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Pope's 'Epistle to urlington'
Alexander Pope's 'Epistle to urlington' (1731)
In 1730 Richard oyle, 3rd Earl of urlington (1694-1753) published a collection of drawings of a number of ancient Roman buildings made by the Italian architect Andrea Palladio, which he had acquired while traveling in Italy in 1718, under the title Fabbriche Anticde disegnate da Andrea Palladio (Curl, 1993, p. 28). urlington was at this time well-known as a promoter and practitioner of the Palladian style in architecture, and was seen by many contemporaries, including his friend the poet Alexander Pope, as a leader of taste (Rogers, 1978, pp. 213-4). The following year Pope published 'An Epistle to the Right Honourable Richard, Earl of urlington' which was occasioned by urlington's collection of Palladio's drawings and which dealt directly with the issues of aesthetic taste and judgment at the heart of the urlingtonian movement in architecture.
The poem is preceded by…… [Read More]
Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope mastered satire as a primary means of poetic communication. Swift's "Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift" is essentially his self-written obituary. With candid self-insight, Swift admits his flaws, his jealousies, his insecurities, and his egotisms. His characteristic tongue in cheek style belies the weight of the subject matter; he knew his death was immanent and at the most basic level wanted to pen something that displayed how he hoped to be remembered. Swift's friend Alexander Pope did not copy. However, Pope's "Epistle to Arbuthnot" is the obituary of his dear friend John Arbuthnot, who also happened to be a friend of Swift's. The "Epistle to Arbuthnot" is similar in tone and style to "Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift." Both poems are brash, humorous, sarcastic, and brutally honest. Although morbid in theme, the poems serve distinct literary functions. Pope and Swift mock death…… [Read More]
The first Epistle of Alexander Pope's "An Essay on Man" concerns life itself, with regard to the universe. According to the first lines of the poem, life is apparently meaningless. We are born, live and die. It is an eternal cycle with no change.
Yet there is the possibility of creating meaning. According to Pope, this can be done with the human faculty of reason:
Say first, of God above, or man below,
What can we reason, but from what we know?
Of man what see we, but his station here,
From which to reason, or to which refer?
Through worlds unnumber'd though the God be known,
Tis ours to trace him only in our own.
He, who through vast immensity can pierce,
See worlds on worlds compose one universe," (Epistle I; Line 17-24).
Yet man has reason to make meaning of life. Man's task is to use reason…… [Read More]
Pope and Swift: Satirists of Their Day
In Swift's Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift and Pope's An Epistle to Arbuthnot, the authors seem to vindicate their use of satire, while satirizing others. Alexander Pope, in his preface to An Epistle to Arbuthnot, identifies the motivation of the poem as a response to attacks on his "Person, Morals, and Family" and to give "truer information" of himself (Pope 1733). Pope warns readers that many would recognize allusions to them in it, "but I have, for the most part spar'd their Names, and they may escape being laugh'd at" (Pope 1733). In 1731, shortly before Pope wrote his Epistle, Pope's friend Jonathan Swift completed Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift and published it almost a decade later in 1739. After his friend Esther Johnson died, the theme of death "became a frequent feature in Swift's life" (Wikipedia, 2012). Swift…… [Read More]
Man as a Manifesto of Rationalism
The English Restoration of 1660 delineates a dramatic transition in British literature from writing that is elegant, expressive, and often sentimental to prose and poetry that embraces simple, lucid, classical forms (Evans 203). Additionally, the years after the Restoration saw writers continuing to investigate new regions of the scientific, the philosophical, the political, and the moral. Antecedents of this trend include seventeenth century writers such as Francis Bacon, who pondered always the "nature of truth" (Evans 199), Thomas Hobbes, a political philosopher who asserted that sovereign power is ultimately borrowed from the citizen (McKay, Bennett, and Buckler 552), and John Locke, who contended that all human notions are "derived from experience" (McKay, Bennett, and Buckler 606). Bacon, Hobbes, and Locke foreshadowed and typified the sorts of philosophical texts that would become common during the Enlightenment, works that often expressed the Rationalism of the age.…… [Read More]
" For example, of the materialism and penchant for "conspicuous consumption" among Romans of the time, Juvenal observes:
in Rome we must toe the line of fashion, spending beyond our means, and often non-borrowed credit.
It's a universal failing: here we all live in pretentious poverty. To cut a long story short, there's a price-tag on everything in Rome. hat does it cost to greet Cossus, or extract one tight-lipped nod from Veiento the honors-broker? (180-5).
Criticizing the inflated costs of everything in Rome, Juvenal also states:
inflation swells the rent of your miserable flat, inflation hits the keep of your hungry slaves, your own humble dinner. (166-7)
Moreover, within the declining Roman society described by Juvenal's Third Satire, wealth is so revered for its own sake that, when, for instance, a rich man's house burns to the ground, his house and all his belongings will soon be replaced by…… [Read More]
Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift are two of the greatest satirists in literature because they capture elements of truth that force us to look at ourselves as a society. hile both authors reflect on political and economic conditions of the eighteenth century, their work is timeless because their topics ultimately return to humanity. Their achievements lie in the fact that they depict man in circumstances that are both thought provoking and amusing. Pope's "The Rape of the Lock" and "The Dunciad," along with Swift's "A Modest Proposal" and Gulliver's Travels demonstrate how satire takes its best form when its target is human nature.
The satirist is quite lucky in that he has many varieties of subjects when it comes to human nature M.H. Abrams observes that in most instances the satirist considers "prevalent evils and generally observable human types, not with particular individuals" (Abrams 2211). This is certainly true with…… [Read More]
The word 'man' is used throughout Pope's poem and refers to humankind as a whole, not necessarily the male species. As Pope states in the beginning of Epistle I, his intent is to "But vindicate the ways of God to man" (Pope pp). He sets out to demonstrate a Christian-based cosmogony, or rather his theory of how the universe was created (Cody pp). Pope draws on the contemporary scientific discoveries of the day, especially those of Isaac Newton (Cody pp). This first Epistle concerns the nature of man and his place within the universe, while Epistle II deals with man as an individual, his basic nature and state of being (Cody pp). Epistle III concerns man, the individual, in relation to human society as a whole, as well as to the political and social classes, and Epistle IV, concerns humankind's pursuit of happiness (Cody pp).
Alexander Pope's "Essay on…… [Read More]
Instead, it uses mock heroic allusions and meter in the style of Pope's translation of Homeric epic to make the mores and morals of the aristocracy seem absurd. In detailing the efforts of Belinda preparing herself for a party, Pope makes her sound like she is preparing to do battle, with her attendants, little, godlike beings that are pale shadows of great Zeus and Athena:
"Do thou, Crispissa, tend her fav'rite Lock;
Ariel himself shall be the Guard of Shock.
hen Belinda plays a card game with the Baron who will eventually deprive her of her hair, the trivial game is portrayed like a conquest of Troy:
The Knave of Diamonds now tries his wily Arts,
And wins (oh shameful Chance!) the Queen of Hearts.
At this, the Blood the Virgin's Cheek forsook,
A livid Paleness spreads o'er all her Look;
Unlike Johnson's satire, instead of directly telling the reader…… [Read More]
But even in Pope, there is an intense sense of Eloisa's self-dramatization, as she uses herself as a potent warning to others, in a way that oversteps the conventions that she is merely talking to her former lover:
hen this rebellious heart shall beat no more;
If ever chance two wand'ring lovers brings
To Paraclete's white walls and silver springs,
O'er the pale marble shall they join their heads,
And drink the falling tears each other sheds;
Then sadly say, with mutual pity mov'd,
"Oh may we never love as these have lov'd!"
Eloisa wishes to account for the gap between her unruly inner life and a static monastic life that she professes in order to help herself and others 'do good and avoid evil, for the love of God, requirements that entail an ongoing interior struggle with one's motives, memories and desires' (Hotz 2001:205). Hers is a morality tale…… [Read More]
Do you disagree with any of Pope's opinions or pronouncements in the Heroic Couplets or "An Essay on Man"?
Pope is critical of individuals who "cry, if man's unhappy, God's unjust," suggesting that the unhappiest people are people who blame God, rather than themselves for all of their troubles, or who curse God because their lives are imperfect. The need to accept life's imperfections while still working to enact positive changes within the limitations of humanity is a positive message still relevant for people today.
Based on what you have read of "The Rape of the Lock," what do you think the poem's theme or central message is? What or who are the objects of his satire? Does the epic, "The Rape of the Lock" apply in any way to society today? Identify two passages that could serve as satiric commentaries on people's behavior today. Your answer should discuss both…… [Read More]
Man" the Design and Epistles I and II
Alexander Pope's "Essay on Man" explores the complicated nature of man and attempts to bring a sense of understanding to the problems we face. The approach is philosophical, yet Pope proves his points successfully by explaining mankind's place in the universe and by also focusing on the responsibilities of mankind.
The most interesting aspect of Alexander Pope's "Essay on Man" is the way in which Pope frames the poem, which is a "peculiarly modern way of enframing the familiar which shifts from the immediacy of the given world to the mediation of a theoretical map of nature" (Cutting-Gray). It is this perspective that allows us to view man's circumstances in a refreshing way. In "The Design," Pope introduces us to his initial thoughts regarding the poem and how it came to be. He tells us, " I thought it more satisfactory to…… [Read More]
" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.
Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…… [Read More]
Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.
Society and Culture
In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).
Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…… [Read More]
Gulliver wants more than anything to be accepted as a Houyhnhnm, a species he believes is perfect. Swift reveals irony through the fragility of the human condition. Gulliver is heavily influenced by the Houyhnhnms and he begins to admire them far too much. In fact, it is safe to say that he idolized them. Their opinions "opened my eyes and enlarged my understanding, that I began to view the actions and passions of man in a very different light" (250). He worships them and slowly begins to despise anything that is not of the Houyhnhnms, including his very own kind. Gulliver wants to fit into the Houyhnhnm circle and simply forget everything else. The Yahoos are the "most unteachable of all brutes" (227). To say such a thing not only insults others but also insults oneself but Gulliver is so drunk with adoration, he cannot think straight. He believes he…… [Read More]
His philosophical method of questioning first called into question accepted truths about the nature of human learning and then began to question society's overvaluation of aristocratic social and political hierarchies, and the presumption that one religion was innately better than another religion.
However, as politics began to retreat from the English national consciousness, as the monarchy and religious debate appeared to reach an easier truce, a new aristocratic influence became evident upon the literature of the period, as exemplified in the highly artificial neo-Classical literary style of Alexander Pope. Pope favored brittle, social couplets, satire, and an aphoristic style to advance his ideas in poetic form. Pope was more concerned with what was good art for the individual artist than what was good political or scientific philosophy for the masses.
Pope's "An Essay on Criticism" (1711) like Locke's political essays, attempted to synthesize ancient and modern thought. But Pope's essay…… [Read More]
The Lord will lead one to safety always. One can simply believe in something higher to get the meaning of this; it doesn't have to be Jesus. Psalm 127, contrarily is confusing because it states that unless the Lord builds the house, it is built in vain. This seems to be more literal, but I do get the idea. Unless the people building the house are doing it with the love of the Lord in their hearts, or building it for him, then what is the point?
Didactic poetry can be quite comforting as seen in Psalm 23 or it can be much too literal and seen as both confusing and condescending. Psalm 127 isn't very instructive spiritually speaking, unlike Psalm 23.
Updated Proverb: A broken toe can hurt, but a broken heart can kill.
Metaphors: Obscure or Illuminate? Didactic literature with its use of metaphors can sometimes obscure the…… [Read More]
Samuel Johnson marks himself as a man of keen sensitivity when he acknowledges in his review of Shakespeare's King Lear that he was "so shocked by Cordelia's death, that I know not whether I ever endured to read again the last scenes of the play till I undertook to revise them as an editor" (1765). This may seem like a fair assessment from the man who gave the English language of the first and greatest and wittiest dictionaries of all time; but upon a second examination, it may perhaps reveal something about Johnson and his age that is so foreign to the ideas which Shakespeare presented in King Lear that he could do nothing but recoil in horror. Johnson was, after all, an Anglican -- of the Church that persecuted Campion (Jesuit priest) and Lyne (the woman martyred for harboring Catholic priests during the Protestant takeover and memorialized in Shakespeare's…… [Read More]
Both William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope mocked the times in which they lived in their respective works of literature: The Tempest and The Rape of the Lock. In using elements of the supernatural and pagan universes, these two authors make fun of Church authority, which was in decline during the Renaissance. Shakespeare and Pope portrayed monarchic power in a favorable light relative to their portrayal of the Church. In both The Tempest and in Rape of the Lock, supernatural beings influence royalty. Church authority is depicted as being weak and ineffective because of the inclusion of pagan elements. For example, in The Tempest, Prospero is the exiled Duke of Milan. Stranded on an island, he turns not to the divine authority of the Church but rather to occult powers: he manages to control and enslave a spirit-being named Ariel. Similarly, Belinda in The Rape of the Lock has a…… [Read More]
Then the poet uses the cultivated Latin of the title, which he presumably learned in school to truly cut deep into the reader's false sensibility of war: "My friend, you would not tell with such high zest / to children ardent for some desperate glory, / the old Lie; Dulce et Decorum est / Pro patria mori."
The final lines of the poem are ironic, but not just because of the stupidity of the words that it is sweet to die, choking on gas, for one's country. The irony is conveyed in a masterful fashion: Owen titles the poem with the words sweet and good, but then expands upon the title cliche with the full phrase in the final lines, after showing the reader its consequences. Owen's use of different linguistic registers -- the initial words that give a sense of the footsteps of the solder's trudge, the officer's warning…… [Read More]
Man" intended to present a set of ethical and moral rules that would help a man vindicate the ways of God instead of criticizing the same. It was written in the neoclassical tradition which favored reason over blind passion and emotional restraint over enaissance obsession with excessive expression. It is more in line with John Milton's Paradise Lost where theme and central Christian beliefs are concerned. While "Essay on man" may not be inherently Christian, it does promote ancient Christian assumption that man sinned once and the burden of that original sin stays with man throughout his life. For this reason, he needs to work even harder to exonerate himself and achieve salvation.
The most controversial line in the Essay claims that "one truth is clear, 'Whatever IS, is IGHT'" (I. 1.294). This line appears to suggest that morality and ethical rules are useless, since whatever happens for example, rape,…… [Read More]
1. Alexander Pope assumes an authoritative voice in “An Essay on Man.” These lines, beginning with “All nature is but art,” and ending with “whatever is, is right” are declarative statements in keeping with the general tone and theme of the poem. In “An Essay on Man,” Pope seeks to situate humankind in the natural order of the universe. Pope shows the potential and the limitations of human beings, encouraging an attitude of humility.
By stating, “All nature is but art,” Pope affirms the ineffable beauty of nature: which is one thing that humankind certainly does not create. As much as human beings can interfere with nature or adjust nature for functional or aesthetic purposes, nature is “art” on another level: a creative, perhaps divine level. Pope then refers to “all chance, direction, which thou canst not see,” which reiterates the meaning of the previous line about nature being naught…… [Read More]
Eliza Haywood and Her Romantic Novel The History Of Miss Betsy Thoughtless
The fascinating intrigues that surround the fictionalized search for love, both legitimate and otherwise have oft been the topic of titillating drama. Eliza Haywood in The History of Betsy Thoughtless (1720-1805) is nothing less than a compilation of the wanderings of a young fictional character trying to assert a very culturally limited level of control over the decisions surrounding her love life and that of her friends. The reasons for the creation of this work are no doubt countless and yet the historical representation of the work traditionally has been a work created for the sole purpose of the earning of a living. Even in 1720 "sex sells." More recent scholarship has been focused on the idea that Haywood and her literary partners were not just selling books but giving life to a whole new genre, that of…… [Read More]
Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)
Satire and Irony in Dublin
LIFE OF JONATHAN SWIFT
Jonathan Swift is widely regarded as the greatest writer of satire in English literature. Yet it is crucial for understanding Swift's satire to know that he was not really English. Swift was born in Dublin in 1667, to a family that originally had emigrated from England -- for this reason, he is generally described as "Anglo-Irish." Swift did his university studies in Dublin at Trinity College, graduating in 1686. From here he became the personal secretary to a politician and writer, Sir William Temple, and moved to England. Political machinations, however, hampered Swift's advancement in a political career -- instead he would end up taking a position in the Protestant Church of Ireland, ultimately rising to the position of Dean at Saint Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin.
Swift's career encompassed both literature and politics. As a wit and satirist,…… [Read More]
Religion was an important preoccupation for 18th century poets, and Christian symbolism, imagery, diction, and themes make their way into the poetry of this era. In many situations, the references to religion are as overt as a painting of Christ. Many poems dealing with religious imagery, themes, and iconography also deal with existential issues and in particular, death and mortality. For example, in "The Dying Christian to his Soul," Alexander Pope writes from the perspective of a dying man who begs God for release: "Vital spark of heav'nly flame! / Quit, O quite this mortal frame," (lines 1-2). This poem speaks to the Christian view on death being the gateway to the afterlife. In Isaac Watts' "Day of Judgment," the poet specifically mentions the "Lofty Judge," and his "flood of vengeance," referring to the Old Testament God (Stanza 6). The speaker in Watts' poem later urges the sinful to "arise…… [Read More]
Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind
Michael Gondry's Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind takes its title from a poem by Alexander Pope -- the Papist living in 18th century England. The reference gives the film a dignity which it seemingly only marginally strives to uphold -- but underneath the film is a reflection of the bigger things at stake in life, love, and relationships: the who and the why. This paper will show how Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind is a film that attempts to answer the question of why fall in love, out of love, and ultimately fail to understand how any of it happens.
The film stars Jim Carrey and Kate Winslet as Joel and Clementine, two adults adrift in the modern world, where meaninglessness has rendered such holidays as Valentine's Day empty and void. When Joel meets Clementine, serendipitously it seems, on a beach in…… [Read More]
Commonplace: "You Always Admire hat You Really Don't Understand"
There are a great many things that arouse admiration in this world of ours. Some of these things such as a creation of nature, a work of breathtaking art, scientific breakthroughs that benefit human kind, and acts of bravery are, without doubt, worthy of the admiration and the sentiment that they inspire. Unfortunately, however, human beings also fruitlessly admire a great many more things that are illusory in nature and, therefore, not really worthy of respect. Take, for instance, the human desire to be good looking, rich, successful and powerful. These qualities seem desirable purely because people who possess these attributes appear to be better off in life. But, are they really? Or, do these qualities give rise to admiration only because we don't really understand what being beautiful, wealthy, successful or powerful entails?
Perhaps, it is precisely the recognition that…… [Read More]
In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.
Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…… [Read More]
Defenses against it may be equally inconclusive, but in their fertility they at least promise a solution some day.
dams, Marilyn McCord. Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.
Belliotti, Raymond a. Roman Philosophy and the Good Life. Plymouth: Lexington Books, 2009.
DeRose, Keith. "Plantinga, Presumption, Possibility, and the Problem of Evil," Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21 (1991), 497-512.
Draper, Paul. "Probabilistic rguments from Evil," Religious Studies 28 (1992), 303-17.
Dueck, a.C. Between Jerusalem and thens: Ethical Perspectives on Culture, Religion, and Psychotherapy. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1995.
Ferreira, M. Jamie. "Surrender and Paradox: Imagination in the Leap." In Kierkegaard Contra Contemporary Christendom, edited by Daniel W. Conway, 142-67. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Griffin, David Ray. God, Power, and Evil: Process Theodicy. Louisville: Westminster Press, 2004.
Hick, John. "The 'Vale of Soul-Making' Theodicy." In the Problem of Evil: Reader, edited by Mark…… [Read More]
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]
His belief that literature is a magical blend of thought and emotion is at the very heart of his greatest works, in which the unreal is often made to seem real.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge effectively freed British (and other) poetry from its 18th century Neo-classical constraints, allowing the poetic (and receptive) imagination to roam free.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Kublai Khan. In The Portable Coleridge, I.A. Richards
Ed.). New York: Penguin, 1987. 157-158.
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. In The Portable Coleridge, I.A. Richards
Ed.). New York: Penguin, 1987. 80-105.
Moore, Christopher. "Introduction." Samuel Taylor Coleridge. New York:
Grammercy, 1996. 10.
Nokes, David. Raillery and Rage: A Study of Eighteenth Century Satire. New York: St. Martin's, 1987. 99.
Pope, Alexander, The Rape of the Lock. Representative Poetry Online. Retrieved September 22, 2005, from: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:0gO7fceq2_
Romanticism." ikipedia. 3 Apr. 2005. Retrieved September 22, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism.
Samuel Taylor…… [Read More]
gaining their independence, what were the principal concerns Americans had about constructing a frame of government, and how were these concerns addressed in the structure of the Constitution?
After Americans gained their independence from England the next step was to structure the frame of a new government. In 1787 it was determined that the Articles of Confederation would be tossed out and an entirely new government frame would be constructed which would reflect the new views of the nation. he delegates from each state argued and debated behind closed doors about what the framework of the new government would include (he Constitution of the United States (http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/charters_of_freedom/constitution/constitution.html).here were several chief points of concern to those who were developing the frame. One of the most important aspects of the debate was how much power each state should be allowed to have. his included debates on how many members each state should…… [Read More]
Ferdinand of Aragon in "The Prince"
Ferdinand of Aragon is represented both directly and indirectly in the text. Ferdinand of Aragon is one of the few characters whom Machiavelli openly compliments. However, as the following research will demonstrate, Ferdinand of Aragon is indirectly mentioned in several instances that contradict the praises openly bestowed upon him. Ferdinand of Aragon is often referred to as Ferdinand the Catholic. The following research will support the thesis that when Machiavelli speaks of Ferdinand of Aragon, he his actually expressing his political views about he Catholic Church as a whole. Furthermore, the research will demonstrate how Machiavelli uses Ferdinand of Aragon and passages about other prominent figures in the Catholic Church to express ideals regarding the separation of church and state that will eventually lay the ground work for many modern political ideas.
Prior to the time of Machiavelli, Italy had lived in a period…… [Read More]
Rise of the Papacy in the Middle Ages
The ishop of Rome had always exerted the highest authority in the Church since the time that St. Peter took root there, recognized by the Church as the first Pope.[footnoteRef:1] His successor St. Linus followed in Peter's footsteps, as did each of the successors on down the line throughout the centuries (with the exception of the Avignon Popes during the Great Western Schism). That Rome should serve as the center of the new Church even after the Roman Empire fell is no surprise, as John Farrow notes: "It was inevitable that the new religion should spread to Rome. All roads led to the seat of the Imperial splendor, all things came there, for in truth it was the center of the known world."[footnoteRef:2] Thus it was quite natural for Peter to establish himself there, for as head of Christ's Church, he was…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
Historians of Judaism actually date the strong Jewish emphasis on monotheism somewhat later than expected within Jewish history. The archaeological discovery of idols and artifacts indicating cultic participation from the time of Israel's presence in Canaan has seemed to indicate a relative laxity in actual practice before the Babylonian captivity, while textual criticism seems agreed that most of the Torah's foregrounded statements of strong monotheism date from textual recensions during the Babylonian captivity, and thus substantially post-date both the J-writer and the E-writer of the Old Testament (Moberly 217). But the strong emphasis on monotheism which comprises the first commandment given by Yahweh to Moses is a defining feature of Judaism in prevailing polytheistic cultures where the Jews can define their religion in opposition, so to speak. I would like to examine three separate ways in which Jewish monotheism defined itself against a kind of prevailing cultural polytheism.…… [Read More]
Clare of Assisi
Saint Clare of Assisi was not a feminist in the modern sense, but then again no such ideas existed at all in the 13th Century. By all accounts, though, she was a formidable and powerful woman who was the first in history to found a religious order. In the society in which she was born, women were politically, socially and economically powerless, and quite literally the property of their fathers and husbands. This was a feudal, authoritarian and patriarchal society, and even aristocratic women like Clare and her friend St. Agnes of Prague were forced into arranged marriages by their fathers. Indeed, both Clare and Agnes defied their fathers when they insisted on entering religious life as followers of St. Francis of Assisi, and Clare's family disowned her. She was not a political rebel or revolutionary, but she did have a utopian vision of society that was…… [Read More]
However, this at least provides patients with an introduction to the therapy, and they can weigh the costs of the treatment against the improvement in their health. Some may find certain types of CAM, such as yoga, available within their health clubs or other affordable settings.
3. How might technology help you meet your goal?
A number of major research hospitals, such as New York-Presbyterian Hospital at Columbia University, now offer CAM within the hospital environment. The hospital offers nutritional, exercise, and wellness counseling. Patients can learn about breathing techniques and the use of herbs to combat symptoms. By conducting research on CAM within the framework of a hospital, the institution can make sure that the therapies are undertaken in a safe and supervised manner. More and more people are turning to CAM as a way to cope with illness and may do so whether their hospital formally encourages them…… [Read More]
Because of this unwavering position that Anthanasius took on this matter he was labeled as an agitator, and was, over time, banished from Alexandria no less than five times by various emperors, only to be restored and banished again.
Eventually, Christians who believed in the Deity of Christ came to see that once they were prepared to abandon the Nicene formulation, they were on a slippery slope that led to regarding the Logos as simply a high-ranking angel. The more they experimented with other formulations, the clearer it became that only the Nicene formulation would preserve the Christian faith in any meaningful sense, and so they re-affirmed the Nicene Creed at the Council of Constantinople in 381, a final triumph that Athanasius did not live to see. (Behr)
As far as the council of bishops were concerned this was a major, and final triumph for the Orthodox faith. Of course…… [Read More]
ut the rabbi could also serve as the connection between a Jewish ghetto and the surrounding Christian community. This dual raised status of rabbis made their role the most enviable in the community. ut the shifts in French society that occurred in the decades just preceding and following the French Revolution created cracks in the isolation of European Jews.
The French Revolution is generally seen as an overthrow of the monarchy, and of course this is in part what happened. ut the revolution was intended not simply to overthrow the Second Estate -- the nobility and royalty -- but also the First Estate -- the church and the clergy. The revolution unseated the Catholic Church from its position of power perhaps even more surely than had the Reformation, and it helped to free the country from Protestant as well as Catholic influence. ut even more broadly, the revolution allowed people…… [Read More]
Euthanasia (active and Passive)
A Moral Philosophy Paper
Euthanasia is the practice of ending a person's life for the sole purpose of relieving the person's body from excruciating pain and suffering due to an incurable disease. The term euthanasia is often referred as mercy killing or the 'good death' as derived from the Greek. Euthanasia can be classified into four categories. In active euthanasia, a person's life is terminated by a doctor through a lethal dose of medication. Passive euthanasia implies non-provision of life-sustaining treatment to a patient based on logical reasoning or in other words doing nothing to save a person's life by abstaining to give life saving measures like putting a person on artificial respirator. Simple way of distinguishing active and passive form of euthanasia is a mere difference between act and omission. The other forms include voluntary euthanasia in which a person's consent is obtained for either…… [Read More]
Apocalyptic/Theology Experience in Economics
One of the first principles of liberty is the ability of the people in a free society to have the ability to have their own enterprise. In many nations the way that the government, which is for the government and not the people, keeps the people from advancing is that they take away their speech, religion and ability to make their own money. Therefore, it is important that the United States and other estern democracies were founded on the precepts of monetary as well as personal liberty. But this is not a program that is specific to these types of democracies because the Catholic Church had long fought for the rights of the people prior to the founding of these national governments. This practice has carried forward to the twentieth and twenty-first centuries and it has greatly impacted the financial philosophy of both the…… [Read More]
" (p. 164) the army of Charles was defeated in this battle however, it was not destroyed. The total loss of life in this campaign for each side of the battle was astronomical.
The work of Lieutenant Colonel Herman L. Gilster entitled: "Robert E. Lee and Modern Decision Theory" published in the Air University Review (1972) states in the attle of Chancellorsville, in Virginia in May 1863 involved a battle between the Union Army of the Potomac, headed by Major General Joseph L. Hooker and the Army of Northern Virginia, led by General Robert E. Lee. Specifically stated is:
During the campaign, Lee, with a force approximately half the size of Hooker's, repulsed the North's advance into Virginia and achieved a strategic victory that has been studied by students of military art throughout the world. However, today's critics of the quantitative-oriented decision tools being used by our military services…… [Read More]
A Timeline of Greek Sculpture
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)
As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)
Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…… [Read More]
life of Martin Luder (Luther) and how he discovered the truth behind the Church of Rome and its corruption. It also looks at the way he helped the German people during the revolt of 1525.
Bibliography cites five sources APA format.
Religion throughout the years has had many preachers and evangelists who have talked and called for a new wave in the way many have come to follow Christ, for example many years ago the famous evangelical churches of England and Canada were stating that the Holy spirit was coming like a tidal wave, yet few turned to Christ.
ith there methods being somewhat questionable and with the lack on evangelical attitudes what is their left for the church to argue and what ammunition or work can they utilize to provide a positive attitude for members of the church. Today the view of the church and how it…… [Read More]
For instance, there is the story of some Soviet scientists who drilled into hell. Another is the story of an English fisherman who was swallowed by a whale, "hence proving the story of Johah," was debunked upon research by many, who found no evidence to support it. The story dates from 1907 and the widow of the captain made the statement "There is not one word of truth to the story," as her husband never had the experience (New Life 2007).
This example is one that might explain how many stories came about in the days before written history. As there were no experts to research and bring forward the truth about such matters, it would be easy to make claims and pass along information that sounded reasonable and believable, or even contain miraculous events. ith no proof needed, all a story-teller would need would be an appreciative and believing…… [Read More]
Hamlet seems particularly interested with this idea of holding a mirror to the reality of situations to betray their alliances with death. He uses the same metaphor when speaking to the players: "the purpose of playing, whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature; to show Virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and body of the time his form and pressure."
The play which Prince Hamlet stages is vitally important not only in that it is a mirror and reflection of sorts, but also because it is in itself art. A great deal of fuss is made in the text about the proper form of the art of playing, as if to highlight that it's artistic merit were important to the story. This may be because putting the death of the…… [Read More]
It wasn't always a matter of stealing the designs or the parts for a specific technology, Harris explains: "…the arts never pass by writing from one country to another," he quotes from a French official writing in 1752. "The eye and practice alone train men in these activities" (Harris, 43).
In 18th Century Italy Pope Innocent XII had set up a hospice in Laterano for the poor, and the Pope instituted reforms that were designed to "…convince the wealthy to give up direct almsgiving and contribute only to the official collectors" (Grell, et al., 2004, p. 255). In other words, there was an attitude against panhandlers profiting from begging in the streets. Indeed, those with financial means (if they followed the rules) would not be giving directly to beggars, but instead a network would be set up so the wealthy could contribute to a "hospice" where the poor were locked…… [Read More]
onsidering that the old order in Ireland was in place since two millennia and had always been under the control of the Gaelic chieftains, their removal from the leadership of the provinces of Ireland by the English rown was destined to arise the resistance of the majority who sought support in the atholic world and especially hoped in the papal authority. urtis points out that the resistance against the protestant faith that built up after Elisabeth took over Munster and Ulster was coming not only from inside the respective Irish provinces, but also from the dissidents in Italy, Portugal, Spain and the Low countries. On one hand they were gathering in the spirit of preserving the old faith, on the other, the Irish and the Anglo-Irish who opposed the Reformation were changing their ways supported by the Jesuits who helping the process of transforming the faithful into fanatics. On the…… [Read More]
According to the Dictionary, a lord is "a monarch, ruler, governor, [Milton] Master, supreme person [Shakespeare]; a tyrant, an oppressive ruler, [Hayward]; a husband, [Pope] One who is at the head of any business, an overseer [Turner]; a nobleman [Shakespeare]; a general name for a peer of England [King Charles]; a baron; an honorary title applied to officers, as lord chief justice, lord mayor, lord chief baron; a ludicrous title given by the vulgar to a hump-backed person, traced, however, to the Greek crooked (439). Johnson, not a lord, is a man who calls himself a humble scholar. He uses his posture supposed humility ironically before Chesterfield, as he does the term patron: "hen I had once addressed your Lordship in public, I had exhausted all the art of pleasing which a retired and uncourtly scholar can possess. I had done all that I could; and no man is well…… [Read More]
He was one of the few people to speak out early on against Medici corruption and the Medici's subversion of democratic institutions like the Great Council. When the ruling Medicis fell from power, Savonarola actually led the movement to empower the parliament, called the Great Council, which led the city under the oversight of the emerging Florentine middle-class for almost twenty years until the restoration of the monarchy. "Savonarola's followers often referred to the new hall of the Great Council as 'the Hall of Christ' (sala di Cristo), and they occasionally spoke of 'holy liberty' even when serving in office" (Martines 141).
Martines stresses that, for all of his flaws, the friar was more interested in enforcing what he saw as the truth, rather than gaining power for his own use. In this age, republicanism and religious fundamentalism were not at odds, as they are often seen in the contemporary…… [Read More]
The yzantine artists are well-known for the icon of Symeon with the Christ Child. The icon was effectively changed by yzantine artists toward the ending of the iconoclastic controversy in the ninth century. Originally the artistic protocol for the depiction has Symeon submissively approaching Mary who is holding the Christ child in her hands however the changes in the icon are of the nature that show Symeon holding the Christ child in the beginning. The first record of Symeon holding the Christ child is stated to be in the church of the Virgin of the Source in Constantinople during the restoration conducted by Emperor asil I along with Leo and Constantine sometime after 869.
Clouds and sky views often used in yzantine art are rooted in Roman art which changed from "smooth and pliable clouds" into "flattened triangles with horizontal bottoms and scalloped tops. In this odd and stylized form…… [Read More]
260). This cosmological discussion is one reason Origen is said to have "created, indeed embodied, the first model of a scientific theology;" his approach to the notion of metempsychosis, like nearly all of his theological work, is rooted in a steadfast determination to distinguish "between the dogmata of the church tradition and the problemata which were to be discussed" according to reason, logic, and a prototype of the scientific method (Kung 1994, pp. 48-49). As will be seen, Origen's focus on not-yet-determined points of Christianity would ultimately contribute to his condemnation as a heretic, because could be considered genuine, innocent investigation in the third century would rapidly become dangerous propaganda to the Church's ruling powers.
Origen's description of an ultimate, total reunification should not be taken to mean that he is arguing that the actions one takes within the temporal world is meaningless, since everything will ultimately be united once…… [Read More]
Still it is not completely unheard of for a name to be derived from a longer epitaph of Nat, property of man, Mr. Turner. This is how many people's last names resulted in ending with "man."
Nat Turner was born a slave in Virginia in 1800 and grew to become a slave preacher. He did not use tobacco or liquor and maintained a clean, disciplined life. He was very religious man and became passionate about the Scripture. He began preaching to slaves in and around the area of Southampton County, Virginia in 1828. As a result he became well-known and liked in the area. It was at this time he began having visions. It was these visions that inspired him to revolt. hile he waited for further signs, unrest was already evident in on plantations, in the hills and on boats in ports of call (Greenberg, 85). Gradually he built…… [Read More]
In Germany, the gamba was used primarily in pieces of sacred music, such as those written by Heinrich Schultz.
It is important to note that, although the courts, royalty, and upper class of Europe were extremely fond of the gamba, there were also many soloists who performed on a smaller scale. Particularly in England, the gamba was an instrument in many private homes, where amateur players performed for their own enjoyment, and for their friends and families. Since the instrument was simple to play on a small scale, it was popular for many amateur players and with the treatise mentioned above, nearly anyone had access to writings aimed at improving one's skill.
The gamba was even a tool for courtship in the Renaissance, played by young men in the presence of women as part of the process to gain her respect and adoration. In the manual for courtship "Il Libro…… [Read More]
The Czech director Vera Chytilova's 1966 film Daisies invites an allegorical reading from the outset. It is clear that we are not in the realm of any sort of realism, but the question remains whether the symbolism here is in any way coherent. However, considering it is a film by a female director with dual female leading roles, it is worth examining the role of gender in the film.
Chytilova's credit sequence seems to be a wink in the direction of Soviet-style socialist realism: we are watching a world of heroic machinery, cogs and gears. hen we first see the paired female leads -- one blonde, one brunette, both named Marie -- they seem to be part of the machinery as well. As the girls make their stylized movements, we hear a loud squeaking sound, as though they were dolls or automata whose joints were machinery that squeals with…… [Read More]
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…… [Read More]
The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:
For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)
However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…… [Read More]
The choice cannot be repudiated or duplicated, but one makes the choice without foreknowledge, almost as if blindly. After making the selection, the traveler in Frost's poem says, "Yet knowing how way leads on to way/I doubted if I should ever come back" (14-15). And at the end, as one continues to encounter different forks along the way, the endless paths have slim chance of ever giving the traveler a second choice. One can see this as similar to Mrs. Mallard's change. As she looks out into the future, she sees endless possibilities for choice and nothing feels like she would ever return to the determinate state of marriage.
The final two lines of "The Road Not Taken" say, "I took the one less traveled by / and that has made all the difference" (19-20). Unlike in Chopin, the traveler determines to take the path. In Chopin, the path forces…… [Read More]
Importance of the humanities in the professions:
A comparison of "Paul's Case," Muriel's Wedding and Andy Warhol's rendition of Marilyn Monroe
The modern concept of 'celebrity' is that anyone can be famous, provided that he or she embodies an ideal of glamour, using material trappings like clothing and possessions to show his or her 'specialness.' This is a common method of 'selling' a particular product in business.
The idea is paradoxical -- on one hand, celebrities are special, on the other hand the media suggests everyone can be a celebrity and 'famous for 15 minutes' if they buy the right item.
This can be seen in "Paul's Case" by Willa Cather, about a boy who feels as if he is above his classmates.
Paul desires to have a celebrity-like status, based upon his perceptions of himself as having innately refined tastes.
But this costs money, and Paul is unwilling…… [Read More]