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Albert Bandura and the Bobo Effect
Few research psychologists have been as directly and as singularly influential in shaping the way we think about learning and behavior as Albert Bandura, and few single experiments have been as significant and noteworthy as the Bobo experiment he conducted with his colleagues in 1961. Through this experiment and through his entire body of theoretical and research-based work, Bandura was able to demonstrate that traits like aggression and other features of human behavior are learned by example and social conditioning, which was an important breakthrough in overall psychological understanding. The following paragraphs present a brief overview of Bandura's life and his most famous experiment, situating his immense contributions in an understanding of the man himself.
Albert Bandura: A Brief Biography
Born in the tiny town of Mundare in Alberta, Canada in December of 1925, Albert Bandura is of Polish descent on his father's…… [Read More]
Albert Bandura is renowned as the main motivator behind social learning for his introduction of the social cognitive theory. Even though he restricted his approach to the behavioral tradition, Bandura was mainly concerned with the influence of cognitive factors on development. Similar to other behaviorists, Bandura believes that cognitive development is not the only way for explaining changes in childhood behavior. Moreover, Bandura also believed that learning processes are basically responsible for development of children. Nonetheless, this theorist believed that cognitive abilities of the child have strong influence on his/her learning processes. The concept of the impact of cognitive abilities on a child's learning processes is particularly true in relation to more complex types of learning.
Albert Bandura was born on December 4, 1925, in northern Alberta, Canada as the youngest and only boy child among six siblings in a family of European descent (Tom, n.d.). Bandura's parents…… [Read More]
According to the research of Bandura, it was his discovery that teachers play a significant role in a child's learning acquisition as teachers are the main source of modeling for both material objectives and the secondary, or underlying, curriculum of instilling proper virtues. ith this understanding, it is important that teachers focus on building high self-efficacy levels in students by awarding student accomplishments.
Central to this theory are the concepts of categorization and association. Categorization is the natural act of humans to attempt to group people and things on the basis of easily identifiable characteristics like gender, age and race. This is the basis to stereotyping and often happens subconsciously. Association is the secondary act to categorization, or those particular traits that humans naturally place together and thus associate with a particular group. These two concepts influence how humans view a model. Since humans learn primarily from watching…… [Read More]
Bandura's Social Cognitive heory
he concept of the self has been addressed by many psychology theorists. Self-concept and self-esteem are considered to be the feelings and constructs that people experience in relation to themselves. he idea that self-concept and self-esteem are closely linked to people's abilities to deal with changes and issues in their lives -- and to provide some measure of control over what happens to them -- is documented widely in the work of psychologists from the social cognitive branch of psychology (Bandura, 2002). Self-esteem is the evaluative and affective dimension of the self-concept (Mann, 2004).
How does Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory help us to understand Annie's comment "I just can't do this writing stuff"? Bandura developed a construct known as self-system (Cherry, 2011). he self-system posited by Bandura consisted of a person's abilities, cognitive skills, and attitudes, and further, it impacts how people perceive situations and…… [Read More]
The message from this simple analysis is clear: people interpret reality in different way ways. In Bandura's view, internal reinforcement is a potent force for enhancing or bolstering the mental states of individuals. Hence a feeling of pride, satisfaction and accomplishment helps both to enhance the individual's cognitive development as well as the learning process.
3. Learning does not always precipitate change in behavior. In other words, people do not always act like drones whose main features are to respond in a particular way when they are stimulated by environmental factors. This explains why some people behave irrationally regardless of whether or not that form of behavior is punishable or may have unpalatable consequences. In other words, human beings are not always rational actors. Thus sometimes they are influenced by their "head" to make decisions that may, to a very significant extent, go beyond the intricacies of basic reward as…… [Read More]
dominant models of human behavior by the late 1950s and early 1960s were based on Neo-Freudian models and B.F. Skinner's brand of operant behaviorism. However, there were theorists that rejected the mechanistic views of behaviorism and Freudian instinct-drive-based models. Perhaps the most influential of these theorists was Albert Bandura. Bandura had received his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa and had been exposed to the work of obert Spears who was studying familial influences of social behavior and identification in children. Bandura was also heavily influenced by other theorists at Iowa such as James Dollard and Neal Miller who had merged Freudian and Hullian learning principles. Bandura believed that learning principles were sufficient to explain and predict behavior, but he also believed that humans thought and regulated their behavior and were not at the mercy of environmental stimuli as in Skinnerian models of behavior. Furthermore, he believed that many functions…… [Read More]
Albert Bandura's observational learning theory, often referred to as the social learning theory has now become one of the most influential theories regarding learning and development. Bandura believed that it was not just reinforcement due to which learning occurred, there was something greater. He suggested that people can learn by watching and observing others behaviors and actions.
Observational learning can take place at any stage during a person's life. However, it is of utmost importance when an individual is a child. Bandura suggested that learning occurs without any instructional activity taking place and that there are three key concepts which lie at the heart of his theory. One concept was, as mentioned already, people learn through observation. Albert Bandura is famous for his Bobo doll experiment in which he showed how children observe and then imitate exactly the same behavior that was done by someone else. In this…… [Read More]
Another important aspect of observational learning is retention. For effective classroom management to take place it is important the students understand and retain the few classroom management rules that will be set out in the beginning of the year.
aise hand to speak
Treat others with respect
If you don't know then please ask
The retention factor with regard to classroom management will be reinforced each time the students witness another student having to suit out for five minutes of recess because they failed to respond appropriately to the clapping signal for attention. In addition we will have a weekly short discussion about classroom rules and why they are important and how the students can help themselves and each other to remember what they are.
The production step in the path to observational learning with regard to effective classroom management will be easily found in the response of the class…… [Read More]
This behavior was observed in more than eighty eight percent of the children. In order to show that learned behavior is not necessarily short-term, when the children were reintroduced to obo a few months later, 40% showed the violent behavior.
In assessing whether watching excessive violence on television causes long terms aggressive behavior, research studies should be more comprehensive. They should take into account factors such as chemical or neurological imbalances, family history of violence, emotional and physical abuse or genetic factors. Whether it is indisputably proven that watching violence on television causes aggressive behavior or whether it isn't, one should realize that over indulgence is never a good thing. They can have physical, emotional and sociologically negative impacts.
Parents have an important role to play. Instead of relying on federal guidelines for television program ratings, parents should make up their own minds about whether a child should watch a…… [Read More]
Violence is not just programmed and imitated, it is also chosen and controlled by the participant in a complex continuum of stimulus, response and participant interaction via other factors (Hoffman, 2007, 9).
In an article by Stefan G. Hofmann entitled Cognitive Factors that Maintain Social Anxiety Disorder, it discusses the effects of social cognitive theory on social anxiety disorder (SAD). ecent studies have identified multiple psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the disorder. The model that is constructed in the article makes the assumption that social apprehension is to be associated with unrealistic social standards. This also includes a deficiency in the selection of attainable social goals. When a person is confronted with challenging social situations, people with SAD shift their attention toward the anxiety. They view themselves negatively as a social object. In addition, they overestimate the negative consequences of a social encounter, believing that they…… [Read More]
Trait and Factor Theories:
Personality trait and factor theories have been developed as a means of identifying common elements within the personality of different people, indeed the entire populace. Within any given group of people there are common threads of experiences, similar nurturing, and even shared genetic, yet the personality of each member is a unique construction individual elements which work together. Among those who have produced work in this area are aymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck. Each used scientific factor analysis to identify common traits or permanent dispositions of people. Cattell has identified a large number of personality traits, whereas Eysenck's research extracted only three general factors.(mcgraw-hill.com, online) Like Freud who identifies the id, ego and superego as the measurements of the personal mind, will and emotion, the categories identified by these researchers give men the ability to understand the unique functions of the person, emotions and desires.…… [Read More]
It is fairly clear that there was learning going on when the children observed aggressive behavior, but leaping immediately to the conclusion that what was learned was aggression, and not the specific behaviors exhibited by the adult models and repeated by the children, seems at least a little presumptive. If it can be assumed that the children in the experiment had never witnessed the specific behaviors of the models prior to the experiment (which would have been necessary to establish for the experiment itself to be valid), then the behavior might have been simply frightening to them, and acting out the behaviors might have been a method of familiarizing themselves with the behavior so as to understand it and make it less frightening. Though the end result would be the same desensitization to aggression, the possibility of this mechanism is important.
This possibility, and the construction and results of the…… [Read More]
Some jobs will require that a person continue his college education and some will require learning that can take place on the job in order to acquire the needed skills.
on-the-job training can take place in several forms. An outside training firm can be brought in to the company to hold seminars on a relevant topic for the employees. In this environment, the social nature of learning could be one of camaraderie or competitiveness among the adult employees. The adult employee wanted to get ahead may try to excel and outperform his coworkers to increase his chances of advancing. On the other hand, the environment could be more of a friendly social nature while everyone is learning. They may be asked to work in groups, much like in a college classroom setting. This will allow them to collaborate and perhaps learn about new skills they can acquire from their coworkers.…… [Read More]
In fact, as early as the 1989-1990 school years, school-based decision making was implemented in three elementary schools in the Memphis City School System (Smith, Valesky & Horgan, 1991). Based on this seminal initiative, improvements were cited in: (a) the coordination provided by the school councils; (b) school-based staff development activities; (c) support and services provided by the district central office; (d) data and reports provided to the individual schools; and (e) the value of the school improvement plans (Smith et al., 1991).
A relevant study of the school-based decision-making process in the State of Tennessee by Etheridge (1990) evaluated the impact of different leadership styles used by school principals on the effectiveness of the school-based decision-making process in seven local school councils in Memphis including their elementary schools following their first 15 months of operation. According to Etheridge, the composition of SBDM councils in Tennessee largely reflects those being…… [Read More]
Within the society today there are different people with their own different behaviors. Some might turn out to be meaningful people but others end up being a bother to the society. This paper will look out moral disengagement in the society.it will explain using behavioral theories why a person is more likely to drop out of the society to become a terrorist as opposed to dropping out to become a hermit or monk.it will also focus on Albert Bandura's model of moral disengagement and explain some techniques that might be used to justify the use of violence by individuals.
Observing the society today more people are getting involved in terrorist behavior as opposed to becoming monks or hermits. The likely hood of an individual becoming a terrorist is high compared to the same individual becoming a monk or hermit. This can be explained using behavioral theories.…… [Read More]
For instance a child performs poorly in examination and the parent decides to withdraw his promise to take the child to the zoo during the holiday.
Positive punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is immediately added after a specific behavior so that future frequency of the behavior is decreased. A good example is of a pick pocket is taken to prison and subjected to learning of a given artwork so that when he comes out of prison he can make his own money through the artwork learned.
Negative punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is removed immediately after a given behavior so that future frequency of that behavior is decreased. Example is when a student performs poorly in class and the parent decides to cut down the student pocket money, the pocket money acts as the stimulant that has been removed hence a negative punishment.
The…… [Read More]
Humans Innately Aggressive?
Aggression is "an action…intended to harm someone in a verbal sense (sarcasm, insults, threats or playing out "nasty motives" -- and it can be a physical act, pushing, hitting, shooting at another person or otherwise aiming to do harm to someone (McCawley, 2001, p. 1). According to a definition from Shippenburg University aggression is any form of human behavior "…directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such harm." Still another definition of aggression (Buss) is found in an essay by Bushman and Anderson: Aggression is "…a response that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism" (Bushman, et al., 1998). But the question that has been asked through the years is -- are people aggressive innately or do people learn to be aggressive? This paper delves into the issue, presents both sides (through the literature), and offers a conclusion.
The…… [Read More]
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…… [Read More]
In summary, observational preexperience had differential effects on the timing of subsequent contingency performance of infants (p. 693)."
This research supports the potential for vicarious learning as a pre-emptor to juvenile delinquency when the family, academic, and social conditions are reflective of the elements that reflect a lack of structure, participation in community, poverty, and poor education systems that are not financed to provide the infrastructure in a child's early years.
4. Explain your understanding of Baumrind's Typology of Parenting Styles. Based on your understanding of the parenting styles described by Baumrind, which style of parenting style is most effective? Which is the least effective style of parenting? Why? Be sure to support your answer.
Diana Baumrind discussed parenting types, the authoritarian parent, the permissive parent and the authoritative parent (Grolnick, W., 2003, p. 5). Baumrind's description of the parenting styles is:
The authoritarian parent attempts to shape, control, and…… [Read More]
Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis
Literature eview on Social Cognitivism
Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura
The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).
Purpose of the study
Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…… [Read More]
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…… [Read More]
Low Self -Control Theory
This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity,…… [Read More]
Social learning theory states that an individual will learn from others through observation, modeling, and imitation (Bandura & McClelland, 1977). A person's behavior is dependent on the environment they come from and the models they grew up observing. Learning is believed to be a cognitive process that will take place in a social context. The social learning theory is often referred to as a bridge between cognitive and behaviorist learning theories because it covers memory, attention, and motivation. Albert Bandura proposed the theory, and it is one of the most influential development and learning theory. Bandura held to the belief that learning could not be fully accounted for by direct reinforcement. The theory proposed by Bandura was rooted in the traditional learning theory, but it added a social element. He argued that individuals could learn new behaviors and information by observing other individuals. Observational learning is the term he used,…… [Read More]
cognitive psychology, learning theories are significant in both their variety and the different ways in which researchers approach "knowing." Within the sphere of cognitive psychology the cognitive learning theory is among the most popular areas of study. The cognitive learning theory suggests that learning is a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information about the environment. Bandura (1986) suggested that what individuals think and feel about themselves necessarily impacts subsequent individual behaviors. As a theory of learning, social cognitive theory is based on the notion that individual's learn by watching others perform and that the internal thought processes people have are critical for a proper understanding of the individual (Santrock, 2008).
The two theories I choose to research for this assignment are Albert Bandura's observational learning theory and B.F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. While both theories involve theories of learning, the differences between the two theories are significant.…… [Read More]
Crime Theories and Juvenile Delinquency
There are many theories of crime that aim at determining or explaining why individuals resort to criminal and/or violent behavior. Among the different types of offenders are juvenile delinquents who are driven to deviancy for a number of reasons. By examining two theories of crime, behavioral and psychodynamic, one can gain a better understanding of the motivating factors behind juvenile delinquency.
One of the most relevant behavioral theories in criminology is the social learning theory. Albert Bandura posited that "people learn by what they see" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 87). He believed that violent tendencies were not inherited, but rather that they were modeled on three distinct principles: reinforcement from family members, the media, and the environment (Isom, 1998). Thus, people behave in ways that are "consistent with what we are exposed to and thus familiar with as a byproduct of our environment" (Arrigo, 2006, p.…… [Read More]
Self-Conception Lit eview
What follows in this brief report is the culmination of prior outlining and research on the subject of self-conception and its place in the broader field of psychology. In total, there are six high-level points that have been covered within the prior assignments relating to this final literature review. For each section, there were questions and blanks to be answered to including how, that is, for example and beyond. What is referenced shall include a number of prominent authors that speak about self-conception and what goes into it. The different conditions and other subsections of the theory will be touched upon. While there are some that suggest that self-conception and psychology in general are going in the wrong direction, the different facets and lessons that are currently coming out of the proverbial woodwork are fascinating.
One thing that needs to be known off the top is…… [Read More]
media consumption and subsequent behaviour?
Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.
The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…… [Read More]
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…… [Read More]
Discharge Education to Promote Self-Efficacy in Heart Failure
An Education Intervention For Patients With Heart Failure
Management of congestive heart failure (CHF) continues to be a financial burden on the economy of the United States of America (USA); responsible for multiple hospital admissions and readmissions of patients with HF within thirty days post discharge. The disease has been associated with personal, physical, and economic challenges. As the population increases, the number of individuals affected with this condition is also increasing. According to the American Heart Association (2009), an estimated 400,000 to 500.000 new cases occur annually, with additional annual cost of more than $33 billion dollars added to the U.S. economy.
Discharge education, which attempts to reduce readmission rate, has become a valuable metric in the provision of health care. For effective management of heart failure symptoms, patient education is a necessity (Gruszczynski, 2010). Sara Paul (2008) discussed the importance…… [Read More]
Building social skills and character in young children of all socioeconomic backgrounds, race and genders through junior golf programs.
Golf is a game of learned behavior and learned skills. When youths are taught golf, it enables the weaving of junior golf and character building activities into lessons that help prepare kids and teens to perform better in the real world. This is due in part to the core values instructors teach and develop in junior golfers that are incorporated throughout junior golf programs. Parents are encouraged to reinforce these behaviors through reflection and discussion, covering the topics and lessons learned in the program. Junior golf programs like The First Tee teaches participants integrity, teamwork, communication, and a handful of other valuable skills via hands-on activities and reflects Albert Bandura's social learning theory in that through observation or direct instruction can help children learn. (Thesis Statement)
Games that require…… [Read More]
Tracy is a thirteen-year-old, Caucasian female, who is being raised by her mother, Melanie in Los Angeles. Also living in the home is Tracy's older brother Mason, who is fifteen. Tracy's parents are divorced, with Melanie as custodial parent. Tracy is in regular contact by telephone with her father, Travis, who is now remarried with a new baby. Travis is employed with a decent salary but has suffered periods of unemployment in the past; Melanie is a high-school dropout who receives child support but otherwise makes a basic subsistence income as a hairdresser for children and women, operating out of her own home. She is a recovering alcoholic who attends weekly A.A. meetings, but most of her social circle is from the recovery movement. For example, Melanie's boyfriend Brady, who is about ten years younger than Melanie but still substantially older than the children, also regularly stays at…… [Read More]
ABC/23 Version X
Week 3 Review Worksheet
Week 3 Review Worksheet
Highlight the correct answer.
Angelica wants to win the beauty contest because she wants the trophy and the recognition. She is extrinsically motivated.
intrinsically avoidance extrinsically situationally
Maslow believed that all human beings strive to become self-actualized great people self-actualized goal oriented achievement oriented
James-Lange theory postulates that bodily reactions occur before the emotions and Cannon-Bard theory postulates that both the bodily reactions and emotions occur at the same time.
Cannon -- Bard theory; James -- Lange theory
James -- Lange theory; Two factor theory
James -- Lange theory; Cannon -- Bard theory
Emotional intelligence; Dual Pathway Model of Fear
Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage emotions effectively in a variety of situations.
. Mental toughness
. Erik Erickson believed that the process in which we handle specific…… [Read More]
It is also possibly one of the most significant motivational factors among young people. Zuckerman refer to disinhibition as follows. "These who choose to follow a conventional lifestyle might periodically escape by engaging in social drinking..." (Franken, 2001, p. 343). This is an important factor as the desire or need for disinhibition may lead to an addictive patterns of behavior, where the drugs or alcohol supply the required escape from routine and inhibitory factors.
Disinhibition is also strongly related to the conventions of society where the individual may feel hemmed in and confined by the routine and patterns of ordinary life. This can lead to addictive behavior as the use of drugs or substances are motivated by the desire to free one's self and sense of identity and fulfill experiential needs.
The central concept that links al of these motivational theories is that they all can be seen to contribute…… [Read More]
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…… [Read More]
represented briefly in the narrative my colleague presented -- that explains how young people become delinquent. Boys from disadvantaged and dysfunctional families, in particular, the research shows, are apt to join up with gangs because in the absence of a father in the home they are looking for masculine role models. Children (boys and girls) that were abused and lived in an environment of violence are most apt to become violent themselves as they grow. This is well-known from the scholarly, peer-reviewed literature available in dozens of databases. The point of the first paragraph is succinct: when a kid has no family, he finds family wherever he can, and it may well be found in a gang environment. In the second paragraph the writer uses data from research in Korea which does not carry the same weight as the first paragraph. ell of course all the seeds for delinquency can…… [Read More]
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…… [Read More]
Indeed, his model includes the entire range of human experience and its effect upon behavior, while at the same time explicating it without being excessively confusing.
To accomplish this is a rare feat indeed. Bandura appears to have accomplished the difficult task of explaining the complex nature of human behavior in a non-complex way. This is what makes his theory so fascinating. It shows the reader the different aspects of human behavior as well as the various elements that can influence it. At the core of the theory lies the understanding that human behavior is affected by both external and internal factors, and how these interact with each other.
Having read the article and the various aspects of the theory, it is therefore not surprising to find at the end that the theory has many useful applications in the healthcare field, and in particular in studying how children develop.… [Read More]
andura's social cognitive theory is similar with Skinner's behaviorist theory, in so far as the role of the external environment on the individual is concerned. However, andura's theory differs from Skinner's in that the former extended the relationship between the individual and external environment to include, at the same time, the influence that the individual's behavior has on his/her external environment. andura's theory illustrates a seemingly 'reciprocal' relationship between the individual and the external environment: the latter affects the former in exchange for a positive outcome, while the former affects the latter as part of his/her continuous cycle of personality development (424).
From the discussion of these three perspectives of the psychology of human personality, significant differences that highlight the importance of each tradition emerge.
The humanistic tradition looks into the internal traits of the individual, positing that these internal traits are what ultimately shape the personality of a person.…… [Read More]
person would learn from the material? Will the article help someone become more self-aware? This research would enable one to understand how a research article is put together and to draw insightful conclusions from it.
Identify the article, the author(s) and the date of publication, both in the body of the paper and in an attached eference list, and the focus of the research
Annesi, James J., et al. "Effects of the coach approach intervention on adherence to exercise in obese women: assessing mediation of social cognitive theory factors." esearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 82.1 (2011): 99+. Academic OneFile. Web. 11 Apr. 2011.
Describe the hypothesis of the study
The hypothesis for this study is that as obese individuals exercised, they were monitored to see if there was an improvement for "physical self-concept, exercise self-efficacy, total mood disturbance and body area satisfaction" (Annesi, 2011). One wanted to see if…… [Read More]
Theoretical Approach to Generational Poverty
Poverty is one of the most pressing social problems and the generational nature of poverty remains one of the reasons it is so difficult to eradicate poverty. While there are several different theories suggesting why poverty is transmitted from generation to generation and theorists sometimes strongly disagree on those reasons, there is almost universal acceptance of the idea that poverty is transmitted from one generation to another. In fact, there has been a significant amount of study directed at chronic poverty in the developed and developing countries. This research suggests that while poverty may be simplistically defined as a lack of money, the problem of poverty actually addresses the "absence of transfer of different forms of capital: human, social-cultural, social-political, financial/material and environmental/natural" (Moore, 2001). This more complex definition of poverty helps explain why simply providing financial resources to a family does not generally fix…… [Read More]
validity, and for school administrators Goldstein's points should be discussed and debated. Goldstein suggests that without violating students' privacy rights, instructors / teachers nationwide need to be far more alert to weirdness, aggressiveness, "creepiness," Nazi-related hatefulness, "Fierce racism" and homophobia.
Students that have obsessive video game habits -- with a daily dose of violent games like "Grand Theft Auto" -- are potentially antisocial individuals that need to be watched (hiteman, 2013). There is ample evidence in the literature that impressionable young men and boys that play the most violent video games are living in a violent world of their own (Jaslow, 2013). Those working towards the prevention of homicidal violence in Germany's schools have employed anti-bullying programs and the "Leaking Project," which mirrors what Goldstein proposals; this should be studied by American school leaders (Leuschner, 2011). Also, those troubled students, known to be suffering from depression -- such as the…… [Read More]
Social Learning Theory and Parenting Skills
The most applicable and relevant philosophy in parenting particularly of the preschool years children is the social learning theory that was proposed and developed by Albert Bandura. The social learning theory is widely seen as the bridge between the cognitive learning and behaviorism, and it is this combination of two theories or approaches to learning that makes it most applicable for my parenting approach. This approach concentrates on attention, motivation as well as memory. This theory indicates that people learn through seeing the behaviors of others, their attitudes and the result of their behaviors. In this sphere, learning is continuous and involves the reciprocation of the behavior of the individual, the environmental influences, the cognitive influences that models the individual (Albert Bendura, 1971:Pp3). In a nut shell, the individual is aware of the relationship between his behavior and the consequences, and he learns these…… [Read More]
, notes at that there has been a "paucity of studies" on the effectiveness of video in teaching culture through foreign-language programs. Herron investigated whether students retain more ("little c") cultural "practices" or ("big C") cultural "products" by watching video in a second-language program (Herron, 1999, p. 522). Thirty-eight students were given a pretest before watching the 10 videos that were part of the French-language curriculum. Immediately afterward they were given a post-test. Interestingly, in terms of their evolving understanding of French culture, in 8 of the 10 total post-video quizzes, the students gave higher scores to their "little c" (understanding cultural practices) than to "big C" (cultural products). And 84.2% of the 38 students believed that the 10 videos showed "a lot or a vast amount" of little c (cultural practices in France) presented and 42.1% believed that "a lot or a vast amount" of big C (cultural products…… [Read More]
There is an initial purchase of sound field equipment and some installation and in-service costs which are stated to be negotiable. (Ray, 1995; paraphrased)
III. Computers in the Classroom and Deaf Learners
The government is presently making a dedicated effort to put computers into place in every classroom throughout America however in regards to learners who are deaf technological solutions have appeared slowly however, it has been indicated in online science and mathematics studies that computer technology is promising for learners who are deaf. In what was a metasynthesis of 287 studies, the work of raden and Shaw (1987) report that "the degree of success with computer-assisted instruction was inversely related to methodological rigor." Technology in the classroom for deaf learners may include use of:
(1) closed-captioning; and/or
(2) Real-time captioning. (National Science Foundation, 2009)
Study findings appear to indicate that deaf students are inherently more rigid in their manner…… [Read More]
P., Phillips, J.J., 2008, OI fundamentals: why and when to measure OI, John Wiley and Sons
6. eliability and validity
The concepts of reliability and validity are often used as synonymous, yet there are some notable differences between the two terms. At a general level, reliability is understood as the ability of a person, system, group or another construction to function at the adequate parameters and to serve the purposes for which it was created. The concept of validity refers to the ability of a result, a statement, a finding or another such system to be realistic, well-founded, sound and trustworthy.
Within the statistical, research and science areas, the concepts of reliability and validity gain new relevance as it is crucial for the studies to be both reliable as well as valid. In other words, they have to be self-sustained and to generate sound and trustworthy results.
The constant characteristic…… [Read More]
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…… [Read More]
biological theories, sociological theories, and psychological theories of crime.
Biological explanations of criminal behavior
Lombroso's Theory dates back to the late 1800s, and is not widely accepted today. Lombroso believed that a person's body type and constitution can tell a researcher whether or not the person is "a born criminal" (Crossman, 2011). Lombroso believed that criminals inherited their deviance, and that the body type of a person, if it resembled "primitive men," meant that individual was a criminal through a biological connection.
Typically, Lombroso believed that if a person had five or more characteristics from this list (" ... large monkey-like ears, large lips, a twisted nose, excessive cheekbones, long arms, and excessive wrinkles on the skin") then that individual would likely be a "born criminal" (Crossman, p. 1). Females, according to Lombroso, needed just three of these characteristics to qualify as a "born criminal."
Another biological crime theory comes…… [Read More]
Humanistic vs. Social-Cognitive Perspectives
This paper compares and contrasts the main themes of the social-cognitive perspective with the themes of the humanistic perspective. Both perspectives are reviewed and presented and the differences are made clear as well. The limitations of each perspective will also be presented.
The Humanistic Perspective
The authors of Humanistic Perspectives on Contemporary Counseling Issues (a book with no page numbers) explain that humanistic approaches to mental health used to dominate the profession of counseling -- and that humanism should not be "placed on a shelf in the intellectual museum of the profession" nor should it be seen as a "bygone trend" (Scholl, et al., 2013). And rather than putting humanism on the list of perspectives that have been "eclipsed" by newer trends in the field of psychology, the authors believe that humanism is "not just a theory or treatment orientation, but also a 'moral imperative'" (Scholl).…… [Read More]
behavioral consultation, including its goals, assumptions, communication within the context, and the area of conjoint behavioral consultation.
Goals of Behavioral Consultation
Palmer and colleagues describe the process of behavioral consultation as a multistage process of problem solving that offers services to clients indirectly. A consultee-consultant relationship facilitates the triadic relationship, with the consultant endeavoring to modify client behavior through instilling skills to effectively resolve future problems, in the consultee. Hence, organizational change successfully ensues, with the aid of the multistage approach to problem solving.
Assessment, evaluation and intervention are interlinked; this is the most effective means of treating the client. The stages of evaluation and assessment typically depend on noticeable, specifiable, and measurable data measurements. None of the existing widely-accepted human behavioral or personality theories strongly disagrees with the notion of humanity being, to a considerable degree, products of the environment surrounding them. But behavior therapy states quite precisely how…… [Read More]
A child can learn that pressing a button on remote changes a channel on a television set. The experiment used two set of participants where one set learnt from a machine while the others learnt from a human participant. It was evident that the use of a ghost machine yielded better results compared to the use of a participant (Nairne, 2011).
The method used to learn how observational learning influences children will be the use of questionnaires. Short questionnaires will be sent to twenty baby care centers to evaluate the observational learning skills possessed by the caregivers. The questionnaires will be filled by the participants using three main methods. Centers that are a long distance from researcher's location will be provided with the questionnaires through emails. Centers where the care giver is busy will be called when convenient and the questionnaire filled through a telephone conversation. Centers that are…… [Read More]
It may be necessary to start with continuous conditioning and gradually increase the fixed number of responses necessary for a reinforcer to be delivered. The nature of this schedule "produces a high rate of responding, with a pause after the reinforcer is delivered" (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219), and then another burst of responses.
ith a variable-ratio schedule, responses follow a steady pattern, with few pauses after the reinforcer is delivered. Here, reinforcement follows an average number of responses that is varied between trials (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219). A participant may need to respond 25 times in one trial to receive reinforcement, whereas the second trial will require 20 responses for the delivered reinforcer. hile each trial is unpredictable, more trials bring the ratio of response to reinforcement to a predetermined average (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219).
Interval schedules use time to determine the delivery of the reinforcer. ith a fixed-interval schedule,…… [Read More]
However, he also shows a high degree of empathy, sympathy, and compassion for others. Frequently a significant contributor in a service-oriented sales role" (Weitzul 1993:49). This characterization of the necessary qualities for successful salespeople is very different from the traditional persona of salespeople who, especially in prior generations, often maintained an Aggressive-Compulsive behavioural style that is normally defined as a personality type that relies on a domineering approach lacking in sensitivity and empathy, who may be a better technical sales person than a more interpersonal sales person (Weitzul 1993:139).
Ultimately, empathy is now recognized as a crucial element of successful and effective sales techniques. Ideally, empathy expressed by salespeople should be established quickly and clearly as early as possible in the sales pitch; preferably, it should be incorporated into the introductory sentence or two of the initial exchange between salespeople and their customers. Whereas dynamic and hard-hitting sales pitches were…… [Read More]
The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.
Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.
Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…… [Read More]
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…… [Read More]
For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.
The Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.
With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…… [Read More]
d.). This shows how things that people have been exposed to outside of the organization environment can also influence the decisions that they make while at work.
These theories are typically used to clarify how people react in situations wherein they are expected to utilize their intelligence within their companies. "Spearman's General Intelligence Theory; otherwise called the Structural Model, speaks to the fact that intelligence is derived from a single factor; that of how one relates to co-workers with respect to circumstances in which they are required to make a decision between two or more options alternatives that are competing against each other" (Organizational Behavior Theories, n.d.). The theorists suggests that how the workers will reason and react to these conditions will be determined in relation to the duration of time they have been working in the company. If a person is new to a company then they will not…… [Read More]
ehavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis
Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.
Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well
Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…… [Read More]
He understood, "The greatest real way of making a strong intelligence of efficacy is through mastery involvements" (p. 3).
Person Environment Occupation model
The PEO model (Broome, 2009) is a famous and recognized conceptual model and model of exercise inside Canadian occupational therapy. It bids groundwork for managing valuation and interference through all practice surroundings and customer inhabitants. The planned device is able to transport the PEO model to life in the process of a humble and cheap instrument that can bring clinicians a real-world theoretical foundation for their clinical procedure. The circle instrument performs as a vehicle for unfolding what occupational therapy is about, describing the foci, and what the clinician can offer to the client.
Figure 2: Person Environment Occupation model
The PEO model that aims for the best fit to enhance occupational performance can be used to guide the occupational therapy process. This procedure, as…… [Read More]
Social Cognitive Theory
First promoted by Albert Bandura, the principles of social-cognitive theory stemmed from the social learning theory, both of which can be blanketed under behaviorism. Based on the principle that people are motivated primarily by reward or punishment, social-cognitive theory builds upon the basic tenets of behaviorism by focusing on the ways individuals learn by observing others and modeling their behavior. Therefore, social-cognitive theory suggests that both human cognition and social interaction play key roles in the stimulus-response process.
Social-cognitive theory offers a well-rounded approach to basic behaviorism and can be a useful approach to understanding individual and group behaviors. Moreover, social-cognitive theory can help researchers postulate motivations for certain behaviors. The theory is useful in helping psychologists understand how to promote behavioral change in their clients. The theory is therefore useful in both clinical and counseling psychology, as it has potential uses for research as well as…… [Read More]
The unconscious is the part of the thoughts of which an individual is not cognizant of. Freud stated the unconscious exposes the true emotions and opinions of the person (obbins, 2006, p. 170). There are an assortment of psychoanalytic methods utilized to contact and comprehend the unconscious, alternating from approaches like hypnosis, dream analysis, and free association. Dreams help an individual navigate through the unconscious; according to Freud, they are the main means to the unconscious.
Dreams are generated from dormant and apparent content. Whereas dormant content is the fundamental significance of a dream that may not be recalled when a person awakens, evident content is the content a person does remember from awakening which can then be examined by a psychoanalytic psychologist. Tanya's dormant feelings of her late husband could have manifested in actions against her daughter. The same could be said of Akeelah. She could have forged her…… [Read More]