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Other aircrafts in the category of A380, produced in the last few years, included the A350, oeing 777, oeing 787 and the other 747's. GKN and other similarly-motivated companies have been focused on reducing harmful acoustic emissions of aircraft jet engines (Hilpern).
UK Prime Minister Tony lair endorsed the report made by economist Sir Nicholas Stern on October 30, 2006 about the global economy shrinking by 20% because of global warming (C News 2007). In his 700-page study, Stern said, however, that taking appropriate measures now would incur only 1% of the world's gross domestic product. Prime Minister lair used the scientific evidence on global warming from Stern's report to describe the phenomenon as "overwhelming" and its consequences as "disastrous." At about the same time, the United Nations released information on the rising volume of emissions of greenhouse gases, which would affect rich countries more. Among the most immediate responses…
BBC News (2007). Climate change fight "can't wait." 6 web pages. BBC.co.uk: British Broadcasting Corporation
Hilpern, K (2005). Flying towards a greener future. 4 pages. The (London) Independent: Independent Newspapers UK Limited
Lean, G. (2006). Green taxes don't have to be a punishment. 2 pages. The Independent on Sunday: Independent Newspapers UK Limited
2000). Airlines called to account over pollution. 2 pages. The (London) Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC
It states how airlines knowing the risk of pulmonary embolism had completely avoided "providing the proper seats, equipment and warnings to the traveling public who are totally within their care and control while on board the aircraft" (Louis S. Franecke, Esq.).
Out of the three websites, the last one which I visited was a long read and the information in it did not relate to my situation. It was focused more upon the fact that air travel increases the risk of pulmonary embolism but the airlines did nothing to solve the issue. Although it did deal with air travel and pulmonary embolism, the information in it was not well presented and it addressed to other issues not related to me. I spent about 1 hour reading through the three websites. The second website, being the news article did address to my issue but to check whether it had anything to…
1) Anonymous - Longer Flights and Winter Tied to Increased Blood Clot Risk. [Online website] Available at http://www.mercola.com/2001/sep/22/blood_clot_risks.htm [Accessed on: 25/10/2005]
2) Roni Rabin - Pulmonary embolism can kill the young, too. [Online website] Available at http://www.newsday.com/news/columnists/ny-hsrabin0518,0,5886796.column?coll=ny-health-columnists [Accessed on: 25/10/2005]
3) Louis S. Franecke, Esq. - Pulmonary Embolism Caused By Blood Clotting on Airline Flights -- A Legal Perspective. [Online website] Available from: www.sfms.org/sfm/sfm302c.htm[Accessed on: 25/10/2005]
4) Frederic Lapostolle, M.D., et al. - Severe Pulmonary Embolism Associated with Air Travel. The New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 345:779-783, September 13, 2001
Bringing Quality Back to Commercial Air Travel
In 1988, ten years after deregulation of the aviation industry in the U.S., Gourdin's article titled "Bringing Quality Back to Commercial Air Travel" was published in the Transportation Journal. The article gives a good overview into the way that the aviation industry has developed following deregulation. The article focuses on quality issues, demonstrating the way in which interpretation and satisfaction of quality issues varies across the three main stakeholders; the carriers themselves, passengers, and the government (Gourdin, 1988). This is an interesting piece written by the author using their knowledge, therefore, when reviewing this article it should be noted that it is more of an opinion piece rather than a research article found in peer reviewed journals.
When examining the article, it maybe argued that although Gourdin obviously has a strong knowledge of the airline industry, and the way it operates, that…
Barley, Stephen R. (2006), When I Write My Masterpiece: Thoughts On What Makes A Paper Interesting, Academy Of Management Journal, 49(1), 16 -- 20
Baye Michael, (2007), Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Clemes, Michael D; Gan, Christopher; Kao, Tzu-Hui; Choong, Michelle, (2008), An empirical analysis of customer satisfaction in international air travel, Innovative Marketing, 4(2), 49-57
Gourdin Kent N; Kloppenborg, Timothy J, (1991), Identifying Service Gaps in Commercial Air Travel: The First Step Toward Quality Improvement, Transportation Journal, 31(1), 22-30
boom of commercial air travel peaked in the late sixties and early seventies, the cost levied by the most popular and powerful airlines had virtually no standard of limitation. There was little competition in Great Britain for economic command of the air industry. British Parliament's cozy relationship with British Airways ensured a monopolistic situation in which the consumer was not offered the advantages of a competitive market. This changed for a brief period in 1971 when Freddie Laker, former managing director of British United Airways, unveiled some of the groundbreaking features of his fledgling Laker Airways.
Freddie Laker, millionaire maverick of commercial traveling, fashioned his airline around a fleet of modern jet airliners, derived of the highest technological standards of the time. This did not prevent him from providing stripped down, affordable flights. Laker's entrepreneurial notion, pioneering in its execution of the obvious and necessary, set out "to launch a…
Stigum, Marcia. The Money Market. Dow Jones-Irwin, 1990. 4315.1 Forward Rate Agreements.
Laker, Sir Freddie
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Air Cargo Security
Since the events of 911, airport security has been an important issue. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)" is responsible for ensuring the security of all modes of transportation, including cargo placed aboard airplaines and particularly focuses on passenger-carrying planes" (TSA). The TSA is part of the Department of Homeland Security. According to the latest information available, the TSA employs 620 Cargo Transportation Security Inspectors who are exclusively dedicated to the oversight of air cargo. One hundred twenty of these are canine teams. The numbers of security inspectors and canine teams has increased significantly since 2006 (TSA).
Obviously, no one wants to see another tragedy. Terrorism continues to be a threat and security measures must try to keep pace with ever-changing strategies that terrorists try to employ. There has been much in the news about passenger screening, x-ray technology, and rights to privacy. Passengers do not present the…
Beesley, A. (2010). Call for tighter security on air cargo worldwide. Irish Times 11/6/2010.
Dutton, G. (2010). Industry braces for 100% air cargo screening. World Trade 23(5), pp.
Harris, D. (2010). Air cargo security. Good Morning America (ABC), 10/31/2010.
46). To date, though, these reforms have not materialized and the air traffic control system remains mired in the FAA bureaucracy (McDougall & oberts, 2008). In this regard, Poole (2008) emphasizes that, "[the air traffic control system] is managed by an unwieldy government bureaucracy, micromanaged by Congress, and subjected to the ups and downs of the federal budget process. And as air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system is less and less able to keep pace" (p. 11).
Based on the importance of sound air traffic control systems, there have been a number of studies conducted to determine the primary causes of existing air traffic control system deficiencies. The research to date has identified five main causes as follows:
1. Procurement: cumbersome federal procurement processes end up taking five to seven years to acquire new radar and computer systems -- at a time when a new generation…
Deitz, S.R. & Thoms, W.E. (1999). Pilots, personality, and performance:
Human behavior and stress in the skies. New York: Quorum Books Jacko, J.A. & Sears, a. (2003). The human-computer interaction handbook:
Fundamentals, evolving technologies, and emerging applications.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Travelling and Tourism contributes to U.S. Economy
How travelling and tourism contribute to U.S. economy
United States Department of Commerce
Commerce Department Data Show U.S. Travel and Tourism Exports Contributed $87.1 Billion to U.S. Economy in First Six Months of 2013
The official website of the U.S. Department of Commerce takes keen interest in finding who enters the country for the purpose of traveling and tourism and what is the impact of traveling on the economy of the country. The department oversees International Trade Administration. It is found that the international investors contribute multibillions to the economy of country every year. During the month of June this year, the international investors contribute about $14.6 billion. The contribution is increasing every year and from June 2012 to June 2013, the investment increased about 5%. The role of international travelers and tourists is positive on the economy of USA. Only…
Guido, C., and Paolo, F. "The Economics of Tourism Destinations," Springer. (2012).
International Trade Administration. Year-to-date U.S. travel and tourism exports contribute $72.6 billion to the U.S. economy, (2013). Retrieved from: http://trade.gov/press/press-releases/2013/year-to-date-us-travel-and-tourism-exports-contribute-72-billion-to-the-us-economy-071013.asp
Independent. Keeping nine per cent rate good for jobs, tourism and economy, (2013). Retrieved
The NAAP structural integrity program includes three tests including Widespread Fatigue Damage (WFD), Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) and DTA based airframe repair assessment. The supplemental inspection programs of the FAA ensure that commercial airlines fulfill the structural safety requirements. Any structural defects that are observed during the normal operation of an airplane or those that are revealed after an accident are issued as Airworthiness Directives (AD). The FAA periodically conducts certification reviews and aircrafts that report recurrent problems due to design issues will require compulsory design modifications. [FAA]
6. What is the purpose of flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders? How are they be used for accident-prevention purposes?
Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders are very useful tools that can be used to understand the events that lead to the accident. Familiarly known as the 'black boxes' these units are helpful for aircraft investigators in reconstructing the disaster.…
1) Alexander T. wells, Clarence C. Rodriguez, (2003) 'Commercial Aviation Safety', Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill.
2) NASA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System', retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/overview/summary.html
3) NBAA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)' retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, http://www.nbaa.org/ops/safety/asrs/
4) NTSB (2002) 'National Transportation Safety Board: Aviation investigation manual Major team investigations', retrieved Apr 6th 2010 from, http://www.ntsb.gov/Aviation/Manuals/MajorInvestigationsManual.pdf
The cost to run an airline is not cheap by far. Millions and millions of dollars are being spent every. In fact, the Middle Seat requested U.S. Airways and referring firm Oliver Wyman to crunch airline expenditures down to the percentages that an individual passenger earns, taking a difficult look at expenditures of running an air company. With that said, this essay will explain what expenses and costs face today's air industry and also evaluate what the current fuel costs due to the industry and how they affect the ticket prices and the patrons' flying occurrences.
Fuel and Labor
Research shows that Fuel is considered to be the most vital operating expenditure of a commercial airline (28%), the next is by labor (25%). Furthermore, studies show that Labor represents about 75% of all non-fixed prices of airline procedures (Airlines for America, 2015). Downsizings are therefore the first strategy…
Given that the profitability rate is already very low and that other costs have already been cut, the only practical response to rising fuel costs (assuming that they do not fall drastically very quickly) is to raise fares.
This will be problematic for the company, of course, since it has established as its major selling point the fact that it offers the lowest fares possible. However, having to raise fares is something that will no doubt happen at other companies as well since all companies will be affected. Thus it is entirely possible that the company will be able to raise fares and yet remain the lowest priced company in its market (Creaton, 2007, p. 48).
While rising fuel costs are the most significant costs that are beyond the control of the company, other external factors can have important impacts as well. Among potential issues in terms of overall costs…
Bamber, G.J., Gittell, J.H., Kochan, T.A. & von Nordenflytch, a. (2009). Up in the Air: How Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging their Employees. New York: Cornell University Press.
Creaton, S. (2007). Ryanair: The Full Story of the Controversial Low-Cost Airline. Dublin: Aurum.
Davies, R. (2011, March 7.) Soaring Fuel Costs Spark New Airline Fees: Sky-High Fuel Costs Are Behind Recent Fee Hikes. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Travel/soaring-fuel-costs-spark-airline-fees/story?id=13077127 .
Arumemi-Ikhide believes that Arik can succeed due to a combination of the opportunity -- helped by economic and air transport reforms in Nigeria -- and the capability to deliver a high quality product." (Dunn, 2009) Also stated by Arumemi-Ikhide is that this "will be a key in differentiating it in the international market and providing feeder traffic. That will be the lifeline for the international network. That's what sets up apart from our rivals." (Dunn, 2009)
Martin Russell states in the report entitled: "Arik Air: The Future of African Aviation" that both the "internal opinion of African air travel and that of onlookers overseas was bleak before the arrival of Nigeria's newest treasure, Arik Air." (2008) Russell states that the aviation industry is African is "hampered by somewhat less predictable weather and frequent storms" resulting in aviation in African being "far from predictable with temperamental skies that readily…
Nigeria's air traffic grows by 31% during 2008; defies global slump (2009) TradeInvest Nigeria Thu, 05 Mar 2009. Online available at: http://www.tradeinvestnigeria.com/news/957188.htm
Lawal, Lateef (2009)FG Invests Over N7b In Air Navigation, Safety, Search & Rescue - Nigeria Masterweb Daily News. Online available at: http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/blog/
More Frequencies to Foreign Airlines Put Nigerian Carriers at Risk (2009) The Guardian -- Travels 17 Jul 2009. Online available at: http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/travels/article01//indexn2_html?pdate=170709&ptitle=More%20frequencies%20to%20foreign%20airlines%20put%20Nigerian%20carriers%20at%20risk
Dunn, Graham (2009) Arik Air: Pressing Ahead with International Plans. 3 June 2009. Airline Business. Online available at: http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/03/06/323508/arik-air-pressing-ahead-with-international-plans.html
It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.
Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.
The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.
Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…
Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002
IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm
Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
Greyhound is part of the travel services industry, providing intercity travel within the United States as well as travel packages and mail services. The environment that Greyhound operates in his been effected by the events of September 11. The safety concerns, the decline in air travel and the decline in international travel creates opportunities for Greyhound. In the current environment, there would be increased interest in travel arrangements other than air travel. This creates an opportunity for Greyhound to take advantage of the situation and promote its services. The main problem that Greyhound faces is how to maintain current demand after the environment has stabilized. After analyzing the various problems and the future scenarios the recommendation is that Greyhound expand its services and create an extensive marketing campaign to promote its services. To ensure that increased demand is maintained there should also be a focus on ensuring new customers become…
Billsberry, J. The Effective Manager: Perspectives and Illustrations. London: Sage, 2000.
CNN. "Explosives found in Philadelphia bus station." CNN.COM. October 19, 2001. http://www.cnn.com/2001/U.S./10/19/philadelphia.explosives/index.html
Daft, R.L. Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press, 1997.
Greyhound Lines Inc. "Greyhound Company Profile." Greyhound Lines Inc., 2002. http://www.greyhound.com/company/profile.shtml
Most application of economic policy is done on either the national, supranational or subnational scales. Seldom is economic policy enacted on the non-national scale. Yet, there is the question of whether there is benefit to applying economic doctrine to space exploration. There is a corollary, in Antarctica, where various nations have signed a treaty committing to scientific activity only on that continent, and not economic activity. Yet, realistically, with space the horse is well out of the barn. Nations all over the world have launched satellites, thus far, and the more powerful nations have engaged in a broader scope of scientific exploration. Yet, the question still exists, as to whether any economic system should be applied to space, space exploration and the terrorities that exist in space. And if so, what should that economic system look like? This paper will start to explore this concept in more detail, from…
Banner Health is a non-profit health care company, operating in 23 states. Its facilities provide a number of different types of care. Banner is based in Phoenix, and Arizona is home to a large portion of the company's operations. Over the course of the next decade, the baby boom generation will continue to enter its senior years something that will challenge the health care industry nationwide. The challenge will especially be felt in a state like Arizona, where many people go to retire. Banner's strategic objectives include lowering costs, providing high quality care and an excellent patient experience ("About Us," 2015). Banner has more than 3000 providers and the network has over 400,000 members.
Banner's vision incorporates the need to handle the growing population of elderly, with their many health needs. Banner has, for example, built out a large facility in Boulder, CO, as a means of not…
"About Us" (2015). Banner Health Network. Retrieved November 17, 2015 from https://www.bannerhealthnetwork.com/about/who
Armbrister, M. (2012). Just what is Banner Health planning? Biz West. Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://bizwest.com/just-what-is-banner-health-planning/
Banner Health (2012). Five community organizations will share $4.9 million grant to enhance Arizona's health care workforce PR News Wire. Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/five-community-organizations-will-share-49-million-grant-to-enhance-arizonas-health-care-workforce-159027625.html
Monegain, B. (2015). Banner Health, Cerner tackle big change. Health Care IT News Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/banner-health-cerner-take-big-change
Everest was no longer just a motivational cliche, it was also a commercial venture, and those running such ventures had little incentive to turn climbers away, even overly idealistic and incompetent amateurs.
Boyhood dreams die hard, I discovered, and good sense be damned" said Krakauer when given the opportunity to make the climb (Krakauer 31). This attitude, on the surface, seems admirable. e as a society admire people who set lofty goals. But setting lofty goals can come at a great cost to others. e sacrifice time with our loved ones to study hard or work late, for example. The climbers on the team sacrificed their time and wages to train and scale the heights of the mountain. Before the expedition met with disaster, friends and loved ones praised many of the climbers for their single-minded pursuit of the peak. This fueled their ambition.
Of course, every time someone sets…
Krakauer, Jon. Into Thin Air. Anchor 1998.
There might be a tendency for social interactions to center around traveling between locations in a convoy, much like groups of motorcycle riders do today. Neighborhood airstrips might strengthen communities by giving many residents reason to come to a common area. There might also be a harmful effect due to people being less inclined to spend time in their own neighborhoods.
My personal life would not be greatly affected by the availability of a $50,000 aircraft. I do not have $50,000 to spend on a vehicle, nor do most people I know. The people I do know who could afford such an aircraft have little use for one, so I would probably have little more interaction with personal aircraft than I currently do with small planes. Assuming I did own a personal aircraft, it would make it practical for me to seek out business opportunities in towns that are currently…
Airscooter. "Airscooter II: Back to the Future of Rotor Craft Design" http://www.airscooter.com/pages/airscooter_main.htm
Boyle, Alan. "Seven flights of fancy that fizled." MSNBC, 17, Nov. 2003. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3475918/
Cessna 150-152 Club "Safety FAQ's. http://www.cessna150-152.com/faqs/safety.htm
Ericg. "Cessna 172." Wikipedia, 18, Apr 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cessna_172
" (1999) eported as being potential dimensions for disaggregation are those of "market, season, month, week, section of week, segment, and itinerary." (McGill and yzin, 1999)
American Airlines experienced dramatic growth when other airlines were going bankrupt through increasing its capacity. American Airlines is reported as a prime example of an airline that grew successfully during the years that TWA and other failed. United Airlines held a strong financial position as well that assisted the airlines in weathering the reduction of flights and a steep decline in travel while other airlines failed miserably winding up in bankruptcy. American Airlines managed to bring about a reduction in costs while other airlines including TWA simply could not find a way to reduce costs, which was further stressed by the airlines lack of a solid financial base. In the airlines industry, just as in other industries the ability to profit on a higher…
Dempsey, Paul Stephen (2008) the Financial Performance of the Airline Industry Post-Regulation. Symposium 2008. No. 2 Vol. 45. Retrieved from: http://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/sites/mcgill.ca.iasl/files/ASPL614_Industry_PostDeregulation-Houston.pdf
McGill, JI and Van Ryzin, GJ (1999) Transportation Science. Vol. 23, No.2. Retrieved from: http://ben-israel.rutgers.edu/711/McGill-VanRyzin.pdf
Tolkin, J. (2010) Airline Bankruptcy: The Determining Factors Leading to an Airline's Decline Claremont Colleges Scholarship @ Claremont. Fall 2010. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1088&context=cmc_theses
This focus on the positive benefits of consumer word of mouth behaviour is a natural tendency. I certainly like to think that positive comments have a greater impact on my decisions than negative comments. In fact, the respondents to the survey reported that the two factors that had the biggest impact on their airline choices were comparison-shopping on the Internet (38%) and personal recommendations from an acquaintance on Facebook or Twitter (42%). but, although personal recommendations have a clear impact on choices, the question is whether positive comments have a greater impact than negative comments. This distinction has not yet been made with regard to word of mouth marketing effects. The U.S. national election in 2004 was viewed by many as the most negative in recent memory (Johnson, 2011). Why would hard-nosed politicians with limited budgets invest so much in negative advertising if positive comments had greater impact on behaviour?…
Arnold, S.E., 2010. Twitter can lower marketing costs -- how to put the cost effective service to good use, Smart Business San Diego.
Brown, J., Broderick, a.J. And Lee, N., 2007. Word of mouth communication within online communities: conceptualizing the online social network, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(3), pp.2-20;
Curran, James M. 2011. Lennon, Ron. Participating in the Conversation: Exploring Usage of Social Media Networking Sites. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, Vol. 15.
Doganis, Rigas. The Airline Business in the Twenty-First Century. Book by Routledge, 2010.
Commuting for Clean Air
Commuter choice programs are noble efforts to reduce air pollution and they will certainly help to improve air quality. For example, one study of fifty-eight pilot projects in southern California concluded that financial incentives/disincentives are the most consistently effective and cost effective group of projects (Commuter Choice Primer). And, according to the Commuter Choice Primer, the Transit Cooperative Research oard studied fifty employers throughout the United States and found that employers that combined both enhanced alternatives such as vanpool provision with incentives or disincentives such as vanpool subsidies realized an average trip reduction of 24.5%. However, it's naive to believe that commuter choice programs are a total solution for curbing automobile use. Non-work travel, the ubiquity of automobiles in the United States, and the total amount of the problem that commuter choice programs can reasonably address are issues that require additional measures.
Focusing on work travel…
Commuter Choice Primer. Retrieved November 23, 2004 from U.S. Department of Transportation Highway Administration Web site: http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_PR/ccp/section08.htm
Pisarski, A.E. Life in the not-so-fast lane. Blueprint Magazine. Retrieved November 23, 2004 from Sacramento Transportation and Air Quality Collaborative Web site: http://www.sactaqc.org/resources/literature/transportation/Not_So_Fast_Lane.htm
Wald, M. (2003, August 29). One vehicle on the road, two others in the garage. New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/30/business/30TRAF.html?th
Dierct Air - Management & Marketing Mistakes
The following case study employs the array of industry metrics discussed above to determine major factors that contributed to Direct Airways filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy during the time period from 2007-212. This time period was chosen because SEC filings at that time available, providing valuable insight into the stark differences between the two airlines. Direct Airways was a major U.S. carrier that was founded in 2001 and operated for 7 years until it fell into bankruptcy in 2001. This terminated an unrestrained years for Direct Airways, which filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy last year of 2012 (Jayanti).
I understood that already the subject of a federal investigation by transportation regulators, the outdated charter service Direct Air long ago would soon may be facing a far-reaching investigation of its finances by the bankruptcy trustee (Bomkamp). The lawyer governing Direct Air's bankruptcy went ahead…
Barla, P., & Koo, B. (1999). Bankruptcy protection and pricing strategies in the U.S. airline industry. Transportation Research.Part E, Logistics & Transportation Review, 35, 101-120.
Borenstein, S., & Rose, N.L. (1995). Bankruptcy and pricing behavior in U.S. airline markets. The American Economic Review, 85(2), 397-397.
Borenstein, S., & Rose, N.L. (2003). The impact of bankruptcy on airline service levels. The American Economic Review, 93(2), 415-415.
Baran, Michelle. Uncertainty over refunds surrounds Direct Air's bankruptcy. 2 April 2012. http://www.travelweekly.com/Travel-News/Tour-Operators/Uncertainty-over-refunds-surrounds-Direct-Airs-bankruptcy/ . 29 November 2012.
The industry is highly dependent upon the United States' economy, as economic health and growth in this country and its businesses is largely responsible for supplying customers -- and especially more profitable customers, as business travelers pay higher prices than pleasure travelers/tourists -- making competition somewhat fiercer in the current economic environment. Larger competitors with more substantial reserves that are capable of offering more diverse flight opportunities on more diverse schedules are definitely better suited to continue growth or at least maintain profitability during this period. As a mid-sized high quality provider serving a broad enough array of destinations to remain attractive to commuters with diverse needs, however, EVA is actually in a position to differentiate itself from competition and become the airline of choice for the selected area.
Large operators often offer greater overall flexibility and certainly operate with higher reserves -- especially as larger airlines…
So, clearly, a progression of thought has occurred to bring mankind to the brand of reality that Berman endorses; however, he seems unable to clearly delineate or characterize what this progression has been on a historical level. Doubtlessly, he is successful in pointing out some early examples of modernist thought and expression, and that such points-of-view culminated in social changes -- the French Revolution and the Bolshevik Revolution -- but specifically what the boundaries are between his three different stages of modernity remains exceedingly vague. This may seem like an arbitrary objection to Berman's argument, but it is meaningful because his attempt to place modernism into a historical context demands that the abstract aspects of his dialectical system be grounded in physical events. If the reader is to believe that the individual social actor behaves in a way that balances the overarching power of society, then there should be some…
Berman, Marshall. All that is Solid Melts into Air. New York: Penguin Books, 1988.
Jimenez-Munoz, Gladys M. "Review Essay: All that is Solid Melts into Air." A New African Journal of Culture, Politics and Consciousness, vol. 1, issue 1, 2002.
Marx, Karl. Communist Manifesto. New York: Labor News Company, 1933.
McGreal, Ian P. Great Thinkers of the Western World. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1992.
Expeditionary Air ase
Tallil airbase in Iraq
Paper I.D.: 46255
Story of an Expeditionary Airbase
Tallil, Iraq Airbase
The purpose of this work is to research Tallil Air ase in Iraq providing a brief history of the base from the time of Operation Desert Storm to the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The question of how Tallil was built into OIF planning and when it was decided that Tallil would be a desired location for a base will be answered as well as why it was considered a key location and who initially took the base as to the military unit and whether it was a forcible entry. The questions of who secured the base, whether there was inter-service coordination, what was there when the U.S. military arrived to start building and how the base was then built will be answered as well. Finally the issues of whether there was…
Dobbins, John Col. (2004) Airpower 101: An Expeditionary Air Base Model Air & Space Power Journal September 2004.
Menon, Parvathi (2003) World Affairs: A Past in Peril Frontline Vol.20, Issue 7, 29 Mar - 11 Apr 2003 [Online at: http://www.flonnet.com/fl2007/stories/200304110 0020 6500 .html]
U.S. Department of State: International Information Programs (2003) Washington 05 April 2003 [Online at: http://www.iwar.org.uk/news-archive/2003/04-05.htm ]
Budiansky, Stephen (2003) Air War: Striking In Ways We Haven't Seen 2003 April 6 [Online at: http://www.budiansky.com/Washpost0406.html
Direct Strategy Fun Games Travel, Inc.
REGARDING INFORMATION ABOUT THREE GROUPS OF FORTY TO PARK CITY LODGE
Dear Mr. Jones,
There is a growing interest in Park City Lodge and all of the amazing opportunities and amenities that the facility has to offer for large size groups, such as our planned tours of forty members. This upcoming ski season is bound to be an exciting one, and I was hoping that Park City Lodge could serve as the possible location for our upcoming group travel packages.
Fun Games Travel, Inc. is an emerging travel agency that specializes in planning group trips with plenty of exciting activities along the way. Due to the growing demand for travel to the most pristine and engaging ski locations, Fun Games Travel is planning on setting up travel packages to Magic Mountain, one of the best ski grounds in the region. Due to the proximity…
Having plenty of time left until we were to meet back with the group and driver, my friend exclaimed, "Oh let's ride a camel!"
She pointed to an area where local men offered tourists rides on the classic desert creature. Her mother took the lead and asked one of the men how much the rides cost.
'Free to go, madam. Special for you."
"How much does it cost?" she reiterated, suspiciously aware that nothing in life is ever free.
"Free, free, you get on!" The man almost shouted at her but smiled gently at the same time.
She shrugged her shoulders, watching a couple of other tourists looking giddily happy on board their beasts of burden. Everyone seemed happy. Maybe this was just one of those nice gestures governments do to promote tourism, lik 'Alright," she said, for all three of us. She gestured to me and my friend.
air cargo industry experienced tremendous growth since inception because of various factors in the aviation industry, particularly the freight sector. The growth and development of this industry is evident in its current significance on the freight sector. Moreover, this industry currently accounts for huge profitability in the freight sector because of increased shipping of various packages across the globe. This increased shipping is fueled by increased interconnectedness of people and countries due to rapid technological factors.
However, the industry has experienced tremendous challenges and concerns in relation to security because of the increase of security issues and emergence of new security threats throughout the world. Some of the major security challenges or issues facing the air cargo industry include terrorism, hijacking threat, vulnerability to security breaches, and probable introduction of explosive devices. These security threats are largely brought by the development of sophisticated tools and means for criminal activities by…
"Bilateral and Regulatory Issues Facing the Air Cargo Industry." (n.d.). Chapter 6. Retrieved
April 17, 2015, from http://www.aci-na.org/sites/default/files/chapter_6_-_bilateral_and_regulatory_issues.pdf
Elias, B. (2010, December 2). Screening and Securing Air Cargo: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved April 17, 2015, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41515.pdf
"Evaluation of Screening of Air Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft." (2010, September).
As it had been said earlier, people would rather take their own car or rent a car when going on a trip. In most cases, this leaves them with more money spent, and a greater risk of being part of an accident. In comparison, those that choose to travel by plane are much more relaxed and can enjoy being driven by a professional pilot that is experienced in avoiding dangerous situations. In contrast, almost anyone that has a driver's license can drive a car, regardless of their experience. From that, one can understand that it is much safer to be a plane passenger than it is to be a car passenger.
There are far more chances of a car crashing into another than there are of a plane crashing into another. hile the air traffic is constantly controlled by experts, the land traffic is rarely controlled by policemen.
1. Irvine, Chris. (2008, October 16). "Road travel in Britain 'as dangerous as it was 500 years ago'." The Telegraph. Retrieved from The Telegraph Web site: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/news/3206661/Road-travel-in-Britain-as-dangerous-as-it-was-500-years-ago.html
2. Roots, Roger. (2007). The Dangers of Automobile Travel: A Reconsideration. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 66.
3. (1990). Car-Care Tips for Cross-Country Travel: Checking the Auto before the Road Trip Can Prevent Costly Highway Mishaps. Ebony, Vol. 45, May.
4. (2006). See You Travel Safe. Evening Chronicle (Newcastle, England), July 21.
Top Travel Marketing Plan
"Explore the world on your terms"
Top Travel is a well established travel agency which cares not only to satisfy the most specific needs of its wide customer base, but also to understand the forces affecting the domestic and global tourist sector and to integrate well crafted responses to these new challenges in the services it provides to its clients. Top Travel's slogan "Explore the world on your terms" invites customers to create the journey of their dreams, aligned with their preferences, time availability, financial constraints and unique needs and guarantees that the company will provide all the necessary and customized support in this sense. The company targets middle income consumers, of all ages and both familiarized with technology as well as using the more traditional methods and its ultimate scope is that of delivering customized, complete and current travel options to all customers, be these…
Blakeman, R., (2014) Integrated marketing communications: creative strategy from ideas to implementation, 2nd edition, Rowman & Litefield
Gilligan, C., Wilson, R.M.S., (2012) Strategic marketing planning, Routledge
Kapferer, J-N, (2012), The new strategic brand management: advanced insights and strategic thinking, Kogan Page Publishers
Martinez-Lopez, F.J. (2013) Handbook of strategic e-business management, Springer Science and Business Media
Future Air Traffic Timetable Estimator
As Wall Street and the media make us very well aware, profits within the airline industry have been steadily declining due to the fact that passenger travel miles have been regularly plummeting. One major problem was the infamous hijackings and attacks on September 11, 2001. These terroristic events single-handedly ruined a major level of trust on commercial aviation carriers and since these carriers have been on the brink of either shutting their doors forever or experiencing their worst financial difficulties in their corporate histories. Although some smaller and more technologically advanced airlines have been showing that success can be had in the airline industry, it is vital for companies, the industry and the federal overseers to conduct detailed research and analysis of scenarios and phenomenon such as new predicating the airport and airspace traffic patterns and settings. In regard to these industry needs, this report…
Bhadra, Dipasis, Wells, Michael, Gentry, Jennifer, & Hogan, Brendan. (2005). Future Air Traffic Timetable Estimator. Journal Of Aircraft. Vol. 42, No. 2, March -- April.
This, according to the author, is precisely the reason for the accident.
When the controller noticed the two aircraft in the same altitude range, he was distracted by the malfunctioning phone system, while the other controller was having a break. Nobody was there to help with the extra workload, causing the fatal delay. Human factors relating to the air traffic control crew therefore include the need to take breaks, the tendency to be distracted and the tendency to make incorrect decisions.
It is also interesting to note that the on-board conflict alert systems were functioning properly, but the pilots were waiting for confirmation from traffic control to take action. Had a more distributive paradigm been implemented, the pilots may have been able to share some of the burden of traffic control and avoided collision.
Another interesting aspect of human error is the management of air traffic control. In addition to…
Air Safety Week (2004, May 31). Human Failings Underscored in Report of 2002 Mid-Air Collision Over Germany. Online database: FindArticles.com
Brown, Don. (2005, Dec. 7). Say Again? #57: uberlingen. AVweb.
Kelly, Wallace E. (1999, Oct. 24-29). Conflict Detection and Alerting for Separation Assurance Systems. Draft for 18th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. St. Louis, Missouri. http://www.bluerockresearch.com/papers/dasc_kelly.pdf
Travel Today Marketing Plan
The contemporary air travel industry is open to numerous opportunities that any airline can take advantage of as long as the airline meets the set regulations and standards by the individual countries within whose air space the airline intends to cross and operate in. The globalization of transportation has brought universality in the standards that most counties require and Travel Today will effectively benefit from the universal regulations that help regulate and guide the industry.
One of the most significant market share is the holiday travelers who go across the continents in pursuit of the tour sites that other continents and nations have to offer away from the U.S. This will form a strong global market for Travel Today since the airline will delve in delivering the travelers to Asian and European nations. This will increase the global coverage that the airline will be…
Cathy M., (2014). A Simple Plan for Measuring the Marketing Effectiveness of Content. Retrieved June 28, 2015 from http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/2014/07/simple-plan-measuring-marketing-effectiveness-of-content/
Edmunds S.A., (2015). The Importance of Breaking Even in Business Finance. Retrieved June 28, 2015 from smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-breaking-even-business-finance-63132.html
Euromonitor, (2012). Key Threats and Opportunities Facing Global Airlines . Retrieved June 28, 2015 from http://www.euromonitor.com/key-threats-and-opportunities-facing-global-airlines/report
Air Asia is a case of classical management, where the company competes as a low cost producer, in this case of airline service, using the discount airline model. There are many elements of the AirAsia business model that mirror the discount carrier pioneers like RyanAir and EasyJet in Europe. This case will discuss AirAsia's business model.
The management issue for AirAsia is to maintain their low cost business model going forward, while handling intense competition and expanding their footprint. Recent expansions outside of SouthEast Asia have been necessary for the growth of the company but they have also stretched the company thin. Additionally, such moves may require larger aircraft, and may affect how the branding is perceived. But AirAsia has developed a strong route network from its KL hub and needs to find growth somewhere.
Another issue that the company is facing is that with its rapid growth,…
Personal Experience/ Observation
My visit to the Chinese cities of Shanghai, Beijing, and Wuhan taught me several things I otherwise wouldn’t have been able to learn. I could study cases on the country, read books, watch numerous videos and attend classes for days but none of these would have taught me the amazing lessons I was able to learn, or given me the experiences I underwent, in the short span of time that I spent in the country. In this paper, I am citing a few things I learnt about China through personal observation and experience.
Wuhan City’s Slogan That Spoke to Me: “Different Every Day”
Wuhan is considered to be the central hub of Chinese politics, academics, finances, economics, transportation and culture. This city’s history dates back 3,500 years. It contributes significantly to the contemporary theory of urban planning. China desires to improve and optimize land function…
By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…
Network." 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:
DayJet, on the other hand, plans to sell single seats to frustrated air travelers who no longer fly on trips of 250 to 500 miles - they choose to drive instead. DayJet believes they can identify and market effectively to these travelers, serving "regional route sectors -- starting in Texas and the Southwest, eventually expanding to the New York area south to Florida, and then to the Pacific coast" (Sharkey, 2006). This air taxi service plans to use Eclipse 500 planes, and are awaiting delivery of the planes to begin service.
Neither of these operators has begun regular service because the planes seem to be coming off the assembly lines more slowly than anticipated. DayJet's delivery of Eclipse 500's has been slowed due to delays in production and certification. Therefore, no one knows how these air taxi services will ultimately affect airport traffic and air travel. The public may embrace…
Author not available. (2006). Smaller, faster, cheaper new jets may transform flying. Retrieved from the USAToday.com Web site: http://www.usatoday.com/travel/news/2006-01-19-little-jets_x.htm19 April 2007.
Croft, J. (2006). Very light jets: Boom or blip? Retrieved from the AIAA.org Web site: http://www.aiaa.org/aerospace/images/articleimages/pdf/AA_May06_CRO.pdf19 April 2007. 32-36.
Editors. (2007). NBAA training guidelines for single pilot operations of Very Light Jets and technically advanced aircraft. Retrieved from the NBAA.org Web site: http://web.nbaa.org/public/ops/safety/vlj/19 April 2007.
Robinson, J.L. (2006). Predicted air traffic control impact from VLJ's. Retrived from the Casa.aero Web site: http://www.casa.aero/adminUploads/TheVeryLightJet_ATCA.pdf19 April 2007.
And many have got successful too in earning the market share. The emerging competition by new companies is a growing threat for the company and it should be tackled properly to avoid any future disturbances.
In order to further describe the competition Southwest Airlines is facing a Competitive Profile Matrix is designed. The following Competitive Profile Matrix tells about the tough competitors which are in a good position to have an edge over Southwest Airlines. It tells about the strengths and weaknesses of other competitors in contrast with Southwest Airlines.
Factors Weight Southwest Airlines United Airlines Delta Airlines Ratings Score
Score 1. Low fares.15 4.60 3.50 4.60 2. Customer Service.15 2.30 4.60 3.50 3. Employee Relations.15 4.60 3.50 3.50 4. Rate of Expansion.10 2.20. 4.50 4.50 5. Marketing.15 4.60 4.50 4.50 6. Finance Structure.15 4.40 4.40 4.40 7. Management Policies.15 4.60 4.60 2.20
EXTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATION MATRIX
Gittell, Jody Hoffer. The Southwest Airlines Way Using the Power of Relationships to Achieve High Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
More City Pairs Await Southwest - Kelleher Says Opportunities Remain Using Airline's Formula." Aviation Week & Space Technology. 143. 6 (1995): 40.
A www.marketingmix.com.au / www.mcdonalds.com / www.bbc.co.uk
United Airline Multinational Ventures
United Airlines is an air transport company that operates in a number of countries around the globe undertaking passenger and goods transport services. The corporation's headquarters are in New York City with branches set up in major trade cities to provide ease in management and contact with clients. In the past five years the corporation has increased its fleet of aircrafts by twenty percent owing to the rising demand in air transport around the globe. The corporation practices decentralized management with policy guidelines to ensure uniformity and brand identification in its operations.
The corporations' initial flight route comprised of local weekly flights in the U.S. To major destinations around the state. As the demand for air travel increased the company increased its flight routes and frequency depending on demand. Opportunities for a global operation came around when major airline companies continued to…
g. Lufthansa); partners with Blackberry and Yahoo for in flight conveniences.
Early aggressive additions to fleet and service did, as analysts predicted, negatively impact the company.
Company will need to carefully evaluate routes, new service, new equipment, and new technology in order to maintain growth potential.
Fairly stable and industry respected; replaced CEO in May 2007.
Needed a new managerial focus after 2004.
Optimistic, keep tight rein on overly aggressive expansion.
Jet Blue University, compensates better than most airlines, rewards loyalty for service
Unsuccessful attempt at unionizing
Ensure mission is translated to consumers; empower local employees to make better decisions so clients are not left sitting on tarmac.
Huge and rapid growth spurt in early 21st century
Became a model for other carriers; major carriers copied model and took away share
Continued energy and fiscal focus on consumers and next generation of airline ideas.
Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act, Public Law 107-42. (2001, September 22). Retrieved October 2010, from Office of Transportation - U.S. Government: http://ostpxweb.ost.dot.gov/aviation/Data/stabilizationact.pdf
Jet Blue Press Release - Names Dave Barger President and CEO. (2007, May 10). Retrieved October 2010, from JetBlue.com: http://investor.jetblue.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=131045&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=998672&highlight=))
Air Travel Report: Dip in Delays, Spike in Complaints. (2010, October 12). Retrieved October 2010, from CNN Travel: http://www.cnn.com/2010/TRAVEL/10/12/air.travel.consumer.report
Jet Blue Shareholder Information. (2010, October 12). Retrieved October 2010, from Jet Blue: http://investor.jetblue.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=131045&p=irol-irhome
The demand for their services underwent a period of diminishment, because of the strong emotional impact that the events had upon the population living all over the world and especially in the United States of America. Despite various negative forecasts, the airline industry got back on track soon afterwards. Not only did the demand not fall, but it underwent significant increases.
Another element which could affect the functioning of the airline industry in a negative manner is represented by the concerns for the environment. Leaving aside the issue represented by the phonic pollution, aspects such as global warning may become an important concern for the airline industry should the issue gain a high importance on the public and political agendas. So far, however, the issue did not manage to influence people's choices regarding travelling by airplane, regardless of the attempts made in this directions by various politicians. (Pickard, 2006)
Gopwani, J. (2007, April 26). NWA, flight attendants reach deal. Retrieved May 17, 2007, from Freep.com Detroit Free Press Web site: http://www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070426/Business05/70426029/0/ENT03
Mankiw, N.G. (2004). Principles of economics (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Thomson South-Western.
McCabe, R.M., PhD. (n.d.). Airline Industry Key Success Factors. The ability for airlines to succeed today is measured according to several key success factors. Retrieved May 5, 2007, from Pepperdine University Web site: http://gbr.pepperdine.edu/064/airlines.html
Muskin, J.B., & Sorrentino, J.A. (February 1977). Externalities in a Regulated Industry: The Aircraft Noise Problem. The American Economic Review, 67 (1), 347-350. Retrieved May 5, 2007, from JSTOR Web site: ( http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282 (197702)67%3A1%3C347%3AEIARIT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-4
, 2005). A second airplane design in the replacement program was the 747X, which would have provided better efficiency than the 747-400 with a longer plane body (Norris et al., 2005). Boeing couldn't generate much excitement around the 747X, but the Sonic Cruiser offered stronger appeal (Norris et al., 2005). Continental Airlines was a particularly interested customer, but the feedback from the airlines focused on operational costs (Norris et al., 2005). The attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) brought about long-lasting changes in the airlines industry and travel sector. To make matters worse for Boeing, the potential customers for the Sonic Cruiser were U.S. based airlines -- the very airlines that had been most negatively impacted by 9/11. The Sonic Cruiser was officially cancelled by Boeing on December 20, 2002 (Norris et al., 2005). Whether this is attributable to design flaws or simply the dramatically changed economy is not really…
In order to understand how production delays translated into delivery days, it is important to look at how production and delivery delays progressed throughout the course of the project. Therefore, this section is subdivided by years.
The plan for 2007
The first flight was planned for the end of August in 2007 -- this was based on a presumed first flight of the 787 on July 8, 2007 (Boeing, 2007, Dreamliner). However by that time, many of the aircraft's major systems were still not installed, and many parts of the systems had been attached with non-aerospace fasteners that were considered temporary and needed to be replaced with flight fasteners. Instead of shortening the production process, the involvement of subcontractors was adding rework and reassembly processes (Boeing, 2007, Dreamliner). Subcontractors could not complete the work on time, necessary parts could not always be procured as they were needed, subassembly scheduling
Over the last few years, it is evident that the airline industry in the U.S. has been experiencing long standing as well as novel challenges (The American Antitrust Institute, 2012). These includes the increase in the price of fuel, slowing demand for air travel and pressures to expand globally. Consolidation among various airlines across the country is the most common remedy that most of the airline firms are applying.
In April 2012, the U.S. Airways made an announcement to move and take over the American Airlines. American airline is the fourth largest airline in the United States while U.S. Airways is the fifth (Plane Buzz, 2013). This merger, therefore, will make the U.S. Airways- American the largest in the United States with a combined share of more than 21% (The American Antitrust Institute, 2012).
The merger is worth 11 billion U.S. dollars and will turn America into the largest…
Carlton, D.W., Landes, W.M. & Posner, R.A 1980 'Benefits and Costs of airline mergers, The
Bell Journal of Economics, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 65-83
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3003401?uid=2134&uid=2&suid=70&uid=4&sid=21101927848577
Raper, K.C, Love, A.H. & Shumway, R.C 2007, Distinguishing the Source of Market Power, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 89, No. 1 (Feb., 2007), pp. 78-90 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/4123564?uid=3738336&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101942783417
Southwest Airlines Organizational Culture
Analysis of Organizational Culture at Southwest Airlines
Application of the OCP Framework
Developing Organizational Culture at Southwest Airlines
Implementation of Organizational Culture
Organizational Culture as an Important Determinant of Organization's Success
Southwest Airlines is a world renowned air travel company and a low cost leader in airline industry of USA. Formed in 1971 by ollin King and Herb Kelleher, the company is committed to "providing highest level of customer service with pride and caring" to its varied market segments ranging from leisure travellers to freight transportation. The two most important stakeholders for the company are its employees and its customers. Southwest Airlines owns 520 different types of aircrafts and serves 411 cities and 63 million customers at 59 airports in 30 different states within the United States with its nonstop air travel service (Southwest Airlines Inc., 2010).
The major reason for company's 35 years of phenomenal…
Aguinis, H. (2009). Performance Management. Upper Sadle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Bailey, J. (February 13, 2008). Southwest. Southwest Way. New York Times, Business.
Box, T.M. (2009). Southwest Airlines 2007. Journal of the International Academy of Case Studies Vol. 15, 21-27.
Erdogan, B. & . (2010). Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational Behavior. Flat World Knowled Organizational Culture . Flat World Knowledge.
Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Today, certain individuals in the developing countries could be viewing "space tourism" as vocabulary. Nonetheless, in the developed countries, this term is turning to be more familiar and gradually becoming a holiday experience for world Forbes. This is an expensive venture that is exciting, stunning, adventurous, and relatively remains the least exploited phenomena in the world history. Since the first "space tour" in 2001, the rich stamps their foot on a fact that wherever they can go, the poor cannot manage to go, and what the poor can do, they can do best. Over the past few decades, the general perception about space tourism has been changing yearly. History reveals that this perception considered space tourism as a "science fiction." However, this term currently gains recognition and is becoming the most important grand target for the growing…
Ashford, D.M. (1984). Space tourism: Key to the universe? Journal of Spaceflight, 26(4), 123-
Bono, P. (1973). The reusable booster paradox: Aircraft technology or operations? Journal of Space Flight, 9(3), 379-387.
Broz, T.A. (1985). NASA administrator rules out shuttle for space tourism. Commerce on Space Tourism, 9(8), 68-77.
Gerard, M. & Jefferson, P. (1998). International cooperation in space: New government and industry relationships. Journal of Space Exploration, 9(5), 27-39.
They followed this advice and the proposal was referred to the Royal Engineer Committee, from whence a letter came advising the brothers of a visit from a prince that would never arrive. In the meantime, the brothers approached United States Congress about a possible sale only to be met with a letter of rejection. Part of this rejection stems from the fact that Congress funded Langley for "his $50,000 fiasco" (Dempsey 69). Dempsey asserts that the brothers were "very generous in their proposal" (69). They were also convinced that "war could be prevented with their airplane" (69). Despite rejection, they continued to improve upon their flying machine. However, things did not go well. Four trial flights after these inquisitions ended in accidents. In October of that year, the brothers flew the plane for the longest time ever recorded, which was 38 minutes at 38 miles per hour. The brothers wrote…
Crouch, Tom. The Bishops Boys: A Life of Wilbur and Orville Wright. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1989.
Crouch, Tom. A Dream of Wings. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 2002
Dempsey, Judith. A Tale of Two Brothers: The Story of the Wright Brothers. Victoria; Trafford Publishing. 2003.
Goddard, Stephen. Race to the Sky: The Wright Brothers vs. The United States Government. Jefferson City: MacFarland and Company, Inc. 2003.
Alternate Energy in Daily Life
Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…
Sources." (February 21, 2009.) Retrieved April 27, 2011 from the Alternative Energy website at http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/hydrogen-fuel-from-non-food-sources/
IBM. (2000.) "Flying Cars Commercial." Retrieved April 26, 2011 from YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzm6pvHPSGo
Johnson, Keith. (August 10, 2009.) "Blown Away: Wind Power Makes Electricity Cheaper in Texas." Retrieved April 28, 2011 from the Wall Street Journal at http://blogs.wsj.com/environmentalcapital/2009/08/10/blown-away-wind-power-makes-electricity-cheaper-in-texas/
Kobayashi, Teruo. (December, 2005.) "Progress of Electric Railways in Japan." Japan Railway and Transport Review issue 42. Pp 62-69. Retrieved from http://jrtr.net/jrtr42/pdf/s62_kob.pdf
Loftin, Josh. (April 18, 2011.) "Home renewable energy for focus of Utah conference." Retrieved April 27, 2011 from Business Week at http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9MM3JV80.htm
At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).
With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.
Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere
University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)
Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…
Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-12focus/focus.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/Climate/ipcc/aviation/014.htm
University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/apc1.html
Sometime the debtor is able to successfully reduce its liability and returns to profitability but quite often it returns to seek the court's protection again and sometime the end result is liquidation.
Under Chapter 11 protections, the debtor gets an automatic protection from all creditors. The unsecured creditors cannot lay a claim on assets and secured creditors are also prevented from foreclosing on their collateral. A Chapter-11 company also gets the advantage of discarding or renegotiating union agreements, ability to freeze or cut wages and benefits and restructures its staffing requirement. Retirement and pension plans can also be reviewed or the company can transfer its pension obligations to the Federal Pension enefit Guaranty Corporation.
The reorganization is carried out by the bankruptcy and the court appointed trustee. The trustee appoints committee(s) to represent the creditor's interests and work out a plan for reorganization of the company. The reorganization plan must…
Boser, R.J., Has the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 adversely affected airline safety? Retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://www.airlinesafety.com/faq/faq3.htm
Delaney, K.J., Strategic Bankruptcy (Review), Retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/5725.html
Fix, J.L., The chaotic skies: A look at how deregulation has affected the airline industry, 2001, retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://www.freep.com/money/airtravel/dereg2_20010302.htm
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At the same time, it will help to identify what issues will shape the future of air passenger transportation in Asia.
he introduction of LCCs in the North American and European markets started a trend that is beginning to unfold in Asia (with the birth of Asian-based LCCs). Part of this is in response to the increases in passenger traffic and the effects of globalization. However, there have been similar airlines in the past, which have tried and failed using the same kinds of business models. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than, Oasis Hong Kong. his was a low cost carrier that attempted to enter the medium to long haul leisure / business travel market between Hong Kong and London Gatwick. he problem was that they were no match for the FSCs, which offered: more flights and greater flexibility. his is…
This information is useful, because it can highlight some of the different challenges facing the industry. Where, these different factors could affect the profitability of many carriers and the fares / services that they are providing to consumers. This can be used in conjunction with the results of the surveys; to see how the overall cost structure is having an impact upon both Thai Asia Air and Thai Airways. Once this takes place, it could provide a more complete picture, as to how these different challenges are affecting the industry and what could be the possible impact in the future.
Moreover, Gluckman (2007) discussed on the impact that Air Asia has had upon the industry. Where, their low costs and no frills have helped the company to be able to redefine the sector. The reason why is because Air Asia has a very low labor cost structure in comparison with the traditional airlines. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the fact that their labor costs typically account for 17% of the total operating expenses for the company. While the industry average is 30% to 40%, of the total operating expenses that normal airlines must pay. At the same time, the company will fly to airports that are less congested (which have lower landing fees) and they fly reconditioned aircraft. The results of these actions were that Air Asia would redefine the industry by showing how low cost structures, could allow an airline to be competitive. The problem is that the labor costs of Air Asia are some of the lowest in the world. When you compare this to other low costs carriers in markets such as North America or Europe, this is just of fraction of what the LCCs are paying. Over the course of time, as incomes continue to increase, the cost of labour will rise towards the industry average. This is significant, because it shows how Air Asia has identified ways that it can compete over the short to medium term. However, over the long-term is when the airline will face the possibility of having it business model go through severe challenges, as it will not be able to maintain these low costs indefinably.
This information is important, because it shows how Air Asia and many of the other LCCs are able to remain competitive. As their overall labour costs, are significantly lower than any
Surveillance System for an Environmental Health Concern
Environmental health is an important concern for health care providers because it comprises the areas of human health that are impacted by external factors, such as chemical agents, biological agents, physical environment and so on. Issues that fall under environmental health are air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, chemical spills, and other areas (Laroque, 2009). Because of the risk of these areas negatively impacting human health, there is a need to monitor environmental health areas. One major area of environmental health that desperately needs surveillance is the quality of the air in urban areas near major airports. As Schlenker and Walker (2015) point out, airports are responsible for some of the highest concentrations of air pollution in the nation. An as West et al. (2016) show, air pollution is the cause of millions of premature deaths all over the earth. Thus, there is…
2. Approach Clearances
According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.
Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).
The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…
history of the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and its achievements throughout its seventy years. Safety regulations, issues of aviation concern, and milestones in union negotiations are discussed.
THE AIR LINE PILOTS ASSOCIATION
ith the recent terrorist attacks in the United States, airline safety has been of top concern. Six months ago airport security was seldom discussed except perhaps in an article tucked in a newspaper or magazine. Now it's a top story on the evening news every night. It makes us wonder if anyone has been thinking of our safety until now.
The Airline Pilots Association has always been thinking of our safety. From metal detectors in airports to the 'fasten seat belt' signs on airliners, the APLA was responsible.
The ALPA is regarded as the leader in safety issues concerning all areas of aviation
The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) not only helps with safety issues and…
Air Line Pilots Association:
engineer engages in a process that is both technical, and social as he or she works to facilitate the creation of a product to meet the customer's needs. If this process were strictly functional application of mathematics, design specifications and materials testing, the bulk of the work could be done by a computer. But the design process is all together human, interwoven by cultural issues, communications issues, and the knowledge that is created as the engineering process travels from conception to completion.
In any design project there generally are different kinds of engineers - mechanical engineers, electronics engineers and so on. They speak different languages; they have different responsibilities, competencies and interests. To reconcile their different claims and proposals, negotiation is required. The book uses the example that refrigerators in the States are huge and in Europe they are small. Clearly there are technical reasons, but the main reason has…
Bucciarelli, Louis. Designing Engineers. 1996. Mass: MIT Press
Sharpe, Mike & Partworks, Brown. Air Disasters. 1999. USA: Brown Packaging Partworks
Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell
Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell
It may seem that aviation has a long and storied history because it seems now to have been a part of the national landscape forever. But, the reality is that the history of flying is very short even considering the many different types of vehicles that have been used. When it comes to actual powered airplanes, that history is even shorter, but it does have a colorful history. A large part of the landscape that has given air travel some of its most storied moments is the military wing of aviation history. It is impossible to examine the story of air power without looking at the life and accomplishments of one person, Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. This paper examines the man as a child and young officer, his assent to the highest reaches of the war department, his fall…
Hickman, K. (2012). Military aviation: Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. Retrieved from http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/airforce/p/Military-Aviation-Brigadier-General- Billy-Mitchell.htm
Long, C. (1998). General William "Billy" Mitchell: Aviation pioneer. Retrieved from http://www.christopherlong.co.uk/per/mitchell.html
National Museum USAF. (2010). Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell. Retrieved from http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=739
Sterner, C.W. (2008). Fight for survival, the battle at home and the court martial of Billy Mitchell. Retrieved from http://www.homeofheroes.com/wings/part1/6_survival.html
Money in Aviation: An Examination of Support
The history of American flight is generally one of pride and wonder. Historical figures associated with the first airplanes are generally revered by history books and society as a whole. These are figures like the Wright brothers, Amelia Earhart, Charles Lindbergh and others who most agree made a positive impact on human life and symbolize a leap of mankind towards advanced technology and increasing modern times. Modernity. Technology. These are all things that airplanes and flight represent to Americans and they're widely viewed as things which have improved life on this planet for the better. This begs the question as to why the airline industry still remains one of the most volatile, low (or no) profits business around. The book, Why We Can't Make Money in Aviation, by Adam M. Pilarski, seeks to both scrutinize and illuminate the general failure of the airline…
Bluejay, M. (n.d.). What's Wrong with Bicycle Helmets? Retrieved from Bicycle Safe: http://bicyclesafe.com/helmets.html
Bowser, B. (2003, April 2). On the Homefront: The Airline Industry. Retrieved from Pbs.org: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/transportation/jan-june03/airlines_04-02.html
News, A. (2003, April 4). SARS Spread Leads to Fear, Questions. Retrieved from ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/ColdandFluNews/story?id=116751&page=1#.UKa064dZWSo
Pilarski, A. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington: Ashgate.
External Analysis Southwest Airlines
One of United States' most successful airlines in the business is Southwest airlines. The company has been one of the most successful businesses in the economy with no case of worker layoff or strike being recorded in the organization. The company has dedicated its commitment to ensuring it provides a favorable environment for its workers. The company's corporate culture has played a significant role in the success of the company as it recognizes the workers emotions. Positive attitude is influential in the workplace as the workers become more productive. The air transport business is in an industry where profit maximization is a challenge to many players. The struggling economy and the increased number of players in the company make the industry unfavorable for business. The industry is also affected by the increased price of fuel which increases the cost of transportation. The paper conducts environmental analysis…
PEST analysis.(2009). Retrieved on August 15, 2011 from: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_PEST_analysis.html
Porter's Five Forces: A model for industry analysis. (2007). Retrieved on August 15, 2011 from: http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
SWOT analysis: Lesson. (2009). Retrieved on August 15, 2011 from: http://marketingteacher.com/lesson-store/lesson-SWOT.html
Zahorsky, D. (2009). A business owner's secret weapon: SWOT analysis. Retrieved on August 15, 2011 from: http://sbinformation.about.com/cs/bestpractices/a/SWOT.htm
suitable airline performance data, provide a discussion rivals North American Airline industry found hard match southwest airlines. 2)Discuss dynamic capabilities, distinct capabilities generally, a source competitive advantage fast-paced highly uncertain environments.
The airline industry has generated unprecedented development within the society. Supported by technologic innovation, the airline industry has shifted balances in wars and fights and it has supported the advancement of the societies and economies. Due to the airline industry, people became able to travel to places once considered remote and as such to expand their cultural horizons, but also the business operations.
At its inception, the airline industry would be mostly owned and operated by the government, and this situation still applies in some of the countries in the globe. In the United States however, the airline industry has been subjected to deregulation and privatization and it is now characterized by high levels of competition. The…
2012, The Global Competitiveness Index 2011-2012 rankings, World Economic Forum, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GCR_CompetitivenessIndexRanking_2011-12.pdflast accessed on August 1, 2012
2012, The world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos last accessed on August 1, 2012
2012, Website of the World Economic Forum, http://www.weforum.orglast accessed on August 1, 2012
Airbus is currently implementing new logistics processes tat it expects to cut costs by 20%. Part of tis is because Airbus as been flying parts for planes to central locations to facilitate assembly. However, it is peraps more important tat tis increases inventory turnover; because like all airplane manufacturers, Airbus as a backlog: if tis backlog is eliminated or lessened by more expedient manufacturing, Airbus produces at a faster rate and is able to sell more products. Te backlog is also counter-cyclical; customers get teir orders faster wen less are buying. Te current backlog is over four years wereas cycles generally last ten or less wit prolonged recessions rare. Only a sustained recession of more tan several years can treaten Airbus'es production pipeline. Tis is unlikely as air travel as already recovered from its early-2003 low. Accoring to te exercise, a new airplane needs a total of 85 days in…
Airbus Jet Sales Soar. CNN International. January 17, 2002. http://money.cnn.com/2002/01/17/international/airbus/
James Wallace. Airbus sales chief scoffs at rival's 7E7. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. June 18th, 2003. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/business/127110_leahy182.html
Delta Air Lines Flight 1288 was expected to travel between Pensacola, Florida, and Atlanta, Georgia on July 6, 1996. The McDonnell Douglas MD-88 was equipped with Pratt & hitney JT8D-219 engines and the left engine experienced a serious malfunction with the turbine. The failure led to debris from the front of the engine entering the fuselage, killing two persons and badly injuring another two, with all the individuals belonging to the same family. The tragedy has had a deep impact on how people perceived air travel, especially considering that most of the passengers on the plane were going on vacation.
hile there was some speculation with regard to the incident, most engineers agreed upon the circumstances in which it happened. "The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of this accident was the fracture of the left engine's front compressor fan hub, which resulted from the failure of…
"AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT REPORT UNCONTAINED ENGINE FAILURE DELTA AIR LINES FLIGHT 1288 MCDONNELL DOUGLAS MD-88, N927DA PENSACOLA, FLORIDA JULY 6, 1996," Retrieved November 4, 2013 from http://www.ntsb.gov/doclib/reports/1998/AAR9801.pdf
"Aircraft Accident Report - Uncontained Engine Failure Delta Air Lines Flight 1288 McDonnell Douglas MD-88, N927DA," Retrieved November 4, 2013, from http://www.ntsb.gov/news/events/1998/pensacola_fl/index.html