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" (Congressional udget Office Testimony, 2001) Complicating the problem is the fact that Social Security is not only a retirement program but in fact approximately 2/3 of Social Security beneficiaries are retired workers" with the remaining being disabled workers, survivors of deceased workers, and workers' spouses and minor children." (Congressional udget Office Testimony, 2001)
III. REMEDIES TO HELP ALLEVIATE IMPLICATIONS
There are various strategies that could be pursued by policymakers to assist in preparing for the aging population coming of retirement age and these are stated by the Congressional udget Office to include options such as: (1) paying down federal debt; (2) creating private retirement accounts; and (3) changing the benefits or revenues of the Social Security program. (Congressional udget Office Testimony, 2001) However, it is clear that each of these remedies contain both advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, in light of recent government spending the option of paying down the…
Testimony of Dan L. Crippen, Director: Social Security Challenges of an Aging Population (2001) Congressional Budget Office before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate. 10 Dec 2001. Online available at: http://www.cbo.gov/doc.cfm?index=3214&type=0
Bongaarts, John (2005) "Population aging and the rising cost of public pensions," Population and Development Review 30(1): 1 -- 23.
This means that society as a whole needs to consider both aspects of the problem. It would be wrong to simply consider problems associated with an aging population in the context of a young population that experiences little to no change. The number of young people is smaller today than it has been in the past and the government needs to invest fewer finances in providing for this community. This is not going to solve the overall problem, but it is nonetheless an important concept when discussing with regard to how an aging population is going to affect the world as a whole and young people in particular. "Reductions in expenditures for the youngest and middle age groups will not result from robbing resources from the young to care for the old. Instead, these reductions reflect the fact that these age groups represent a smaller portion of the population than…
Morgan, L.A. & Kinkel, S.R. (2006). Aging, Society, and the Life Course. Springer Publishing Company
Siedle, E.T. "The Greatest Retirement Crisis In American History," Retrieved May 11, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/edwardsiedle/2013/03/20/the-greatest-retirement-crisis-in-american-history/
Tran, M. "UN report calls for action to fulfil potential of ageing global population," Retrieved May 11, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2012/oct/01/un-report-action-need-ageing-population
Uhlenberg, P. (2009). International Handbook of Population Aging. Springer "Coping with an ageing population in the UK," retrieved May 11, 2014, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/population/managing_population_rev6.shtml
ongaarts (2004) reports that since 1950 the median age in North America, Europe Japan and the rest of the developed world has increased from 29 years to 37 years. In addition by 2050 the median age is expected to increase to 45 years old. However in the developing world, including North America and Africa, the median age is 24 years. Although the median age is lower in the developing world these nations are also experiencing declines in both mortality and fertility rates will increase the median age to 36 by 2050. These facts concerning median age in societies around the world are important to understand because they dictate the public policy decisions.
How does the presence of an aging population affect public pension programs?
How do current immigration laws dictate how replacement immigration might be impacted by immigration laws?
Problem addressed by proposed study
The aging of the population…
Bongaarts, John. Population Aging and the Rising Cost of Public Pensions
Chand, Sheetal and Albert Jaeger. 1996. "Aging populations and public pension schemes," IMF
Occasional Paper Number 147. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
They wanted to have single rooms and would prefer not to share the bathrooms basically for hygienic reasons. They would also prefer having enough space for their personal items and personalizing their own space. Most of them felt that the facilities were secure and safe. Findings of this research revealed that older people, despite poorer physical health, did better than younger adults psychologically about their well-being. The participants seemed to adjust satisfactorily to their changed environment and circumstances (Edwards).
As to the economic and financial aspects of aged care, further studies showed that the bundling of services would be the best, except for older people with dementia, specifically the ambulant and aggressive ones (Hogan 2005). Findings hinted at separating services for other aged care provisions. These findings confirmed that costs incurred by institutions varied widely, with smaller-scale operations with 30 beds or less as incurring the highest costs. Other studies…
Burns, Ailsa and Leonard, Rosemary. Chapters of Our Lives. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Plenum Publishing Corporation, March 2005
Cheek, Julienne. Improving Care Transitions of Older People. Quality in Ageing: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd., December 2006
Edwards, Helen. Involving Older People in Research to Examine Quality of Life in Residential Aged Care. Quality in Ageing: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton). Ltd., December 1, 2003
Hogan, Warren P. Economic and Financial Aspects of Aged Care. Economic Papers: Economic Society of Australia, 2005
In society today, social norms and values mean that we must care for those who can no longer care for themselves, whether as a result of old age or as a result of some other condition or disability. This means that health care systems need to be set up in such a way that people can receive the care they need while also maintaining as much as possible of their dignity and autonomy. This has been one of the most important evolving viewpoints in eldercare. Concomitantly with an increasingly healthy and active older generation, however, new views have emerged, including remaining in the home environment for as long as possible before being committed into care. This ideal has been influenced not only because of the new dynamic, where older people are generally healthier for longer, but also by economic and technological factors.
Increasingly, assisted living has come to mean the…
Aging and the family-work link: A comparative analysis of two generations of Mexican women (1936-1938 and 1951-1953)" by Blanco and Pacheco can best be described as serviceable. The first sentence is not particularly 'catchy' and is somewhat awkward. "The implications of aging of the population in Mexico are complicated and in some respects, serious" (Blanco & Pacheco 2009: 143). However, the introduction does go on to explain specifically why dealing with Mexico's aging population is such a serious concern. The developing nation's pension system is in a crisis and covers only 30% of the nation's senior citizens; other forms of government support are inadequate and under-funded. The primary burden of eldercare falls upon women: women are considered to be the primary domestic caretakers of children and husbands; women must work to support their families working outside the home and now they increasingly have this additional burden of attending to the…
Blanco, M. & Pacheco, E. (2009). Aging and the family-work link: A comparative analysis of two generations of Mexican women (1936-1938 and 1951-1953). Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 40 (2): 143-166.
Elderly in Monrovia, CA
The population of people aged 65 years or greater is steadily escalating, as baby boomers come of age. It is estimated that this age bracket accounts for 10% of the total world population, and is statistically increasing. As this sector of the population steadily increases, there are of course, accompanying health care issues: osteoarthritis, cardiac and kidney issues, Alzheimer's or dementia, and an ever-growing problem with depression. For this essay, we will concentrate on several health issues that plague seniors nationally, but will specifically focus on the aging population over 65 in Monrovia, California.
Monrovia is a smallish city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County. Monrovia was settled in the late 1800s as a central hub for the growing orange grove industry, but has now become more of a bedroom community that supports the urban…
Breathe California of Los Angeles County. (2009). Cited in:
California Department of Public Health. (June 2009). "Healthy California -- 2010
Midcourse Review." Executive Summary. Cited in:
Book Report: The Population of the UK
Daniel Dorling’s The Population of the UK is based upon the premise that the ways in which maps are conceptualized has a dramatic effect on how citizens perceive their nation. The book depicts different ways to look at maps of the United Kingdom, including in terms of its racial and geographic diversity. “The disadvantage of using a conventional map is that those areas that are home to most people are obscured in comparison to sparsely populated areas that appear to be most prominent” (Dorling, 2012, p.3). This can give greater significance to remote and rural areas and less significance to densely populated and diverse areas which more accurately reflect the real United Kingdom.
While physical topography has generally-accepted notations on most maps, there is no general consensus about how to depict a nation’s social landscape (Dorling, 2012). Population depiction on maps, Dorling makes…
The workforce in America is rapidly aging. This rapidly aging workforce creates challengers for organizations that must manage an aging workforce. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the challenges of managing an aging workforce within any given organization. This topic is of particular interest because many older baby boomers are retiring while other are choosing to work well passed the retirement age and managers must devise ways to manage such a workforce.
Employers must understand the challenges that may arise, as an aging workforce becomes part of the fabric of the organization. If employers do not attempt to understand and implement solutions for managing an aging workforce their organizations will suffer greatly. Let us begin our discussion be explaining why the aging workforce is such an issue in the current workforce.
Description of the organization and problem
The organization that we will focus on during the…
Dohm, A. (2000). Gauging the Labor Force Effects of Retiring Baby-Boomers. Monthly Labor Review, 123(7), 17. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001200975
Doverspike, D., Taylor, M.A., Shultz, K.S., & Mckay, P.F. (2000). Responding to the Challenge of a Changing Workforce: Recruiting Nontraditional Demographic Groups. Public Personnel Management, 29(4), 445.
Health and Safety Issues in an Aging Workforce, 2001. AARP Public Policy Institute Retrieved June 24, 2004, at http://research.aarp.org/econ/ib49_health.pdf
At some point, the burden on those still working to support those who have retired will become untenable. Solutions will have to be found, and those solutions will involve deciding who gets what, when, and how. This fiscal problem will require a forced distribution of wealth, something likely to upset most affected by it. Retirees will be outraged if they get less from Social Security than the generation before them did. Those still working won't be willing to contribute more to Social Security only to get less when they retire. The cost of health care has been spiraling upward for some years, and new and economical solutions will have to be found to meet the medical needs of the elderly.
Solutions may require raising the retirement age, encouraging the elderly to continue working, providing less in retirement benefits, or raising taxes. These fundamental political changes will be necessary and may…
The result will be empirical based on relative individual factors. If both senior and junior workers have to be retrained every year, the senior worker may be the better investment after all. One depressing outcome of this competitive push to reduce retirement-benefit cost by offering short-term, part-time and outsourced employment rather than the traditional career, is an implied peak after which workers become less employable the more expertise they have, such that the slide to senility is marked by lower and lower status jobs, because they earn too much at what they're trained for. Competitive incentive to reduce payroll by getting rid of the highest earners complicates and is driven by the demographic anomoly of the Baby Boomers outnumbering GenX. Electricians and biologists would call this a feedback loop.
The difference may result in a new construct based on why or for whom one works. If work is something we…
The gradual decrease in income, eventual dependency on other people and the government for financial resource, lack of activities to do, and the onset of physical and/or physical limitations as a result of aging are known causes of frustration, stress, and even depression among elderly people who have retired (Blekesaune and Solem, 2005, p. 80). In the case of Mrs. a, she has not experienced these negative feelings or emotions as she had been flexibly and intermittently engaging herself in house-, family- and community-related pursuits. However, she did admit that her husband's death had been a pivotal point in her life, when she felt that she, too, must be with her husband because, as far as she is concerned, she has already accomplished what she was supposed to do as a "wife, mother, and woman."
Interestingly, with Mrs. a, work and retirement is not the conventional kind of retirement one…
Bassuk, S. (2002). "Socioeconomic status and mortality among the elderly: findings from four U.S. communities." American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 155, No. 6.
Blekesaune, M. And P. Solem. (2005). "Working conditions and early retirement: a prospective study of retirement behavior." Research on Aging, Vol. 22.
Kilminski, a. (2007). "Cumulative index of health disorders as an indicator of the aging-associated processes in elderly." Mech. Ageing Development, Vol. 128, No. 3.
Maciejewski, P. (2007). "An empirical examination of the stage theory of grief." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 297, No. 7.
Leaning does not only imply facts, but continual and fluid evolution of the brain. This is the identical process that the brain takes when improving itself and reducing aging. If the brain continues to receive stimuli and appropriate chemicals for energy, then it follows tat there will be increased brain function and activity. If the voltage, just as in a battery, becomes stronger, then activity increases. As the brain is continually stimulated, more building materials are produced that allow information to become part of our experience. Interestingly, the variety and frequency of certain exercise programs, in fact, "teach" the body at different rates. Using different intensities of movement, concerns of overeating, weight regulation, quality of life, and especially depression are mitigated (Douglas, 2009).
Finally, the healthcare and other market modifiers will need to change and evolve as the population ages. The global baby bust will change financial markets, investing, products,…
Aging Statistics. (2010, June 30). Retrieved from Administrator on Aging - U.S. Health & Human Services: http://www.aoa.gov /aoaroot/aging_statistics/index.aspx
Does Population Aging Affect Financial Markets? (2012). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from: http://www.nber.org/bah/winter05/w10851.html
Dynamics of Population Aging in the Modern World. (2002, January). Retrieved from Longevity-Science.org: http://longevity-science.org/Population_Aging.htm
Family Caregivers: The Issues They Face Are Everyone's Concern. (2010). Capella University,
Efforts to Achieve Healthy Aging
Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKSA.
Abstract: Longevity is a blessing as long as good health is not lost. However, the tendency to have a decline on normal physiological activities is inevitable because of the natural processes of degeneration at all levels: molecular, cellular and organic. Hence, the elderly people frequently suffer from cardiovascular problems and skeletal deteriorations that gradually develop to disabilities. Awareness of factors leading to unhealthy aging has led to the formation of different professional groups that aim at the maintenance of health of aging community. The approach tends to be target orientated for the European and US groups, aiming at hormonal replacements and detoxification. In contrast, the oriental groups have been keeping their traditional belief of prevention and internal balance, using nutritional arrangements and non-strenuous exercise as means of maintaining health.
Keywords: chinese medicine,…
Abreu, M.T., Fukata, M. and Arditi, M. 2005. T.L.R. Signalling in the gut
in Health and Disease. J. Immunol., 174(8):4453 - 60.
Benno, Y., Shiragami, N., Uchida, K. et al. 1986. Effect of Moxalactum on Human Fecal Microflora. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.,
29(1):175 - 8.
Buckwalter, J.A., Heckman, J.D. and Petrie, D.P. 2003. Aging of the North American Population: New challenges for orthopaedics. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 85-A(4):748 - 58.
Census and Statistics Department, The Government of Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region. 2007. Style Guide [online]. Accessed 23 June
2008. URL: http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hongkongstatistics/
Older Americans Act (OAA) was first passed in 1965, alongside Medicare and Medicaid. Whereas Medicare and Medicaid offered extended insurance benefits through the federal government, the OAA established "the foundation for a system of services and supports that enables millions of older adults in this country to continue to live independently as they age," ("The Older Americans Act: Aging Well Since 1965," (The Older Americans Act: Aging Well Since 1965," n.d.). Along with its federal provisions, the OAA freed up grant money for the states to develop " community planning and social services, research and development projects, and training personnel in the field of aging," (The Older Americans Act: Aging Well Since 1965," n.d.). Basically, the OAA created an actual infrastructure to support America's aging population.
The OAA is currently comprised of seven titles:
• Title I: Declaration of Objectives
• Title II: Administration on Aging (Aoa)
• Title III:…
Physiological Changes Associated With Aging
Aging is the complex and inevitable process of tissue and organ system degeneration. Though largely influenced by genetics, aging is also dependent upon a number of environmental factors including exercise, diet, childhood personality, and exposure to ionizing radiation, pollutants, or microorganisms. The physiological changes that occur as an individual's age advances can be grouped into three, with the first category encompassing changes in such homeostatic mechanisms as extracellular fluid volumes, blood, and temperature; the second encompassing changes related to decreasing organ mass; and the third, changes in the body's functional reserve systems. Promoting the health of an aging population is crucial not only because it ensures the well-being of ageing individuals, but also because it significantly reduces the burden imposed upon a country's medical system. It is with this in mind that this text collates knowledge and research to examine, in a deeper sense, the…
Bherer, L., Erickson, K.I. & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A Review of the Effects of Physical Activity and Exercise on Cognitive and Brain Functions in Older Adults. Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014 from [HIDDEN]
Glassock, R.J. (2009). The GFR Decline with Aging: A Sign of Normal Senescence, Not Disease. Nephrology Times, 2(9), 6-8.
Heckman, G., Gray, L.C. & Hirdes, J. (2013). Addressing Healthcare Needs for Frail Seniors in Canada: the Role of InterRAI Instruments. Canadian Geriatrics Society Journal of CME, 3(3), 8-16.
Saber, A. (2013). Perioperative Care of Elderly Surgical Patients. American Medical Journal, 4(1), 63-77.
Working With the Aging
Ladies and gentlemen, I stand here before you at a time in which the health care of older Americans has become a critical issue. Or should I say issues? We have more people needing more and more specialized care -- this is critical. We have fewer and fewer people being asked to do more and more -- that is critical. Current healthcare policy, especially for the aging, seems inadequate to address the challenges of what lies ahead. The situation seems very bleak at times. All signs seem to show that it will get bleaker. Well, I am here to tell you that I am the weatherman. I have weathered this storm with you. And I can tell you that the forecast looks good, if we can just keep our eyes on what is important and understand what tools we have to get through this, and overcome…
Lubben, James E. And Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn. 2003. " An international approach to community health care for older adults." Family and Community Health. October-December. available from Proquest Database.
In this article, Lubben and Damron-Rodriguez propose a model for community-based primary healthcare that could be more responsive to the needs of the growing elderly population around the globe. Lubben and Damron-Rodriguez base their study by analyzing the results and ramifications of the community healthcare approach developed by the World Health Organization Kobe Centre for Health Development (WKC). Based on the results of the WKC approach, the authors make recommendations regarding changes needed to allow community healthcare organizations to better serve the needs of older adults.
The authors observe that one important aspect of the WKC approach is the promotion of healthy ageing. By delaying disability through educating individuals regarding the importance of nutrition and family support, the WKC thus advocates a community-based…
If anything, such a person may have regrets over having wasted too much of life on impersonal achievements and selfish pursuits.
6. Do you agree that in later life men become more nurturing and women more assertive? What do you think are the findings that could support or challenge that observation?
The observation that men tend to become more nurturing, less competitive, less aggressive, and "gentler" in later life and that women tend to become less emotional and more confident or assertive would seem to be substantially true. That is largely attributable to hormonal changes; specifically, aging males tend to produce much less testosterone and post-menopausal females secrete less estrogen in their later years (Pinker, 2002). Naturally, those hormonal changes would be expected to result in various behavioral changes in areas where human behavior (and gender-specific behavior in particular) are products of the secondary sex hormones (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008;…
Bearon LB. "Successful Aging: What does the 'good life' look like?" Concepts in Gerontology Vol. 1, No. 3, (Summer 1996).
Birren JE. And Schaie KW. (2006). Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. Burlington,
MA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Psychology of Aging
Compare and contrast current research on alternative stage theories of adulthood and personality development.
Child developmentalists traditionally categorized adult personality development into stage theories (Kagan, 2001). Sigmund Freud advocated the psychosexual stage, which held that personality is shaped early in life and generally resists change. Carl Jung proposed the opposite, in that personality develops in adulthood. Other theories surfaced in the 30s an the 40s in Europe and the U.S., such as Charlotte Buhler's, which called for empirical evaluations of theoretical predictions and Erik Erikson's similarly psychoanalytic stage theory, which asserts that a person develops through stages of human needs. Eventually, these early stage theories failed empirical tests. Critics of stage theories argued that personality does not evolve systematically in adulthood. Then came the Trait Theory in the 80s, which suggested that personality only changes slightly when a person reaches age 30 (Kagan, 2001).
The Trait Theory…
ASHA (2015). Issues in ethics: cultural and linguistic competence. American Speech Language
Hearing Association. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/Practice/ethics/Cultural-and-Linguistics-Competence
Charles, S. and Cartensen, L. L. (2010). Social and emotional aging. Annual Review of Psychology.61, 383-409. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3950961
Crowell, C. R. (n.d.).Moral psychology and information ethics. University of Notre Dame.
Population Implosion in Europe
Roughly thirty years ago, a global think tank declared that population pressures would devastate the world by the mid-1990's, however, they did not foresee that women in the developed world would be producing fewer children (Specter 1998).
ith life expectancy rising as the fertility rate drops, most developed countries may find themselves with lopsided societies, a large number of elderly and not enough young people working to support them (Specter 1998). Thus, every program that requires public funds, such as health care, education, pensions and military spending will be affected (Specter 1998).
Due to prosperity and freedom, millions of women are staying in school longer, putting more emphasis on work and marrying later, resulting in a rapid birth rate decline in many countries (Specter 1998). In Italy, women produce on average fewer than 1.2 children, the lowest figure every recorded among humans (Specter 1998). It is…
Specter, Michael. "Population Implosion Worries a Graying Europe." New York
Times. July 10, 1998.
Eberstadt, Nicholas. "The Population Implosion.(demographic trends toward decreasing birthrates and declining life spans)(Statistical Data Included)."
Foreign Policy. March 01, 2001.
successful aging as viewed by Generation X versus Baby Boomers over the age of
Successful Ageing: Generation X versus Baby Boomers
Numerous studies have focused on understanding and defining the constituents of successful aging. The term "successful aging" is popular in the gerontological literature to cover processes in aging. The processes of aging are positive, and at times, the term has shown relations to "vital aging" or "active aging" implying that later life is characterized by sustained health and vitality. According to Moody (2005), "successful aging" suggests main ideas including life satisfaction, longevity, freedom from disability, mastery, and growth, active management with life and independence.
According to Dubey et al. (2011), as people grow older, they have incidences of illnesses. However, an older population has numerous needs as compared to a younger population. Life satisfaction continues to be an important aspect in the study of aging. This is because it…
AARP. (2007). Leading a multi-generational workforce. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/www.aarp.org_/cs/misc/leading_a_multigenerational_workforce.pdf
Berkman, L., Unger, J.B., McAvay, G., Bruce, M.L., Seeman, L., (1999). Variation in the impact of social network characteristics on the physical functioning in elderly persons.
The Journals of Gerontology, 54(B), 245-251
Bovbierg, V.E., McCann, B.S., Brief, D.J., Follette, W.E., Retzlaff, B.M., Dowdy, A.A.,
Lectures, on the other hand, provide information for helping people in Contemplation move into Preparation and Action." (Lach et al., p. 91)
Partners for execution of this intervention should include local health organizations such as area clinics, hospitals and long-term care facilities as well as the local chapter of the AARP. Their support will provide the project with direct channels of communication for outreach and ongoing involvement in collective and individual health behavior changes.
Resources will be gathered through public fundraising efforts and through the charitable donation of meeting facilities and health professional expertise.
Adams, J. & hite, M. (2003). Are activity promotion interventions based on the transtheoretical model effective? A critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 106 -- 114. Retrieved from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1724627/pdf/v037p00106.pdf
Burbank, P.M.; Reibe, D.; Padula, C.A. & Nigg, C. (2002). Exercise and Older Adults: Changing Behavior with the Transtheoretical Model. Orthopedic…
Adams, J. & White, M. (2003). Are activity promotion interventions based on the transtheoretical model effective? A critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 106 -- 114. Retrieved from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1724627/pdf/v037p00106.pdf
Burbank, P.M.; Reibe, D.; Padula, C.A. & Nigg, C. (2002). Exercise and Older Adults: Changing Behavior with the Transtheoretical Model. Orthopedic Nursing, 4, 51-61.
Lach, H.W.; Everard, K.M.; Highstein, G. & Brownson, C.A. (2004). Application of the Transtheoretical Model to Heath Education for Older Adults. Health Promotion Practice, 5(1), 88-93.
Marquez, D.X.; Bustamante, E.E.; Blissmer, B.J. & Prohaska, T.R. (2008). Health Promotion for Successful Aging. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3(1), 12-19.
S. Census ureau statistics, which disproportionately omit U.S. Latino-residents and, as a result, understate the population bases on which congressional representation and decisions on program funding are made. This kind of resistance has repeatedly resulted in an incomplete policy agenda and the formation of the appropriate and responsive management of demographic change. The fast-aging character of the American population places the burden of caring for the elderly on minorities and immigrants. Current and projected demographic patterns indicate that the economic success of the nation depends more and more on the fate of the growing Chicano population. Their education and welfare can, therefore, not be ignored by policymakers (aker).
Confronting and realistically addressing the significance of the education and welfare of the growing -and mostly young - Chicano population in America is a primacy concern in policymaking for the 21st century (aker). The focus and direction of policies must be the…
1. Baker, Susan Gonzales. Demographic Trends in the Chicana/o Population: Policy Implications for the Twenty-First Century.
2. Shrestha, Laura B. Changing Demographic Profile of the United States. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, May 5, 2006. http://www.fas.org/sgf/crs/misc/RL32701.pdf
Biological Aspects of Aging
I can honestly say that I have been extremely affected by this course in terms of general knowledge related to the death, dying and grieving process. Prior to taking this class, I was largely ignorant of the various processes that all people (who live long enough) go through relating to their interminable procession towards the grave. One of the most salient aspects about this particular course was the ramifications of improvements in science, technology, and medical care that has allowed for an increasingly aging population. With many baby boomers now headed towards their latter stages of life, the relevance of this class, its textbook, and additional course materials has never been greater. In certain ways, I feel as though I am much more cognitively prepared for what is to come in the future. Yet one of the benefits of this class is that it has also…
Ferrini, R.L., Ferrini, A.F. (2008). Health in the Later Years. New York: McGraw-Hill.
No author. (2001). "Types of euthanasia." PregnantPause.org. Retrieved from http://www.pregnantpause.org/euth/types.htm
Diabetes Among Middle Age Males:
One of the major public health issues among middle age males is diabetes since they are twice as likely to suffer from the disease as compared to their female counterparts. Generally, the rate of diabetes has increased in the recent past to an extent that 8% of the American population have the disease, especially children and adults. The main reason for the increase of the rate of diabetes is that the risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age. The other risk factors include an inactive lifestyle, being obese or overweight, a history of the disease in immediate family, and a diet with high sugar and low fiber. As the rate of diabetes has increased among children and adults, much increase has occurred among the male population, especially middle age males. Therefore, it is increasingly important to examine the major health risks incurred by the…
American Diabetes Association. (2002, January). Screening for Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25(1),
S21-S24. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/25/suppl_1/s21.full.pdf
"America's Middle Boomers." (2013). Demographic Profile. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/Profiles/mmi-middle-boomer-demographic-profile.pdf
David et al. (1994, May). Health Behaviors and Survival Among Middle-Aged Men and Women
HIV in the Older Population
It has come to the attention of the medical community that enough is not being done to help the older population of HIV-infected individuals. This population makes up 1/4th of the total population of persons infected with HIV (CDC, 2016). In order to protect this population and to help to mitigate the risk of spreading HIV, there are a number of steps recommended to Congress that Congress can implement as part of a national policy to address the issue facing the older HIV population.
These steps are the following:
Establish more HIV clinics in inner city neighborhoods
Address housing, medical care, educational and financial assistance issues related to older populations needs
Set up a special fund that can be used to provide financial assistance for older HIV-infected adults
Support the medical community with direct grants and subsidies that go to providing free counseling…
AIDS. (2015). Newly diagnosed: Older Adults. Aids.gov. Retrieved from https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed-with-hiv-aids/overview/aging-population/
CDC. (2016). HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over. CDC.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/group/age/olderamericans/index.html
Population Reference Bureau. (2009). HIV / AIDS and Older Adults in the United States.
PBR, 18: 1-6. Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/pdf09/TodaysResearchAging18.pdf
The service provider should then be able to assess the specific needs of the elderly person and give advice about the best option for living facilities.
Becoming older and more frail often also means being the victim of not only increasing financial constraints, but also of various types of abuse. Elderly abuse is a concern that has increasingly come to the attention of authorities as an unfortunate by-product of an increasingly aging society. Abuse might be perpetrated by family members or professionals and could be the result of financial or emotional strain, work stress, or more severe conditions such as mental illness. The aging service provider has some particular duties and responsibilities when it comes to elder abuse.
One of these duties is reporting suspected cases of elder abuse. The Elder Abuse and Neglect Act (Illinois Department on Aging, 2012), for example, provides for the ability of any person to…
Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Minority Aging. Retrieved from: http://www.aoa.gov /AoARoot/Aging_Statistics/minority_aging/Index.aspx
Illinois Aging Services (2008). Retrieved from: http://illinoisagingservices.org/
Illinois Department on Aging (2012). Elder Abuse Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.state.il.us/aging/1abuselegal/abuselegal-main.htm
Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks. (7th Ed.). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
It often means interventions opening the doors of our lives to strangers, healthcare providers, whose job it is to assist the elderly in achieving and maintaining the highest quality of life possible until the individual crosses from this existence into the mystery of the next one.
Some of the physical conditions that are associated with aging are Alzheimers disease, which while associated with aging can manifest onset well before what many people might view as 'elderly." It is perhaps because it afflicts people at earlier ages that Alzheimers is one of the physical problems associated with aging that receives a lot of attention, and, therefore, more funding than some others areas of health problems associated with aging. Alzheimers is often diagnosed as dementia, an irreversible or reversible condition depending on the specific cause. It is, however, difficult to diagnose and treat because it has numerous potential causes, all of which…
Aging Gracefully: Lifespan vs. Healthspan. (2006, February). USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 134, 1+. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015929981 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104804428
Ebersole, P., & Hess, P. (1998). Toward Healthy Aging: Human Needs and Nursing Response. St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104804433 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111738587
Mezey, M., Fulmer, T., & Abraham, I. (Eds.). (2006). Geriatric Nursing: Protocols for Best Practice. New York: Springer. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111738587 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27715236
Nussbaum, J.F. & Coupland, J. (Eds.). (1995). Handbook of Communication and Aging Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27715236 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104631054
Typically a Japanese funeral follows the sequence: when someone dies, they are placed to rest in their homes. The corpse was placed with the head pointing the North, copying the deathbed of Gautama, and the head of the bed is well decorated. Then the previously mentioned encoffinment process. The first night after one's death is called the Tsuya; and it is for close family and friends to remember their beloved. In the morning, a cleansing meal is served called Okiyome. The funeral is thereafter carried out where the Jukai rite also known as receipt of commandments gives the dead an opportunity to receive the Buddhist commandments, automatically making the dead a disciple of the Buddha, and the dead person is accepted into Buddha hood.
After all this, the deceased embarks on the journey to the other world as the coffin is carried out of the house and burnt in a…
Kimura, R (1996).Death and dying in Japan. "Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal," Vol. 6, No.
4,The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 374-378.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2007).The Definition of Death
preservation of assets for the elderly who are faced with medical bills, either for themselves or for their children. The writer also discusses the preservation of assets when an elderly person has to go into a nursing home or assisted living facility. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
Through the ability of medical science America's population is living longer than ever before. As the nation's population continues to age elderly residents are encountering significant dilemmas regarding the preservation of assets when they have large medical bills to pay either for themselves or their adult children. In addition the need to move into a nursing home or an assisted living facility also endangers the assets of the elderly.
The medical community has been able to lengthen life and with that ability comes the price. Medical bills are higher now than ever before, and the medical community is able…
Family Unit Incomes of the Elderly and Children, 1994.(Statistical Data Included)
Date: 12/22/1996; Publication: Social Security Bulletin; Author: Radner, Daniel B.
A description of Medicaid eligibility. (Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement)
Date: 01/01/1992; Publication: Health Care Financing Review; Author: Gurny, Paul Baugh, David K. Davis, Feather Ann
Suicide ates Among Geriatric Persons
The causes of death among the elderly are traditionally associated with the normal aging process or what would be called natural process, diseases associated with age and the debilitations it can cause. Yet, other factors also contribute to the cause of death an individual might succumb to, widowhood, retirement, forced relocation, and/or loneliness especially around the holidays. (Huyck Hoyer 1982) Still other studies are making it clear that murder and suicide rates are increasing dramatically among the elderly. (cf., Birren, Schaie, 1977) (Nussbaum, Pecchioni, obinson & Thompson, 2000, p. 294) Suicide was the eleventh leading cause of death among persons over the age of 65 in 1982. (iley, 1983, p. 144) Some strides have been made and between the years 1983 and 1998 suicide averaged as the fourteenth leading cause of death for persons over the age of 65, lower than the average for all…
Birren, J.E., & Schaie, K.W. (Eds.). (1977). Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Coleman, P.G. (1995). 2 Facing the Challenges of Aging: Development, Coping, and Meaning in Life. In Handbook of Communication and Aging Research, Nussbaum, J.F., & Coupland, J. (Eds.) (pp. 39-68). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hudson, C.G., & Cox, A.J. (Eds.). (1991). Dimensions of State Mental Health Policy. New York: Praeger Publishers.
They are noo logner able to live; it is the etchial obligation of the hostpital staff to ensure that they die in peace. t is cruaical, tehore, we work towards and test methods for alleviating pain.
mplementation of 48-hour Pain Management System in Hospice Care
The American Pain Society (APS) issued a set of guidelines in the 1990s intended to standardize and improve pain management, thereby providing a framework for assessing care quality. n January 2001, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) began to assess pain management as part of its accreditation process, through the use of evidence-based standards ( Gordon et al., 2002). n 2002, a set of six consensus pain management standards were revealed by a meta-analysis of 20 research studies from 1992-2001 (Gordon et al., 2002). These were (1) the use of a numeric or descriptive scale to represent pain intensity, (2) frequent pain…
Implementation of 48-hour Pain Management System in Hospice Care
The American Pain Society (APS) issued a set of guidelines in the 1990s intended to standardize and improve pain management, thereby providing a framework for assessing care quality. In January 2001, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) began to assess pain management as part of its accreditation process, through the use of evidence-based standards ( Gordon et al., 2002). In 2002, a set of six consensus pain management standards were revealed by a meta-analysis of 20 research studies from 1992-2001 (Gordon et al., 2002). These were (1) the use of a numeric or descriptive scale to represent pain intensity, (2) frequent pain checks, (3) avoidance of intramuscular analgesics, (4) regular analgesic administration and preferably multimodal in nature, (5) keeping the patient informed about the pain management approach, and (6) treating with the goal of improving function and quality of life.
Such efforts to identify benchmarks or key performance measures (KPM) were intended to address many significant shortcomings related to effective pain management. A series of reports in the 1990s revealed these shortcomings and they included inadequate pain management, lack of coordinated care, and shortsightedness in terms of the long-term costs (Twaddle et al., 2007). In the past, palliative care would also be deferred until it became obvious the patient was dying. In essence,
Furthermore, as Baltes makes clear, there are some events that are generally going to impact people at various stages in their lives. For example, an East European Jew who survived World War II would probably have a historical influence that changed other age-expectations, which could impact other longevity factors. Time in a concentration camp, which would be normative for the Jewish cohort in that place and time period, would also likely impact the age of marriage, parenthood, and other culturally normative behaviors that might impact health and longevity in one's old age. While that might seem to be a dramatic example, the reality is that most generations are going to have cohorts impacted by at least one event of similar magnitude. For the practitioner working with geriatric clients, knowing the historical events that are most likely to have impacted the client and how those are likely to interact with the…
Anstey, K., Stankov, L., & Lord, S. (1993). Primary aging, secondary aging, and intelligence.
Psychology of Aging, 8(4), 562-70.
Bee, H.L., & Bjorklund, B. (2010). Journey of adulthood, 7th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Aging & Health Technologies
Theoretical perspectives on aging seem to suggest that people are either almost completely controlled by the social and normative expectations of being elderly, or that they are motivated by their own cycles of goals, outcomes and expectations. The phenomenological perspective of aging is an example of the first of these viewpoints. The life-span developmental models the second.
This piece seeks to review these two theoretical perspectives in regard to the newly emerging issue of the influence of technology on the health of aging people. It seeks to look first at the theoretical understandings. Then I provide an assessment of how different types of articles on the topic. Some tend to favor one (the phenomenological perspective) in that they often assume that older people are a unified group that basically acts with technology only in regard to serious health and care considerations. Other scientific and advocacy materials,…
Brown, C. And Lowis, M. (2003). "Psychosocial development in the elderly: An investigation into Erikson's ninth stage." Journal of Aging Studies. Vol. 17. 415-426.
Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C. And Schulz, R. (2010). "A motivational theory of life-span development." Psychological Review. Vol. 117, No. 1. 32-60. DOI: 10.1037/a0017668.
Hough, M.G. (n.d.). "Exploring elder consumers' interactions with information technology." Journal of Business & Economics Research, Vol. 2, No. 6.
Intel (2008). "Technology for an aging population: Intel's Global Research Initiative." Viewable at http://www.intel.com/Assets/PDF/general/health-318883001.pdf .
Mechanisms of Aging
Mechanism of Aging
Aging is a syndrome that occurs as a result of changes that are progressive, deleterious, universal and therefore, irreversible. This aging damage occurs to the cells, molecules that forms the cells, and to the entire organ. The aging process is most commonly associated with old age diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer's disease among others; this is because such diseases are associated with degenerative effects experienced by the cells. Scientist have over the years substituted the word "aging" with "senescence" since aging means that when time elapses so does deterioration takes place which is false especially during the early developmental stage Mackenzie, Bussiere and Tinsley ( 21)
Various researches are being conducted to establish the mechanisms of aging, and as part of these research, experiments have been carried out on various living organism so as to shade more light on…
Comfort, Alex. "Biological Aspects of Senescence." Biological Reviews 29.3 (1954): 284-329. Print.
Mackenzie, Danielle K., Luc F. Bussiere, and Matthew C. Tinsley. "Senescence of the Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila Melanogaster." Experimental Gerontology 46.11 (2011): 853-59. Print.
Nigam, Anjana. "Senescence (Ageing) @ 2011." Indian Journal of Dermatology 56.6 (2011): 615-21. Print.
Social Construction of Aging in Nursing Homes
Aging is socially constructed. Using the perspective of symbolic-interactionism, it is possible to show the precise processes whereby the social construction of aging takes place inside specific institutional contexts, like the American nursing home. The American nursing home offers insight into the culturally constrained concept of aging, for attitudes towards aging bodies and aging as a philosophical concept are informed by cultural milieu, worldview, and value construction. Biological aging is not social aging. The positive aging movement and the harmonious aging movement offer counterpoints to traditionally antagonistic and negative views of aging. Especially as the population of the United States and other industrialized nations shifts towards the older end of the age spectrum, it becomes important to reconsider the biological, psychological, and social processes and functions of aging.
The nursing home offers the opportunity to examine aging from a multidisciplinary perspective, while using…
Bengtson, V.L. & Deliema, M. (2016). Theories of aging and social gerontology. In Gerontology: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions. ABC-CLIO.
Featherstone, M. & Hepworth, M. (1995). Images of positive aging. In Images of Aging. Taylor & Francis.
Gergen, K.J. & Gergen, M.M. (2000). The new aging. Social Structures and Aging. New York: Springer. Retrieved online: http://www.swarthmore.edu/sites/default/files/assets/documents/kenneth-gergen/The_New_Aging.pdf
Katz, S. (2005). Cultural Aging. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online, Jan-Feb 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.cjsonline.ca/pdf/culturalaging.pdf
aging gracefully. There are eight references used for this paper.
Introduction number of people are obsessed with fighting the affects of aging on the skin and finding ways to age gracefully. It is important to look at methods such as antioxidants, wrinkle fighters and nutritional supplements, as well as aging and tissue/muscle loss and interventions for slowing the aging process in order to gain a better understanding of treatments available.
Free radicals are "highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in normal and pathological processes, and are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging (http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?query=free+radicals)."
One of the main defenses against free radicals is the proper use of antioxidants.
Researchers theorize that an "increase in some antioxidants - especially those applied to the skin - helps protect…
Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells. (accessed 15 July 2004). http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/004012.htm ).
Facenda, Vanessa L. Mass merchants face up to higher end skincare: improved formulations and higher quality products are attracting consumers to mass and drug for facial care needs. Retail Merchandiser. (2004): 01 January.
Free Radicals. (accessed 15 July 2004). http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?query=free+radicals).
Hilton, Lisette. Intrinsic-extrinsic aging link: antioxidants applied to skin could prevent cell damage. Dermatology Times. (2002): 01 November.
Mechanisms of Interspecies Senescence
The nature of human experience has impelled us throughout time to ponder mortality and immortality. Today, biologists are actually beginning to provide answers to what were formally purely philosophical and religious questions. hat follows is a discussion of the mechanisms underlying biological mortality and immortality, otherwise known as senescence.
In terms of biological immortality, the cnidarian Hydra stands out. Some hydra species have been shown to survive indefinitely under laboratory conditions, by relying on asexual reproduction (Bosch, 2009, p. 484). Bosch suggests that asexual budding confers an evolutionary advantage to Hydra, because it provides a mechanism for generating enough offspring to survive competition and predation pressures from other species. Rapid asexual budding, in turn, requires cells to proliferate continuously. In other words, the stem cell populations in Hydra, which give rise to the various cell types required to make a complete organism, appear to be…
Bosch, Thomas C.G. (2009). Hydra and the Evolution of Stem Cells. Bioessays, 31, 478-486.
Metcalfe, Neil B. And Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos. (2010). Oxidative stress as a life-history constraint: The role of oxygen species in shaping phenotypes from conception to death. Functional Ecology, 24, 984-996.
Rando, Thomas A. And Chang, Howard Y. (2012). Aging, rejuvenation, and epigenetic reprogramming: Resetting the aging clock. Cell, 148, 46-57.
he author's method was simply collecting older data through secondary sources like previous studies and researches. He examined the methods used in these studies and critically evaluated them and also mentioned their limitations according to his assessment.
he author has not clearly discussed the significance of his results but he has thoroughly mentioned the results from previous studies and their positive and negatives have been identified too. He shows why some results cannot be trusted and why some were optimistic but are not relevant his particular hypothesis. For example in one study he found that though the results were optimistic, they are not relevant because the researchers had focused on immediate effects on mental exercise instead of its long-term benefits. In other words, the author agrees that there is a significant difference in mental performance immediately after a mentally stimulating exercise but he doesn't agree that the benefits would last…
The article concludes that there is no significant difference in the rate of mental aging between people who engaged in stimulating exercises and those who did not. I do agree that author has done a good job of evaluating previous studies and their limitations, but I do not agree with his conclusion. The article is widely cited which shows that many experts trust the results or find the article useful in their studies but due to the lack of a scientific method for comparison, examination and evaluation of studies, it is difficult to disregard the results found by others and agree with author's conclusion. His conclusion is mostly a matter of opinion and for that reason; I do not think it can be assigned much weight. I have also observed that people who have led a very active life in pursuance of mental activities generally age much slower mentally. Their cognition level remains very high compared to in-active individuals and they tend to speak more clearly, understand others better and if other health issues are not a problem, they are generally very agile mentally and demonstrate better mental faculties.
Salthouse TA. Mental exercise and mental aging. Perspectives on Psychological Science 2007;1:68-86.
Keys to Successful Ageing
The concept of ageing has undergone considerable change in the past decade or so (Garnett, 2004, p. 3). The literature reviewed on successful ageing focused on three key components: (1) avoiding disease; (2) remaining engaged with life through meaningful work, activities, and relationships, and (3) maintaining high cognitive and physical function (Tsao Foundation (2004); Garnett; Balandin (Sep. 2004); Keys to vital ageing (2004)). As more and more people are beginning to realize, as the general population ages, ageing also has many positive factors, such as learned resilience and survival in the face of adversity, which may serve one well during the ageing process itself (Garnett, p. 3). ecommendations from the Institution on Ageing include: eating a balanced diet; exercising regularly; getting regular check-ups; not smoking; maintaining personal contacts, and maintaining a positive attitude about oneself and about life by doing what makes one feel happy, satisfied,…
Balandin, S. Searching for successful ageing. The Courier. Retrieved Dec. 18, 2004 from http:www.thecourier.co.uk/output/2004/09/02/newsstory6289222t0.asp.
Garnett, C. Keys to successful ageing. HealthPlus. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2004 from http://
Continuing engagement with life. Tsao Foundation. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2004 from http://www.tsaofoundation.org/articles/successful04.html .
But they do not enjoy any company like that of their family especially grandchildren. In fact, they love their grand children more than their own off springs, forming a very special and beautiful bond between the two. This eventually leads to the conclusion that they despise being left in old homes and may become severely depressed and gloomy.
Another thing, that old people may sure we, the younger generation, must realize is that they are extremely contending about their lives. We usually think that they are depressed, and desperate to somehow turn back time which is not true. In fact they are very satisfied with their lives at the moment and like it the way it is.
However, there is one thing that does bother them too which is what will happen when they will become extremely physically weak/incapable. This might result in making them very irritable and attention seeking.…
Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process
The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.
Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…
Is there anything special about the aging of source memory?
Psychol Aging. 2005 Mar;20(1):19-32.
PMID: 15769211 [PubMed - in process]
Future of Healthcare as it Relates to the Geriatric Population
Description and Problem Statement
The geriatric population in the United States is growing and compared to the population of health care providers the geriatric population growth is advancing much more rapidly. This presents a problem in making provision of health care to the future geriatric population. While there is a growth in the demand for geriatric health care services, there is not a matching growth in the population of health care providers and in fact, a shortage presently exists.
The population of geriatric patients is experiencing rapid growth while the population of health care providers specifically trained in geriatric medicine is seriously lagging behind. In fact, of the approximately 650,000 medical doctors who are practicing, only a small percentage receives the training and education required to provide geriatric care. Exacerbating the problem is the fact that only three medical schools…
Bagel, LM (2011) Designs to Support Aging Acute Care Patients. Elder Care. Health Facilities Management. Retrieved from: http://www.hfmmagazine.com/hfmmagazine/jsp/articledisplay.jsp?dcrpath=HFMMAGAZINE/Article/data/04APR2012/0412HFM_FEA_interiors&domain=HFMMAGAZINE
Gottlieb, S. (2013) Medicare Has Stopped Paying Bills For Medical Diagnostic Tests. Patients Will Feel The Effects. Forbes 27 Mar 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/scottgottlieb/2013/03/27/medicare-has-stopped-paying-bills-for-medical-diagnostic-tests-patients-will-feel-the-effects/2/
Graverholt, B., et al. (2011) Acute hospital admissions among nursing home residents: a population-based observational study. BMC Health Services Research 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/11/126
Healthcare in America: Trends in Utilization (2004) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov /nchs/data/misc/healthcare.pdf
An initial psychotic episode is often the result, with immediate in-hospital treatment recommended for testing and observation. Treatment includes anti-psychotic medication and patients often respond well, particularly in milder cases of the illness. (Csernansky, 2001) However, a general inability to adapt socially will persist and prevent a "normal" existence for these individuals. In one case, a female patient described her general personality despite medication as characterized by "low self-esteem, hypersensitivity to criticism, hyperempathy, excessive generosity, susceptibility to manipulation, and social awkwardness" (eichenberg-Ullman, 2010). In addition, substance abuse, inability to hold a job, risk of suicide, and unwanted pregnancy are typical themes in these patients' lives. (Csernansky, 2001) in the case of pregnancy, females often suffer complications beyond their mental illness, such as poor prenatal care, risk of violence during pregnancy, and reduced likelihood of having a male supportive figure (staff, 2007)
In the middle phase of schizophrenia, or the first…
Collier, E. (2007). Challenging the concept of "burned out" schizophrenia. Mental Health Nursing, 14.
Csernansky, J.G. (2001). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Heinrichs, R.W. (2001). In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nicole, V. (2007, 11-21). Schizophrenia and Pregnancy: Genetic Links and Effects. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.associatedcontent.com: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/454786/schizophrenia_and_pregnancy_genetic_pg2.html?cat=70
psychographic population segments. Part B: Discuss (6) main social/Cultural
In order to discuss the three primary psychographic population segments that are existent today, it is necessary to clarify the meaning of psychographic segmentation. This term merely means stratifying people according to their attitudes, belief systems, opinions, activities, behaviors, and interests. The most readily available and convenient way to stratify the current population, then, based on these factors is to do so by generation. Thus, the three principle psychographic population segments involve the so-called Baby Boomer Generation, Generation X (which is sometimes grouped together with Generation Y) and the generation known as the millennials or "Generation Me" as affectionately termed by renowned author Jean Twenge.
There are several really salient social and cultural trends that have impacted online exchange. Of these, one of the more relevant today includes reputation. eputation is best defined as the public perception of a certain company,…
Boches, E. (2011). The next five social media trends and their impact on marketing. Creativity Unbound. Retrieved from http://edwardboches.com/the-next-five-social-media-trends-and-their-impact-on-marketing
Twenge, J. (2012). Millenials: the greatest generation or the most narcissistic? The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/05/millennials-the-greatest-generation-or-the-most-narcissistic/256638/
Mental therapy using non-intense video games and how it affects brain health among the aged population showing early symptoms of dementia.
The deterioration of cognitive abilities and brain tissue due to age could have several adverse effects on mental systems and could even lead to dementia. Thus, researchers are trying to discover methods which could help keep brain function, independence, health and cognition among aged people in its best shape. Usually, with age, the white and gray matter of the brain shrivels with this action seen more in its prefrontal cortex than other regions. Other affected brain parts are the cerebellum, the prefrontal cortex on the side as well as the central temporal lobe structure which includes the hippocampus. Despite this, the occipital cortices and the entorhinal do not experience any form of shrinkage (Ballesteros et al., 2015). Common symptoms of this shrinkage include reduced memory strength, lower mental processing…
It is a generally known fact that some weaknesses in the body start developing that directly or indirectly affect one's mental health. Since physical health is related to its impact on the mental health visible in later stages of life, older people must take extra care of their mental health. This paper aims at first, graphically representing mental health conditions in older people in the form of Microsoft Word Excel bar chart for both males and females so that a better comparison could be made, and secondly analyzing the factors for one of those mental health diseases and explaining the reason for its gender disparity.
The following graphical representation of the five mental diseases for the age group 65 years and older within the US population. The data is extracted from Statista.com (2020) from the most recent years, 2017 and 2020. The only slight difference in the…
Alzheimer\\\\'s Society. (n.a.). Smoking and dementia. Retrieved from https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-dementia/risk-factors-and-prevention/smoking-and-dementia
Hasselgren, C., Ekbrand, H., Hallerod, B., Fassberg, M.M., Zettergren, A., Johansson, L., Skoog, I. & Dellve, L. (2020). Sex differences in dementia: On the potentially mediating effects of educational attainment and experiences of psychological distress. BMC Psychiatry, 20(434). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02820-9
Kiely, A. (2018, September 20). Why is dementia different for women? Alzheimers.org. Retrieved from https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/blog/why-dementia-different-women
Mosca, L., Barrett-Connor, E. & Wenger, N.K. (2012). Sex/gender differences in cardiovascular disease prevention what a difference a decade makes. Circulation, 124(19), 2145-2154. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.968792
Peralta, J. (2018, August 13). Can estrogen help protect women against dementia? Health line. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health-news/can-estrogen-protect-women-against-dementia
Reckelhoff, J.F. (2000). Gender differences in the regulation of blood pressure. Hypertension, 2001, 1199-1208. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/01.HYP.37.5.1199
Sabia, S., Fayosse, A., Dumurgier, J., Dugravot, A., Akbaraly, T., Britton, A., Kivimaki, M., & Singh-Manoux, A. (2018). Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: 23-year follow-up of White hall II cohort study. BMJ, 2018, 362. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k2927
Stanford Health Care. (n.a.). Risk factors for dementia. Retrieved from https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-conditions/brain-and-nerves/dementia/risk-factors.html
health care to the elderly.
In the next several years, many commentators argue that population aging will considerably affect the federal budget. When one turns sixty-five, his or her cost of care doesn't abruptly increase. However, the cost of healthcare to the federal government will go up since at that age Medicare usually becomes the main or primary insurer. According to studies by the CBO (Congressional Budget Office), over the next two decades, population aging will account for over fifty percent spending growth on various government healthcare programs (What Is Driving U.S. Health Care Spending? America's Unsustainable Health Care Cost Growth). As the baby boomers age, the population will lead to a higher percentage of seniors, which will in turn lead to an overall increase in per capita spending. Studies indicate that over the next decade or so, the aging American population will contribute to the increase in healthcare spending…
Barr. (n.d.). Hospitals & Health Networks - Hospital and Health Care Executives. Baby boomers will transform health care as they age - H&HN. Retrieved 2014, from http://www.hhnmag.com/articles/5298-Boomers-Will-Transform-Health-Care-as-They-Age
(2012). Bipartisan Policy Center. What Is Driving U.S. Health Care Spending? America's Unsustainable Health Care Cost Growth. Retrieved December 2, 2016, from http://bipartisanpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/default/files/BPC%20Health%20Care%20Cost%20Drivers%20Brief%20Sept%202012.pdf
Rice, & Gabel. (1986). Protecting the elderly against high health care costs. Health Affairs,5(3). Retrieved, from http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/5/3/5.full.pdf
(n.d.). The White House - whitehouse.gov. REDUCING COSTS AND IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF HEALTH CARE. Retrieved December 2, 2016, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/erp2013/ERP2013_Chapter_5.pdf
Disabled employees are protected by the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. Employers must make reasonable adjustments to working conditions to ensure that disabled people are not treated less favourably than other employees. The HSE regulations 2002 require employers to ensure that doors, passageways, stairs, lavatories and workstations are suitably arranged for disabled workers' needs.
In order to ensure that work sites will be suited for employees of all ages and special needs, the role of the Planning Supervisor was created under the Construction egulations 1994 to monitor and improve Health & Safety issues related to building and construction works. This is an important role, since it focuses solely on health and safety needs when buildings are being designed or renovated (UKBS website).
The population changes will also impact society as a whole and it will be just as important to build homes and other facilities to prepare for individuals as they…
Faculty of Occupational Medicine. 2 March 2007. http://www.facoccmed.ac.uk/library/docs/ppageemp.pdf
Health and Safety Executive. 2 March 2007. http://www.hse.gov.uk/
Parker, Chris, Merryn Gott, Sarah Barnes, Sheila Payne, David Seamark, Salah Gariballa, and Neil Small Predictors of the quality of life of older people with heart failure recruited from primary care Age Ageing (2006) 35: 172-177..
UK Building Surveyors (UKBS). Planning Supervision.. 1 March 2007. http://www.ukbsl.co.uk/PlanningSupervision.aspx
This is because the current system, is not addressing the underlying challenges of: increasing demand and rising prices. To corroborate the different findings from the literature review a survey will be conducted. This will accurately determine the underlying trends and possible challenges that could be facing the sector in the future (from the increasing number of aging aby oomers).
Summary of the Findings and their Implications
Clearly, the aby oomers are creating a seismic shift in the way various health care services will be delivered in the future. This is because they account for such a large segment of the population. At the same time, the services that they demand and the number of health conditions that are affecting this group (i.e. diabetes / heart disease) underscores how they will require more health care services. This is problematic, because it means that the current health care system will more than…
Green, B. (2006). Of Statistics, Demographics and History. Marketing to the Leading Edge Baby Boomers. (pg. 8). Ithaca, NY: Paramount Marketing.
Ezzy, D. (2002). Introduction. Qualitative Analysis. (pp. xi - xvi). London: Routledge.
Kandal, J. (2009). Baby Boomers. Encyclopedia of Elder Care. (pg. 44). New York, NY: Facts on File
Mellor, J. (2005). Future of Medicare. Baby Boomers. (pp. 49 -- 54). New York, NY: Springer.
This research is a mixed methods study designed to explore the perceptions of self-identifying individuals with anxiety and depression regarding any relation between their conditions and their ability to access appropriate healthcare under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Five respondents completed the questionnaire constructed explicitly for this research study. A review of the literature serves as a canvas of instruments also developed for assessing Axis 1 disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). The research on instrumentation included the following: 1) The SCID, 2) the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 3) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 4) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), and 5) Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder -- Adult (an emerging online measure provided in association with the DSM-5).
Their responses negate the theoretical construct, however, an insufficient number of respondents in this pilot study meant…
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Appendix C - Screening for Depression
If you suspect that you might suffer from depression, answer the questions below, print out the results, and share them with your health care professional.
Over the last two weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?
Similarly, calorie restriction is known to be associated with longevity, but studies documenting the benefits of calorie-restricted diets in terms of longevity suggest that those benefits require long-term lifestyle changes whose benefits would be difficult to duplicate in the much shorter term (Yates, Djousse, Kurth, et al., 2008). Nevertheless, volumes of empirical contemporary research confirm the health benefits of ideal weight maintenance, reduction in body fat, and reduction of triglycerides, blood glucose concentrations, and blood pressure through dietetic changes consistent with the types of dietary norms detailed in the video (Yates, Djousse, Kurth, et al., 2008).
The video also provides independent anecdotal confirmation of empirical data documenting the tremendous importance of maintaining moderate levels of physical activity in the later years and of maintaining a purpose to life, such as productive work or other forms of community involvement (Yates, Djousse, Kurth, et al., 2008). Moreover, the video also confirms the…
Yates, L.B., Djousse, L., Kurth, T., Buring, J.E., and Gaziano, J.M. "Exceptional
longevity in men: modifiable factors associated with survival and function to age
90 years." Archives of Internal Medicine. Vol. 168, No. 3; (2008): 284 -- 290.
What is the nature of these service shortfalls and how do these service limitations potentially impact older adults' "quality of life" outcomes in both the short- and long-term?
1. Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms
2. Lack of elder population neglect prevention mechanisms
3. Lack of culturally relevant elderly care programs
4. Lack of enough physicians to take care of the elderly population
5. Lack of elderly-population empowerment programs
Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms
A review of literature indicates serious "gaps" in the mechanisms used in the prevention of elderly population abuse cases. Even though the Elder Abuse and Neglect Act clearly indicate that all suspected cases of abuse directed against the elderly population be reported, very little efforts exist at the establishment of hotlines to be used in reporting these cases. This means that very few cases of abuse are reported. This gap in the aging-related…
Administration on Aging (AoA). (2003). A profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.
Administration on Aging (AoA). (2005). A profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.
Gelfand, D.E. (2003). Aging and ethnicity: Knowledge & services. New York: Springer Publishing.
Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks: A Guide to Programs and Services. New York: Springer Publishing Co.
Diversity of Aging Population -- Innovative Healthcare
Over the past several decades there has been an avalanche of research and scholarly narratives focusing on the aging of millions of Americans -- among them the "baby boomers" that were born between 1946 and 1964 -- including their numbers and their health vis-a-vis the impact on the sometimes struggling healthcare system. But there has been a dearth of research on how American healthcare services will respond -- and is currently responding -- to an increasingly diverse older population when it comes to racial, cultural and ethnic identities. This paper points to the numerous issues and challenges that not only face an increasingly diverse older American population when it comes to healthcare, but also the challenges that the healthcare system itself faces as these Americans move into the twilight of their lives.
hat should be the Vision and Mission of Healthcare Professionals in…
Administration on Aging. (2010). A Statistical Profile of Black Older Americans Aged 65+.
Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.aoa.gov .
Bookman, A. (2008). Innovative models of aging in place: Transforming our communities for an aging population. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 419-438.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). The State of Aging and Health in America
While it is true that in many countries like Canada there has been a reduction in vulnerabilities such as poverty among the elderly, it is equally true that;
some 3.3 million seniors still live below the poverty line Good housing and proper medical care are often out of reach for the poor elderly -- or so expensive that little money is left over for other needs. Hundreds of thousands of elders go hungry every month. (Callahan, 1999, p. 74)
Poverty is however also a strong indicator of elderly vulnerability in Canada; where the lack of resources is also linked to safety and security issues. Many elderly people live alone and they become more vulnerable to abuse and attack if they so not have enough funds to afford adequate home security. As one Canadian resource notes; "Examples include safety devices that would reduce their chances of a fall or an alarm…
Abuse of the elderly. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2002/9241545615_chap5_eng.pdf
Ageism: Canadian Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://www.cnpea.ca/ageism.htm
Barer M. And Hertzman C. (1972) on Being Old and Sick: The Burden of Health Care for the Elderly in Canada and the United States. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 17(4), pp.763-782.
Brownell P., Welty a., Brennan M. Elder Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://www.aging.state.ny.us/explore/project2015/artabuse.htm
Most of the drug commercials also show the elderly with health concerns and needing help from others. In addition, it is rare to see an elderly contestant on a game show or interviewed on the nightly news, and most commercials star young, healthy, and very vital and attractive young people. When the elderly are featured, it is mostly with health concerns and problems.
Some situation comedies depict the elderly in a better light. For example, in "Everybody Loves Raymond," the two elderly cast members, Peter Boyle and Doris Roberts, are depicted as cranky and eccentric, like many elderly are depicted on TV, but they are also loving, if annoying, parents. They are also funny and warm, and have a mature relationship on the screen. They are funny, but they also add warmth to the show, and great character. It would not seem they were entirely positive, but they certainly are…
Adulthood and Death Issues
Introduction to Contemporary Issues about Aging and Death
One of the most important social benefits of modern society is the dramatic increase in life expectancy over the last century, particularly in the developed nations. At the turn of the 20th century, life expectancy was barely 60 years or age; less than a century before that, it was approximately 50 years of age (Henslin, 2005; Macionis, 2006). Today, people routinely live into their late 80 or 90s. This change is also associated with various related issues that rarely came up in prior eras of human history. Whereas individuals typically retired in their 50s a century ago (if they could afford to at all, that is), today it is not uncommon at all to continue working well into advanced age or even to begin second or third careers during what used to be considered "retirement age" (Henslin, 2005;…
Henslin, J.M. (2005). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon.
Macionis, J.J. (2006). Sociology. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Schaefer, R.T. (2006). Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper Collins.
Age distribution in a country determines potential for future growth, hence an increased in population. As a result, age distribution has significant government policy implications. For instance, a population of young people will need sufficient number of schools as well as, enough jobs to accommodate them. A rapid growth of a country is influenced by three demographic processes which include mortality, fertility and migration. Study shows that the United States of America population is believed to have risen steadily from 3.2% in the 1970s to around 3.5% in the 1990s. However a steady decline in the growth rate is believed to have been in progress in the 1990s as a result of economic crisis. esearch has shown that over ten billion people exist on earth today and an increase of about ninety million people occurs annually (Howden & Meyer, 2011).
Today, most countries use population pyramids as the most effective…
Howden, L., & Meyer, J. (2011). Age and Sex Composition: 2010. Age and Sex Composition: 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-03.pdf
" (Stone, 2006) Treatment is stated by Stone (2006) to be "diagnosis dependent and may be medical or surgical." Practical modifications include simple steps such as crushing of pills or opening of capsules to ease and facilitate swallowing.
The work of Leibovitz, et al. (2007) entitled: 'Dehydration Among Long-Term Care Elderly Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia" states that long-term care (LTC) residents in the nursing home "especially the orally fed with dysphagia are prone to dehydration. The clinical consequences of dehydration are critical. The validity of the common laboratory parameters of hydration status is far from being absolute, especially so in the elderly." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) it is related however that "combinations of these indices are more reliable." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) the study reported by Leibovitz et al. is one that assessed hydration status among elderly LTC residents with oropharyngeal dysphagia and in which a total of 28 orally…
Spieker, Michael R. (2000) Evaluating Dysphagia. American Family Physician 14 Jun 2000. Online available at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000615/3639.html
Marik, Paul E. And Kaplan, Danielle (2003) Aspiration Pneumonia and Dysphagia in the Elderly. Chest. July 2003. Vol. 1224, No. 1. Online available at http://www.chestjournal.org/content/124/1/328.full
Bautmans, I., et al. (2008) Dysphagia in elderly nursing home residents with severe cognitive impairment can be attenuated by cervical spine mobilization. J. Rehabil Med. 2008 Oct;40(9):755-60. PubMed Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=18843429
Stone, Rebecca S. (2006) Dysphagia in the Elderly. Inpatient Times. October 2006. Online available at http://www.bmc.org/geriatrics/RStone_DysphagiaintheElderly.pdf