Albert Camus Essays (Examples)

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Camus France WWII France Under

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34790877

Throughout his play, collective devastation is met with personal suffering. It is only when this becomes a shared suffering that it can become a collective way to redemption. The divides of a war now over would give way to this shared experience for all peoples of France, charged with the responsibility of rebuilding.

Indeed, this speaks much to the futility of war itself, as spoke by Camus when he resolves that "all a man could win in the conflict between plague and life was knowledge and memories" (Camus, 262). The viewpoint expressed here is in informed by the severity of World War II and the unprecedented global experience of attempting to be removed from this trauma. In the resolution instigative of this discussion, we can see that Camus holds on to some sense that man is inherently more a good creature than a bad one, and that he is to be recognized for his virtues. This is an optimism which is perhaps confided in desire and necessity more than anything else.

This notion contributes, though, to the determination that man's life is steeped in suffering, from which he must be constantly prepared to find ways to protect himself. And moreover,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camus, Albert. The Plague. 1947. NY: McGraw Hill, 1965.
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Camus in the Book the

Words: 701 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54263026

It is true that Grand changes over the book. He finds within himself the words to express himself and knows how he would act differently given the chance. He is redeemed at the end when he overcomes illness.

However, it appears that the individuals who are the greatest heroes in real life are those who change the most when confronted with adversity. This is because they are the ones who will help others change. They can be role models and encourage people to find something deep within themselves to deal with suffering, find love or destroy evil. Change agents are the ones who can motivate people to fight against the Hitlers and not be afraid of change inside or the world around them.

Who is this person who changes the most? As noted, Grand transformd, but not to an extreme. Nor is it Rieux who is always willing to help others, Paneloux who does not actually alter his religious convictions, or even Cottard who changes for a while. Overall, it is Rambert who undergoes the greatest change over the first 170 pages of the book. At first he wants to leave Oran; he wants to run away and not face…… [Read More]

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Camus the Search for Meaning

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91022899

" By imagining Sisyphus happy, it then becomes possible to find our own happiness in no matter what situation.

Camus begins his argument with a powerful statement about suicide, noting that it is the most important of all philosophical problems. The question of suicide cuts to the core of whether life has any meaning. If life has no meaning then it only makes sense to end the life, and seek meaning elsewhere. Camus claims that accepting absurdity negates the function of suicide, and renders suicide itself an absurdity. To commit suicide is no different than perpetuating blind and useless faith in an abstract God. Both acts entail surrendering the personal will. Suicide and blind faith both deny personal responsibility and instead project and expect meanings onto the universe. Camus' argument is self-empowering. Instead of having faith or hope, holding out for the revelation of true meaning, the individual has the opportunity to reach enlightenment in the present moment. Imagining Sisyphus happy is a bold mental step, and can be a paradigm shift. Taking personal responsibility means transforming one's perspective by embracing the absurd.

One of the strongest points in Camus' the Myth of Sisyphus is the explanation of what an…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus.
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Camus -- the Plague an

Words: 1970 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7371224

Yet, even Tarrou must fall to the plague inevitably. Camus as much as says that while Tarrou's ideals may be beautiful, they are not ultimately the truth: there is no moksha for Tarrou -- only death. Does absurdism expect that one's best course of action is to interact with life at a slight remove -- as Rieux does? No definite answer can be given.

Cottard, however, is definitely not the best example of how society should act in the face of the absurd. His attempted suicide leads him to more irrational and violent behavior. His foil is found in the person of Rambert -- who, like Cottard -- attempts to find a "way out," at least initially. Gradually, Rambert is moved to shame for his desire to escape and seek his happiness outside of the human experience that is happening in Oran. Rambert finally decides to stay and help even though his conniving produces him a chance to escape. His sacrifice is rewarded at the end, when he is reunited with his wife, who has been waiting on the outside. Rambert is recognized as the man whose courage fails only to be revived by conscience -- the simple man, who…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camus, Albert. "The Myth of Sisyphus." Web. 4 Aug 2011.

Camus, Albert. The Plague. Web. 4 Aug 2011.

Mitgang, Herbert. "A Talk with Walker Percy." New York Times Book Review, 20 Feb

1977: 20-21. Print.
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Guest and Sonny's Blues Albert

Words: 899 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48207320

Daru is still trying to cling to a sense of morality; yet, the Arab himself shows how this will not work in a world of uncertainty because after he is set free, he goes to the police station himself.

James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" Topic 6

James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" is an interesting tale of a lost soul, who finds his solace and ability to express himself through the art of music. Sonny lost both of his parents, and his brother was not there for him during the times he needed him the most. Sonny's brother did not understand his suffering, and as a result he turned his back on Sonny during his times of darkness. Sonny was left alone in a world of darkness and he was not strong enough to deal with it in a healthier manner, as his brother did. Therefore, Baldwin writes "this life, whatever it was, had made him older and thinner and it had deepened the distant stillness in which he had always moved" (Baldwin 100). He had turned to drug and crime to get by. Essentially, the hard-knock life of living in Harlem during the extreme racism and despair of that era had worn…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues."

Camus, Albert. "The Guest."
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Kant Camus Kant and Camus

Words: 1439 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95083014

If Kant's points are to be assimilated when adopting a moral stance which is consistent with man's dignity, such absolute terms are inevitably defined by dominant social structures, bringing us to the application of a normative theoretical structure. The inextricable relationship which theology and morality have shared throughout history tends to have a tangible impact on the way these hegemonic standards are defined.

And Kant, rejects any flexibility outright, however. Beyond its deviation from his established disposition toward moral absolutes, such variation violates Kant's maxim about man as an end rather than a means. Man is to be the motive for moral acts, with his dignity defining right and wrong. Indeed, as he pointedly phrases it, "the laws of morality are laws according to which everything ought to happen; they allow for conditions under which what ought to happen doesn't happen." (Kant, 1)


Like Kant, Camus asserts a clear ethical rejection of the act of suicide such as demonstrated in his the Myth of Sisyphus. Published in 1942, the original essay concerns the absurdity of life and the necessity to recognize this without succumbing to nihilism. However, as it addresses the subject of suicide as a possible outcome of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Camus, a. (1942). The Myth of Sisyphus. Vintage.

Kant, Immanuel. 1785. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Jonathan Bennett.
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Baldwin and Camus How Much

Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60712336

Balducci, a soldier who Daru knows, approaches with an Arab prisoner. Balducci's government papers give custody of the prisoner to Daru, who must now take him to the French jail in Tinguit. Upset, Daru wishes to refuse. He does not want to become involved. Balducci likewise does not want to be in the lawmaker role. "You don't get used to putting a rope on a man even after years of it, and you're even ashamed-yes, ashamed." Balducci, in fact, is shirking his responsibility for decision making by passing the buck on to Daru.

Daru understands that the Arab is being made a political example -- in other words, a guinea pig. He killed his cousin in a family feud, which is not a case for the French colonial courts but the involved families. Daru accepts his charge, but relunctantly. By doing so, Daru is taking a clear position, defying the "rules" and authorities that Balducci blindly obeys, in addition to rejecting the actions of Arab. He then states, "Every bit of this disgusts me, and first of all your fellow here. But I won't hand him over. Fight, yes, if I have to. But not that."

Daru unties the guest…… [Read More]

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Martin Heidegger Alber Camus and Sigmund Freud

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71868086

Heidiegger Camus

Martin Heidegger's "Being and Time" addresses both of these complex philosophical concepts, being and time. Being means existence, or the fact that something can exist. Heidegger approaches the concept of being from multiple perspectives. Being is the quality of existence, or the fact that something exists. Does this mean the opposite of Being is Nothingness? What does Heidegger say about anti-matter? Heidegger also probes the force that causes a thing or concept to come into being. It may only be possible to contemplate the quality or state of being if the thinker exists, meaning that a nothing cannot think about a something. Heidegger comes close to suggesting the existence of a collective human soul, a grand Being, which he calls Dasein. The Dasein is not quite like the Nietzsche, but it is an archetypal super being that has the potential to contemplate existence.

For Heidegger, Being and Time are closely connected. All beings exist in the space-time continuum. Is Heidegger saying that is not possible for a being to exist outside of this construct, meaning that immortality is impossible? Heidegger does seem to imply that birth and death, on a linear time construction, are necessary conditions for the…… [Read More]

"The Myth of Sisyphus" by Albert Camus explores the nature of reality via what the author calls the "absurd." Life has an absurd character to it, which human beings grapple with and find either confusing or funny. The concept of the absurd resolves a classic existential dilemma: that is, the meaning of life. Camus suggests that it is acceptable if life has no meaning, and that people can still live happy and fulfilling lives without an ultimate sense of meaning. The search for meaning can in itself be viewed as an absurdity in the human condition. In "The Myth of Sisyphus," Camus claims that the only way to resolve existential angst is accepting the absurdity of life and moving through it. The central allegory of the Myth of Sisyphus is a Greek story of Sisyphus, who is punished to eternal damnation on earth by having to roll a rock up a hill. The rock rolls down again, and so Sisyphus is in a state of perpetual motion. Nothing is happening, but if Sisyphus can accept the absurdity in the situation, he can achieve liberation. This mentality can be applied to any frustrating situation in life. Any time a person feels trapped, the simple awareness and acceptance of that fact can lead to mental liberation. Camus's philosophy can be applied to any life situation in which a person can find the humor in the absurdity of an event or a person.

Sigmund Freud wrote "Civilization and its Discontents" in 1929. Freud discusses social psychology, explaining how an individual struggles to maintain a personal identity as well as a collective identity. The social norms that pressure the individual to conform to society are often in conflict with one's inner truth or desire. In fact, a person's desires are frequently in conflict with the social norms. They are taboos. Freud expanded upon this general concept in his theory of the personality as being divided into id, ego, and superego. The superego represents the social norms and cultural values that constrain the individual; whereas the ego is the person's individualism which struggles to assert itself. The id is the desire that all people have for food, sex, and pleasure. This is what Freud refers to as the pleasure principle.

Freud's writings have had a huge impact on the field of psychology but also on sociology and anthropology. More than that, Freud's writings have had an impact on the way people perceive the world. Most people have heard of the Freudian concepts that are outlined in "Civilization and its Discontents."
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Moral Impermissibility of Abortion Albert

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45377802

The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?

This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide your own destiny, an intentional removal of a growing life is not and can never be the right answer.

Even if we can't undoubtedly say that it is in fact a person, there is "something too human about a fetus which looks so much like a baby" (Cline) that should…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abortion." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 21 April 2007.

Abortion debate." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 22 April 2007.

Cline, Austin. "Ethics of Abortion: Is it Moral or Immoral to Have an Abortion?" About: Agnosticism/Atheism. 2007. The New York Times Company. 22 April 2007.

Freedom Quotes- Albert Camus." About: Quotations. 2007. The New York Times Company. 21 April 2007.
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Fall Camus's Story the Fall

Words: 2138 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4748192

.. Anyone who has considerably meditated on man, by profession or vocation, is led to feel nostalgia for the primates. They at least don't have any ulterior motives." (Camus, 4) Passion as well might make one authentic, or a true and mindless embrace of any aspect of life. Truthfully, the story does little to present us with true authenticity, because the narrator himself never discovers it.

The meaning of this story may seem very difficult to grasp if one makes the assumption that the narrator speaks for the author as a voice of wisdom and reason. Actually, no such assumption needs to be made. Camus is well-known for writing ironic works in which the speaker is not a mouth-piece for virtue. A key to this work may be found in something which Camus wrote shortly before-hand regarding his falling-out with Sartre. "Existentialists! Whenever they accuse themselves, you can be sure it is invariably in order to assail others. [they are] Penitent judges." (in: Raskin) Because of this quote, and the similarities between certain elements of the story's philosophy and that of the existentialists, some critics consider this story to be "at least in part a mordant satire directed against Sartre…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camus, Albert. The Fall. Trans. Justin O'Brien. New York: Vintage Books, 1956

Raskin, Richard. "Camus's Critiques of Existentialism." Minerva - an Internet Journal of Philosophy 4 (2001): 156-165
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Kierkegaard vs Camus in the

Words: 2617 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20450300

If dread enters as the knowledge that there is no knowledge from which to derive a decision, yet decision is all there is, then we reach a complicated idea of what comprises the individual. If there were a concrete and appreciable version of each person, ready at any time to assess, then the concept of dread would have less terrible implications. The fact is, when penetrated by the nothing of pure possibility, the reach of this nothing is beyond almost all conception. There never really is an individual, just some ongoing process of change. The nothing alienates the individual further than from mere others and the world. The nothing of dread brings into its fold, the individual. The individual supports this nothing and yet must determine itself on such grounds. Whereas before, we had the Kierkegaardian maxim of individual as truth, we now have no grounds for determining anything. The actor has forgotten his/her lines and must now choose them every moment.

As such, we must move onto a more concrete and grounded conception of the individual to explore the synthesis of Camus and Kierkegaard. Perhaps a synthesis already has purchase in the absurd. "The absurd depends as much on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus: And Other Essays. Alfred A. Knopf, 1955.

Translated by Justin O'Brien.

Kieregaard, Soren. "Dread and Freedom." Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre:

The Basic Writings of Existentialism. Trans. Walter Kaufman. New York.
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Myth Sisyphus the Myth of

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77482640

The absurdity in Monty Python comedy sketches seem like a philosophical cousin to Albert Camus.

Likewise, Camus is like a distant relative of Buddha. Buddhism asks the individual to cease striving and desiring everything and anything -- including enlightenment itself. Life is suffering, says the Buddha, a concept that clearly reflects the punishment of Sisyphus. The root cause of suffering is not in the punishment, though, it is the desire to be set free or the desire to know why the punishment was meted. Elimination of the "uselessness of suffering," as Camus puts it, is the elimination of the desire for meaning. Camus would note that Buddhism is the religion of the absurd, or a religion that acknowledges the absurd and attempts to ironically pierce through it or overcome it. With a Buddhist outlook, Sisyphus simply rolls the rock up the hill more consciously.

When the meaning of life is nothingness, or absurdity, then one can become liberated in a sort of humorous outlook. Humor is a liberating force, emotionally and psychologically. Hunting and pecking for meaning in this universe is like searching for the needle in the haystack, if there was one there to begin with. One of the…… [Read More]


Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus. Vintage, 1983.
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Philosophers' Ethos Thomas Hobbes's Opinion

Words: 1533 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26843298

Even with the fact that he is well aware of the futility of his struggle; the essay's protagonist does not give in and constantly stresses the importance of his mission. Sisyphus should nonetheless be considered to be happy, as Camus describes, considering that the character accepts his fate and proceeds to perform his pointless task.

Camus' essay demonstrates how the much hated absurdness of life can become less malicious when individuals realize that there is basically nothing to do in order to change the end. Sisyphus's dedication to live life to the fullest and his attempt to cheat death were unsuccessful, as his fate ultimately defeated him in the long run. Camus obviously wanted to prove that there is no point in trying to cheat what it is inevitable.… [Read More]


Camus, Albert. (1991). "The Myth of Sisyphus: And Other Essays." Vintage.

Hobbes, Thomas. (1950). "Leviathan, Part 1." Forgotten Books.

Hume, David. (1983). "An enquiry concerning the principles of morals." Hackett Publishing.

"Hume's Moral Philosophy." Retrieved October 27, 2010, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Website:
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Politics Literature and the Arts

Words: 1748 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68936064

Politics, literature and the arts -- Transformation, Totalitarianism, and Modern Capitalist life in Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis," Fritz Lang's "Metropolis," and Albert Camus' Caligula

At first, the towering heights of the German director Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" may seem to have little to do with the cramped world of the Czech author Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis." Fritz Lang portrayed a humanity whereby seemingly sleek human beings were dwarfed by towering and modernist structures, where one class of thinking humans were drunk on pleasure while others suffered in pain so that the upper classes or regions of Metropolitan society might prosper. Franz Kafka portrayed a man named Gregor Samsa who became a grotesque creature, increasingly beset upon by his tiny and encloistered environment until he is transformed into a gigantic cockroach. Rather than focusing on the higher echelons of society, Kafka focused on its lower elements immediately.

In Kafka, the transformed Gregor Samsa becomes too large and ungainly for his environment. Gregor becomes trapped by the world of his apartment, rather than seeking to escape it like Lang's central protagonist of the privileged classes. But both metaphors of the film and the short story show how human beings in a modernist world become alien…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camus, Albert. "Caligula." 1936.

Kafka, Franz. "Metamorphosis." Translated by Ian Johnston. Released October 2003.

'Metropolis." Directed by Fritz Lang. 1926.
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Human Nature in Literature and

Words: 1168 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67986898

And, if one flees historical reality, then, is it not futile in that eventually it will catch up with us? As a "guest" of this world, then, what is the basic responsibility we have towards humanity? Daru chooses an isolated and ascetic life -- he flees society, but society catches up with him, and it is his decision that allows him to become -- more human. Of true importance in this work is that the original title in French, L'hote means two things -- the guest, or the host. Thus, the title refers to the struggle of both the prisoner and the schoolmaster; giving the reader a moral guide that is less than logical, but historically practical (Camus, 2000).

Gimpel the Fool is a Yiddish tale set down by Isaac Singer, and translated into English in 1953. In essence, it is representative of much of the Judaic culture -- the journey the individual takes, through trials and tribulations, to find faith, guidance, and ultimately self-actualization within a cruel world. Gimpel accepts that the town thinks of him as a fool, representative of the outside world having little trust in his acumen -- and as a fool, he is therefore boxed…… [Read More]


Camus, A. (2000). The Guest. In Y. a. Cummings, The Terrible Power of A Minor Guilt (pp. 41-56). Syaracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Pinker, S. (1989). Learnability and Cognition: The Acquisition of Argument Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Roochnik, D. (2004). Retrieving the Ancients: An Introduction to Greek Philosophy.

New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
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Guest With Its Existential Feel Is a

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9939245

Guest, with its existential feel, is a Camus classic. The short story's setting is stark, as the author's words evoke the Algerian desert in the midst of a snowstorm. Sweeping landscapes of desert winter and stark, unpopulated terrain are part of what makes "The Guest" a story about isolation. However, the protagonist, Daru, has chosen to live here as a teacher. His only contact with the outside world seems to be through his bags of grain, which symbolize civilization. Even his Corsican friend Balducci cannot rend Daru from his self-imposed solitude. Daru appreciates his secluded state and relishes the simple life. Therefore, the prisoner whom Balducci delivers to him is treated with kindness and compassion; like Daru, he too is a guest. But Daru does not identify with either the Arab or the French cause and therefore he cares not for the political implications of the prisoner's fate. Instead, he demands that the Arab decide for himself whether or not to turn himself in. As people without a sense of belonging, both Daru and the Arab represent the title of the short story. With "The Guest," Camus elucidates the theme of isolation through his use of scenery, self-imposed isolation, and…… [Read More]

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Coping With Guilt in the

Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98147616

His final diatribe, regarding Empire does not absolve him, but instead accepts his own guilt in the indorination of feeling toward the desire to grow his empire. "One thought alone preoccupies the submerged mind of Empire: how no tto end, how not to die." (133)This echoes his own thoughts, expressed when he was teetering on the stool waiting to be hanged, he said to himself that he would stand in that place until the flesh fell from his bones, "to live." (125) He divorces the idea of empire openly, with his sacrifice and torture and then remarries the idea that he has reason to feel guilty because he is indoctrinated in the nature of Empire. To him the only real innocence is the children, which he then realizes connects him to his paternal and incestuous love for the barbarian girl, who was the eventual cause of his demise, for it had been her who he had sought to return to her people, and then been arrested for helping the enemy.

Each of these novels is contentious of the human condition and the main characters rang between absolution for inaction and action in a corrupt human system and the allowance of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camus, Albert the Fall. New York: Vintage, 1991.

Coetzee, J.M. Waiting for the Barbarians. New York: Penguin, 1982.
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Alienation in Soldier's Home and

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81996729

Both Krebs and Daru are also alienated because they are unable to adopt the philosophy of the cultures in which they exist. Krebs comes from a religious household and a country that promotes ambition from men, yet he cannot accept God's existence, nor can he work up the enthusiasm to seek a job and make money. Similarly, Daru is forced to turn in an Arab prisoner-of-war, yet he does not have the heart to force the Arab to do anything. Instead, he lets the Arab decide whether to turn himself in or to hide with rebels. The actions of Krebs and Daru are unusual because in most stories, the characters are ambitious and try to change their surroundings if they are unhappy within them. However, Krebs and Daru show no motivation for escaping their environments, and their lack of motivation reflects their alienation.

The narration of both stories is another way that the alienation scene surfaces in the two stories. Both stories are written in a passive, almost bored voice that is direct but offers no commentary on the activity that takes place. The language never frames any of the activity in the plots as being of any significance, so…… [Read More]

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Perspectives and Commitments

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17516599

Socrates, "The unexamined life is not worth living (" It is for this reason that a critical examination of our most fundamental beliefs about truth and reality whether right or wrong becomes an important undertaking ( The examination of major life perspectives challenges as well as helps us to better establish many of our own assumptions about life ( We should all be concerned with how different views of the world clash or fit together, and with how the different perspectives (moral, scientific, religious, metaphysical, and personal) may be reconciled ( It is with these ideas in mind that this paper undertakes an examination of three major life perspectives, those of: naturalism, humanism, and theism (

According to naturalism, heredity and environment influence and determine human motivation and behavior (naturalism.html). Thus, if an artist wishes to depict life as it really is, he or she must be rigorously deterministic in the representation of thoughts and actions (naturalism.html). Naturalism holds that all phenomena can be explained mechanistically in terms of natural (as opposed to supernatural) causes and laws ( Naturalism neither denies nor affirms the existence of God ( However, naturalism makes God an unnecessary hypothesis and essentially superfluous to scientific…… [Read More]

Humanism is an approach to life emphasizing ethics, rationality, and intelligent compassion ( Humanism asserts that reason and science are the soundest means for investigating claims of truth ( This philosophy asserts that ideas, values, myths, and social systems are based on human experience ( Free thought thrive best in free, democratic societies ( This is a doctrine centered on human interests or values ( Albert Camus was an example of a humanist thinker. According to Camus, accepting the absurdity (life as a hopeless, meaningless, eternal up-hill struggle) is the first necessary step; it arouses a revolt, the analysis of, which can help us discover ideas capable of restoring relative meaning to existence ( After 1945, he was concerned with the study of the problems of action and of the service of humanity ( He believed that natural suffering increases not because men are wicked but because they are not sufficiently enlightened ( He believed man alone and without the help of God, could create his own values (

Theism is a philosophy that affirms that the source and basis of all things is in God (exist1.html). Its primary focus is belief in gods, however, belief in gods is distinct from religion (

Belief in God does not logically require a religion and religions do not logically require a belief in god(s) to be religions ( Thus, we see people who do believe in
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World War II Book Review

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34700032

It is key to understanding the author's view of love and even her own status as a woman and as a thinker. Of course, the book can simply be read as a love story of infidelity and sexual liberty gone wrong in the face of an ever-changing political society in a state of national and European chaos. But the Mandarins de Beauvoir referred to were also the elite, the intellectual elites of Chinese society who held themselves above from the common peasants.

Thus, by calling her fellow Left Bank intellectuals 'Mandarins' De Beauvoir symbolically calls upon her fellow intellectuals to become part and parcel of the political fray, rather than wasting their energies with entangling personal alliances that can be just as dissipating as the betrayals of Vichy and the subsequent alliances that sapped the French nation of its own vital energies. She calls upon the intellectual Mandarins of French society not to form their own elite core of thinkers, but to unite with others who share their thoughts in a less complicated way than pure, cerebral existentialism and visceral sexual pleasures that are really of interest only to the personal lives of those who suffer their consequences.

The author…… [Read More]

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Life in a Godless World for as

Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4340773

Life in a Godless World

For as long as mankind has contemplated its own creation philosophers have pondered the meaning of life largely within the context of humanity's relationship to the divine, from Aristotle's metaphysical conception of God as all actuality to Descartes' systematic attempt to develop a proof of God's existence. The dominance of Christianity throughout much the civilized world invariably constrained the ability of great thinkers to challenge many of the religion's most fundamental precepts, from the concept of free will to the nature of good and evil, leaving much of the early philosophical canon regrettably limited by a reliance on unquestioned faith. After the European Renaissance validated the structural foundations of scientific inquiry, the glaring inability to empirically observe God in any conceivable form prompted many to privately question the dogmatic assertions of the Pope and his church. It wasn't until the momentous contribution of the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who first published his seminal treatise on the nature of existence The Gay Science in 1882, that one's refusal to believe in God was transformed from fringe idiosyncrasy to legitimate worldview. When Nietzsche answered the query "Whither is God?" By declaring boldly "I will tell you. We…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1955. Print.

"Nietzche - The Gay Science." Existentialism: Basic Writings. Charles Guignon and Derk Pereboom. 2nd. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2001. 129-171. Print. < >.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the Genealogy of Morals, I, II, III, 9. Translated by Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale. New York: Viking, 1969. Print.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. Twilight of the Idols. Translated by Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale. New York: Viking, 1969. Print.
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Nietzsche and Nihilism The World

Words: 2271 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35638629

Foremost, though, is the Nietzschian concept that freedom is never free -- there are costs; personal, societal, and spiritual. To continue that sense of freedom, one must be constantly vigilant and in danger of losing that freedom, for the moment the individual gasps a sigh of relief and feels "free" from contemplating freedom, tyranny will ensue. He believed that it was the internal cost that contained value. This, however, still presents a problem for Nietzsche, in that he must find a way to connect the objective -- the rose is beautiful, with the "idea" of beauty (essence). Thus, the idea of freedom and the objective reality of freedom are dependent upon the manner in which the individual perceives their own path towards such a concept. Remembering that Nietzsche lived while monarchs still reigned, his view of freedom from a political and cultural paradigm was heavily influenced by Bismarckian politics, which were anything but democratic and "free." Instead, likely opting out of the tradition of Hobbes, people are born into a state in which they cannot be initially free since they are barbarian and must be controlled (Nietzsche, 1982, 224-8).

Now, extrapolating this idea further, we find that for Nietzsche, free…… [Read More]


Camus, a. (1942). The Myth of Sisyphus. Cited in:

Kelly, R. (1998). Arthur Schopenhauer -- Essays. Cited in:
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Use of Myth in a Work of Art

Words: 1370 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37289829

Myth in a Work of Art

Albert Camus was born on the 7th of November 1913 in Algeria from a French father and a Spanish mother. His father died in the First World War (seriously wounded in the battle of the Marne, he died a month later), so that Camus was raised by his mother and never knew his father. Camus spent his childhood in Alger, in his grandmother's house, where he received his first education. Later on, he passed onto to primary school under the tutorship of Louis German, to whom Camus will bear a strong gratitude his whole life and whom he mentioned in his acceptance speech upon winning the Nobel price in 1957. It was German that first encouraged Albert Camus in his studies and who convinced him to pursue a higher education within the Algiers University. During his time at the university, he founded the Theatre du Travail in Algiers, where his first play, Revolte dans les Asturies, was put on scene. After earning a degree in philosophy, Camus quickly established himself as one of the most notable writers of the 20th century with novels like The Stranger (1946), The Plague (1948) and The Myth of…… [Read More]


4. Albert Camus. The Myth of Sisyphus: And Other Essays. Vintage International 1991.
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Philosophy of Life

Words: 1544 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4190642

Philosophies of Life:

Personal and Traditional

When one considers the many aspects of one's "inner life," it becomes clear that most, if not all of them are based upon some philosophical conception. Psychologists have long known that individuals, who have a strong sense of their life's purpose, as well as a spiritual, religious, or ethical viewpoint, tend to live longer, healthier lives. Further, they are less likely to suffer from depressive episodes (Hassad, 2000). Although each person's individual "philosophy of life" is different, there are some well-known philosophical interpretations that can shed some light upon common attitudes concerning personal identity. Six famous life philosophies are attributed to Socrates, Freud, Albert Camus, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Muhammad.

Although there are several ways in which one can interpret the meaning of life and personal identity, perhaps one of the most useful steps one can take in the process is to recognize the vast range of viewpoints that are possible in the quest. While it is true that many people draw their personal life philosophies from religion -- few recognize that most actual life philosophies are a kind of hybrid derived from cultural, moral, religious, spiritual, and psychological sources. Indeed, even the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Locke, John. "Some Thoughts Concerning Education." 1693. Retrieved from Web site on May 3, 2005<

Hassad, Craig J. "Depression: dispirited or spiritually deprived?" Medical Journal of Australia. 2000. Web site. Retrieved on May 3, 2005<

Todd, Oliver. "Albert Camus: A Life." Knopf. New York. 1997.
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Clinical Psychology Krzysztof Kieslowski's a

Words: 2433 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3428760

We are engaged in what happened then. We are the same ones who were involved in the action; the memory brings us back as acting and experiencing there and then. Without memory and the displacement it brings we would not be fully actualized as selves and as human beings, for good and for ill (71).

Jacek is very clearly stuck in a place in his mind where he believes that he was to blame for what really happened. He was there and he remembers it as such and so it is so. The other element that feeds this is his imagination. According to Sokolowski, memory and imagination are structurally very alike and it is easy for one to slip into the other. The question is whether or not Jacek sees his true self in that memory or if it is an imagined being of himself. This matters because if Jacek is not able to recognize himself in the past, then there is no morals associated with him. According to de Beauvoir, if an act is left behind, then it simply falls into the past and it becomes nothing but a mere stupid fact. In order to prevent this from happening,…… [Read More]


Camus, Albert. (2002) Albert Camus and the philosophy of the absurd. Rodopi Bv


De Beauvoir, Simone. (2000) The ethics of ambiguity. Citadel.

Mahon, Joseph. (1997) Existentialism, feminism and Simone de Beauvoir. Palgrave MacMillan.
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Tobias Wolff Disagrees With Others

Words: 2509 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23256637

The only reason to continue living is to accept and transcend the absurdity with personal scorn and strength. Camus is overwhelmingly concerned with the impact of his ideas on everyday life -- coping with the severe and confusing realities of everyday existence. Based on all of this, Camus asks, in the face of such defeat can a person be actually be happy? It is possible. It is the only reality that a person has. In this world, an individual must confront the limitations of knowledge.

I don't know whether this world has a meaning that transcends it. But I know that I cannot know that meaning and that it is impossible for me just now to know it. What can a meaning outside my condition mean to me? I can understand only in human terms... I do not want to found anything on the incomprehensible. I want to know whether I can live with what I know and with that alone.

Man is given two choices -- he can kill himself, but then he allows both absurdity and meaningless death to triumph over him. Or he can rebel, continually rejecting death in acceptance that he will one day die. In…… [Read More]

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Psychology and Politics Example

Words: 3758 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92578892

strengthen mental discipline.

letter of Gratitude

(a) Lincoln's "higher purpose"

[b] What idea or insight in the full article would you recommend to others?

[a] what seems to be driving Stephen Glass? what are his life goals and aspirations?

[b] how do you think Glass would assess his own intelligence?

[c] Identify and discuss at least two strategies for deception Glass used.

[d] Did Glass leave what Greenspan called "a trail of casualties" in his wake?

[e] What advice would you give to editors about how to avoid hiring someone like Stephen Glass?

[a] Why should judges care if attorneys submit plagiarized legal briefs or motions?

[b] Do you think these punishments (taken as a whole) were too lenient, too severe, or about right?

[c] What distinction did the court make between these two cases?

[d] Do you think this kind of public shaming is too harsh?



[a] Identify a selection from each speech that you regard as the recipient's most memorable observation. 11

[b] What values do the recipients seem to share? 12

[c] What career or goal deeply engages you? Please explain. 12

"The mind is fickle and flighty, it flies after fancies and…… [Read More]

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My Mortality and the Meaning of My Life

Words: 1926 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41629505

life is an issue that has been plaguing thoughtful people since the first Cro-magnons evolved into modern homo sapiens with the power to think rationally and creatively, and most importantly, self-consciously. Aside from humorous attempts to explain the meaning of life such as Monty Python's movie The Meaning of Life, the question is a serious one. It cuts to the core of every human life, causing the individual to question his or her purpose and mode of living. Many people look to religious guidance as a means of discovering meaning in life, and religion remains the most effective way of providing people with a roadmap. Even if the absolute meaning of life is not revealed, we can at least learn to accept that God has a plan and that plan is inherently meaningful. Philosophers, however, have debated the efficacy of religion's ability to provide life with meaning. Existentialism is the one branch of philosophy that is by definition concerned primarily with the meaning of life and human existence. Whereas some existentialists acknowledge the potential for God to provide meaning, others deny the relevance of God and point to an essentially meaningful or nihilistic universe. For example, the writing of Albert…… [Read More]


Baggani, J. (2004). Revealed -- the meaning of life. The Guardian. Retreived online:

Colls, T. (2011). Does science have all the answers? BBC. Retrieved online: 

Frankl, V. (2006/1959). Man's Search for Meaning. Boston: Beacon.

'How Andrea Yates Lives, And Lives with Herself, a Decade Later," (2012). The Atlantic. Retrieved online:
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Educational Theory and Philosophy in

Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21973033

Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly achieved by isolating what was practiced from its related theme, which was believed by many researchers to be the only efficient way that a sense of unbiased logic could be developed in an individual. One of the important things to note is that the application of the "movements" theory also…… [Read More]


Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.

Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.

Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
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Human Beings Make Sense of Things in

Words: 3786 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29364579

Human Beings Make Sense of Things

In the early-1900s, Edmund Husserl sought to provide psychology with a truly scientific basis, not by copying the physical sciences but through the description of conscious experiences. This would be a truly humanistic psychology, grounded in human life and experience rather than materialistic and mechanistic theories like functionalism and behaviorism. Karl Jaspers called for a psychology that would describe phenomena such as "hallucinations, delusions, dreams, expressions, motor activity, and gestures" for the "person as a whole" (Churchill and Wertz, 2001, p. 247). This holistic or Gestalt psychology is dedicated to the search for the authentic self, and to heal the "hollow' men and women of our time who have lost touch with themselves" (Churchill and Wertz, p. 248). Intentionality is one of the key assumptions of phenomenological psychology in which "experience must be grasped holistically and a relationship in which the subject relates to the object through its meaning" (Churchill and Wertz, p. 249). For example, water is a drink to a thirsty person, but has another meaning for someone about to go swimming or wash the dishes, so consciousness is never separate from an object or thing. Thinking, feeling, remembering, imagining and hoping…… [Read More]


Churchill, S. And Wertz, F. (2001) "An Introduction to Phenomenological Research in psychology: Historical, Conceptual, and Methodological Foundations," in K.J. Schneider, J .F .T. Bugental, & J.F. Pierson (Eds.) The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Leading Edges in Theory, Research, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 247-62.

May, R. (1958). "The Origins and Significance of the Existential Movement in Psychology" and "Contributions of Existential Psychotherapy" in R. May, E. Angel and H. Ellenberger (Eds.), Existence. New York: Basic Books, pp. 3-36; 37-91.

Heidegger, M. (1971)." Building, Dwelling, Thinking," and "The Thing" in Poetry, Language, Thought. (A. Hofstadter, Trans.). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 145-61; 165-86.

Heidegger, M. (1955, 2003)."Memorial Address," in Stassen, M. (Ed). Martin Heidegger: Philosophical and Political Writings. Continuum International Publishing Group, pp. 87-96.
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Che Guevara Ernesto Che Guevara

Words: 3453 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71263674

Hence, the model of preparation applies to Guevara's situation and choices perfectly because all of the prior knowledge and experience he had through his medical visits across Latin America motivated him to be absolutely prepared for a long battle, hence he not only stayed in the area where he could learn the most, he associated with people who had been pursuing the same goal longer then him and knew more about the things that he wanted to be aware of .

Domain knowledge that Guevara gained by staying in Guatemala and preparing was also of significant importance to sharpen the technical skills he needed to possess to succeed. Two of the most important aspects that Guevara aimed to gain through the domain knowledge were:

To familiarize himself with the rules with which a revolution or change within different societies operates in differing environments and the practical wisdom to compete in and change the negative aspects of the chosen environment; and Prior experience and knowledge of how revolutions succeed is high.

Another aspect that is very visible in Guevara's approach, particularly his military strategies is the aspect of experimentation. Experimentation, pertinent to the circumstances that Guevara underwent, can be referred to…… [Read More]


Anthony DePalma. The Man Who Invented Fidel: Castro, Cuba, and Herbert L. Matthews of the New York Times. New York: Public Affairs, 2006.

Barron, F. And Harrington, D.M. "Creativity, intelligence, and personality," Annual Review of Psychology, 1981, 32: 439-476.

Che Guevara. "Colonialism is Doomed" speech to the 19th General Assembly of the United Nations in New York City, 1964.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1996.
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Moral Legal Political and Practical

Words: 9721 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27501741

The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "

As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal. The same thing happened with other executions throughout the ages, like the witch hunt for example, when the witches were seen as a threat to society and the authors of dreadful crimes. The opposite social attitude would be that of the infinite morality, which can not find a political assassination…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.

International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.

Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood

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Sexual Politics Loom Large in

Words: 1509 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81393528

Every aspect of sociology is somehow affected by sexual politics and this can be seen in every postmodern representation of sexuality. Media is particularly dependant on sexual politics as a thematic representation and as a guiding force for human emotion. This is particularly true with regard to dramatic representations in film. The two films discussed above can be seen as examples of this thesis and illuminate both postmodernism and sexual politics in the modern world.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cohen, Eric S. "To Wonder Again." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2000: 23.

Films That Go Thud; Some Actors Can Survive Bomb or Two." The Washington Times 5 Aug. 2003: B05.

Green, J. Ronald. "Always Already: Affinities between Art and Film." Afterimage 25.5 (1998): 8.

Hausladen, Gary J., and Paul F. Starrs. "L.A. Noir." Journal of Cultural Geography 23.1 (2005): 43.
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Personality Theories Personality vs Situation Personality Refers

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45035209

Personality Theories


Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).

Existentialism vs. Humanism

Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche. They were later joined by Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger and Albert Camus (Cobertt). Existentialism uses phenomenology as philosophical approach. This refers to the careful and thorough study of phenomena, the creation of Edmund Husserl. Phenomena consist of the contents of consciousness one experiences and allows to reveal experiences to consciousness…… [Read More]


AllPsych (2002). Personality synopsis. Chapter X Humanist Theory. Heffner Media

Group, Inc. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from

Boeree, C.G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 31,

2001 from
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Soldiers Came Back From World

Words: 1493 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72116941

Westerns soon developed into a staple of TV land. The independence and strength of the characters epitomized the ideals that made America so unique. Families sat down with their TV dinners to watch such shows as " Gunsmoke," the Lone Ranger," the Rifleman," Have Gun, Will Travel," and " Maverick." You were not anybody unless you could sing the theme songs of each show.

Moviegoers were also being drawn into the theaters by the monster/science-fiction movies. About 500 film features and shorts were produced under this broad theme in the 1950s and early 1960s, explains the 50s B-Movie website. One might argue convincingly that never in the history of motion pictures has any other genre developed and multiplied so rapidly in so brief a period. As Paul Michael comments, "On a sheer statistical basis, the number of fantasy and horror films of the 1950s... has not been equaled in any country before or since." Moreover, Alan Frank points out that the 1950s "saw science fiction at its peak in terms of sheer output and diversity of theme and diversification into various subgenres, notably the monster picture...." (50s B-movie website). From any perspective the emergence and popularity of low-budget Horror, Science…… [Read More]

Our American Century: The American Dream, the 1950s.. Editors of Time Life. Richmond-Virginia, Time Life, 1997.

Ross, Kelly. Existentialism. 2003. Retrieved from website April 19, 2005. 

Western Movie Encyclopedia. Western Movie. Retrieved from website April 18, 2005.
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Kafka's Metamorphosis the Use of Symbolism in

Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47854614




According to Nahum N. Glatzer, philosopher Albert Camus once said that "the whole of Kafka's art consists in compelling the reader to re-read him," and since the interpretations of Kafka are many, this inevitably leads to a return to the story itself "in the hope of finding guidance from within" (35). This internal "guidance" is related to many elements of fiction, such as metaphor, characterization, plot and theme, yet with a single reading of Kafka's the Metamorphosis, written during late November and early December of 1912 and published in October of 1915, one can easily recognize that the use of symbolism is the dominant trait and "guidance" for the reader, due to Kafka's extraordinary ability to transcend reality and create a world that could only exist in the realms of the supernatural or the human subconscious mind.

Essayist Eliseo Vivas in "Kafka's Distorted Mask," points out that Kafka's use of artistic symbols, i.e. symbolic metaphors, are similar in nature to masks which act as shields from reality. "The light which rests on the distorted mask" is Truth, but "the mask on which it shines. . . is distorted" by…… [Read More]


Batson, Robbie. "Kafka/Samsa: Reality Through Symbolism." The Kafka Project. Internet. 2005. Accessed September 20, 2005.  Http:// index.php?id=203, 225, 0,0,1,0.

Glatzer, Nahum N., Ed. Parables and Paradoxes. New York: Random House, 1958.

Gray, Ronald D., Ed. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962.

Kafka, Franz. The Complete Stories. Ed. Nahum N. Glatzer. New York: Schocken Books, 1971.
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Death Penalty There Are Many Situations and

Words: 2701 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41474261

Death Penalty

There are many situations and concerns in the world that require using ethical thought. There are many issues we read about an learn about when we have to ask ourselves what we believe in. Which side do we take on euthanasia or abortion or sexual morays? It is the responsibility of all people to explore these issues so that their opinions are education and well-informed. It is the lazy individual who formulates their opinions on innuendo and rumor. What is ethical? What is moral? What is right? What is good? It is everyone's responsibility to ask themselves these questions and formulate their own answers to these extremely important issues. Perhaps one of the most controversial topics for debate is over the ethical right of the death penalty. Some feel the penalty to too severe and inhumane. Others feel the penalty is just and not used often enough. How does each individual feel about this most severe of punishments? Is it right for the government to execute criminals or is it wrong? Presently, 34 of the United States of American have death penalty statutes (Facts 2011). I propose that the death penalty is a necessary tool but should only…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Axtman, Kris. "Judicial Rarity: Death Penalty in a Rape Case." The Christian Science Monitor.

"Facts About the Death Penalty" (2011). Retried from

MacKinnion, Barbara (2007). Ethics. Thomas Wadsworth.

"Roper v. Simmons." (2005). Supreme Court of the United States.