770 results for “Agricultural Practices”.
According to Cook and Murray, "In a sustainable society resources are used fairly and efficiently in order to meet basic human needs globally.
ithin rural sociology, sustainable agriculture is frequently considered to be a mutually exclusive "competing paradigm" that challenges conventional agriculture on environmental, economic and ideological grounds. As a result, much of the research on identifying sustainable agricultural practices has been focused on understanding the characteristics which differentiate conventional and alternative farmers, as well as the conditions that serve to constrain or facilitate the development of alternative practices and ways of thinking among farmers and agriculture more generally. For example, researchers have examined a variety of farmer and farm attributes such as age, education, orientation to risk, perception of environmental problems, farm size, and profitability; the impact of agricultural markets and prices and state policies, programs and services have also been examined extensively (Hall 222). Other authorities, though, suggest…
Chen, Cheng-Siang, Kenneth G. Lieberthal and Karl Patterson Schmidt. (2005). China. In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].
Cook, Ian G. And Geoffrey Murray. Green China: Seeking Ecological Alternatives. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Edmonds, R.L. Patterns of China's Lost Harmony. London, Routledge, 1994.
Foster, John Bellamy and Fred Magdoff. (1998, July-August). "Liebig, Marx, and the Depletion of Soil Fertility: Relevance for Today's Agriculture." Monthly Review, 50(3):32.
Sustainable farming practices will vary depending on geographic variables, including local resources like soil type and water availability as well as terrain and climate. Human variables like economic ability to invest in farming infrastructure, technology, and equipment, as well as the size of the land masses available for agriculture will also impact the adequate mix of farming practices that can constitute sustainability in any given region. Soil farming is unlikely to fall out of favor anywhere entirely, although there are some regions of the world that lack soil altogether or which have poor quality soil, Those regions, like atolls in the South Pacific or arid desert regions, would do well to adapt some other farming methods to meet human food needs. Alternatives to soil farming include greenhouses, aquaponics, and hydroponics.
Soil-based farming will undoubtedly remain the primary means of cultivating cash crops and staple crops like grains. To be sustainable,…
Erdmann, J. (2009). Putting the "Green" into Greenhouses. Scientific American. Retrieved online: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/putting-the-green-into-greenhouses/
Seager, C. (2014). Aquaponics: a sustainable solution to food insecurity? The Guardian. Retrieved online: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2014/oct/02/aquaponics-a-sustainable-solution-to-food-security
"Sustainable Agriculture Techniques," (n.d.). Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved online: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/solutions/advance-sustainable-agriculture/sustainable-agriculture.html#.WEZkEKIrKRs
Tyson, R. (n.d.). Hydroponics. Retrieved online: http://ocextension.ifas.ufl.edu/uf_workshop/pdffiles/Hydroponics%20for%20the%2021st%20Century%20B.pdf
" (Murphy, 2009)
This is held by Murphy to be what is wanted since high carbon dioxide levels help to maintain high quality silage." (2009) Simultaneously, the gas that is "odorless and colorless" is stated to be that which is dangerous. The gas is stated to replace the oxygen in the silo and since this gas is present in high concentrations the individual receives very little in the way of warning that the gas is about to overcome them. This gas is stated to be characterized by "…a strong bleach-like odor and low lying yellow, red, or dark brown fumes. Unlike carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide levels reach a peak about three days after harvesting and rapidly begin to decrease thereafter particularly is the silo is ventilated." (Murphy, 2009)
Sealed silos are specifically designed so that there is no necessity to enter them however, there are various gases present in convention…
Murphy, Dennis J. (2009) Silo Gases the Hidden Danger. College of Agricultural Sciences -- Cooperative Extension. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Penn State E-16. Online available at: http://www.age.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/e/E16%20.pdf
Murphy, Dennis J. (2009) Farm Respiratory Hazards. College of Agricultural Sciences -- Cooperative Extension. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Safety 26. PennState. Online available at: http://www.age.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/e/E26.pdf
The Dirt on Pennsylvania Agriculture (2004) Trends in Rural Pennsylvania. March/April 2004. Online available at: http://www.ruralpa.org/dirtonpaag.pdf
Prior to the 18th century, crops were rotated in a three-year cycle. During the 18th century, a four-year rotation cycle was introduced. The potato and the turnip became some of the most important crops during the 18th century agricultural revolution, because the potato could feed large amounts of people and the turnip could also be used for animal fodder. The greater amount of animal fodder increased farm animal yields. Farm technologies also improved: such as the mechanized seed drill.
The consequences of the 18th century agricultural revolution were tremendous and coincided with the social, political, and economic changes taking places concurrently. Population explosions that fueled the agricultural revolution continued to alter the demographics of Europe and enable larger-scale grassroots movements. Populism gradually began replacing the centuries-long feudal aristocracies and monarchies were toppling. These political changes significantly altered land use policies. Moreover, the population explosion occurred alongside urbanization. Not only did…
Rosner, Lilsa & Theibault, John. A Short History of Europe 1600-1815. M.E. Sharpe, 2000
Whited, Tamara L. Northern Europe. ABC-CLIO, 2005
As a recommendation, I would suggest a ways to improve, first of all, the communication between the top management and the employees. This may include seminars once a week where the general directions are traced and a survey of the past week is presented. This is also an excellent moment for the employees to present any ideas or complaints they may have. Further more, intensive training where the role of decentralization and delegation would be explained should be organized for a reasonable period of time.
The second issue that was raised in our hypothesis referred to the selection and maintenance of the managerial personnel and the reward system. It was quite simple to determine whether there was an adequate scheme of reward in the company. The bonuses that the managers and employees had received were compared to the density of their activity in the respective period of time. It was…
Revolution Through the Lens of Agricultural Industrialization
The revolutions in Cuba, Mexico and Brazil Bahia as described and detailed in the three text From slavery to freedom in Brazil Bahia, 1835-1900 by Dale Torston Graden, Insurgent Cuba race, nation and revolution, 1868-1898 by Ada Ferrer and The Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940 Dialogos Series, 12 by Michael j. Gonzales all tell varied stories regarding the thematic development of revolution and change. Each has a different story to tell about labor, free and slave, politics, race and freedom yet underlying each of these themes is a current that is not only consistent but largely underdeveloped. This theme is agricultural and its changing labor and production practices. This work will analyze and compare the treatment of agriculture as a theme associated with each local. Each nation demonstrates the story of profiteering through agriculture in varied ways, and the rejection of it.
In each work…
Ferrer, Ada. Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation, and Revolution, 1868-1898. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Gonzales, Michael. The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2002.
Torston Graden, Dale. From Slavery to Freedom in Brazil: Bahia, 1835-1900. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2006.
Agriculture represents the lifeblood of any civilization -- we settled into communities for the purpose of growing crops and thereby making our lives easier. For most of the history of civilization, agriculture was the dominant form of economy. Wealth was measured in growing land, or in the number of animals owned. Even after the invention of money, agriculture remained a critical source of wealth. In pre-Italy, the city states often gained wealth through trade, but in the countryside wealth remained related to agriculture, as food was the most important thing to most people. In the 20th century, food scarcity became rare, and agriculture diminished in importance -- nobody was truly worried where their next meal would come from, so other goods took on more value. Today in Italy, agriculture is worth 2% of the economy, or $3.6 billion, and it employs 3.9% of the labor force of the country,…
Bartolini, F., Gallerani, V., Raggi, M. & Viaggi, D. (2010). Water management and irrigated agriculture in Italy: Multicriteria analysis of alternative policy scenarios. Water Policy Vol. 12 (2010) 135-147.
CIA World Factbook: Italy (2014). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/it.html
EU (2014). Review of the concentration processes in the agricultural sector and inside the downstream sectors of the agrofood chain. European Union. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/chap41_en.pdf
No author (2014). Italy -- agriculture. Nations Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Europe/Italy-AGRICULTURE.html
However, it was changes in technology that originally made the cultivation of the land possible, and marked a shift from earlier methods of production, as practiced by Native Americans. hile small Okie farmers might have hated the larger agricultural conglomerates, they too had benefited from technology in past and paid the price when technology destroyed the land. And it was, in the end, technology that also saved such subsistence farmers, in the form of new cultivation methods -- introduced by the federal government.
Cooper, Michael. Dust to Eat. Clarion, 2004.
Davidson, J.R. "Interview." itness. The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
"Dust bowl." The Great Depression and orld ar II. May 1, 2010.
"The Dust Bowl." U.S. History. May 1, 2010.
Egan, Timothy. The orst Hard Time. Mariner, 2006.
"Hugh Hammond Bennett." The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of rath. Penguin,…
Cooper, Michael. Dust to Eat. Clarion, 2004.
Davidson, J.R. "Interview." Witness. The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
"Dust bowl." The Great Depression and World War II. May 1, 2010.
Discussion and dialogue also ensures that students will feel more comfortable disagreeing with their peers openly. However, the teacher must wait until students are willing and able to engage in intelligent conversation on these topics, before giving students more liberties. Teachers must be able to understand when students are truly ready to talk about difficult issues, and not impose their will upon them.
At all ages, "relevant language, writing, spelling, and reading skills as opportunities to develop social skills such as planning, sharing, taking turns, and working in committees" is an important part of education (Network, 2003) the expectations for these activities will grow increasingly difficult over the course of the student's education, as old knowledge scaffolds upon the new. But the basic principles of common educational values such as respect for students remain unchanged. The teacher is always in dialogue with the students, constantly learning from them as they…
Burts, D.C. (2005, Fall). Developmentally appopriate educational practices. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from Louisiana Agricultural Magazine: http://text.lsuagcenter.com/en/communications/publications/agmag/Archive/2005/Fall/Developmentally+Appropriate+Educational+Practices+in+Early+Childhood+Programs+an+Economic+Investment.htm
Network, U.E. (2003). Developmentally-appropriate teaching in early childhood programs. Retrieved Apr 2013, 21, from Utah Education Network: http://www.uen.org/k-2educator/teaching.shtml
Those who work domestically may not have the foresight or skill as do those who work within the target country. This can be particularly profitable if the product developed is one that has not be thought of before. By being the first mover, Kmart can capture market share unabated by competition that will undoubtedly ravage margins and potential profit. This flexibility is also helpful as a feedback mechanism in regards to product offerings within a particular country. For reasons of religion, customs, or societal pressures, many products offered in America may not be desirable in foreign countries. From Kmart's perspective this can have an adverse effect on earnings and customer satisfaction. As a result, it will be important for Kmart to outsource this service to become better informed about the merits of a particular country. By using foreign know how, and product specifications, Kmart can be a better position to…
Human Practice of Science
The meal given to me in this case has components that are sourced from a variety of locations both within and outside the country.
To begin with, it is highly likely that the chicken was sourced from a broiler farm in any of the south-eastern states as this is currently the region leading in poultry production. For easy handling, the said component of my meal was most likely slaughtered, defeathered, and inspected on site before being packed for delivery to the market. Broiler farms have been criticized for their negative impact on the environment, especially with regard to their high levels of ammonia emission.
This particular food item was most likely cut from beef originating from Texas. With regard to beef cattle farming, it is likely that beef cattle in this particular case were kept in grazing farms. Like broiler farming, beef cattle…
Question One: Neocolonial Practices and Economic Growth in Former colonies
Neocolonialism refers to any attempt by a powerful nation to use economic, cultural, and political pressures to influence their former colonies to act a certain way. Nations could act directly or through influential global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. Proponents of neocolonial practices argue that they provide means to stimulate economic growth in less-developed nations. Critics, however, argue that such practices have little benefit on former colonies and they, in fact, stifle real economic growth. Using relevant examples, this text argues that in line with critics’ argument, neocolonial practices impose limits on real economic growth in the target countries since the imposing countries are often driven by personal interests.
Jamaica offers a perfect example of an economy stifled by neocolonial practices as laid out in Stephanie Black’s documentary titled ‘Life and Death’. In the 1970s,…
Benazir Bhutto: The first and only female leader of Pakistan, Bhutto was a strong political figure and fighter for freedom and women's rights in Pakistan and other Muslim countries. Exiled and brought back by popular demand, she was assassinated in 2007.
Mo Yan: Mo Yan is an incredibly prolific and respected author in modern China, whose works are largely concerned with social commentary. He was formerly a soldier in the People's Army and is a member of the ruling Communist Party.
Khmer Rouge: The followers of Pol Pot and the Communist Party in Kampuchea (now Cambodia) were known as the Khmer Rouge. The regime is noted for the massive human rights violations and state-sponsored murders in the guise of social engineering.
Nigeria and Biafra: Biafra was a secessionist state in Nigeria populated largely by the Ibo people. The secession of te state, which was recognized by several neighboring African countries,…
ritish agricultural revolution and English settlement patterns in their colonies in New England. It is the authors contention that the world view of the English influenced their agricultural practices and the way that these practices changed the ecology of the land in New England. While largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, it did however have commonalities with the Middle and Southern colonies, a relentless drive West and a decimation of Native American cultures and populations. Needless to say, there were huge differences between this English world view and English agricultural policies and the Native American world view, agricultural practices and approach to the environment.
While agriculture was largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, the idea in the English settlers mind to keep pushing West to find arable land was alive and well and continued throughout the colonial period. Surprisingly enough, this English…
Canterbery, E. Ray. The Making of Economics: The foundation. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific
Publishing Company, 2003.
Cochrane, William W. Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis . Rochester, MN:
Univ Of Minnesota Press, 1993.
Vitousek, et al. Issues
Vitousek says the major sources of land transformation are pastureland, agriculture, and urban industrial activity. Agriculture (fisheries, artificial environments, row-crops) are high on the list of land transformation, urban industrial activity medium, and pure pastureland low, depending on human involvement.
Humans alter the oceans in many ways, although some are not easy to quantify. Population centers are concentrated near coastal areas and coastal wetlands are also altered. Fishing alters the ecology of the oceans by focusing on the top predators and throwing the system out of balance. Pollutants and other man-made activities cause algal blooms that are toxic to the ecology of the oceans as well. It is the relationship between the different parts of the food chain that are most effected by human involvement.
Part 3 -- The earth can be viewed as a system concept, with the forests the lungs, the waters…
The promising areas of Dutch expertise are in modeling, risk management, water quality management and also institutional strengthening. The Dutch stakeholders across the board can also contribute through a cooperative and integrated approach to river basin management. All of this has to be taken into account as well as the spatial aspects of water for te new water management to be effective. It is a recognition of the need for wetlands as a water retention resource that has to be maintained in the balance. Then, there will not be a crisis. The water-shed will be most sustainable if it can be developed as a protective barrier ("aterland Information Network") .
The Biesbosch is also becoming as an economic as well as a water retention resource. The future of the area lies in the field of sustainable tourism. In the history of the place, man has worked both with and against…
Biswas, Asit K. Water Management in 2020 and Beyond. 1st. New York, NY: Springer, 2009. 190.
De Velliers, Marq. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. 1st. New york, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001. 3.
Hobbelen, P.H.F., J.E. Koolhaas, and C.A.M van Gestel. "Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account." Environmental Pollution . 129. (2004): 40919. Print.
Hopkins, Anna. "Communities and Waterpoint Management." The Chapter Buzz. / blogs.ewb.ca/annahopkin, 21 Oct 2011. Web. 25 Oct 2011.
Psychological studies have confirmed 'altruistic behavior' can be elicited in people. 'Peer Pressure' could also be utilized as an effective psychological tool in reducing resource consumption and in promoting other healthy environmental practices. [Center for Naturalism] A case in point is the Chinese governments 'Grain to Green' Program that offered cash incentives to farmers to convert marginal farmlands to forests. As Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF) says, "Much of the marginal cropland in rural communities has been converted from agriculture to forests through the Grain-to-Green Program, one of the largest 'payment for ecosystem services' programs in the world," "Results of this study show that a community's social norms have substantial impacts on the sustainability of these conservation investments." [ScienceDaily] uilding this collective self-control at the community, national and international level holds the key to the success of an environmentally sustainable future. Motivated and environmentally conscious…
1) Su-Houn Liu, Yu-Hsieh Sung & Hsiu-Li Liao (2006), 'Developing Sustainable Digital Opportunity: The Case of Lalashan DOWEB Model', Issues in Information Systems,
Volume VII, No. 1, 2006, retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.iacis.org/iis/2006_iis/PDFs/Liu_Sung_Liao.pdf
2) BIO, (Nov 2009) 'Agricultural Biotechnology Benefits Farmers and the environment', retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from, http://www.bio.org/foodag/positions/Benbrook_Report_PUBLIC_111709.pdf
3) John Vidal, (2009), 'Rich Nations to Offset Emissions with Birth Control', retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/03/carbon-offset-projects-climate-change
Companies such as XYZ Widget Corporation are well situated to take advantage of burgeoning markets in developing nations, particularly in Asia and Africa.
2. XYZ can grow its business by expanding its operations to certain developing nations in ways that profit the company as well as the impoverished regions that are involved, particularly when marketing efforts are coordinated with nongovernmental organizations operating in the region.
3. Several constraints and challenges must be overcome in order to succeed in selling to impoverished regions of the world.
4. Time is of the essence. First movers will enjoy distinct competitive advantages over their counterparts who adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to targeting the poor in developing nations as potential markets.
The world's population has never been larger, and there are more poor people today than ever before in history. Current trends provide some mixed messages concerning the direction that poverty is taking in…
Alserhan, B.A. & Brannick, T. (2002). Information technology in Ireland: the myth and the reality? Irish Journal of Management, 23(1), 1-2.
Black, R. & White, H. (2003). Targeting development: Critical perspectives on the millennium development goals. New York: Routledge.
Blair, A. & Hitchcock, D. (2001). Environment and business. London: Routledge.
Blank, S. (2007). A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(4), 1186-1187.
inning the Civil ar
The American Civil ar is considered the most costly of all the wars fought by this nation in terms of the human lives that were lost and the casualties which left young men mutilated, amputated, and barely able to carry on. Approximately 750,000 young men died by the war's end either from wounds inflicted in battle or from infection and lack of sanitation in hospitals.[footnoteRef:1] At the end, to warring sides were once again united as a single nation rather than two countries torn apart by ideological differences. Four years of bloodshed and violence officially ended at Appomattox Court House in Northern Virginia when Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. It is believed that the Union won the war because the nation was reunified; however this assumption is based on the belief that there can ever be a winner in…
Alexander, Bevin. How the South Could Have Won the Civil War: the Fatal Errors that Led to Confederate Defeat. New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 2007.
Civil War Trust, "Robert E. Lee." Last modified 2011. Accessed November 14, 2012.
Covert, Thomas M. "To his Wife." Stafford Court House, VA. 1863.
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
Q3. Explain the role of an Indian band leader (known as sachem or sagamore). How did he gain and keep his position? What were his duties and how did the value of reciprocity function in his relationship with the band? Explain who pnieses and powwows were.
The sagamore or sachem's primary duties were to mediate between clans and to engage in inter-tribal diplomacy. Anything that required greater coordination efforts beyond that of families or clans, such as large-scale hunting, was the sachem's responsibility. The European observers were often horrified that the sachem's position depended upon the collective will of the people, versus that of European monarchs, the latter of whom ruled by force and heredity, Some sagamores did claim to have shamanistic powers that caused them to be more "dreaded" (Salisbury 44). However, most sagamores depended upon counsels of pnieses and powwows, which were made up of other members of…
Notwithstanding the challenges involved, the stakes are high and there is little room for false starts or experimentation; therefore, identifying a general set of best practices that Gambian organizations can follow in developing their own set of sustainable productivity practices represents a valuable and timely undertaking, which relates to the purpose of the study which is discussed further below.
Purpose of Study
The overall purpose of this study was to study to provide a review of the relevant juried and scholarly literature together with the findings of a survey of Gambian business leaders to generally identify the most pressing priorities for developing the nation's infrastructure and sustainable organizational productivity. The specific purpose of the study was to determine whether SMEs face the same types of challenges of to optimum performance as their larger corporate counterparts, and to identify any peculiar organizational characteristics that determine levels of performance between SMEs and…
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Substantial cuts to farm subsidies would save taxpayers money and reduce the Federal budget deficit. Ongoing deficit spending on farm subsidies and other programs is causing large amounts of debt to be foisted on the next generation (2007)."
Paul Roberts (2008) writes that it incumbent upon first world nations, like the United States and the UK to set the pace for world policy when it comes to food, and to recognize the harm that food subsidy programs causes economically, and socially. Unfortuately, Roberts also points to the government's susceptibility to special interest (296), and we should add, self-interest. So long as we find elected officials reaping profits from farm subsidies, and so long as they are influenced by corporate special interest, then we will continue to see the government interference in agricultural free trade in the form of subsidies.
Bafalikike, Lokogo. orld Trade: A Scandal that Must End,…
Bafalikike, Lokogo. World Trade: A Scandal that Must End, New African, Nov 2002,
Edwards, Chris. Ten Reasons to Cut Farm Subsidies, Examiner.com, June 28, 2007,
found online at Cato Institute, at http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=8459 , retrieved February 3, 2010. Website.
4. Social and Political Life
There is a general paucity of information about the actual societal and political structure of the Olmec. While there is not much evidence to build a comprehensive picture of the daily and social life of these people, there is enough available data from certain archeological sites to provide some reasonable speculations.
One of the assumptions that is derived from the excavation of sites at San Lorenzo and then at La Venta is that the society was very centralized. This in turn has led to the view that the society was highly structured, with a hierarchical basis of order and class stratification. This also implies the existence of a ruling elite and a system of power and control, which was possibly based on religious beliefs. This view of the structure of the society is summarized as follows: "Olmec society was & #8230;highly centralized, with a…
Griffin Gillett G., the Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership,
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/olmec / (accessed 8 November, 2010).
Jones, David M. Mythology of the Aztecs and Maya, New York: Lorenz, 2007.
Lemonick M.D., Mystery of the Olmec,( Time Magazine, July 1, 1996, Volume 148, No.
The orld Bank is a likely source of support for such an initiative. Recent research has focused on the promise of rural development through a restructuring of agri-business (Jarosz, 1996) and the results are promising. Rural labor practices are subject to change and some of those changes do not require a global revolution. Instead of waiting for the IMF to collapse or fertilizer companies to go bankrupt, sustainable agricultural development advocates should focus on the community level.
The global food system is unjust by almost every measure. Billions of people are starving to death while another billion are suffering the ill health effects of too much food. Our domestic and international institutions have not only created this reality, but are situated now to support policies that perpetuate this reality. Change will not be easy and transformation will be even harder. Small, locally-led reform can begin in any community that…
Holt-Gimenez, Eric. 2008. The World Food Crisis: What's Behind it and What We Can
Do About it. Policy Brief #16. Institute for Food and Development Policy:
Jarosz, Lucy. 1996. Working in the Global Food System: A Focus for International
This new identity provided them with both the symbolic and material means to distinguish themselves from the masses." (Rounds, 74)
This strategy would prove ingenious. The result was such a greater fluidity of trade and transport of goods that though a class system did persist, the connectivity would improve the opportunity for personal acquisition in all classes. Of course, this would not alter the essential nature of society which, in the details pertaining to its sophistication, is shown to have had a clearly structured and enforced inheritance system. To the point, archaeologically consulted "wills reveal a functioning, coherent inheritance system in which the sex of the testator was probably the single most relevant factor in understanding how rights to property were divided." (Kellogg, 314) In a clear ownership and material-based society, the relevance of economic realities under the rule of the Aztec Empire would be significant. To be sure, the…
Barlow, R.H. 1945. Some Remarks on the Terms 'Aztec Empire'. The Americas, 1(3), 345-349.
Brumfiel, E.M. 1983. Aztec State Making: Ecology, Structure, and the Origin of the State. American Anthropologist, 85(2), 261-284.
Elzey, W. 1991. A Hill on a Land Surrounded by Water: An Aztec Story of Origin and Destiny, History of Religions 31(2), 105-149.
Isaac, B.L. 1983. Aztec Warfare: Goals and Battlefield Comportment. Ethnology, 22(2), 121-131.
The net effect of these trends on the environment is mixed. According to Kohler and Erdmann (2004), the expanded use of ICT applications will ultimately result in both benefits to the environment, as well as some new problems associated with their use. The extent to which the negative effects are mitigated will ultimately depend on the foresight that is used today to develop long-term energy and waste management policies that will control the development of ICT infrastructures and how they are used in the future (Kohler & Erdmann, 2004).
According to Lan and Thomas (2009), there is no escaping the fact that information and communication technologies are fundamentally changing the nature of commerce and hold important promise for economic development in the future. These authors are quick at add, though, that proceeding with these technologies is a complex enterprise and there are still a number of unknowns involved concerning how…
Cyr, C. (2007, April/May). E-waste not. Plenty, 31.
Daly, J. (2005, June). ICT and ensuring environmental sustainability. Communication Initiative.
traditional, neoclassical school of economic modeling prescribes a "recipe for economic growth." Economic growth is a process of moving resources from low growth, agricultural areas to higher growth, industrial areas. The neoclassical school also does not see anything slowing the progress of moving from low growth to high growth areas. The neoclassical model in the form of Harrod-Domar model assumes that an increase in savings and investment will lead to economic development. Even though productivity is improved employment does not increase and income does not improve so correspondingly demand for products does not occur. Government intervention has hampered economic development by funneling resources into the wrong types of industries. Instead of taking advantage of industries where a country has a relative advantage, resources have gone to industries that the government wants to develop. One area where the removal of restrictions is essential is in the area of international trade. Increasing…
innovations in agricultural technologies, the dire predictions of global famine made by Stanford University Professor Paul . Ehrlich in his book, The Population Bomb (1968) have not materialized to date. Nevertheless, hunger continues to persist in many regions of the world, especially its major cities, due in large part to urbanization and 7.5 million people die of hunger each month (Holmes, 2008). The hunger that does exist in the world today is largely the result of increased urbanization and national political leadership that either uses food as a weapon or lacks the resources or will to ensure that adequate food distribution is achieved in their countries (Wurwag, 2014). To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning urbanization and the urban structure to identify those factors that are most responsible for preventing adequate distribution of food to urban residents. A summary of the research and…
Ehrlich, P.R. (1968). The population bomb. New York: Ballantine Books.
Gonzalez-Pelaez, A. (2005). Human rights and world trade: Hunger in international society. London: Routledge.
Holmes, J. (2008, June-September). Losing 25,000 to hunger every day. UN Chronicle, 2-3, 14-
qual xchange Strategic Management Analysis
Introduction of Company
The (qual xchange) is an organization that distributes organic, cocoa, bananas, tea, gourmet coffee, chocolate bars and avocados produced by farmers in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. stablished in 1986, the core competence of the is by paying the agricultural product directly from the farmers assisting the organization to purchase the product at a fair price. Moreover, the organization promotes the sustainable farming by educating farmers to develop quality products. The strategy assists the in procuring quality products at affordable prices, however, the company is facing several threats in a business environment, which affect its operations.
The objective of this strategic paper is to discuss the general environmental factors affecting the in the industry. The paper also discusses the threats facing the company and the strategy to address the problems.
In a competitive business environment, the qual xchange is being…
Equal Exchange (2014). Annual Report 2014. USA.
Equal Exchange, (2015). About Us. USA.
Simpson, C. R; & Rapone, A. (Summer 2000). Community Development from the Ground up: Social-Justice Coffee. Human Ecology Review. 7 (1): 46-57.
It has been argued that GMOs are needed in order to supply the world's food needs. However, cautionary positions by environmental groups must be heeded as well. Technology must move forward and concentrate on underserved areas of the world. However, technology must be cautious in its actions and make certain that what they produce is safe. This issue has extremists on both ends of the spectrum. hat is needed is a union between these two philosophies. More productive crops and production methods are needed, but this development must proceed with even more caution than the green revolution due to the ability to defy nature and combine plant material in a way that is not possible using green revolution methods.
Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.
Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.
Evenson, R. Assessing the Impact of the Green Revolution. Research Seminar on Knowledge for Development. October 14, 2003. Center for International Development. Harvard University. http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/sed/docs/k4dev/evenson_semrpt_031014.pdf .
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (FAO) Crop breeding: the Green Revolution and the preceding millennia. 2003. www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo2.htm. Accessed December 6.
Taylor, J. Founder of 'Green Revolution' Lauds GM Crops. June 1, 2004. Environment News. Heartland Institute. http://www.heartland.org/Article.cfm?artId=14989 . Accessed December 6, 2007.
The United Kenya Club was founded in 1946 and was the first multi-racial social organization in Kenya; the organization sponsored concerts and cultural events open to all ethnicities (if you could afford a ticket price). The liberal paternalists pressed for programs that would introduce "profit-making crafts to landless laborers," would "encourage the growth of a prosperous rural elite" and also would encourage progressive agricultural practices among poor peasants. Moreover, the liberal paternalists (Kennedy 248) wished to "instill estern principles of hygiene and child care" among African women and their daughters.
Missionaries were traditionally among the liberal paternalists, Kennedy points out, and when Sir Philip Mitchell became governor of Kenya, he "sought to invigorate the peasant agricultural sector" in order to build a more diversified economy (Kennedy 249). Mitchell also believed "with some justification" that a few of the white leaders among the British settlers "could be persuaded to cooperate in…
Clough, Marshall S. 1998. Mau Mau Memoirs: History, Memory, and Politics. Boulder, CO:
Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Edgerton, Robert B. 1989. Mau Mau: An African Crucible. New York: The Free Press.
Elkins, Caroline. 2005. Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya.
While Lenin's economic program benefited the Russians, particularly its working class, Stalin's economic program was advantageous for military personnel and industrialists. In fact, Stalin had changed the nature of USSR economy from being socialist to pseudo-capitalist, a reversal of Lenin's objectives. Thus, Stalinism in the Soviet Union had destroyed the nationalistic objective that Lenin had originally created for the Russian people and the Soviet allies.
Nikita Khrushchev's leadership after the rule of the Stalin government included the abolishment of the Soviet Union. Russia gradually assumed a capitalist economy, although the immediate reform that Khruschev implemented was the destruction of Stalin's Communist regime and its institutions. His administration focused on the abolishment of any trace of Stalin's authoritarian rule in the Soviet Union right after World War II. Russian morale at this time was at its lowest, what with the fall of the 'socialist experiment' and prevalence of poverty and hunger…
This is because resources available within the environment will provide all what is required for the state (Department of Environment, Food & ural affairs, 2013).
Many countries are same when it comes to the endowments of natural, human and physical capital. However, there is a difference when it comes to the economic development level that can be achieved in a particular country. There are three types of capital that can determine the economic growth process but in a partial manner however, there is a missing link between the three types of capital which is the social capital. Social capital is based on social norms and bonds which have an important role to play when it comes to sustainable development. Social capital emphasizes on the participation on a civic level as well as a horizontal association among people such as social networks. This is also through associated norms that…
Accenture.(2011). Government's role in Sustainable Development. Retrieved April 26,2013
Bayelsa state portal.(2013). Bayelsa State Sustainable Development Strategy. Retrieved April 26,2013 from http://bayelsa.gov.ng/portal/ministries-departments-agencies/agencies/bayelsa-state-sustainable-development-strategy
Department of Environment, Food & Rural affairs.(2013). Making sustainable development a part of all government policy and operations. Retrieved April 26,2013 from https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/making-sustainable-development-a-part-of-all-government-policy-and-operations
Fuzzy Logic-Based Control of Manufacturing Processes
Enormous advances in technology have made everyday life much easier. New developments within control systems have allowed for greater empowerment for individual devices, which often takes the burden off of the user. Among the many new technologies based on artificial intelligence, Fuzzy Logic Control System is the most popular and most applicable system. Almost in all domains, Fuzzy logic has a broad application area. It is safe to say that we can replace all control-based systems by Fuzzy Logic Control System. FCLS can be used in a great variety of commercial and industrial applications, showing its strength and prominence as a new technology prompt for future innovation.
Fuzzy Logic is a principle within artificial intelligence that is based primarily off the notion of logical reasoning that humans use daily in the context of the normal everyday lives. There are a number of instances where…
 Altrock, Constantin. (2012). Fuzzy Logic and NueroFuzzy Technologies in Appliances. Universidad de Antioquia. [Online] Available at http://ingenieria.udea.edu.co/investigacion/fuzzycon/FuzzyLogic/FuzzyLogicinAppliances.pdf
 Chen, Guanrong & Pham, Trung Tat. Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems. CRC Press. 2000.
 Dewy, Douglas. (2013). Fuzzy Logic. Omega Engineering. [Online]. Available at http://www.omega.com/techref/fuzzylogic.html
 Emami, Sarmasti, "Fuzzy Logic Applications in Chemical Processes," The Journal of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, 1(4), 339-348.
The state of Virginia may be considered a pioneer in wine making in that the very first wine cultivation experiments for the purpose of wine making were held here in the early 1600 (iancalana 2002). y the end of the 1800s, Virginia was already an important wine-producing state, although interrupted by prohibitionism. The industry was revived by local produces and investors who started investing on quality production again in the early 70s. Its present focus is mainly on Chardonnay, although the state also produces local varieties and hybrids as do other states in the east coast. Among its most important white hybrids are Seyval lanc, Vidal lanc and red hybrids Norton and Chambourcin. It also cultivates European species like Chardonnay, Riesling and Viognier for white species and Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and arbera for red species. The most important wine areas in Virginia are Eastern Shore, Shenandoah Valley, Northern…
Biancalana, a (2002). United States of America. ABC Wine: DiWine Taste. 11 pages. Retrieved February 1, 2007 at http://www.diwinetaste.com/dwt/en200622.pdf
2. Geisler, M. (2006). Wine industry profile. Agriculture. 5 pages. Marketing Resource Center
Insel B, et al. (2007). U.S. wine, grapes, and grape products contribute $162 billion to economy. Wine Institute. 4 pages. Retrieved February 1, 2007 at http://www.wineinstitute.org/industry/statistics/2006/us_wine_economic_impact.php
Summer, D.A. et al. (2001). An economic survey of the wine and the winegrape industry in the U.S.A. And Canada. University of California. 35 pages.
Environmental determinism has long been out of favor among historians and social scientists, although well into the 19th Century even the majority of Westerners were highly dependent on the climate and environment for their survival. Since the entire world economy was based on agriculture, a shortfall in harvests meant famines, epidemics and death for those who were at or below subsistence level. Such famines were a primary cause for the overthrow of the monarchy in France in 1789, for example, and they led to rebellions, riots and instability wherever they occurred. As late as the 1840s in Ireland, the great potato blight led to the death or immigration of half the population, and the near-destruction of Irish society. In the case of Easter Island, Norse Greenland and the Classic Maya civilization, climate change combined with deforestation and agricultural practices that destroyed the environment led to the total collapse…
Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (Penguin Books, 2006).
Demarest Arthur A.. Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Fagan, Brian M. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History (Basic Books, 2000).
Gill, Richardson B. The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death (University of New Mexico Press, 2000).
In clear connection with climate change, with the impossibility of plants to adapt, or their struggle to do so, is the economic effects global warming would have on the population and on Australia as a state entity. There are large parts of the continent that bases its subsistence on agricultural practices. It is by no means the sense of rural ancient agriculture; yet, despite the technologies at the disposal of the agricultural system, this may reduce its capability and productivity simply because the cropped plants cannot adapt to a different environment. In such a situation, the agricultural output is lowered and effects on the economy could become real in several decades. More precisely, "changes in precipitation and, subsequently water management, are particularly critical factors affecting the future productivity of the Australian landscape. The declines in precipitation projected over much of Australia will exacerbate existing challenges to water availability and quality…
CSIRO. Climate change impacts on Australia and benefits of early action to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. 2006. http://www.csiro.au/files/files/p6fy.pdf (accessed April 5, 2011).
Global Changes. Global Warming in Australia: A Climate Changing. 2009. (accessed April 5, 2011).
Litke, Mark. Global Warming Alarm: Doomsday for Australia? 2007. http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/GlobalWarming/story?id=2866985&page=1 (accessed April 5, 2011).
NOVA Science in the News. Australian Academy of Science. 2005. http://www.science.org.au/nova/091/091key.htm (accessed April 5, 2011).
From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.
Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.
This informative article demonstrates…
Weed's extensive article demonstrates that organic food growing is much more likely than other types of agriculture to take biodynamic consideration of soil and the need for retaining minerals and other helpful chemicals in the soil in which we grow food. If this is not paid attention to then organic and non-organic foods are both equally at risk of creating health problems.
Whole Foods Magazine. Whole Foods Natural Foods Guide: What Happens to Natural Food Products from Farmer to Consumer. Berkeley, California: and/or Press, 1979.
This work is an old standard, outlining the manner in which whole foods and natural foods meet consumer needs. This work is expansive and even includes recipes with handy shopping guides as well as demonstrative reasons why organic food growth is better for the body, the environment and communities.
China's Daughter of the River -- a Personal Snapshot of Memoir of Marxism's betrayal in the form of Maoism
Maoism is its own political animal. Maoism cannot be called synonymous with Marxism, Leninism, or even the communism as previously envisioned in the Soviet Union and the other communist nations of the past century. When one considers how communism functioned in the nation of China from the years of 1962 to 1989, as described in the prose and envisioned in the images of Hong Ying's Daughter of the River, this thesis becomes crystalline clear as the river of the title.
Ying's book is an autobiography and memoir, not a political text. It was written when the author was in her thirties although it is told form the retrospective of an eighteen-year-old. Yet Ying's narrative makes clear that the China of the author's experiences did not live up to Marxist ideals. Marxist…
Farmland to Deserts
A lot of arable land is increasingly turning into deserts nowadays. Many reasons are attributed to this tendency. According to UNESCO (2011) in a new technique to halt desert encroachment, taking a close look at China for instance, the rate of desertification has risen to world environmental organizations concern. This is because the rate of farmland deterioration has risen in china to 2460km2 per year. Among the causes of farmland deterioration to deserts are:
Intensive agriculture; overproduction from the same land is causing arable farmlands to convert to deserts as a result of nutrients in the soil being exhausted and not being replenished. The ultimate result has been the farmland becoming unproductive thus explaining desertification is on the increase.
Population pressure; UNESCO (2011) points out one this as one of the causes and effects of desert encroachment, too many people in a small piece of land results…
National Geographic (2011). Modern Day Plague. Retrieved July 29, 2011 from http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation-overview/
Society for Ecological Restoration, (2011). Desert/Arid Land. Retrieved July 29, 2011
UNESCO, (2011). A new Technique to Halt Desert Encroachment: Shelterbelts
Dirt is a documentary film about, as the title suggests, dirt. It may seem funny to make a whole movie about dirt, but as the filmmakers show, the dirt we take for granted in the ground is the foundation of all life. The movie was based on a book that describes dirt as "the skin of the earth," which is one way of looking at this surface material. Like skin, the dirt breathes. It is like the surface organ of the planet. As such, dirt needs to be respected. The film, narrated by food activist and actor Jamie Lee Curtis, elevates dirt to a political level by showing how modern agro-business has neutered or killed dirt, rendering parts of the globe infertile.
Dirt is not "dirty" in the sense that it is unclean. Rather, dirt is filled with energy and potency. People who have gardens are at least…
globalizing trends and at emphasizing the fact that modern agricultural practices harm the social order instead of helping it. The thesis is easy to find and it provides readers with the ability to gain a more complex understanding of the article as a whole.
The thesis is aimed at raising public awareness with regard to the apparently positive agricultural reforms occurring throughout the world. The writer obviously wants people to employ more thought into the system's tendency to destroy traditional establishments in favor of creating things that actually play a negative role in the context of world hunger.
The work addresses counterarguments by relating to how many institutions invest large amounts of resources in monocultures. These respective companies claim that this is the solution to poverty and hunger across the planet. However, the practices actually disturb natural balance and are likely to make things worse.
Globalization, growing population, Third-World. Globalization…
Like the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are frequently described as the “cradle of civilization,” references to the “gift of the Nile River” in Egypt are likewise commonplace. To determine the reasons why, this paper provides a discussion concerning this statement in relation to the river system of agriculture, the people, riverine culture, worship and trade. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the Nile River are presented in the conclusion.
Nile River and Agriculture
At around 4,250 miles long, many people know that the Nile River is the longest river in the world, but far fewer fully understand the importance of this river system on the lives of the hundreds of millions of people who live along its pathways through the eleven countries that comprise the more than 1,293,000 square miles of the Nile River basin (see map at Appendix A) (Arah 109). All of these countries…
The land was already suffering from the eradication of grass because of cattle-farming, the natural balance of the ecosystem had been destroyed as a result of the tyranny and greed of man, and now the land, starving, ate the farmers alive. Dust pneumonia killed men and women living on soil that only a few years ago had yielded wild profits during the wheat boom, when the rest of the world had suffered a wheat shortage.
There is something poignantly human about the attitude towards money and profit in the farmers that everyone can relate to -- how can something that once was so profitable suddenly evaporate, after all? How could the climate change so quickly -- it seemed impossible? Also, vibrant settlements had been built up around the area, after all. These were not small, isolated farming towns in many cases, but true communities that had been enriched by the…
Egan, Timothy. The Worst Hard Time: The Untold Story of Those Who Survived the Great
American Dust Bowl. Houghton Mifflin, 2005
I have worked in research and DNA analysis in formal laboratory analysis, and believe in the paradigm of lifelong learning.
I am a lifelong student, and each year realize how many wonderful new ideas need exploring; how many exciting and vital places visited through reading; and how much joy I receive simply by having the right set of tools that allow me to read, research, study, analyze, and make decisions based on information. At present, I am studying the physiology of reproduction and assist in laboratory research with Drs. Forrest and Talcott. This technical expertise well qualifies me for the position, although it is my passion for expanding the understanding and synthesis of learning about science that can help BGS expand its membership and relevance for society at large.
The task, then, of a modern leader at any level is to be a good corporate citizen, practicing the very tenants…
EQI in Siwa
Environmental Quality International (EQI) in Siwa
Environmental Quality International in SIA
This essay examines project risk management challenges faced by Environmental Quality International (EQI) in furthering the Siwa Sustainable Development Initiative.
EQI, a private Egyptian development firm, was tasked with promoting sustainable development projects. The firm launched a project in SIA consisting of several commercial ventures intended to promote economic development, while at the same time meeting EQI's objectives of maintaining Siwa's environment and revitalizing its cultural heritage. EQI intended the project to keep Siwa's culture, traditions and heritage intact as much as possible. EQI planned to do this by combining the wisdom, skills, and creativity of Siwa's local community with modern expertise that would result in a model of sustainable development (Story, 2009).
The Siwa initiatives consisted of a series of projects that took advantage of the Andrere Amellal (hite Mountain in the native Siwa language)…
Ibrahim, S.O. (2001). Towards environmentally sustainable development of Siwa through NGO-Government partnership." Matrouh Governate. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from: http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/english/main/Env2003/Day1/PublicPrivate/said.scdec.pdf
Nakla, M. (2007). The role of the private sector in local development -- The Siwa experience. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from: http://www.euromedina.org/bibliotheque_fichiers/DeadSea_MounirNakhla2.pdf
Story, J. (2009 April). Environmental quality international in Siwa. INSEAD-Rensselaer.
Global warming, or more accurately, climate change, is the phenomenon that has been scientifically observed over repeated studies that the planet is experiencing warming and changing climates at a pace much more rapid that has been observed in any prior era. The increase in the pace of the climate change has been correlated with the coming of the industrial age, and in particular with the mass adoption of fossil fuels. The burning of hydrocarbons to create energy unleashes a chemical reaction that ends with carbon entering the atmosphere, where it then traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to the warming process. This paper will outline this process and the evidence supporting the fact of anthropogenic global warming.
Observations of Climate Change
The first step in understanding climate change is understanding how it is determined to be occurring. Weather is an observable phenomenon, and over a long period of time…
Antonio, R. & Brulle, A. (2011). The unbearable lightness of politics: climate change denial and political polarization. The Sociological Quarterly. Vol. 52 (2011) 195-202.
Cox, P., Betts, R., Jones, C., Spall, S. & Totterdell, I. (2000). Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate change model. Nature. Vol. 408 (9 November 2000) 184-187.
Crowley, T. (2000). Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science. Vol. 289 (14 July 2000), 270-277.
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S., Clausen, H. Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Hammer, C., & Oeschger, H. (1984). North Atlantic climate oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity.
Technological advances have impacted every area of human existence on almost every area of the planet, with few exceptions. Nearly every aspect of daily mundane life is affected by technology, including communication and transportation. However, one area of daily life is even more impacted and transformed than others. That area is food and eating. Food production has changed dramatically since the Industrial Age. Indeed, since the invention of the cotton gin, all agricultural practices have depended on technologies that have gone far beyond ox carts and donkeys. Mechanical food production increased food outputs, and greater yields have subsequently improved health and livelihoods for large groups of people. However, the fusion of technology and food production has not been completely positive. There are many negative repercussions of using technology at every stage of food production, and the integration of technology and food proves political and highly controversial. Problems such as…
Ball, M. (2014). Want to know if your food is genetically modified? The Atlantic. 14 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/features/archive/2014/05/want-to-know-if-your-food-is-genetically-modified/370812/
Flandrin, J. & Montanari, M. (2013). Today and tomorrow: Conclusion to Food: A Cultural History. Columbia University Press.
Pedrocco, G. (2013). The food industry and new preservation techniques. Chapter 36 in Food: A Cultural History. Columbia University Press.
Pollan, M. (2007). The Omnivore's Dilemma. New York: Penguin.
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
Green Sourcing Process for Mcdonalds French Fries
McDonald is a global and largest food chain specializing in fast food with more than 68 million customers. The company operates in 36,658 outlets across 119 countries. Major brands of Macdonald include French fries, cheeseburgers, hamburgers, chicken products, breakfast items, desserts, milkshakes and soft drinks. However, Mcdonald's French fries is the world most famous fries produced from premium potatoes, Shepody and usset Burbank. Mcdonald has been successful from selling the French fries because their fries are made up of one-third of French fries sold in the United States. In the last few years, Mcdonald has faced criticisms because of inability to follow green initiatives when procuring the ingredients used to prepare the French fries.
The purpose of this document is to provide recommendations to assist Mcdonald completing the Green Sourcing process for French fries. The report uses the following steps in providing the…
Blome, C. Hollos, D. & Paulraj, A. (2014). Green Procurement and Green Supplier Development: Antecedents and Effects on Supplier. International Journal of Production Research. 52( 1): 32 -- 49.
Birkin, F. Polesie, T. Lewis, L. (2009). A new business model for sustainable development: an exploratory study using the theory of constraints in Nordic organizations. Business Strategy and the Environment 18(5): 277 -- 290.
ESRC. (2008). Biological Alternatives To Chemical Pesticides. Sciencedaily. Economic & Social Research Council.
Greaves, J. (2015). Biopesticides, regulatory innovation & the regulatory state. University of Warwick.
This is challenging, as it will require Whole Foods to continue to adapt in order to make themselves stand out. Prices can have a negative impact on the firm's bottom line results. This is occurring through increasing costs on the wholesale level and tremendous amounts of discounting. Over the course of time, these factors can hurt the company's earnings and ability to maintain their competitive position. ("Global Food etailing Industry," 2013) (Burch, 2007) ("Annual Stakeholders eports," 2012)
Clearly, ABC should integrate with Whole Foods. This will allow the company to maintain its market share and augment the products they are selling into the firm's strategy. At the same time, the management team could help Whole Foods to more effectively address the challenges they are facing from: increased competition and pricing. This will enable both firms to take advantage of each other's cost structure and create a unique atmosphere which…
2011 Supermarket Trends. (2011). Seeking Alpha. Retrieved from: http://seekingalpha.com/article/247930-2011-supermarket-trends-good-for-food-manufacturers-and-retailers-tough-for-consumers
Annual Stakeholders Reports. (2012). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Company%20Info/PDFs/2012-WFM_Annual_Report.pdf
Company Info. (2013). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company-info#
Global Food Retailing Industry. (2013). Reporter Link. Retrieved from: http://www.reportlinker.com/ci02212/Food-Retailing.html
Some of the key examples of where geospatial information can be important are during emergency responses during natural disasters especially for purposes of evacuation arrangement, and damage estimation assignments. MarcFarlane (2005) indicates that it is important to use geoinformatics to prevent disasters rather than try to deal with them after they happen. Geoinformatics assists those involved in the emergency processes by providing the necessary data and giving appropriate plans on how and from what point the hit areas should be approached. This makes the whole process convenient and effective since there is no time wasted in guessing the steps to take and the actions taken are accurate and appropriate (Oosterom et al. 2005). It has to be noted however that there are a number of difficulties that are faced in using geoinformatics to manage disaster as explained by Zerger & Smith (2003).
The transport network in any region is highly…
Cutter, S.L., et al. (Eds) (2003). Geographical dimensions of terrorism. London: Routledge.
DeMers, M.N. (1997). Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. New York: Wiley.
Greene, R.w. (2002). Confronting catastrophe: A GIS handbook. Redlands: ESRI Press.
Jha, M.M. & Singh, R.B. (Eds.) (2008). Land Use-Reflection on Spatial Informatics, Agriculture and Development. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.
The coelation between coopeative initiation and eceptive tendencies, howeve, is much weake" (p. 32).
The oveiding theme that emeges fom all of the foegoing analytical models is the fact that although intenational conflicts and be effectively modeled and deconstucted in ode to gain a bette undestanding of the pecipitating factos and how they play out in eal-wold settings, they do not necessaily povide the insights needed to develop esolutions to these conflicts no do they povide peemptive altenatives that could stop the conflict fom stating in the fist place. Indeed, epidemiologists use compaable techniques to undestanding how disease pocesses evolve and spead thoughout a human population, but diffeent techniques ae equied to develop coesponding cues and teatments fo thei diseases. Similaly, the analysis of intenational conflicts that is needed to help decision-makes identify viable solutions will equie an additional and supplemental type of analytical methodology.
Given the potential fo death…
references. New York: United Nations University Press.
Bercovitch, J. (1999). Resolving international conflicts: The theory and practice of mediation.
Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Kenneth B. (1962). Conflict and defense. New York: Harper and Row.
Goertz, G. & Diehl, P.F. (1992). Territorial changes and international conflict. New York:
(A Mosel iesling, 2011)
The region in which German iesling grapes are grown is centered on the valleys of the Mosel iver, especially along two of the Mosel tributaries, the uwer and the Saar. These valleys are far from rolling: The valleys along the Mosel are steep, so much so that they might seem (if they were not already planted with vines) to seem too steep to support viticulture. These hillsides are also relatively steep, which is one of the most important elements in what makes German ieslings acquire their specific identity. The higher altitude at which the grapes are grown translates into a cooler microclimate for the grapes, which lengthens the period that it takes for the grapes to ripen. This is one of the fundamentals of German ieslings (Dawson & Molesworth, 2011).
The soil type in the Mosel Valley also affects the taste of the ieslings produced from…
Asimov, E. (2010). A German Riesling that embodies spring. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/14/dining/reviews/14wine.html?pagewanted=all .
Asimov, E. (2011). Deep lakes, icy climate, great wine. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/12/dining/from-the-finger-lakes-seriously-good-wines.html?pagewanted=all
Asimov, E. (2011b). Alsatian Rieslings Return to Form. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/31/dining/reviews/dry-rieslings-from-alsace-review.html?pagewanted=all
Berger, D. (2007). The coming Riesling resurgence: Finger Lakes wines are hands up leaders. http://wine.appellationamerica.com/wine-review/439/Finger-Lake-Rieslings.html
The reality of modern life is that everything has a carbon footprint.
This is why it is important to offset it.
In Carbonica we don't believe in emission credits or permissible levels of carbon emissions.
We believe that the only acceptable level of emissions is zero.
We also believe that trees are the only true carbon offset and Nature's very efficient method of carbon capture.
We would like to help people like you make a difference, and with Carbonica you can become a zero footprint individual and make a positive contribution to the environment.
This mission statement exhibits the opposite problem from the earlier example; it is exhaustive, but it is neither brief nor efficient. It does make clear what services the organization gives (planting trees), but it does not specify how the organization accomplishes that objective until the sixth paragraph: "Our mission is to plant trees and fund multi-story…
PESTEL Analysis for Uzebekistan
Uzbekistan is located in Central Asia and was a part of the former USS. Agriculture is one of the primary occupations and it is the second largest exporter of cotton in the world. It also produces significant amounts of gold, silver, copper and natural gas.
PESTEL stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal factors that can affect the operations of a business. These factors have to be considered before a company explores new markets to understand the risks and profits that are likely to result from its operations.
In Uzbekistan, the political factors play a prominent role because the Government exercises strict control over all parts of the economy and stifles the growth of private sector because of the dilution of control. "The Soviet Union -- and hence its constituent republics such as Uzbekistan -- had what is referred to as…
Uzbekistan. 2010. International Monetary Fund. Available at: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=927&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=31&pr.y=5
Sicherman, Harvey; Libel, Joyce. (2005). Uzbekistan. Transaction publishers, New Jersey.
Making a Difference for Entreprenuers. 2011. The World Bank and the International Finance Corporation. Available at: http://www.doingbusiness.org/~/media/fpdkm/doing%20business/documents/profiles/country/db11/uzb.pdf
No author. 2010. 'Foreign Investment Climate.' Uzbekistan Country review. Pp60-64.
Healthy People 2020
eview of Three Articles from Healthy People 2020
The goal of improved global health is to strengthen U.S. national security through global disease detection, response, prevention, and control strategies. Threats to health in one part of the world may have far reaching consequences that impact public health across the globe. The 2003 SAS epidemic and the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak are recent examples. Furthermore, improving the health of the global population promotes political stability, diplomacy, and economic growth worldwide.
The world and its economies are increasingly interdependent and international travel and commerce is becoming more prevalent. Expanding international trade introduces new health risks. A complex international distribution chain has resulted in potential international outbreaks due to food borne infections, poor quality pharmaceuticals, and contaminated consumer goods. Since the 1970s one or more new diseases have been identified annually. apid identification and control of emerging infectious…
"Early and middle childhood." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=10
"Global health." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=16
"Immunization and infectiuos diseases." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicId=23
Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, . )
The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…
Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm
Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury
Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
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