what constitutes aggression can be quite subjective. In Japan, for example, direct confrontation is frowned upon, in contrast to the United States, which emphasizes the need to 'tell it like it is.' Even the agency of the aggression is viewed differently in collectivist vs. more individualistic societies. "American newspapers referred more to the individual involved in each [political or business] scandal, whereas Japanese newspapers referred more to the institution, implying a focus on the group rather than the individual as agent for the Japanese" (Friedman et al. 2007: 857).
Yet cross-cultural comparisons indicate: "European-Americans scored higher on delinquency and sexual behaviors relative to both Asian-American groups. As expected, both Asian-American groups scored higher on loss of face but also scored higher on acceptance of violence"…
Cultural information -- Japan. (2009). Centre for Intercultural Learning. Retrieved:
Friedman, Ray, Liu, Wu, Chen Chao C., Chi, Shu-Cheng Steve. (2007). Causal attribution for interfirm contract violation: A comparative study of Chinese and American commercial arbitrators. Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (3) 856 -- 864
Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama, Teten, Andra L., DeGarmo, David S., Sue, Stanley, Stephens,
Aggression and Violence
In this day and age, just about everything is rated. From movies to television shows and even video games, forms of media are given ratings to depict who they are approved for and what type of content the viewer or user can expect. One of the main reasons for this rating system is the prevalence of violent movies, television shows and video games and the psychological theories that suggest that viewing violent activities can lead to acts of violence.
It is important to consider that although there is research that points to the fact that viewing violence can lead to violence, this is not a theory that can be applied universally. There are many people that can view violence and not have such a negative reaction toward it. The problem with this is that there is no way of telling those who can be negatively influenced from…
The mean age of participants was 33 years. The ICS was selected because of its superior internal consistency with an alpha of.96 and "strong factorial validity as well as fair construct validity," correlating in the predicted direction with the Generalized Contentment Scale and Index of Family elations (Abell, 1991).
The asst or Assertiveness Self Statement test, a "32 item instrument designed to measure self statement in assertion related problems" was also selected for purposes of the study (Schwartz & Gottman, 1976).
This test was selected because of strong construct validity which demonstrates how functional and dysfunctional groups differ in their frequency of positive and negative self-statements (Schwartz & Gottman, 1976).
The Aggressive Inventory (AI), a "30 item instrument that measures aggressive traits was also used, where respondent rated items on a five point scale in order to determine whether or not a particular statement applied to them in the…
Abell, N. (1991). The index of clinical stress: A brief measure of subjective stress for practice and research." Social Work Research and Abstracts, 27: 12-15
Bateman, H., Cillessen, a.H., Coie, J.D., Dodge, K.A., Hubbard, J.A.,
Lemerise, E.A. & Schwartz, D. (1998). "Social-cognitive and behavioral correlates of aggression and victimization in boy's play groups." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(6): 431
Cairns, R.B. & Stoff, D. (1996). Aggression and violence: Genetic, neurobiological and biosocial perspectives." Mahwah: Lawrence Elrlbaum Associate.
Aggression, Violence in the Workplace
Studies suggest that violence and aggression are an increasingly common occurrence in organizations large and small across the globe (epetti, Seeman & Taylor, 1997; Waldron, 2000; Coombs & Holladay, 2004). Aggression and violence are serious problems that can have short- and long-term consequences on individuals and organizations. As such it is vital that organizations become aware of the problem and take steps to prevent them.
In this paper the researcher will explore how violence and aggression in the workplace affects victims and what measures can be taken to prevent or address violence and aggression in the workplace. Commonly held beliefs suggest that work is a safe environment for people to engage in business interaction. Studies however suggest that violence and aggression often occur at work, sometimes directly and often indirectly. Such negative behaviors and attitudes can result in multiple problems including stress related emotional and…
Coombs, W.T. & Holladay, S.J. (2004). "Understanding the aggressive workplace:
Development of the workplace aggression tolerance questionnaire." Communication Studies, 55(3): 481.
Fisher, S.K. (2001, May). Global workplace violence. Monthly Labor Review, 124(5),
ace on Aggression
ace and Aggression
The roots of violence are of interest because of the toll it takes on the lives and minds of all citizens. Each year, an estimated 50,000 citizens die from violence in the United States and another 2.2 million will need medical treatment for injuries (reviewed by Corso, Mercy, Simon, Finkelstein, and Miller, 2007). Although the costs on a personal level are incalculable, the costs to society can at least be estimated. The annual medical care cost of injuries due to violence was estimated to be $5.7 billion and the average lifetime loss of productivity due to each violent death was estimated to be $1.3 million. If self-inflicted injuries and death are subtracted from the overall estimate, the annual cost of violence in the United States is approximately $37 billion for medical care and lost productivity combined. These estimates do not include the cost of…
Cohen, Dov, Nisbett, Richard E., Bowdle, Brian F., and Schwarz, Norbert. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the Southern culture of honor: An "Experimental Ethnography." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(5), 945-960.
Corso, Phaedra S., Mercy, James A., Simon, Thomas R., Finkelstein, Eric A., and Miller, Ted R. (2007). Medical costs and productivity losses due to interpersonal and self-directed violence in the United States. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(6), 474-482.
Nussbaum, A. David and Steele, Claude M. (2007). Situational disengagement and persistence in the face of adversity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 127-134.
Schwerdtfeger, Andreas and Derakshan, Nazanin. (2010). The time line of threat processing and vagal withdrawal in response to a self-threatening stressor in cognitive avoidant copers: Evidence for vigilance-avoidance theory. Psychophysiology, 47, 786-795.
Chill, be cool man: African-American men, identity, coping and aggressive ideation examines the cultural context of aggression. They note that researchers often look at aggression deterministically, but fail to address cultural factors. The researchers seek to address this gap in their paper.
They divided their study group into three, based on the respondent's identity -- whether it was ambivalent, appraising or consolidated. The strength of racial identity among the study group was found to have an influence on the person's ability to cope with stressors, and with respect to aggressive ideation. Further, there was a link between coping and aggressive ideation as well. The findings are relevant for a couple of reasons. The first is that it illustrates a link between racial identity and the ability to cope. Individuals with a weaker sense of racial identity are less likely to cope with stressors and therefore more likely to express aggression.…
Thomas, A., Hammond, W., Wood, L. (2016) Chill, be cool man: African-American men, identity, coping and aggressive ideation. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Vol. 21 (3) 369-379
Aggression from a Heritability Perspective
There is a social bias against the idea of aggression, so that many people conflate the ideas of aggression and violence, so that they cannot separate them. This suggests that aggression is negative, which is not necessarily the case. The result has been that suggestions that aggression is somehow genetic have been morphed into the notion that people carrying those genes must somehow be inferior to the rest of the population. This is untrue on a number of different levels. First, it assumes that aggression must be negative. Second, it assumes that acting on aggressive behavior must be a maladaptive behavior. Neither of those assumptions is warranted. However, they highlight some of the pitfalls in examining aggression.
Examining the whether aggression can be inherited is a very morally risky topic. It cannot be ignored that prior attempts to link genetics and anti-social behavior, such as…
Barry, C.T., Grafeman, S.J., Adler, K.K, & Pickard, J.D. (2007). The relations among narcissism, self-esteem, and delinquency in a sample of at-risk adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 30(6), 933-42.
Carlson, E. (n.d.). Scientific origins of eugenics. Retrieved February 19, 2013 from Eugenics
Archive website: http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/eugenics/list2.pl
Cohen, P. (2011, June 19). Genetic basis for crime: A new look. Retrieved February 19, 2013
Aggression can be describes as that particular behavioral form that is characterized by attack (verbal or physical). It has a number of characteristics that may come into view as suitable and defensive (in some cases, even positive and helpful) particularly when there is vigorous self-assertiveness. On the other hand, aggression may also appear as improper, wrong and disparaging. Aggression is sometimes intended for others i.e. It is directed outwards. At other times, it may be directed against one's own self and may lead to self-destructive or desperate events. It is often caused by emotional stimulation/provocation/awakening or due to frustration. People also tend to behave aggressively when they want to make a reward safe and protected ("aggression").
According to the Austrian ethologist, Konrad Lorenz, aggression is an inborn fighting instinct that is prominent in both animal and human behaviors. He put forwarded the argument that "the suppression of aggressive…
"aggression." Questia. N.p., 2013. Web. 9 Nov. 2013. .
Archer, J. The Behavioural Biology of Aggression. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Print.
Jacobson, V.L. Workplace Aggression: Employee Attitudes, Perceptions, and Behaviors in Aggressive Work Climates. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest, 2007. Print.
"Konrad Lorenz." World of Scientific Discovery. Gale, 2006. Science in Context. Web. 9 Nov. 2013. .
This study determined that the amount of time spent in full-time daycare was positively correlated with the number of friends children had as well as their participation in extracurricular activities. Also, more time spent in daycare was positively correlated to parents' ratings of popularity, leadership, the children's emotional well-being, and assertiveness, and was negatively correlated to ratings of aggressiveness. Based on these findings, it could be concluded that participation in full-time, high-quality daycare decreases the likelihood that children will have a propensity towards aggressive behavior.
After objectively reviewing the existing literature on this topic, insights may be gained by taking on diverse perspectives. The issue of daycare and its relation to aggressive behavior among children will be explored through the perspectives of two theorists from vastly different theoretical camps: Erik Erikson and B.F. Skinner.
Erik Erikson's perspective
Erikson's stage theory of psychosocial development consists of eight stages that expand across…
Baron, R.A., Richardson, D.R. (1994) Human Aggression. Springer.
Borge, a.I., Rutter, M., Cote, S., Tremblay, R.E. (2004). Early childcare physical aggression: differentiating social selection and social causation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(2), 367-76.
Bower, B. (1991). Infant daycare: nothing beats quality. Science News, 8/24/1991.
Dettling, a.C., Parker, S.W., Lane, S., Sebanc, a., Gunnar, M.R. (2000). Quality of care and temperament determine changes in cortisol concentration over the day for young children in childcare. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25(8), 819-36.
To this end new research tools and methodologies need to be developed that will focus more on the investigative aspects that can enhance the understanding of the psychological and social development in girls.
Much of the literature on this subject is concerned with the differences as well as the interaction between social and physical aggression and how this correlates with the different sexes. A study that investigates this aspect in-depth is The development of Social Aggression and Physical Aggression: A Narrative Analysis of the Interpersonal Conflicts by Xie et al. The results of this extensive study are similar in some respects to studies already mentioned in this literature review. For example, it was found that girls were more likely to use indirect and social aggression against girls, while boys were more like to use physical aggression against their own sex.
An interesting finding was that physical aggression was "linked to…
Bjorkqvist K. et al. Do Girls Manipulate and Boys Fight. Developmental Trends in regard to Direct and Indirect Aggression. Aggressive Behavior; 18; 117-127.
Durret M.A. (1957) The Relationship of Early Infant Regulation and Later Behavior in Play Interviews. Child Development; 30; 211-216.
Horn S.S. (2003) Mean Girls or Cultural Stereotypes? Human Develoment; 47;
Hencke R. And Raya P. (1993) You're Mean! Differences between Three-Year
Aggressive behavior in children is not only disruptive of home, classroom, and social environments, it is the primary cause of peer rejection in children (Hinshaw pp). Early aggression predicts substance abuse, delinquency, and adult antisocial behavior with high sensitivity (Hinshaw pp).
There are many ecological factors, social stressors, and family processes that are predictors of individual differences in aggression, and among family influences that have been linked with child aggression is marital conflict (Cummings pp). The role of marital conflict has not received much attention or consideration, however there are several theoretical models that support the notion that exposure to marital conflict is an influence that may lead to child aggression (Cummings pp). According to Mark Cummings in his article, Everyday Marital
Conflict and Child Aggression, one alternative hypothesis is that "family processes associated with marital conflict, such as parenting problems, entirely account for links between marital conflict…
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Lavoie, Francine. (2001). Reactive and Proactive Aggression: Predictions to Physical Violence in Different Contexts and Moderating Effects of Parental Monitoring and Caregiving Behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 29. Retrieved October 05, 2005 from Questia Online Library Web site.
Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M. (2004) Everyday Marital
Conflict and Child Aggression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 32. Retrieved October 06, 2005 from Questia Online Library Web site.
Fuller, Bret E.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Cruise, Karen A.; Kirsch, Elisabeth; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.;
Female Student Aggression on Other Females' Attitudes About School - Proposed Study
This paper presents a rough draft blueprint of a proposed study about female aggression ages 10-14 and how the aggression makes girls feel about school. The writer explores various studies and sources for the purpose of presenting evidence that a study on the topic is warranted. In addition the writer discusses the elements of the proposed study including methodology and participants. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
Effects of Female Aggression on Other Females' Attitudes About School
School violence is something that has garnered recent media attention. Columbine, the shootings in an Arkansas middle school and other events have turned the nations' eye to bullies and their impact. While the cases in which someone is killed gets a lot of attention both from the media and the administrators there is a type of school violence…
Altruism & Aggression
Altruism and Aggression
Social psychology is a science that studies a series of specific relationships. Social psychology attempts to explain human behavior as a consequence or condition of the intersections among individual mental states and the social conditions of immediately experience reality. Social psychologists study many of the internal mechanisms within us all such as feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. Our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by other people in our immediate vicinity, and they are influenced by those whose presence is implied in some way. Social psychologists seek to study by means of an empirical method the measurable psychological variables present within a person. Two specific behaviors this paper will focus upon are altruism and aggression. The paper will define and discuss altruism and aggression from within the context of the social psychological perspective.
Altruism is the practice of selfless acts. Altruism is the practice of…
Staub, PhD, Ervin, & Vollhardt, Johanna. "Altruism Born of Suffering: The Roots of Caring and Helping After Victimization and Other Trauma. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 78, No. 3, 267 -- 280, 2008.
Wilson, Barbara J. "Media and Children's Aggression, Fear, and Altruism." The Future of Children, Vol. 18, No. 1, 87 -- 119.
The lower she rated the importance of her ethnic identity, the higher the chances of her reporting the experience. Those who experienced mild to moderate verbal aggression or severe verbal aggression faced a higher risk of reporting the coercion than those who did not experience the aggression. Facing higher risks were women who were sexually victimized as adolescents, had dated the perpetrator six or more times, and had a wide age difference with the partner. The study identified several risk factors associated with an increased likelihood of rape, attempted rape and verbal sexual coercion. It also called the attention of young women on how to respond to or manage the verbal or psychological abuse as well as other types of coercive behaviors of their dating partners (Thomas).
One more danger young people confront in dating and dating violence is the risk of sexually transmitted diseases or STDs. A third of…
Black, M.C. (2006). Physical dating violence among high school students - United States, 2003.
A pages. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: U.S. Government Printing Office
Forbes, G.B. et al. (2005). Perceptions of dating violence following a sexual or nonsexual betrayal of trust. 12 pages. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Hollander, D. (2005). Teenagers, dating violence and disease. 2 pages. Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health: The Alan Guttmacher Institute
Japanese Aggression Against China During the 19th Century
The antagonistic foreign relations between China and Japan during the 19th century were a function of many factors that ultimately resulted in the weakening of China and the strengthening of Japan. There is little doubt that the factors which precipitated the aggression of Japan against the Chinese were as much a function of Japanese opportunism as it from the concern and impact resulting from European influence and Russian expansionism on China. Thus the relationship between the two Asian nations is a complex tapestry involving threads from many other nations both regional and global. The growing aggression that Japan displayed particularly during the latter portions of the 19th century was significant and represented a major change in the region and yet the changes that occurred between the two countries were simply a prelude to the coming imperial might that Japan would display in…
Chien-Nung, Li. 1956. The Political History of China, 1840-1928. Translated by Teng, Ssu-Yu and Jeremy Ingalls. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand.
Hahn, Emily. 1963. China Only Yesterday, 1850-1950: A Century of Change. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Hsu, Immanuel C.Y. The Rise of Modern China sixth edition, (New York: Oxford University
Intimidating communication is definitely present within my work place. Student nurses and new staff have often been the victims of bullying that is coming from actual nursing and facility staff that have been on location for long periods of time. Such situations have been witnessed by not only the student nurses working within the facility, but also by the patients and senior staff members
Patients see the lateral violence first hand, as they watch older staff members hassle younger, newer nursing staff. The patients have helped the administrative staff narrow done the primary staff members who are the source of the lateral violence on the other newer nurses. Essentially two nurses in their middle fifties who have worked with the facility each for over five years feel the need to constantly harass new staff members and watch over them to a point which makes them feel insecure and uncomfortable within…
Lamontagne, C. (2010). Intimidation: A concept analysis. Nursing Forum, 45(1), 54-65.
Thee children, when socializing with their friends, invariably mimicked those violent characters they saw in the video games. While concluding, these researchers, pointed out that if children continued to play these kinds of violent and aggressive video games, then it is highly likely that negative and anti-social behavior becomes a norm for them (Nicoll and Kieffer, 2005).
In one study carried out by Williams and Skoric (2005) revealed that gamers who spent an approximately fifty six hours every month playing a special type of game called "Asheron's Call 2" had not been statistically any different from those gamers who did not play any game during the same time period. The results indicated that video games are not linked with adolescent aggressive behavior. This study was considered to be the first of its kind, since it studied a particular game over a month long period.
It is noteworthy here that the…
Anderson, C. A et al. Video games and aggressive behavior. In D. Ravitch & J.P. Viteritti (Eds.), Kid stuff: Marketing sex and violence to America's children (pp. 143-167). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003a.
Anderson, C. A et al. An update on the effects of playing violent video games. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 113-122, 2004.
Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359, 2001.
Anderson, C.A., & Dill, K.E. Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behav-ior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772-790, 2000.
This has an effect on their social relations with other individuals, as they do not see the weaker person as someone who should be respected. At which point, the odds increase that this person could become a social outcast. Evidence of this, can be seen by looking no further than the study that was conducted in the article, The Dyadic Nature of ullying and Victimization. Where, researchers found that aggressive action will have an impact upon the social status of weaker individuals. As the more dominate the bully was over a select individual, the greater the chances are that they will be rejected by the entire class. Once this takes place, it means that a self feeding cycle of aggressiveness will occur. This can cause multiple bullies to begin engaging in similar kinds of actions towards weaker individuals. As a result, the long-term psychological effects can be severe for both.…
Ormel, J. (2007). The Dyadic Nature of Bullying and Victimization. Child Development. 78 (6), 1843 -- 1854.
Pellgerni, A. (2003). Perceptions and Functions of Play and Real Fighting. Child Development. 74 (5), 1522 -- 1533.
There are many who would claim that ottweilers are by nature violent and aggressive animals that should not be allowed in the home as pets. Media propaganda depicting horrible attacks by the animal do not alleviate the concern that the breed of dog is dangerous. Like any dog, ot's have unique personalities that must be considered before purchase. All too often potential owner seek out this breed of dog without knowledge of their distinct traits and personalities, or seek to use the dog's loyal nature for deviant purposes. ottweilers are not by nature evil creatures. They are the product of their owners. Different breeds of dogs commonly are associated with various personality traits. For example, the golden retriever is commonly recommended for families due to it's tremendously happy and loving personality. etriever's also require a great deal of attention and are not well suited for the rarely home…
Janet Wall. How to Love Your Dog.
Retrieved November 24, 2002, at http://www.howtoloveyourdog.com
Kern, Kerry.. (1991). Rottweilers, A Complete Owner's Manual. New York, NY:
Barrons Educational Series, Ltd.
Hypothetical Qualitative Study: Communication Studies
Phenomenon under investigation 'elational aggression' is often defined as a distinct phenomenon from overt aggression. It is "a form of covert bullying…a psychological and emotional form of abuse. It involves the specific use of relationships to hurt another, and is characterized by gossip, teasing, slander and exclusion" (What is relational aggression, 2014, elational Aggression). It is often thought of as a specifically female phenomenon, given the subtlety with which it is deployed. "Due to its covert nature, relational aggression often occurs under the radar of authority figures, such as teachers or bosses, or people to whom the aggressor wants to make a good impression" (What is relational aggression, 2014, elational Aggression).
What makes this issue important?
Bullying has been shown to have extreme negative psychological consequences for the bullied individual that can extend well after the bullying takes place. Being able to monitor for relational…
Lester, S. (1999). An introduction to phenomenological research. Taunton UK, Stan Lester
Developments. Retrieved from: http://www.sld.demon.co.uk/resmethy.pdf
Miller-Ott, A.E. & Kelly, L. (2014). Communication of female relational aggression in the college environment. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 14 (1).
In addition, factors that cause stress such as divorce or death increase the likelihood that a teenager will have aggressive tendencies (Peterson and Sheldon 2006). Additionally maternal depression, substance abuse or maternal anxiety can all lead to aggressive behaviors in teenagers (Peterson and Sheldon 2006).
According to Peterson and Sheldon (2006) teenage aggression can also be linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. In fact the authors asserts that
"Persistent aggressive behavior is a common feature in many neuropsychiatric disorders and is the most common reason for referral to a child and adolescent mental health clinic . Neurological features associated with aggression include low overall IQ and relative deficits in verbal learning, memory, and fluency . Deficits in executive functioning and working memory are also common  and may be especially pronounced with co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)."
The aggressive behavior can involve lashing out at family members, friends or strangers. The…
Arseneault L, Tremblay RE, Boulerice B, (2002) Obstetrical complications and violent delinquency: testing two developmental pathways. Child Development, 73:496 -- 508.
Dodge KA, Pettit GS (2003) A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 39:349 -- 371.
Facts for teen Aggression. Retrieved November 26, 2009 from http://www.herkimercounty.org/content/Departments/View/11:field=services;/content/DepartmentServices/View/68:field=documents;/content/Documents/File/123.PDF
Feindler E.L. (2005) Adolescent Aggression and Anger Management. Encyclopedia of Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Springer U.S.
A Short Study of Aggression on the Road
New York City has recently been voted by the participants of a survey as the U.S. city with the angriest and most aggressive drivers, who "tailgate, speed, honk their horns, overreact and lose their tempers." As a recent visitor of the Big Apple, I can attest to having heard excessive honking and some hand gestures that are very inappropriate for discussion here, on the streets of the city. Whether it is called intermittent explosive disorder, aggressive driving or just plain frustration with traffic, road rage is real and it is dangerous. This paper will thus attempt to understand why most drivers experience aggression the road, and will also offer examples of aggressive driving and give advice as to how to prevent road rage from taking place in the hopes to mitigate the dangers accompanied by this reaction to road conditions.…
fuse the content of the third chapter from the class text and a selected article. The salient and primary point to be taken from the chapter reading is concept analysis and frameworks. The important point from the article that will be focused on is aggression in the emergency department. To be certain, the emergency department of any hospital or other medical institution is a place where the presence of aggression can emerge in some instances. While some may say that concept analysis and frameworks are just a lot of navel-gazing, this is far from the truth so long as the practice is taken serious and is done as needed.
As explained by the class text, it is important to have proper concept development and research because there is a common language that must exist. To use a simpler example, three widgets to one person should always be three widgets to…
Bresler, S., & Gaskell, M. (2015). Risk assessment for patient perpetrated violence: Analysis of three assaults against healthcare workers. Work, 51(1), 73-77.
McEwen, M., & Wills, E. (2011). Theoretical basis for nursing. Philadelphia: Wolters
Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Students in elementary schools exhibit high levels of aggression toward their fellow students, and bullying is becoming increasingly problematic to manage. It is critical that teachers understand the nature of bullying and how to manage the problem. This presentation uses empirical evidence to show how students, families, and teachers can identify, prevent, and respond to bullying.
esearch reveals a difference between occasional aggressive behaviors and bullying. For example, Merrell & Isava (2008) define bullying as "repeated acts of aggression, intimidation, or coercion against a victim who is weaker," and a key feature of bullying is "intent to harm," (p. 26). Built into the definition of bullying is a power differential between the aggressor and the victim. Parents and teachers who recognize this feature of bullying may be able to identify the behavior in its early stages, and take necessary action. Teachers therefore need to understand how to prevent aggressive…
Kallestad, J.H. & Olweus, D. (2003). Predicting teachers' and schools' implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: A Multilevel Study. Prevention and Treatment 6(21).
Merrell, K.W. & Isava, D.M. (2008). How effective are school bullying intervention programs? School Psychology Quarterly 23(1): 26-42.
Ross, S., Horner, R. & Stiller, B. (n.d.). Bully prevention in positive behavior support. Education and Community Supports.
Humans Innately Aggressive?
Aggression is "an action…intended to harm someone in a verbal sense (sarcasm, insults, threats or playing out "nasty motives" -- and it can be a physical act, pushing, hitting, shooting at another person or otherwise aiming to do harm to someone (McCawley, 2001, p. 1). According to a definition from Shippenburg University aggression is any form of human behavior "…directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such harm." Still another definition of aggression (Buss) is found in an essay by Bushman and Anderson: Aggression is "…a response that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism" (Bushman, et al., 1998). But the question that has been asked through the years is -- are people aggressive innately or do people learn to be aggressive? This paper delves into the issue, presents both sides (through the literature), and offers a conclusion.
Hess, Nicole H., and Hagen, Edward H. (2005). Sex differences in indirect aggression/
Psychological evidence from young adults. Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 27,
McCawley, Sarah. (2001). The Nature of Aggression (or is it Nurture?). Bryn Mawr College.
This can be directly linked to the frustration-aggression theory. Writer Smith continues, "In this theory, frustration and aggression are linked in a cause and effect relationship. Frustration is the cause of aggression and aggression is the result of frustration" (Smith, 1999). The aggressive behavior may be passed down from parent to child. Studies also indicate that aggressive parenting often produces aggressive children who continue the behavior.
There is a need for reducing domestic violence. Using these theories, one way to reduce the behavior is to reduce the frustration of poverty and lack of education. This is a social condition that can change, and should change. By helping people change their circumstances, they can experience less frustration and more satisfaction. educing outside violent influences, such as games and parental behavior is important too, as is education violent partners how to manage their violent tendencies.
Smith, A.K. (1999) Theories of aggression.…
Smith, A.K. (1999) Theories of aggression. Retrieved from the Bryn Mawr College Web site: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro99/web3/Smith.html3 Aug. 2006.
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…
Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.
Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.
Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.
Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
Providing more effective and less painful treatments would indeed be a very large step in the right direction. The study results indicated by the above authors provide significant hope in this direction.
Jaffee, S.. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. etrieved from: http://www.biostat.sdu.dk/courses/f11/TwinAnalysis/papers/Gene%20Environment%20interaction/jaffee2007.pdf
Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses egarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. etrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819309/
oth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. etrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779706/
utter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. etrieved from: http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Documents/utter_2010_D%26A.pdf
Wermter, A-K., Lauch, M., Schimmelmann, B.G., Banaschweski, T., and Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2010). From nature vs. nurture, via nature…
Jaffee, S.R. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. Retrieved from: http://www.biostat.sdu.dk/courses/f11/TwinAnalysis/papers/Gene%20Environment%20interaction/jaffee2007.pdf
Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses Regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819309/
Roth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779706/
Rutter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. Retrieved from: http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Documents/Rutter_2010_D%26A.pdf
A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.
The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…
Berkowitz, Leonard. Causes and Consequences of Feelings. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Geen, Russell G. Human Aggression. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001.
Heath, Robert L., and Jennings Bryant. Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Early trauma that causes anger often corresponds to higher levels of aggression later in life, especially where the traumas are suppressed and internalized instead of being expressed at the time of their origin and at the source.
Furthermore, since many dysfunctional families forbid the expression of anger by children (particularly anger toward parents), individuals who experience significant levels of early trauma that produces repressed anger are often considerably more aggressive throughout life subsequently than individuals who were fortunate not to experience as much early trauma (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Aggression is a known factor in criminal conduct as well as other forms of non-criminal negative social behavior such as those associated with overt prejudice and other types of social intolerance toward others (Macionis 2003).
Aggression and Prejudice:
One of the primary ways that aggression-prone individuals express their repressed rage is in their treatment of other less powerful individuals (Gerrig &…
Friedman, a. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed.
Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Freud Concepts of Instincts, Drives
Desires, instincts, and drives are central to Freud's psychoanalytical theory. Although Sigmund Freud altered his theories throughout the course of his career, the core concepts of instincts and drives remain relatively constant. Freud first expressed the basic human instincts as being hunger and sex. Later, his theories matured, and Freud deeply analyzed the nature of human sexual drives. In his writings, Freud focused much on the conflicts that generally arise between the individual's innate instincts and the rules and mores of the society. All human beings continually struggle through various stages of their psycho-social development to restrain and express their desires, drives, and instincts. Freud framed these conflicts between desire and civilization into two major groupings: the conflict between sexual drives and civilization; and the conflict between self-serving happiness and civilization.
Freud's views on human sexuality are notorious and controversial. His Oedipus complex and other…
Stier, Marc. "Civilization/Eros." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/eros.htm>.
Stier, Marc. "Civilization/Happiness." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/happiness.htm>.
Stier, Marc. "Instincts/Drives." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/drive.htm>.
Stier, Marc. "Nature of Happiness." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/happy.htm>.
8. Is there a rationale for why the study is an important one to do?
There is not really a rationale for why the study is an important one to do. On the one hand, the authors explain why it is important to investigate the causes of aggression. However, on the other hand, they fail to explain why they focus on two seemingly distinct studies to support their conclusions.
9. Are the research hypotheses clearly stated?
Yes. The hypotheses are clearly stated.
10. Are the hypotheses testable?
14. Are the independent and dependent variables clearly defined?
Yes. However, there are multiple independent and dependent variables because they focus on two underlying studies.
15. Is it clear how the study was conducted?
17. Was the sample selected in such a way that you think it is representative of the population?
No; it focused on female athletes and female-to-male transsexuals.…
Ferguson, C., & Beaver, K. (2009). Natural born killers: The genetic origins of extreme violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 286-294.
Miles, D. & Carey, G. (1997). Genetic and environmental architecture of human aggression.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(1), 207-217.
Mitchell, J. (2005). Biological determinants of mens rea: When choice fails to compensate for biopsychological perseveration. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 20(1), 35-49.
Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory:
This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation (. W. ogers, 1975, 1983). According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior (called response or outcome efficacy), and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. (Wiegman & Gutteling, 1995, p. 235)
In a practical sense what this theory says about the perceived threat is that as incidences of observation occur in the lives of individuals, be they real or imagined they will likely become more protective and therefore attempt to engage in avoidance of behaviors that have been identified with the production of environmental threat. By doing so this the individual, and…
Agnew, R. (1985). A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency. Social Forces, 64(1), 151-167.
Lesko, Wayne a (2006). Readings in Social Psychology (6th ed).
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Lyddon, W.J., & Sherry, a. (2001). Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 405.
, 2010). Furthermore, I felt a feeling of helplessness, as if the fact that CNN was responding to the verdict with sympathy for two young men who not only raped a young girl, but filmed and publicized aspects of that assault, meant that society would never improve. I realized that my feelings of helplessness were directly related to the level of frustration I experienced, and the amount of anger I experienced. That helped me understand why I would feel such an extreme response to a verdict in a case in which I did not know the victim or the perpetrators.
I also found that I responded with anger to aggression that I could not understand. On Facebook this week, I read a story that I had not previously read about a dog name Buck, which was shot in the face, tied up in a trash bag, and left for dead.…
Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H.R. (2010). Social psychology. Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…
references, and favorites)
Child and Family Assets
(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)
Functional and Meaningful Interactions
(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern. Marital conflict is generally defined as any difference of opinion between martial or domestic partners whether it is minor or major. Marital conflict can assume many different forms including displays of both negative and positive emotions and/or constructive and destructive tactics. Marital aggression is characterized by physical and/or psychological abuse and would fall at the negative extreme on a continuum of marital conflict (Cummings, 1998). Marital psychological/verbal aggression refers to things such as threats, insults, and…
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E. & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-
analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 23(8), 1023-1053.
Carlson, B.E. (1984). Children's observations of interparental violence. In A.R. Roberts (ed.),
Battered women and their families (pp. 147 -- 167). New York: Springer.
Cares for Nurses" by Cecil Deans (2004)
hen people become healthcare practitioners today, perhaps one of the furthest things from their minds is the increasingly violent nature of their potential workplaces. In his article, "ho Cares for Nurses" (2004), though, Cecil Deans makes the point that North American healthcare settings are very violent places to work and many institutions are not providing their practitioners with sufficient protections, and some are simply looking the other way -- all at the expense of the mental and physical well-being of their nursing staff. In their essay, "Challenges Facing Nurses' Associations and Unions: A Global Perspective" (2003), Clark and Clark note that, "Nurses, as the most highly trained caregivers with regular patient contact, are at the heart of any health care system. idespread anecdotal evidence suggests that the problems in health care have had a particularly negative effect on the workplace experience of nurses"…
Antai-Otong, Deborah. (2001). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing: A Health Promotion Model
for Workplace Violence. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 37(4):125.
Boyd, Neil. (1995). Violence in the Workplace in British Columbia: A Preliminary
Investigation. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 37(4):491-519.
Music on Teens Actions
In the past 40 years all kinds of music has turned out to be more and more overt predominantly towards the negative side like sex, drugs, aggression and violence. Lately two of the genres which have caught great attention is hard rock music and rap music. In most of the cases, the lyrics of the music are made in such a way that they induce negativity in the developing minds of the teenagers. This negativity is reflected in their actions in the form of drug abuse, aggression, violence, sex and rebellious actions towards parents, family, family and society in general. This kind of negative music is a major concern these days because it poses mental and physical threat to the teens of today. Some of the other alarming effects of such music are pregnancy, STDs, accidents, killing and this has resulted to be the normal lifestyle…
Burns, Kate. The American Teenager: Examining Pop Culture. Annotated Edition. Publisher Greenhaven Press, 2003. ISBN 0737714670, 9780737714678, pg 150-189.
Connell, J., and C. Gibson. Sound tracks: Popular music, identity and place. London: Routledge. Pg 145-147. 2003.
Hawkins, S. Settling the pop score: Pop texts & identity politics. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. Pg 121. 2002.
Martino, S.C., Collins, R.L., Elliott, M.N., Strachman, A., Kanouse, D.E., & Berry, S.H. Exposure to degrading vs. non-degrading music lyrics and sexual behavior among youth. Pediatrics, 2006, 118, 430 -- 444.
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Over 1,000 Chinese witnesses came forth to testify in the trials which lasted until February of 1947 after the Chinese government posted notices in Nanking regarding the need for credible witnesses, (Chang 1997:170). Unlike the Nuremburg Trials, however, much of the case against the Japanese fell apart thanks to faulty prosecution and a lack of true concern for justice in the region.
The events which conspired in Nanking during the Japanese occupation broke several established international laws for the protection of civilians, prisoners of war, and unarmed Chinese soldiers. According to the International Military Tribunal of the Far East, three classifications of war criminals were established based on the intent and nature of their crimes. This tribunal followed the model set in Europe by the coinciding tribunal the International Military Tribunal of Nuremburg and followed the same charter with the definition of war crimes as "violations of the laws and…
Alderman, Sidney. 1945. Address to the Tribunal: November 23, 1945.
Chang, Iris. 1997. The Rape of Nanking. Penguin Books.
Marrus, Michael R. 2006. The Nuremburg war Crimes Trial. Bedford Press.
Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. 2008. Global Justice. Stanford University Press
2. Stonewalling, or what many people, referred to as "silent treatment" occurs when the bully or group simply ignores the victim completely. This can be extremely distressing to adolescents. This often occurs with group exclusion.
3. A common form of relational bullying is the spreading of rumors and gossip about the victim. This is a direct attempt to ruin the victim's relationships and exclude them from contact with their peers and even with adults.
4. Taunting occurs when the bully insults or verbally abuses the victim directly. Taunting often continues even when the victim physically breaks down.
5. Conditional friendships occur when the bully places demands on the victim in order for the victim to be allowed in the group were with peers.
The effects of relational bullying are often more psychologically damaging than the effects of more physical forms of bullying. In addition, relational and physical bullying are often…
Beck, a.T., Brown, G., & Steer, R.A. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory II manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Brown, B. (2004). Adolescent's relationships with peers. In Lerner, R. & Steinberg, L. (eds.),
Handbook of adolescent psychology. New York: Wiley.
Burrows, L. (2011). Don't try to bully gershon ben keren. Jewish Advocate, 202, 2.
Honestly, the readings on praise and punishment would not greatly affect the way I raised my child. I grew being disciplined by corporal punishment by parents who were also disciplined by corporal punishment when they were raised. I actually believe that there are a number of virtues associated with corporal punishment including humility, self-esteem, and an understated form of perseverance that is fundamental to a well-rounded individual. More than likely, if I ever were to have children I would incorporate corporal punishment into the ways that I disciplined them. I would utilize this form of discipline especially for younger children, and would more than likely subside this approach as the children became teenagers and morphed into adults. I actually believe that the virtues extracted from corporal punishment exceed the negatives associated with it, especially when it is administered with love and temperance.
The readings on praise might certainly affect the…
. (2010). Social dynamics and individual plasticity of infant care behavior in cooperatively breeding Cotton-op amarins. American Journal of Primatology, 72, 296 -- 306.
he article is relevant to determining the unit size of captive primates, so that no individual is compromised by the responsibility of infant care. he researchers employed a longitudinal research design and collected data through focal observations and scan samples of care behavior. he observers were highly trained and there was high correlation between the both methods employed. From the data collected, the researchers determined that the individual demonstration of infant care was fluid, and was modified to compensate for variation in social arrangements and conditions throughout litters. he design of this research appears to be robust and employs multiple data collection methods to generate greater validity and reliability. he analysis of the data controlled for sampling anomalies and appropriate statistical tests were conducted on the…
The author's study addresses an issue that is relevant to the care and preservation of Callitrichidae. Three families of Saguinus midas were observed for 50 weeks. The author demonstrates that there were differences in the rates of aggression. The differences were linked to sex and age, and become overt under conditions of food shortage. The research was clearly articulated and executed. The data analysis appeared to be appropriate for the data collected. However, the researcher glossed over the challenge of studying captive animals as opposed to wild. Additionally, the author inadequately explained anomalies in the data. The explanation for high intersexual aggression in the group, and that the inverse relationship between aggression received and age was unconvincing. The defense for these occurrences seems to be unrelated to any theoretical position. While these issues are insufficient to invalidate the study, it clearly requires further explication.
Zahed, S.R., Kurian, A.V., & Snowdon, C.T. (2010). Social dynamics and individual plasticity of infant care behavior in cooperatively breeding Cotton-Top Tamarins. American Journal of Primatology, 72, 296 -- 306.
The article is relevant to determining the unit size of captive primates, so that no individual is compromised by the responsibility of infant care. The researchers employed a longitudinal research design and collected data through focal observations and scan samples of care behavior. The observers were highly trained and there was high correlation between the both methods employed. From the data collected, the researchers determined that the individual demonstration of infant care was fluid, and was modified to compensate for variation in social arrangements and conditions throughout litters. The design of this research appears to be robust and employs multiple data collection methods to generate greater validity and reliability. The analysis of the data controlled for sampling anomalies and appropriate statistical tests were conducted on the data. The single challenge in the study may be its applicability to other species or different conditions. This however, does not invalidate the study.
Possible one-on-one interventions may include the following retention of pharmacology
Introduction of cognitive behavioral therapy where Brian is shown how to deal with and manage his thoughts as well as how to be responsible for his own behavior rather than attempting to control that of others. This is particularly helpful with Brian's self-imposed isolation
Eclectic Rogerain counseling where counselor practices empathy, non-judgmental tolerance towards client, active listening, and encouraging client to formulate his own solutions
Insight into the conduct and feelings of Brian's mother as well as specific suggestion for how to deal with the mother's seeming apathy to Brian. Understanding can revolve around previous marital concerns, as well as her present medical concerns
Insight into the behavior of his biological father and strategies that may be effective in dealing with his father's abusive behavior and/or keeping away form his father.
Strategies for dealing with his disease and insight into…
Means-Burleson, a.M. (2002). Aggression: Family and sibling correlates. Dissertation Abstracts International, 68(6B), 3015. (UMI
Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
People, particularly males, who are cynical and demonstrate suspicion and mistrust of others, generally are "without joy, reserved, independent, nor very friendly, impersonal, and & #8230;prefer more solitary occupations and, in general, a lower degree f social stimulation."(1)
But with that being said, there are significant problems that still remain with this study and the methodology under which it was conducted. One of the problems lies with the assessment, the NEO-PI-R, and although it is considered to be the most effective means of gathering the type of information required for a study of this kind, it requires a person to read a series of questions, and then provide answers based on a personal assessment. However, with questions such as "I often get disgusted with people I have to deal with," or "I am known as hot-blooded and quick-tempered,"(1) it is difficult to maintain an identical definition of these terms among…
1. Sans, J. Gracia-Vera, M.P. & Magan, I. Anger and hostility from the perspective of the Big Five personality model. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology.
strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…
Yugoslavia: Travel Guide, n.d. [cited 12 December 2004] Available from World Wide Web: http://sg.travel.yahoo.com/guide/europe/yugoslavia / history.html
Elshtain J.B. "The third annual grotius lecture: Just war and humanitarian intervention." American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting.( 2001) 1-12
Please replace this with the proper citationr, e.g. (W.U. 1987 4)
Need reference for W.U.
The teachers acknowledge that the other disruptive behaviors propagates the destruction of the school property therefore computer-based management results in the upstaging of the security of the school properties. This eminent vandalism is prominent in the cases where the students would like to have money selling the school properties.
The teachers separately attribute the poor morals of the students to inexperience and the ignorance of the students. Involving of computer-based programs in the student behavior management clears the doubt in the effectiveness of the management of the issues entailed. The perspective to the approach assists in the enhancement of the Developmental period of the basis of the Phase learner. They view the approach to increase the contact between the teacher and the student in the countering of the trends emergent in the process. They attribute the computer approach to the advancement in the mastery of the life skills for the…
Dziegielewski, S.F. (2010). DSM-IV-TR in action. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
O'Donnell, a.M., Reeve, J., & Smith, J.K. (2011). Educational psychology: Reflection for action. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Spiegler, M.D., & Guevremont, D.C. (2010). Contemporary behavior therapy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Leaman, L. (2009). Managing very challenging behaviour. New York: Continuum
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (2012). Social Psychology. NY: Pearson.
Hewitt, J.P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University
Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.
Ancient ome openly accepted male-to-female transsexuals, allowing them to assume female identities without negative social repercussions, obviously long before the science existed for them to have gender-reassignment surgery (eitz, 1998). Modern Indian society has Hijiras, transsexuals that, while not always treated with respect, are accorded their own gender identity and not relegated to male or female (eitz, 1998). The Dine/Navajos recognized three sexes: male, female, and Nadles. The Nadles could be intersexed people or transsexual people of either gender (eitz, 1998). The Sioux referred to transsexuals as Winkte, and allowed them to completely assume their preferred gender. "Physical females lived as male warriors, and had wives, while physical males lived their lives completely as women. In Sioux society no special magic was associated with this, it was just considered a way of correcting a mistake of nature" (eitz, 1998). What these examples make clear is that, in a different society,…
NNDB. (2010). David Reimer. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from NNDB
Peirce, K. (1999). Boys Don't Cry. Fox Searchlight Films.
Reitz, J.D. (1998). What is transsexuality? Retrieved February 23, 2010 from Transsexuality.org Website: http://www.transsexual.org/What.html
As Dr. Johnson's testing and surveys have concluded, and provided statistical data in support of his conjectures; aggressive driving will lead to assault depending upon how the driver who triggers the road rager's emotional response responds to that aggressive behavior.
The DOT does acknowledge the need to address aggressive driving, and has strong recommendations concerning the penalties for the offense. The DOT makes recommendations in six areas with statutory strategies (Statutory Strategies, online):
Strengthen existing statutes to include stricter penalties. epeat offenders should receive enhanced punishment, including increased points, loss of license, higher fines, and jail sentences or probation.
2. Establish comprehensive education programs that address aggressive driving and include them as part of legislative changes. At a minimum, include aggressive driving education in public and private driver education programs. States should also consider anger management education as a supplement to other sanctions when making legislative changes.
Larson, J. And Rodriguez, C., 1999, Road Rage to Road Wise, Tom Doherty Associates,
New York, NY.
ROARR, 2009, found online at http://roarrinc.bizopiaweb.com/Default.aspx?tabid=231442, retrieved 10 December 2009.
U.S. Department of Transportation (2009), National Aggressive Driving Action Guide: A
Grey with a way to accommodate the needs of their Ids and their Superegos. Their Superegos imposed the societal constraints on sexual relationships, which would drive both Lee and Mr. Grey to enter into monogamous sexual relationships. Their Ids drove Lee and Mr. Grey to seek immediate gratification of their aggressive urges through sexual behavior. By entering into a relationship with each other that allows them to fulfill both needs, Lee and Mr. Grey allow their Egos to reconcile the needs of their Ids and Superegos.
Furthermore, the Secretary addresses the issue of sexuality, and highlights the intimate relationship between sexuality and aggression. The unusual thing about the Secretary is that it demonstrates that a relationship that might be viewed as deviant was actually helpful to both members of the relationship. Prior to becoming involved with one another, Lee and Mr. Grey are both in pretty bad shape. Lee was…
The penalties for being out of compliance when OSHA comes knocking should be enough to motivate any healthcare facility to devise a plan to make sure that they are in compliance with OSHA's regulations. The startling thing is that it took an initiative like NEP to wake these facilities up and get them thinking about being compliant. Since they deal with people and their well being on an everyday basis, these are things that they should have been doing all along and not just because there is an increased probability of getting into trouble by OSHA.
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? etreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). etrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). etrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6EM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and esidential
Care Facilities. (2012). etrieved from http://www.hancocklaw.com/p/OSHA_Newsletter_212_May_H1768037.PDF
Prepare Your Facility…
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? Retreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6REM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and Residential
Athens and Sparta -- as ar Inevitable?
Between 500 and 350 BC the area now known as Greece was but a collection of separate and unallied city-states. Today, we often view cultures and political conflict in terms of nations, and take the view that since city-states were geographically close, culture was the same. This, however, was untrue, particularly in the case of the two most powerful and well-known city states of Athens and Sparta.
That is not to say that these two entities were completely divergent. Both had some cultural similarities in context with their history, and they cooperated -- if distantly, in the years leading up to the Battle of Thermopylae and subsequent defeat of the Persian invaders at Salamis and Plataea, ending Persian aggression for a time.
However, understanding Ancient Cultures is often difficult. e have limited resources from which to build a portrait of the culture, and…
Cartledge, P. Sparta and Lakonia: A Regional History. New York: Oxford/Routledge, 2002. Print.
Hall, J. Hellenicity: Betweeh Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
Kagan, D. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin, 2000. Print.
Kovacs, C. Ancient Greece. Edinburgh, Scottland: Floris Books, 2004. Print.
ithin the realm of social contract theory, citizens within a given state consent, either tacitly or explicitly, to surrender various rights and freedoms to the authority of the state. In return, the state guarantees protection of citizen's rights and freedoms. The state also guarantees citizen's protection from external aggression and preservation of national security in return for citizens' sacrifice of certain rights. Citing national security protocol, safeguarding civilian life and forestall another terrorist strike in the wake of 9 / 11, Jean Bethke Elshtain wrote that the fight against terrorism waged by the Bush regime against the Middle Eastern perpetrators and their allies qualifies as just war. hile the claim that waging retaliatory war deterred recurrence is a reasonable one, the manner in which the U.S. went about it defied the Jus in bello principle of just war. The inhumane treatment of suspected terrorist in the Guantanamo Bay and the…
Benson, Richard. The Just War Theory: A Traditional Catholic Moral View, New York: The Tidings 2006.
Butler, Paul. By Any Means Necessary: Using Violence and Subversion to Change Unjust Law 50. UCLA L. Rev. 2003 p. 721
Cortright, David. Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke Just War against Terror: The Burden of American Power in a Violent World New York: Basic Books, 2004
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
Disintegrating elationships Between Organizational Leaders and Employees
Organizational leadership behavior towards employees can significantly affect their perception of the workplace, and contribute to the organization high performance and most essentially create and maintain a proper organizational culture that lead to the success of the organization . The good health of the organization depends greatly on the relationship between leaders and employees. However, the relationship that exists between organizational leaders and employees are failing at a high rate in today's workplaces and the reasons for this are not clear. Leaders in organizations have a tendency to use employees in the time of the organizational needs and them to simply ignore the employee's commitment and their potential. Committed employees should be rewarded with committed organizational leadership. Critical in organizational leadership interaction with employees is communication. Communication keeps employees informed and results in a feeling of connectedness and inclusiveness in the organizational operations,…
Abrrow, H.A., Ardakani, M.S., Harooni, A. & Pour, H.M. (2013, July). The Relationship Between Organizational Trust and Organizational Justice Components and Their Role in Job Involvement in Education. International Journal of Management Academy, 1(1), 25-41.
Albrecht, S.L. (2010). Handbook of employee engagement: perspectives, issues, research and practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Broner, S. (2009). Employees' perceptions of leaders' attitudes and employee retention: a quantitative study on perceived attitudes. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.
Creswell, J.W.(2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches .(2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Upon first seeing Dubai, Saunders marvels at the humor of the place. He finds most things about the place ironic, especially as Saunders contemplates the process of "Theming" that consumes much of Dubai's development. Like a theme park, Dubai creates an artificial atmosphere. Dubai is a city in a bubble. It is also full of the contradictions that make Dubai titillating, including the sharp differential created between ancient and modern. This differential between ancient and modern is, ironically, manifest in the Theming of the city as the ancient nomadic customs and aesthetics are turned into as much a caricature of themselves as Dubai's malls are caricatures of Western-style consumerism.
Dubai is "capitalism on steroids" because like an athlete on steroids, it is strong, powerful, and resilient with the help of artificial performance enhancers. This is why Saunders refers to the "Misconception from Afar." The reality of Dubai and the…
Saunders, George. "The New Mecca." GQ. Retrieved online: http://www.gq.com/news-politics/big-issues/200511/george-saunders-on-dubai?currentPage=1
The objective is always to quell escalating hostilities, while still forcing the child to show respect to others.
To further persuade the reader, Omer provides a case example of a child who has benefitted from the 'sit in' technique: an isolated, verbally and physically abusive twelve-year-old who lashed out at his parents, young sister, and schoolmates, and who also showed tendencies of OCD. Omer notes that the sit-in was not immediately used: as always, there was a period of counseling to help the parents work through the issues that had arisen in their relationship, due to the stress of raising the boy, and other outside factors. This was done because it is critical for the success of the sit-in that the parents present a united front and an emotionally healthy front to the difficult child.
The first intervention focused on ensuring the boy behaved respectfully to his sister, and ended…
Omer, Haim. (2001). Helping parents deal with children's acute disciplinary problems without escalation: The principle of nonviolent resistance. Family Process, 40(1), 53-66.
Retrieved October 8, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library. (Document ID: 70437234).
Mookie's frustrated acts show that violence is sometimes justified as a means of "self-defense," in Malcolm X's words. Bigger did not have access to the words of wisdom of either Malcolm X or Martin Luther King Jr. More importantly, Bigger did not have access to a community of like-minded African-Americans who could sympathize with if not totally condone the use of violence to preserve cultural integrity and pride.
Mookie and Bigger are remarkably similar, proving that little has actually changed for African-Americans in terms of gaining social and political power even after the Civil Rights movement. Richard Wright's novel Native Son illustrates the extent of racial discrimination during the early half of the twentieth century; Spike Lee's movie "Do the Right Thing" reveals the extent of racial discrimination during the latter half of the century. The protagonists in Native Son and "Do the Right Thing" live in different times and…