Aggression Essays (Examples)

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How to Prevent Bullying

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93675541

Aggression

Students in elementary schools exhibit high levels of aggression toward their fellow students, and bullying is becoming increasingly problematic to manage. It is critical that teachers understand the nature of bullying and how to manage the problem. This presentation uses empirical evidence to show how students, families, and teachers can identify, prevent, and respond to bullying.

esearch reveals a difference between occasional aggressive behaviors and bullying. For example, Merrell & Isava (2008) define bullying as "repeated acts of aggression, intimidation, or coercion against a victim who is weaker," and a key feature of bullying is "intent to harm," (p. 26). Built into the definition of bullying is a power differential between the aggressor and the victim. Parents and teachers who recognize this feature of bullying may be able to identify the behavior in its early stages, and take necessary action. Teachers therefore need to understand how to prevent aggressive…… [Read More]

References

Kallestad, J.H. & Olweus, D. (2003). Predicting teachers' and schools' implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: A Multilevel Study. Prevention and Treatment 6(21).

Merrell, K.W. & Isava, D.M. (2008). How effective are school bullying intervention programs? School Psychology Quarterly 23(1): 26-42.

Ross, S., Horner, R. & Stiller, B. (n.d.). Bully prevention in positive behavior support. Education and Community Supports.
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Are Humans Innately Aggressive or Do We Learn to Be Aggressive

Words: 1081 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91737881

Humans Innately Aggressive?

Aggression is "an action…intended to harm someone in a verbal sense (sarcasm, insults, threats or playing out "nasty motives" -- and it can be a physical act, pushing, hitting, shooting at another person or otherwise aiming to do harm to someone (McCawley, 2001, p. 1). According to a definition from Shippenburg University aggression is any form of human behavior "…directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such harm." Still another definition of aggression (Buss) is found in an essay by Bushman and Anderson: Aggression is "…a response that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism" (Bushman, et al., 1998). But the question that has been asked through the years is -- are people aggressive innately or do people learn to be aggressive? This paper delves into the issue, presents both sides (through the literature), and offers a conclusion.

The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hess, Nicole H., and Hagen, Edward H. (2005). Sex differences in indirect aggression/

Psychological evidence from young adults. Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 27,

231-245.

McCawley, Sarah. (2001). The Nature of Aggression (or is it Nurture?). Bryn Mawr College.
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Psychology Domestic Violence and the

Words: 352 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27581605

This can be directly linked to the frustration-aggression theory. Writer Smith continues, "In this theory, frustration and aggression are linked in a cause and effect relationship. Frustration is the cause of aggression and aggression is the result of frustration" (Smith, 1999). The aggressive behavior may be passed down from parent to child. Studies also indicate that aggressive parenting often produces aggressive children who continue the behavior.

There is a need for reducing domestic violence. Using these theories, one way to reduce the behavior is to reduce the frustration of poverty and lack of education. This is a social condition that can change, and should change. By helping people change their circumstances, they can experience less frustration and more satisfaction. educing outside violent influences, such as games and parental behavior is important too, as is education violent partners how to manage their violent tendencies.

eferences

Smith, A.K. (1999) Theories of aggression.…… [Read More]

References

Smith, A.K. (1999) Theories of aggression. Retrieved from the Bryn Mawr College Web site: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro99/web3/Smith.html3 Aug. 2006.
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Social Psychology Bringing it All Together

Words: 2439 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41289536

Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.

Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.

Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.

Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
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Nature Nurture and Mental Illness the

Words: 1720 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60650767

Providing more effective and less painful treatments would indeed be a very large step in the right direction. The study results indicated by the above authors provide significant hope in this direction.

eferences

Jaffee, S.. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. etrieved from: http://www.biostat.sdu.dk/courses/f11/TwinAnalysis/papers/Gene%20Environment%20interaction/jaffee2007.pdf

Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses egarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. etrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819309/

oth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. etrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779706/

utter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. etrieved from: http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Documents/utter_2010_D%26A.pdf

Wermter, A-K., Lauch, M., Schimmelmann, B.G., Banaschweski, T., and Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2010). From nature vs. nurture, via nature…… [Read More]

References

Jaffee, S.R. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. Retrieved from: http://www.biostat.sdu.dk/courses/f11/TwinAnalysis/papers/Gene%20Environment%20interaction/jaffee2007.pdf

Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses Regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819309/ 

Roth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779706/ 

Rutter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. Retrieved from: http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Documents/Rutter_2010_D%26A.pdf
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Social Psychology Analysis of Film

Words: 2909 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8968720

A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.

The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berkowitz, Leonard. Causes and Consequences of Feelings. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Geen, Russell G. Human Aggression. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001.

Heath, Robert L., and Jennings Bryant. Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
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Social Psychology - Prejudice Prejudice

Words: 2192 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15631281

Early trauma that causes anger often corresponds to higher levels of aggression later in life, especially where the traumas are suppressed and internalized instead of being expressed at the time of their origin and at the source.

Furthermore, since many dysfunctional families forbid the expression of anger by children (particularly anger toward parents), individuals who experience significant levels of early trauma that produces repressed anger are often considerably more aggressive throughout life subsequently than individuals who were fortunate not to experience as much early trauma (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Aggression is a known factor in criminal conduct as well as other forms of non-criminal negative social behavior such as those associated with overt prejudice and other types of social intolerance toward others (Macionis 2003).

Aggression and Prejudice:

One of the primary ways that aggression-prone individuals express their repressed rage is in their treatment of other less powerful individuals (Gerrig &…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, a. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.

Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)

Psychology and Life 18th Ed.

Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Freud's Five Concepts of Instincts and Drives

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25242022

Freud Concepts of Instincts, Drives

Desires, instincts, and drives are central to Freud's psychoanalytical theory. Although Sigmund Freud altered his theories throughout the course of his career, the core concepts of instincts and drives remain relatively constant. Freud first expressed the basic human instincts as being hunger and sex. Later, his theories matured, and Freud deeply analyzed the nature of human sexual drives. In his writings, Freud focused much on the conflicts that generally arise between the individual's innate instincts and the rules and mores of the society. All human beings continually struggle through various stages of their psycho-social development to restrain and express their desires, drives, and instincts. Freud framed these conflicts between desire and civilization into two major groupings: the conflict between sexual drives and civilization; and the conflict between self-serving happiness and civilization.

Freud's views on human sexuality are notorious and controversial. His Oedipus complex and other…… [Read More]

References

Stier, Marc. "Civilization/Eros." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/eros.htm>.

Stier, Marc. "Civilization/Happiness." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/happiness.htm>.

Stier, Marc. "Instincts/Drives." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/drive.htm>.

Stier, Marc. "Nature of Happiness." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/happy.htm>.
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Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance

Words: 2234 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36804280

Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory:

This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation (. W. ogers, 1975, 1983). According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior (called response or outcome efficacy), and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. (Wiegman & Gutteling, 1995, p. 235)

In a practical sense what this theory says about the perceived threat is that as incidences of observation occur in the lives of individuals, be they real or imagined they will likely become more protective and therefore attempt to engage in avoidance of behaviors that have been identified with the production of environmental threat. By doing so this the individual, and…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (1985). A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency. Social Forces, 64(1), 151-167.

Lesko, Wayne a (2006). Readings in Social Psychology (6th ed).

New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Lyddon, W.J., & Sherry, a. (2001). Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 405.
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Ferguson C & Beaver K

Words: 2248 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9489032



8. Is there a rationale for why the study is an important one to do?

There is not really a rationale for why the study is an important one to do. On the one hand, the authors explain why it is important to investigate the causes of aggression. However, on the other hand, they fail to explain why they focus on two seemingly distinct studies to support their conclusions.

9. Are the research hypotheses clearly stated?

Yes. The hypotheses are clearly stated.

10. Are the hypotheses testable?

Yes.

14. Are the independent and dependent variables clearly defined?

Yes. However, there are multiple independent and dependent variables because they focus on two underlying studies.

15. Is it clear how the study was conducted?

Yes.

17. Was the sample selected in such a way that you think it is representative of the population?

No; it focused on female athletes and female-to-male transsexuals.…… [Read More]

References

Ferguson, C., & Beaver, K. (2009). Natural born killers: The genetic origins of extreme violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 286-294.

Miles, D. & Carey, G. (1997). Genetic and environmental architecture of human aggression.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(1), 207-217.

Mitchell, J. (2005). Biological determinants of mens rea: When choice fails to compensate for biopsychological perseveration. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 20(1), 35-49.
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Anger and Frustration Keeping a

Words: 1487 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61159456

, 2010). Furthermore, I felt a feeling of helplessness, as if the fact that CNN was responding to the verdict with sympathy for two young men who not only raped a young girl, but filmed and publicized aspects of that assault, meant that society would never improve. I realized that my feelings of helplessness were directly related to the level of frustration I experienced, and the amount of anger I experienced. That helped me understand why I would feel such an extreme response to a verdict in a case in which I did not know the victim or the perpetrators.

I also found that I responded with anger to aggression that I could not understand. On Facebook this week, I read a story that I had not previously read about a dog name Buck, which was shot in the face, tied up in a trash bag, and left for dead.…… [Read More]

References

Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H.R. (2010). Social psychology. Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
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Video Game Violence During the

Words: 4289 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76476903

, 2000). Specifically, the fact that video games portray extremely violent actions without a human cost can lessen a person's natural response (including empathy) in addition to promoting reckless conduct in real life.

It is not necessarily that teenagers consciously believe they can "do" what they see in the games the way children sometimes come to believe that they can fly. But they may absorb unconscious images that inhibit their ability to anticipate real-life consequences of certain choices and behaviors (ilson, Smith, Potter, et al., 2002). According to the Joint Statement on the Impact of Entertainment Violence on Children presented to the Congressional Public Health Summit July 26, 2000 by several very prominent pediatricians and child psychologists:

"At this time, well over 1000 studies - including reports from the Surgeon

General's office, the National Institute of Mental Health, and numerous studies conducted by leading figures within our medical and public…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) "Media Violence" Pediatrics 108.5: 1222(5)

(2001).

Buchanan, Alice M., Gentile, Douglas A., Nelson, Daniel A., Walsh, David A., Hensel,

James, A. "What Goes In Must Come Out: Children's Media Violence
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Activities to Reduce Inappropriate Behaviors Displayed by

Words: 10021 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93835103

Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities

The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…… [Read More]

references, and favorites)

Child and Family Assets

(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)

Functional and Meaningful Interactions

(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
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Dynamics of Domestic Violence and the Resulting Effects on Children

Words: 3275 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35285789

Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern. Marital conflict is generally defined as any difference of opinion between martial or domestic partners whether it is minor or major. Marital conflict can assume many different forms including displays of both negative and positive emotions and/or constructive and destructive tactics. Marital aggression is characterized by physical and/or psychological abuse and would fall at the negative extreme on a continuum of marital conflict (Cummings, 1998). Marital psychological/verbal aggression refers to things such as threats, insults, and…… [Read More]

References

Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E. & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-

analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 23(8), 1023-1053.

Carlson, B.E. (1984). Children's observations of interparental violence. In A.R. Roberts (ed.),

Battered women and their families (pp. 147 -- 167). New York: Springer.
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Social Psychology Prosocial Behavior as the Name

Words: 1099 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61879420

Social Psychology

Prosocial behavior, as the name suggests, is behavior that is ultimately beneficial to others. Any act that is carried out with an end to helping someone else instead of oneself is prosocial behavior. If the behavior involves no gain to the individual, and in fact, may involve a personal cost, this behavior is considered altruistic. There is some debate over whether true altruism exists, or if even seemingly unselfish behavior is really motivated by a desire to impress, or feel good about oneself.

The motivations for an individual's behavior are complex and varied. After the murder of Kitty Genovese in New York in the 1960s, researchers became very interested in the effect of bystanders on the willingness of a person to offer aid. Genovese's murder was witnessed by 38 individuals and not one even phoned the police.

Research carried out by Latane and Darley in 1970 elucidated the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R., & Fehr, B. (2002). Social Psychology. Upper Saddle

River: Prentice-Hall.

Brennan, R. (2002). A Multidisciplinary approach to the effects of violence in motion pictures.

Retrieved, May 6, 2004 from Web site: http://cct.georgetown.edu/thesis/RichBrennan.pdf
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Cares for Nurses by Cecil Deans 2004

Words: 1879 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63222922

Cares for Nurses" by Cecil Deans (2004)

hen people become healthcare practitioners today, perhaps one of the furthest things from their minds is the increasingly violent nature of their potential workplaces. In his article, "ho Cares for Nurses" (2004), though, Cecil Deans makes the point that North American healthcare settings are very violent places to work and many institutions are not providing their practitioners with sufficient protections, and some are simply looking the other way -- all at the expense of the mental and physical well-being of their nursing staff. In their essay, "Challenges Facing Nurses' Associations and Unions: A Global Perspective" (2003), Clark and Clark note that, "Nurses, as the most highly trained caregivers with regular patient contact, are at the heart of any health care system. idespread anecdotal evidence suggests that the problems in health care have had a particularly negative effect on the workplace experience of nurses"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Antai-Otong, Deborah. (2001). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing: A Health Promotion Model

for Workplace Violence. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 37(4):125.

Boyd, Neil. (1995). Violence in the Workplace in British Columbia: A Preliminary

Investigation. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 37(4):491-519.
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Music on Teens Actions in the Past

Words: 2022 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58030228

Music on Teens Actions

In the past 40 years all kinds of music has turned out to be more and more overt predominantly towards the negative side like sex, drugs, aggression and violence. Lately two of the genres which have caught great attention is hard rock music and rap music. In most of the cases, the lyrics of the music are made in such a way that they induce negativity in the developing minds of the teenagers. This negativity is reflected in their actions in the form of drug abuse, aggression, violence, sex and rebellious actions towards parents, family, family and society in general. This kind of negative music is a major concern these days because it poses mental and physical threat to the teens of today. Some of the other alarming effects of such music are pregnancy, STDs, accidents, killing and this has resulted to be the normal lifestyle…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burns, Kate. The American Teenager: Examining Pop Culture. Annotated Edition. Publisher Greenhaven Press, 2003. ISBN 0737714670, 9780737714678, pg 150-189.

Connell, J., and C. Gibson. Sound tracks: Popular music, identity and place. London: Routledge. Pg 145-147. 2003.

Hawkins, S. Settling the pop score: Pop texts & identity politics. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. Pg 121. 2002.

Martino, S.C., Collins, R.L., Elliott, M.N., Strachman, A., Kanouse, D.E., & Berry, S.H. Exposure to degrading vs. non-degrading music lyrics and sexual behavior among youth. Pediatrics, 2006, 118, 430 -- 444.
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Social Psychology Social Beliefs and

Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79190155

I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.

Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…… [Read More]

References:

David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Chinese Atrocities in 1939 and

Words: 5252 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26706849

Over 1,000 Chinese witnesses came forth to testify in the trials which lasted until February of 1947 after the Chinese government posted notices in Nanking regarding the need for credible witnesses, (Chang 1997:170). Unlike the Nuremburg Trials, however, much of the case against the Japanese fell apart thanks to faulty prosecution and a lack of true concern for justice in the region.

The events which conspired in Nanking during the Japanese occupation broke several established international laws for the protection of civilians, prisoners of war, and unarmed Chinese soldiers. According to the International Military Tribunal of the Far East, three classifications of war criminals were established based on the intent and nature of their crimes. This tribunal followed the model set in Europe by the coinciding tribunal the International Military Tribunal of Nuremburg and followed the same charter with the definition of war crimes as "violations of the laws and…… [Read More]

References

Alderman, Sidney. 1945. Address to the Tribunal: November 23, 1945.

Chang, Iris. 1997. The Rape of Nanking. Penguin Books.

Marrus, Michael R. 2006. The Nuremburg war Crimes Trial. Bedford Press.

Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. 2008. Global Justice. Stanford University Press
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Relational Bullying Contextual Information the

Words: 4428 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27208689



2. Stonewalling, or what many people, referred to as "silent treatment" occurs when the bully or group simply ignores the victim completely. This can be extremely distressing to adolescents. This often occurs with group exclusion.

3. A common form of relational bullying is the spreading of rumors and gossip about the victim. This is a direct attempt to ruin the victim's relationships and exclude them from contact with their peers and even with adults.

4. Taunting occurs when the bully insults or verbally abuses the victim directly. Taunting often continues even when the victim physically breaks down.

5. Conditional friendships occur when the bully places demands on the victim in order for the victim to be allowed in the group were with peers.

The effects of relational bullying are often more psychologically damaging than the effects of more physical forms of bullying. In addition, relational and physical bullying are often…… [Read More]

References

Beck, a.T., Brown, G., & Steer, R.A. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory II manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Brown, B. (2004). Adolescent's relationships with peers. In Lerner, R. & Steinberg, L. (eds.),

Handbook of adolescent psychology. New York: Wiley.

Burrows, L. (2011). Don't try to bully gershon ben keren. Jewish Advocate, 202, 2.
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Honestly the Readings on Praise and Punishment

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39054789

Honestly, the readings on praise and punishment would not greatly affect the way I raised my child. I grew being disciplined by corporal punishment by parents who were also disciplined by corporal punishment when they were raised. I actually believe that there are a number of virtues associated with corporal punishment including humility, self-esteem, and an understated form of perseverance that is fundamental to a well-rounded individual. More than likely, if I ever were to have children I would incorporate corporal punishment into the ways that I disciplined them. I would utilize this form of discipline especially for younger children, and would more than likely subside this approach as the children became teenagers and morphed into adults. I actually believe that the virtues extracted from corporal punishment exceed the negatives associated with it, especially when it is administered with love and temperance.

The readings on praise might certainly affect the…… [Read More]

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Moura A C De A 2003

Words: 341 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9399051

. (2010). Social dynamics and individual plasticity of infant care behavior in cooperatively breeding Cotton-op amarins. American Journal of Primatology, 72, 296 -- 306.

he article is relevant to determining the unit size of captive primates, so that no individual is compromised by the responsibility of infant care. he researchers employed a longitudinal research design and collected data through focal observations and scan samples of care behavior. he observers were highly trained and there was high correlation between the both methods employed. From the data collected, the researchers determined that the individual demonstration of infant care was fluid, and was modified to compensate for variation in social arrangements and conditions throughout litters. he design of this research appears to be robust and employs multiple data collection methods to generate greater validity and reliability. he analysis of the data controlled for sampling anomalies and appropriate statistical tests were conducted on the…… [Read More]

The author's study addresses an issue that is relevant to the care and preservation of Callitrichidae. Three families of Saguinus midas were observed for 50 weeks. The author demonstrates that there were differences in the rates of aggression. The differences were linked to sex and age, and become overt under conditions of food shortage. The research was clearly articulated and executed. The data analysis appeared to be appropriate for the data collected. However, the researcher glossed over the challenge of studying captive animals as opposed to wild. Additionally, the author inadequately explained anomalies in the data. The explanation for high intersexual aggression in the group, and that the inverse relationship between aggression received and age was unconvincing. The defense for these occurrences seems to be unrelated to any theoretical position. While these issues are insufficient to invalidate the study, it clearly requires further explication.

Zahed, S.R., Kurian, A.V., & Snowdon, C.T. (2010). Social dynamics and individual plasticity of infant care behavior in cooperatively breeding Cotton-Top Tamarins. American Journal of Primatology, 72, 296 -- 306.

The article is relevant to determining the unit size of captive primates, so that no individual is compromised by the responsibility of infant care. The researchers employed a longitudinal research design and collected data through focal observations and scan samples of care behavior. The observers were highly trained and there was high correlation between the both methods employed. From the data collected, the researchers determined that the individual demonstration of infant care was fluid, and was modified to compensate for variation in social arrangements and conditions throughout litters. The design of this research appears to be robust and employs multiple data collection methods to generate greater validity and reliability. The analysis of the data controlled for sampling anomalies and appropriate statistical tests were conducted on the data. The single challenge in the study may be its applicability to other species or different conditions. This however, does not invalidate the study.
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Brian Cane Has Various Challenges

Words: 1346 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45013322



Possible one-on-one interventions may include the following retention of pharmacology

Introduction of cognitive behavioral therapy where Brian is shown how to deal with and manage his thoughts as well as how to be responsible for his own behavior rather than attempting to control that of others. This is particularly helpful with Brian's self-imposed isolation

Eclectic Rogerain counseling where counselor practices empathy, non-judgmental tolerance towards client, active listening, and encouraging client to formulate his own solutions

Insight into the conduct and feelings of Brian's mother as well as specific suggestion for how to deal with the mother's seeming apathy to Brian. Understanding can revolve around previous marital concerns, as well as her present medical concerns

Insight into the behavior of his biological father and strategies that may be effective in dealing with his father's abusive behavior and/or keeping away form his father.

Strategies for dealing with his disease and insight into…… [Read More]

Means-Burleson, a.M. (2002). Aggression: Family and sibling correlates. Dissertation Abstracts International, 68(6B), 3015. (UMI

No. 3058213)

Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Anger Hostility Big Five Anger

Words: 1288 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69840791

People, particularly males, who are cynical and demonstrate suspicion and mistrust of others, generally are "without joy, reserved, independent, nor very friendly, impersonal, and & #8230;prefer more solitary occupations and, in general, a lower degree f social stimulation."(1)

But with that being said, there are significant problems that still remain with this study and the methodology under which it was conducted. One of the problems lies with the assessment, the NEO-PI-R, and although it is considered to be the most effective means of gathering the type of information required for a study of this kind, it requires a person to read a series of questions, and then provide answers based on a personal assessment. However, with questions such as "I often get disgusted with people I have to deal with," or "I am known as hot-blooded and quick-tempered,"(1) it is difficult to maintain an identical definition of these terms among…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. Sans, J. Gracia-Vera, M.P. & Magan, I. Anger and hostility from the perspective of the Big Five personality model. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology.
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Kosovo War

Words: 2552 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27675563

strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…… [Read More]

References

Yugoslavia: Travel Guide, n.d. [cited 12 December 2004] Available from World Wide Web: http://sg.travel.yahoo.com/guide/europe/yugoslavia / history.html

Elshtain J.B. "The third annual grotius lecture: Just war and humanitarian intervention." American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting.( 2001) 1-12

Please replace this with the proper citationr, e.g. (W.U. 1987 4)

Need reference for W.U.
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Technology on Disruptive Behavior What

Words: 5645 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88322181

The teachers acknowledge that the other disruptive behaviors propagates the destruction of the school property therefore computer-based management results in the upstaging of the security of the school properties. This eminent vandalism is prominent in the cases where the students would like to have money selling the school properties.

The teachers separately attribute the poor morals of the students to inexperience and the ignorance of the students. Involving of computer-based programs in the student behavior management clears the doubt in the effectiveness of the management of the issues entailed. The perspective to the approach assists in the enhancement of the Developmental period of the basis of the Phase learner. They view the approach to increase the contact between the teacher and the student in the countering of the trends emergent in the process. They attribute the computer approach to the advancement in the mastery of the life skills for the…… [Read More]

References

Dziegielewski, S.F. (2010). DSM-IV-TR in action. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

O'Donnell, a.M., Reeve, J., & Smith, J.K. (2011). Educational psychology: Reflection for action. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Spiegler, M.D., & Guevremont, D.C. (2010). Contemporary behavior therapy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Leaman, L. (2009). Managing very challenging behaviour. New York: Continuum
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Self and Social Psychology Social Psychology Is

Words: 2462 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40851888

Self and Social Psychology

Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.

Discovering the Self

Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas

Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…… [Read More]

Reference List

Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (2012). Social Psychology. NY: Pearson.

Hewitt, J.P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University

Press.

Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.
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Social Psychology of Boys Don't

Words: 1803 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94074224

Ancient ome openly accepted male-to-female transsexuals, allowing them to assume female identities without negative social repercussions, obviously long before the science existed for them to have gender-reassignment surgery (eitz, 1998). Modern Indian society has Hijiras, transsexuals that, while not always treated with respect, are accorded their own gender identity and not relegated to male or female (eitz, 1998). The Dine/Navajos recognized three sexes: male, female, and Nadles. The Nadles could be intersexed people or transsexual people of either gender (eitz, 1998). The Sioux referred to transsexuals as Winkte, and allowed them to completely assume their preferred gender. "Physical females lived as male warriors, and had wives, while physical males lived their lives completely as women. In Sioux society no special magic was associated with this, it was just considered a way of correcting a mistake of nature" (eitz, 1998). What these examples make clear is that, in a different society,…… [Read More]

References

NNDB. (2010). David Reimer. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from NNDB

Website:  http://www.nndb.com/people/746/000047605/ 

Peirce, K. (1999). Boys Don't Cry. Fox Searchlight Films.

Reitz, J.D. (1998). What is transsexuality? Retrieved February 23, 2010 from Transsexuality.org Website:  http://www.transsexual.org/What.html
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Road Rage Are Teens Getting

Words: 2472 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98589409

As Dr. Johnson's testing and surveys have concluded, and provided statistical data in support of his conjectures; aggressive driving will lead to assault depending upon how the driver who triggers the road rager's emotional response responds to that aggressive behavior.

The DOT does acknowledge the need to address aggressive driving, and has strong recommendations concerning the penalties for the offense. The DOT makes recommendations in six areas with statutory strategies (Statutory Strategies, online):

1.

Strengthen existing statutes to include stricter penalties. epeat offenders should receive enhanced punishment, including increased points, loss of license, higher fines, and jail sentences or probation.

2. Establish comprehensive education programs that address aggressive driving and include them as part of legislative changes. At a minimum, include aggressive driving education in public and private driver education programs. States should also consider anger management education as a supplement to other sanctions when making legislative changes.

3. Develop…… [Read More]

Reference List

Larson, J. And Rodriguez, C., 1999, Road Rage to Road Wise, Tom Doherty Associates,

New York, NY.

ROARR, 2009, found online at  http://roarrinc.bizopiaweb.com/Default.aspx?tabid=231442 , retrieved 10 December 2009.

U.S. Department of Transportation (2009), National Aggressive Driving Action Guide: A
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Film Psychoanalysis of the Film

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21091058

Grey with a way to accommodate the needs of their Ids and their Superegos. Their Superegos imposed the societal constraints on sexual relationships, which would drive both Lee and Mr. Grey to enter into monogamous sexual relationships. Their Ids drove Lee and Mr. Grey to seek immediate gratification of their aggressive urges through sexual behavior. By entering into a relationship with each other that allows them to fulfill both needs, Lee and Mr. Grey allow their Egos to reconcile the needs of their Ids and Superegos.

Furthermore, the Secretary addresses the issue of sexuality, and highlights the intimate relationship between sexuality and aggression. The unusual thing about the Secretary is that it demonstrates that a relationship that might be viewed as deviant was actually helpful to both members of the relationship. Prior to becoming involved with one another, Lee and Mr. Grey are both in pretty bad shape. Lee was…… [Read More]

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Healthcare Occupational Safety and Health

Words: 1605 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44142264



The penalties for being out of compliance when OSHA comes knocking should be enough to motivate any healthcare facility to devise a plan to make sure that they are in compliance with OSHA's regulations. The startling thing is that it took an initiative like NEP to wake these facilities up and get them thinking about being compliant. Since they deal with people and their well being on an everyday basis, these are things that they should have been doing all along and not just because there is an increased probability of getting into trouble by OSHA.

eferences

Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? etreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx

Healthcare workers. (2012). etrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/

New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). etrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6EM

Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and esidential

Care Facilities. (2012). etrieved from http://www.hancocklaw.com/p/OSHA_Newsletter_212_May_H1768037.PDF

Prepare Your Facility…… [Read More]

References

Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? Retreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx

Healthcare workers. (2012). Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/ 

New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6REM

Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and Residential
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Athens and Sparta -- Was War Inevitable

Words: 2460 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9753311

Athens and Sparta -- as ar Inevitable?

Between 500 and 350 BC the area now known as Greece was but a collection of separate and unallied city-states. Today, we often view cultures and political conflict in terms of nations, and take the view that since city-states were geographically close, culture was the same. This, however, was untrue, particularly in the case of the two most powerful and well-known city states of Athens and Sparta.

That is not to say that these two entities were completely divergent. Both had some cultural similarities in context with their history, and they cooperated -- if distantly, in the years leading up to the Battle of Thermopylae and subsequent defeat of the Persian invaders at Salamis and Plataea, ending Persian aggression for a time.

However, understanding Ancient Cultures is often difficult. e have limited resources from which to build a portrait of the culture, and…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Cartledge, P. Sparta and Lakonia: A Regional History. New York: Oxford/Routledge, 2002. Print.

Hall, J. Hellenicity: Betweeh Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.

Kagan, D. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin, 2000. Print.

Kovacs, C. Ancient Greece. Edinburgh, Scottland: Floris Books, 2004. Print.
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Pacifism Since Time Immemorial Nations

Words: 1928 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12771182



ithin the realm of social contract theory, citizens within a given state consent, either tacitly or explicitly, to surrender various rights and freedoms to the authority of the state. In return, the state guarantees protection of citizen's rights and freedoms. The state also guarantees citizen's protection from external aggression and preservation of national security in return for citizens' sacrifice of certain rights. Citing national security protocol, safeguarding civilian life and forestall another terrorist strike in the wake of 9 / 11, Jean Bethke Elshtain wrote that the fight against terrorism waged by the Bush regime against the Middle Eastern perpetrators and their allies qualifies as just war. hile the claim that waging retaliatory war deterred recurrence is a reasonable one, the manner in which the U.S. went about it defied the Jus in bello principle of just war. The inhumane treatment of suspected terrorist in the Guantanamo Bay and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Benson, Richard. The Just War Theory: A Traditional Catholic Moral View, New York: The Tidings 2006.

Butler, Paul. By Any Means Necessary: Using Violence and Subversion to Change Unjust Law 50. UCLA L. Rev. 2003 p. 721

Cortright, David. Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke Just War against Terror: The Burden of American Power in a Violent World New York: Basic Books, 2004
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Mental Health Nearly 40 of

Words: 2015 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30551883

New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.

Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…… [Read More]

References

Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)

Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.

Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.

Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
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Disintegrating Relationships Between Organizational Leaders and Employees

Words: 3181 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83778048

Disintegrating elationships Between Organizational Leaders and Employees

Organizational leadership behavior towards employees can significantly affect their perception of the workplace, and contribute to the organization high performance and most essentially create and maintain a proper organizational culture that lead to the success of the organization . The good health of the organization depends greatly on the relationship between leaders and employees. However, the relationship that exists between organizational leaders and employees are failing at a high rate in today's workplaces and the reasons for this are not clear. Leaders in organizations have a tendency to use employees in the time of the organizational needs and them to simply ignore the employee's commitment and their potential. Committed employees should be rewarded with committed organizational leadership. Critical in organizational leadership interaction with employees is communication. Communication keeps employees informed and results in a feeling of connectedness and inclusiveness in the organizational operations,…… [Read More]

References:

Abrrow, H.A., Ardakani, M.S., Harooni, A. & Pour, H.M. (2013, July). The Relationship Between Organizational Trust and Organizational Justice Components and Their Role in Job Involvement in Education. International Journal of Management Academy, 1(1), 25-41.

Albrecht, S.L. (2010). Handbook of employee engagement: perspectives, issues, research and practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Broner, S. (2009). Employees' perceptions of leaders' attitudes and employee retention: a quantitative study on perceived attitudes. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.

Creswell, J.W.(2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches .(2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.