Algorithm is a computable set of steps arranged thus in order to achieve a certain end. There are various algorithms used in bioinformatics and not all are necessarily deterministic. Some are in fact known as randomized algorithms that incorporate randomness.
Classification of algorithms in Bioinformatics
Classification by purpose
Each algorithm has a goal. The Quick Sort algorithm for instance sorts data in ascending or descending order, but algorithms in bioinformatics are grouped by their particular purpose.
Classification by implementation
An algorithm has different fundamental principles:
ecursive or iterative
This is common for programming that is used in bioinformatics and is iterative or repetitive until it has found its match. It goes in a loop. Usually used for functional programming, it uses repetitive constructs and is best used for problems such as the towers of Hanoi problem which is imbued with recursive implementation and therefore has these iterative equivalents. An example…… [Read More]
Visual Basic Programming and Algorithm
Solution to Chapter 5 Exercise
Code of Net Pay Project
' Purpose: To display Net Pay
' Programmer: on
Public Class Form1
Private Sub-Label1_Click (ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Label1.Click
Private Sub-Form1_Load (ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load
Private Sub-Label2_Click (ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Label2.Click
Private Sub-Button1_Click (ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click
Private Sub-TextBox3_TextChanged (ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles TextBox3.TextChanged
Private Sub-Label3_Click (ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Label3.Click
Solution to Chapter 5 Exercise 5
Code of Net Pay Project
' Purpose: To display total cellular ordered ' Programmer: on
Public Class Form1
Private Sub-Form1_Load (ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load
End…… [Read More]
Other data structures such as self-balancing binary search tree generally operate slightly more slowly and are rather more complex to implement than hash tables but maintain a sorted data structures at all times.
Hash table can provide constant-time lookup on average, regardless of the number of items in the table.
Compared to other associative array data structures, hash tables are most useful when a large number of records of data are to be stored.
The hash table size is unlimited (or limited only by available storage space). In this case no need to expand the table and recreate a hash function.
It's difficult (not efficient) to print all elements in hash table.
It's not efficient to find minimum element or maximum element.
The hash table has fixed size. At some point all the elements in the array will be filled. The only alternative at that point is to…… [Read More]
Algorithm and Visual Basic Programming
Jerry Feingold is the owners of a small restaurant who intends to develop a program that will assist him calculating the total amount used to tip a waiter at the restaurant. The program is designed to deduct any liquor charge from the overall total bill, followed by calculating the tip by using a percentage of the remainder. Finally, the program should be designed to display the tip output on the screen. Moreover, the paper desk checks the solution of the algorithms using $20 as the charge of liquor, $85 as the total bill, and 20% for the tip percentage. Finally, the paper desk-checks the program using $35 for the total bill, 15% as the tip percentage and $0 for the liquor charge.
Explanation of the Solution
The first solution to the problem is to display the input and output of the scenario, algorithm, and desk…… [Read More]
Algorithms and Visual Basic Programming
Output: gross pay
Input: hours worked
enter number of hours worked if hours worked 0 ? 40, then calculate the gross pay ( hours *
display the gross pay otherwise, display an error message end if
If hours worked are not accept the new hour worked is between 40 and 60 hours
Display gross message
Otherwise display error message
Public Class Form
Private Sub-Form1_Load (sender As Object, e As EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load
calculates and displays gross pay
Const dblATE As Double = 8.35
Dim dblHours As Double
Dim dblGross As Double
Double.TryParse (txtHours.Text, dblHours)
' calculate and display gross pay ' or display an error message
If dblHours >= 40 AndAlso dblHours… [Read More]
Security and Cryptographic Algorithms
Well before the advent of readily available digital computing technology, the ability to craft encrypted messages through the use of complex codes and ciphers, was highly prized by the governmental apparatus and the private sector alike. From the codes messages passed furtively throughout the courts of medieval Europe, to the infamous Enigma cipher machine which protected Nazi secrets in World War II, the concept of cryptography is nearly as old as the written word itself. Today, the field of information technology has developed to the point that even the most sophisticated encryption methods are vulnerable, and for those working as information security officers, shielding a company's invaluable data through the use of encryption has become an essential skill. Modern encryption methods rely on much of the same techniques used throughout history, with human readable plaintext being transformed into an unreadable format known as ciphertext upon transmission…… [Read More]
RSA Public-Key Algorithm
As cited in Kaufman, Perlman & Speciner the security features inherent to an RSA public-key algorithm depends on the difficulty that an attacker has in factoring very large, preferably prime numbers. One specific example of an RSA might be as follows: "Step 1: Choose two very large primes" usually by using random number generation, such as "simple e.g., P=47, Q=71 and set N = P*Q = 3337 and M = (P-1)*(Q-1) = 3220. Step 2:Choose E. relatively prime to M, e.g. E=79 Set D = E^-1 (mod M) = 79^-1 (mod 3220) = 1019. Step 3: Public key is (N, E) = (3337, 79). Step 4:Private key is (N, D) = (3337, 1019). Step 5:To encrypt n, C = cipher = n^E (mod N) = n^79 mode 3337." (Newman, 1997)
Finding the large primes p and q is usually done by testing random numbers of the right…… [Read More]
The most recent developments are focused on pattern matching where not only are issues such as string and alpha numerals sought for and matched, but also more complicated patterns such as trees, graphs, arrays, and point sets.
The objective, here, is to find non-trivial properties and then from these perform closely matching combinatorial patterns. Much research is being performed on this, and the area has progressed from being simply algorithmic in content to one that has become complex with significant applications. Applications are being extended to fields that include molecular biology and genetic engineering, as well as information retrieval, pattern recognition, biometric authentication (such as speech and speaker recognition, feature recognition, and so forth), program compilation, data compression, program analysis, and system security.
Summary and Conclusions
String-searching algorithms are used for matching words, patterns, and concepts from string to text. In order to be as effective as possible,…… [Read More]
Solving the 1D Bin Packing Problem Using a Parallel Genetic Algorithm: A Benchmark Test
The past few decades have witnessed the introduction in a wide range of technological innovations that have had an enormous impact on consumers, businesses and governmental agencies. Computer-based applications in particular have been key in facilitating the delivery of a wide range of services and information, and computer processing speeds have consistently increased incrementally. Computer processing speeds, though, have a natural limit, with electricity being unable to travel faster than the speed of light. Therefore, even the optimal processing speeds attainable in the future will remain constrained in this regard, but there are some alternative approaches to computer processing that can further increase the functionality of computers, including parallel computing and genetic algorithms which are discussed further below.
In computing, the term "parallelism" is used to describe a system's architecture, in other words, "The…… [Read More]
At this stage, an abstract format or generic classification for the data can be developed. Thus we can see how data are organized and where improvements are possible. Structural relationships within data can be revealed by such detailed analysis.
The final deliverable will be the search time trial results, and the conclusions drawn with respect to the optimum algorithm designs. A definitive direction for the development of future design work is considered a desirable outcome.
Quality assurance will be implemented through systematic review of the experimental procedures and analysis of the test results. Achieving the goals stated at the delivery dates, performance of the tests, and successful completion of the project as determined by the committee members will provide quality assurance to the research outcomes.
Background and a eview of Literature
Data Clustering is a technique employed for the purpose of analyzing statistical data sets. Clustering is the…… [Read More]
Heuristic Decision Making
Heuristics are useful cognitive processes, unconscious or conscious, that ignore some of the information. ecause the utilization of heuristics do not involve so much effort, the classical perspective has been that, decisions made from such processes, result in greater errors than do "rational" decisions that are based on statistical or logical models. However, numerous decisions do not meet rational model assumptions, and it is often an empirical issue rather than a priori one on how well heuristics function in our uncertain world (Gigerenzer & Gaissmaier, 2011). Proper application of cognitive heuristics is definitely vital for day-to-day survival. One would exhaust himself mentally and achieve very little if every judgment he or she made was a full-scale reflective decision. As humans, we get through the routine parts of our day-to-day living by making quick, involuntary reactive judgments (heuristic thinking). We rely on these kinds of snap judgments because…… [Read More]
graphics design. Several years ago, I fell in love with the world of computers and was highly fascinated by the potent power that it possessed. I realized however that I was missing a certain satisfaction in my work with the computers. Naturally, I have always adored the concept of art and design. The idea of doing my design using the computer was therefore exhilarating. It came to my attention that I had been missing a particular experience. Holding a piece of paper, and seeing the transformation that comes out of its original and basic size and shape, moving objects around, holding them up and overall acquiring a totally new vantage point as far as the work of design is concerned. I therefore began again to use my hands in executing my designs and employing the computer more often as tool to realizing my basic objective of perfect design work. What…… [Read More]
Exxon Mobile and Game Theory Analysis
ExxonMobil is the world's largest publicly traded international oil and gas company that operates in an industry that is dominated by several large firms (Exxonmobil, N.d.). On the international level, there are barriers to entry that make it difficult for new entrants to emerge, the product is considered a commodity, and as a result many have argued that this industry most likely follows the oligopoly market structure. The oil and gas industry as a whole is made up of three main types of activities in either upstream, midstream, or downstream industry segments which include such functions as exploration, extraction, transporting unprocessed raw materials, processing the materials in refineries, and further downstream conversions which will eventually lead to the finish products.
The oil and gas industries is arguably the most important industries in the world given the fact that it fuels much of the energy…… [Read More]
An agent-based state engine also alleviates the need for frequent database queries and the use of time-consuming pointers that drastically drag down ms access times and erase any optimization gains from first defining the network. The antnet agent-based engine only on exception writes back to a database and instead keeps its own table-based approach to mapping the network while synchronizing the key elements suggested for inclusion to antnet agents within this section.
Taxonomy creation algorithms and shared intelligence approaches to ensuring all ants have perfect knowledge of the network's structure (taxonomy). This is critical as antnet routing needs to include the ability not just map, but learn specific networks' characteristics and either equate the network structure and behavior to previously-learned models, or quickly create one through a series of network definition routines that scope, classify and optimize the network structure.
Support for Directed Diffusion data elements. Included within an antnet…… [Read More]
The reward for the effort of learning is access to a vocabulary that is shared by a very large population across all industries globally" (p. 214). Moreover, according to Bell, because UML is a language rather than a methodology, practitioners who are familiar with UML can join a project at any point from anywhere in the world and become productive right away. Therefore, Web applications that are built using UML provide a useful approach to helping professionals gain access to the information they need when they need it.
Overview of the Study
This paper used a five-chapter format to achieve the above-stated research purpose. Chapter one of the study was used to introduce the topic under consideration, provide a statement of the problem, the purpose of the study and its importance of the study. Chapter two of the study provides a review of the related peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning…… [Read More]
The strategy is to partition the network and distribute the routing of the entire group of node instead of only one node having full energy burden task.
Similar to the previous paper reviewed, Xu et al. (2000) in their paper titled "Adaptive Energy-Conserving Routing for Multihop Ad Hoc Networks" also develop two algorithms for routing energy saving devices. hile other papers develop energy saving devices such as GAF and Span, Xu et al. (2000) develop AODV and DSR, which are the algorithms to reduce energy consumption in the application- level development. Similar to GAF that consume between 40% and 60% of less energy consumption, and Span, AODV and DSR have ability to consume as little as 50% of the energy in the ad-hoc routing protocol, which assist in increasing the network lifetime four-fold.
Geographical adaptive fidelity: The energy saving algorithms developed by Xu et al. (2001)
Adaptive Energy Conserving…… [Read More]
Then, each program is measured in terms of how well it can perform in a given environment. Based on this test called the fitness measure, the fit programs are selected for the next generation of reproduction. This process is continued until the best solution is determined. (Koza, 1992).
The advantages of genetic programming is that it is an evolving process based on the tested process of natural selection and evolution. This also uses parallel processing and so it can produce more accurate results within a short period of time. Due to these advantages, it is used in many real-world applications.
It plays a profound role in data mining and virtual reality, in every field ranging from finance to gaming. Specialized computer programs can retrieve data from large databases with a lot of precision and speed. These programs can also be used to identify relationships among this data and express them…… [Read More]
An Eigenface representation (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) created using primary "components" (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) of the covariance matrix of a training set of facial images (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005). his method converts the facial data into eigenvectors projected into Eigenspace (a subspace), (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) allowing copious "data compression because surprisingly few Eigenvector terms are needed to give a fair likeness of most faces. he method of catches the imagination because the vectors form images that look like strange, bland human faces. he projections into Eigenspace are compared and the nearest neighbors are assumed to be matches." (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005)
he differences in the algorithms are reflective in the output of the resulting match or non-match of real facial features against the biometric database or artificial intelligence generated via algorithm. he variances generated by either the Eigenspace or the PCA will vary according to the…… [Read More]
Another aspect of the security management area of a network management system is the development of policy-based auditing and alerts by role in the organization
(Merilainen, Lemmetyinen, 2011). This is one of the areas of knowledge-enabled security management, specifically in the area of role-based access and advanced auditing and reporting.
Fault management is also an area that no single suite of network management systems can completely meet per the ISO standards today. This requires the CIO and network managers to define specific goals in this area including the extent of fail-over support and use of advanced fault tolerance technologies (Netak, Kiwelekar, 2006). Accounting management baseline performance includes the ability to generate logs of performance and also define benchmarks for performance. This is the minimal level of functionality a CIO and network manager need to consider when selecting a network management system. Configuration management systems requirements range from the relatively simplistic…… [Read More]
First-come -first -- served (FCF)
This system is also called other names such as run-to-completion and run-until-done. It has its advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include the facts that it is the simplest scheduling algorithm with processes dispatched according to their arrival time on the queue and that once a process has a CPU it fulfills its task to completion. It is also simple to understand and write. In short, the FC scheduling is fair and predictable.
Disadvantages, on the other hand, include the potential lengthiness of the tasks with some important jobs take secondary place to less important ones and longer jobs taking up an inordinate amount of time making shorter tasks wait.
I would not use FCF in scheduling interactive users since it does not guarantee good response time and average time is often quite long. I would not use it in a modern operating system; it can,…… [Read More]
"Contention for shared resources significantly impedes the efficient operation of multicore processors" (Fedorova, 2009). The authors of "Managing Contention for Shared Resources on Multicore Processors" (Fedorova, 2009) found that shared cache contention as well as prefetching hardware and memory interconnects were all responsible for performance degradation. After implementing a pain, sensitivity and intensity, model to test applications, the authors discovered that high miss rate applications must be kept apart and not co-scheduled on the same domain (memory). Therefore, the management of how the applications were scheduled by the scheduler would mitigate the performance degradation of the cache lines and the applications on the processors.
The authors built a prototype scheduler, called Distributed Intensity Online (DIO) that distributes intensive (high latest level cache (LLC) miss rates) after measuring online miss rates of the application. With the execution of eight different workloads for testing, the DIO improved workload performance by…… [Read More]
Assurance and Security (IAS) Digital forensics (DF)
In this work, we take a look at three laboratory-based training structures that afford practical and basic knowledge needed for forensic evaluation making use of the latest digital devices, software, hardware and firmware. Each lesson has three parts. The duration of the first section of the three labs will be one month. These labs would be the largest labs. The Second section would consist of smaller labs. The training period duration in these labs would also generally be one month. The third section would consist of smallest labs. The duration of training period in these labs would be one week. The training will be provided in the field of software, programming concepts, flowcharting and algorithms and logical reasoning- both linear and iterative.
Part 1 Larger Labs:
Lab 1(Timeline Analysis)
Purposes and goals of the Lab (Lab VI):
Use MAC (Media Access Control, internet…… [Read More]
Google and the Mind: Notes
There are about fifty billion webpages indexed by Google. One may, in a number of ways, perceive the above fifty billion pages as signifying, from some standpoint, the joint experiences felt by a substantial share of humans -- a kind of "universal memory".
The algorithm of page rank is extremely effective as it classifies pages to make natural sense to the people who search for anything on search engines. PageRank by Google seems to be miraculously capable of prioritizing individual pages such that a person will be capable of easily relating to them. PageRank has been transforming the way web users browse the Internet. With regard to researching the universal shared memory signified by the Internet, the algorithm of PageRank appears to work effectively for users, nearly as proficiently as if they were seeking coveted information stored within their own brain (20).
Search engines have…… [Read More]
Bayesian networks also can only be used in a case of incomplete knowledge as is pertinent with genes. Although limitations exist, current research is making headway all the time and providing future research directions as it does so.
Berger, James O (1985). Statistical Decision Theory and Bayesian Analysis. Springer Series in Statistics (Second ed.). Springer-Verlag.
Friedman, N., Linial, M., Nachman, I., and Pe'er, D. (2000). Using Bayesian networks to analyze expression data. J. Comput. Biol. 7, 601 -- 620.
Hartemink a.J., Gifford D.K., Jaakkola T.S., Young, .A.. (2001). Using graphical models and genomic expression data to statistically validate models of genetic regulatory networks. Biocomput, World Scientific Publishing Co.
Howson, C.; Urbach, P. (2005). Scientific easoning: the Bayesian Approach (3rd ed.). Open Court Publishing Company.
Jensen, F. (1996). An introduction to Bayesian networks. Berlin: Springer.
Jong, H.D. (2002). Modeling and Simulation of Genetic egulatory Systems: A Literature eview, Journal of…… [Read More]
IT professional must become the 'Renaissance Person' of the 21st century workplace: a brief essay describing how each of the 16 reference disciplines provides support for and inform IS/IT practice
Once upon a time, Informational Science and Informational Technology were thought of as enclosed, rarified disciplines. These disciplines were thought to be the provenance only of the technically astute. Thus, IS and IT personnel were usually relegated to their own, specific areas of most organizational hierarchies. Specialists in IS/IT practice were sometimes known as mere 'techie geeks,' with necessary and specific skills, but ones with little application outside the field. Thus was partly because the educations of IS/IT personnel, fairly or unfairly, were assumed to consist of matters specific only to the discipline of technology, rather than comprising any aspect of the humanities, social and natural sciences, or even the more theoretical aspects of technology such as Artificial Intelligence.
However,…… [Read More]
elly, C.J. "Buried Alive by Work, Getting Little Done." ComputerWorld. April 16, 2007. Retrieved April 21, 2007 at http://computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&taxonomyName=careers&articleId=288205&taxonomyId=10&intsrc=kc_feat3.http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9005047 a) elly writes about his workplace frustrations. A government employee, elly claims that his office is understaffed and he therefore spends more time working through thorny personnel problems than he does on his security systems management work. The author also points out the problems with using outmoded, demoralizing hourly time cards at work and the correspondingly useless rules about break times. These, elly states, interfere with productivity and job satisfaction and can cause depression.
A b) elly's solution is simple: close the door and ignore the staff. Initially seeming silly, this solution is not only sound but effective. As elly explains, his staff assumed more responsibility when on their own and as a result the whole office operated more efficiently. His productivity and his morale increased, and his depression waned.
A…… [Read More]
This leads to problems when the active area encroaches on the border of the array. Programmers have used several strategies to address these problems. The simplest strategy is simply to assume that every cell outside the array is dead. This is easy to program, but leads to inaccurate results when the active area crosses the boundary. A more sophisticated trick is to consider the left and right edges of the field to be stitched together and the top and bottom edges also. The result is that active areas that move across a field edge reappear at the opposite edge. Inaccuracy can still result if the pattern grows too large, but at least there are no pathological edge effects. Techniques of dynamic storage allocation may also be used, creating ever-larger arrays to hold growing patterns. Alternatively, the programmer may abandon the notion of representing the Life field with a two-dimensional array,…… [Read More]
(2011) move to an application of the general theoretical principles and certain of their conclusions to the real-world issues facing high-rise structures (buildings), discussing windshear and the typical stress trajectories that these buildings face and certain basic calculations that provide the basic structures used to structure buildings in a way that addresses these stress issues. he section that directly roots the author's theoretical model in the concrete world of high-rise buildings is brief and their invocation of their own theory significantly limited, however this section does provide useful background information that helps to frame the understanding of the element mapping and topological optimization calculations and considerations that must be taken into account. An illustration of the pattern gradation, topological optimization, and a real-world analog in the form of a photograph of an existing building illustrate quite clearly and directly the link between the authors' model and the real-world construction of…… [Read More]
Stellar number is defined as a figurate number that is based on either the prevailing number of dots or units. It is normally fit within either a centered hexagon or star shape.
The completion of the prevailing triangular numbers of sequence possessing three more terms follows the trends below
Sn= 1-2 3-4
Through application of the graimabica rule
The general statement pertaining to the sequence of the 1,3,6,10,15,21,28,36 which are normally computed via application of the following formula Sn = n2 + n/2
1= 1 x 2 /
= 2 x 3 /
= 4 x 5 /
An nth term will be equivalent to ? n (n + 1) / 2 and it is normally the pattern recognition.
However, there exist complicated algorithm in the place of finding the difference amidst terms and if the corresponding first difference are constant. The cases that pertain to the first term being…… [Read More]
Machine Translation and Horizons of the Future
Almost everyone is familiar with the nifty Google feature which allows for instantaneous translation of foreign words. This automated or 'machine' translation is a convenient way to read websites in different languages. No longer does the reader need to know someone who speaks the foreign language or to hire a translator. The translation is provided quickly and easily, via 'machine.' However, for many professional translators, there is a fear that this mechanized process will render their profession obsolete. The article "The perspective of machine translation and horizons of the future" argues that such fears are unfounded. There a useful function that can be performed by machine translation that will enhance current translation capabilities for businesses, individuals, and other organizations, even if it is not a perfect replacement for human intelligence.
The article begins by noting the vital need for translation today, given the…… [Read More]
Both saving on a microeconomic sense and saving on a macroeconomic sense entail taking he long-term view into perspective for it means surrendering immediate gratification for achieving long-term goals, sometimes -- as in the microeconomic context -- for individuals not rated to us and for the greater good as well as for generations to come.
As Keynesian model shows, the nation can benefit more by placing its focus on domestic activities than on borrowing from foreign countries. By producing government bonds that have high interest rates and, subsequently, by encouraging citizens to invest in the nation's benefit, the nation only helps itself by providing more technology and more opportunity that opens up more room for employment and hence opportunity to slip out of its recession when times are difficult economically. Capital and labor are the basic inputs for goods and services, and the resources for capital and labor comes from…… [Read More]
The complex issue of providing adequate care and preventative testing to a population that is increasingly unable to afford the rising expenses associated with such care remains a substantial problem in the United States, and directly impacts care provided for cases of head traumas in rural areas. The Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) and the New Orleans Criteria (NOC) are two clinical decision making methods for determining when the expense of a CT scan is warranted following a head trauma, though indications for the use of either testing procedure differ. Despite widespread and successful use elsewhere, the CCHR is not widely used in the United States and is especially under-utilized in rural areas, leading to rising expenses and the mistreatment of traumatic head injuries. Equipment shortages and other facility limitations in rural hospitals and clinics further complicates treatment for head injuries, and sheer geographic distance to facilities means that…… [Read More]
Predictive policing is a trend that uses technology to predict hot crime spots and send police to the area before a crime is committed. By using data mining and crime mapping, police are deployed to areas based on statistical probability and geospatial predictions. This technology is based on the same technology used by businesses to predict sales trends and customer behavior patterns. Now, police departments can use the same technology to predict crime patterns and work to reduce crime in their area.
Predictive policing is putting officers where crimes are more likely to occur. "…it generates projections about which areas and windows of time are at highest risk for future crimes by analyzing and detecting patterns in years of past crime data." (Goode) The data mining generates projections using past crime data to analyze which areas and the time of the day, week, or month, etc. that crime is likely…… [Read More]
For example, using predictive policing will likely be at odds with many of the organizational cultures found in traditional police forces in many cities. Furthermore, different objectives may also take precedence over the use of COMPSTAT systems such as political goals as well as the ability for policing organizations to provide the needed resources to take advantage of a COMPSTAT system.
The various COMPSTAT systems can take various inputs, such as historical data, weather, or political events, and process these inputs to generate various sets of "hotspots." These hotspots can be updated daily and reflect the most likely time and space estimates of where crime is more likely to occur given the various factors that are presented to the algorithm. The outputs may represent a location and a time in which police officers should patrol given the likelihood of a crime occurring at this output. The system then can keep…… [Read More]
teaching strengths for the content area (secondary school mathematics or science) you plan to teach.
I have decided that I will teach mathematics at the secondary school level which is a subject I performed well at when I was in high school myself. I was always at the top of my classes when it came to math and I enjoyed all of the classes that I took in the subject. So, I think it has to be the right area in which I should pursue a teaching degree.
I can think of two strengths that I have, with regard to this subject, apart from the facts that I enjoy the study and was able to perform well at the secondary level. First, on a personal level, I do not try to act like I know more than other people, even though I may have a more perfect knowledge of the…… [Read More]
The use of support vector machine learning is widely supported to be used to notice micro calcification clusters in the digital mammograms. It is indeed a learning tool that originated from modern statistical theory of learning. (Vapnik, 1998). In the recent past years, SVM learning has got a large range of real life applications. This includes handwritten digit detection (Scholkopf et al., 1997), recognition of object, (Pontil&Verri, 1998), identification of speaker (Wan&Campbell, 2000) and detection of face in images,(Osuna et al.,1997) . Categorization of text is done by SVM. (Joachims,1999). SVM learning formulation has its basis on structural risk minimization principle. It does not minimize an object function on the basis of training examples but on the contrary, SVM tries to minimize leap on generalization error. This is usually the error that is done by the learning machine on the test data that is not used while undertaking…… [Read More]
As these preferences are determined, the algorithm then determines the best invitations to treat to present to the consumers. Today, these processes are powerful and can drive business at these websites, but they do not yet constitute bona fide interaction between the travel provider, the agent (website) and the consumer. Rather, the algorithms merely produce smarter sales pitches. At such a point when algorithms can literally cater to consumers' needs based upon the consumers' interactions the travel industry will be on the cusp of experiencing genuine co-creation. Co-creation at this point, however, is not an automated process. It must be conducted by humans. Given that more people are purchasing travel online than ever before, this would point to a decline in co-creation. It may be, however, that this technology will emerge in the next few years and truly transform the travel industry into one where co-creation is the norm.
Li…… [Read More]
" (ramel and Simchi-Levi, 1993)
The work of Wolsey (2006) reports a study of two lot-sizing problems and that each of these have time windows that have been recently proposed. It is stated that for the case of production time windows, both of which the client's specific order is required to have reached the end of production in a specified time period and it is reported by Wolsey that derived is "tight extended formulations for both the constant capacity and uncapacitated problems to the problem in which the time windows can be ordered by time." p.471
According to Wolsey, also demonstrated is "equivalence to the basic lot-sizing problem with upper bounds on the stocks. It is related that here derived is "polynomial time dynamic programming algorithms and tight extended formulation for the uncapacitated and constant capacity problems with general costs." (Wolsey, 2006, p.471) a similar approach is used to derive…… [Read More]
There are many important basic functions that a modern computer must carry out in order to effectively and efficiently serve its user and conduct processes in a proper timeframe. One of these basic functions is memory management, which essentially refers to the manner in which the computer accesses and information from storage and presents it in a usable manner to the user or to the functional running processes currently in operation. As the capacity for such access and utilization is inherently limited, the manner in which this access is managed is of key importance in determining the speed with which the computer can operate, the number of tasks and processes that can be in operation at any time, and ultimately the functionality of the computer as a whole. It is for this reason that the methods and algorithms used for memory management in a particular setting are of…… [Read More]
In addition electronic purses can be reloaded using ATM machines or traditional tellers (if the card is connected to a banking account).
Additionally, electronic purses are usually based on smart card technology and necessitate a card reader to fulfill a transaction. Equipment including point of sale (POS) terminals, ATMs, and smart card kiosks can be outfitted with card readers (Misra et al., 2004). Every time the user utilizes the card reader to complete a transaction; the card reader will debit or credit the transaction value from or to the card.
The author further asserts that Smart cards can be utilized for various purposes.
In most cases they are used as stored value cards (Misra et al., 2004). Stored value cards can be utilized at the time of purchase and are preloaded with a certain amount of money. These cards can be discarded after they have been used; however, most stored…… [Read More]
To provide the number of constraints and variables, the paper provides the study of Amtrak rail system between Delaware, and New Jersey. The entire datasets held with the 99 trains are 42 tracks and 43 nodes. The datasets gives a problem of 220,000 variables and 380,000 constraints. ith available constraints and variables, the paper uses all possibilities to solve the problems using the algorithms.
To arrive at the solution to the problem, the study uses the new traffic management concepts and other potential solving methods.
3-Part: Structure of the Model;
The paper uses the Ilog Cplex tool to solve the problem. The linear programming as follows:
The algorithms check all constraints and simplify the problem as much as possible using the mathematical point-of-view. Using the system, the study attempts to find the first solution and refine it in order to find the best solution as being revealed in Fig 1.…… [Read More]
Artificial intelligence has been at the center of many science fiction stories in the last fifty years. Some have become obsessed with proving or disproving the idea that computers can possess real minds, real consciousness. The latest take on this has been HBO's Westworld, a show about androids achieving consciousness. However, realistically many say this is an impossibility. While true artificial intelligence seems, unrealistic many have tried to actualize such a dream through AI projects and development of new, robotic technologies. However, will the goal of real consciousness derived from artificial intelligence be achieved in the future? Will humanity ever possess the technology and understanding to cultivate life from machine?
In "The Library of Toshiba" the chapter opens up with a quote from John Maynard Smith. He shares the notion that humans are just programmed robots designed to keep their genes going through copulation and breeding. Humans are after all,…… [Read More]
The algorithm can be your market eyes. it's effectively a trading assistant - a very diligent trading assistant... The downside is that it is also a very obedient trading assistant, so if you tell it to do something it might not have the intuition or the ability to veto you... obviously there are checks and balances to prevent anything bad from happening, but you do hear stories about people putting an order in with the wrong instruction, it moved the stock 10 per cent and then you get a call from the regulator" (Dey, 2006) in 2007, the Economist attributed a financially significant "wobble" suffered by the New York Stock Exchange on February 27, 2007 to the ad hoc combination of increasing capacity by adding more scalable hardware to a system that still relies substantially on floor-based trading, yielding a "hybrid" system with significant vulnerabilities. According to that journal, the…… [Read More]
Brix can use NTP, but in our testing its active Verifiers employed small Code Division Multiple Access receivers, which receive timing signals similar to what is used for cellular telephony. Most vendors also support an option for satellite-based global positioning system (GPS) receivers" (22).
The research showed that Network Time Protocol is a longstanding Internet protocol that is used to ensure the accurate synchronization to the millisecond of computer clock times in a network of computers. The research also showed that in spite of its workhouse history, earlier versions of NTP are no longer adequate and improvements are in the works. hile NTP is widely used, some vendors have elected for alternative approaches that accomplish the same thing in a different manner, but even here, NTP was shown to be on the cutting edge by recognizing these constraints and taking steps to address them. In the final analysis, NTP…… [Read More]
Internet has grown exponentially since its first introduction to the public. The precursor to the Internet was the ARPANET. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense (Carlitz and Zinga, 1997) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) were the primary creators of the ARPANET. Subsequently however, efforts from private entities and universities have helped develop the network infrastructure, as it exists today. "The goals of ARPA's 'Resource Sharing Computer Network' project were to develop the technology for and demonstrate the feasibility of a computer network while improving communication and collaboration between research centers with grants from ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)." (Press, 1996) J.C.R. Licklider of MIT undertook groundbreaking work in developing computer interactivity. Later, he implemented his vision though time-sharing systems-affordable interactive computing. The effort of the NSF also helped to distribute the features of this new networking capability to all major universities and research…… [Read More]
he growing sophistication of internet, along with advancing abilities of individuals to hack into electronic systems is creating a growing need for improved encryption technology. he internet is becoming a domain all to itself, with its own rules, and requirements. he internet is creating new opportunities for the business and communication industries. It is also creating new demands. he internet is now facing a period in its evolution similar to the period of our country's history of westward expansion, and settlement
Wild Wild West years of the internet have passed with the bursting of the ech bubble in the early 21st century. Now business is building entire enterprises on the net. As hundreds of thousands of dollars change hands based on digital bleeps, the needs for government, business, and individuals to protect their data is becoming of paramount importance. Who will be the exas Ranger's of the internet,…… [Read More]
Predictive analytics is a statistical technique used to analyze current and historical data in order to make a reasonable prediction about future. In a business environment, organizations employ predictive analytics model to identify market trends, opportunities and risks. Using the predictive analytics, organizations are able to assess potential risks and opportunities to achieve competitive market advantages. In other word, predictive analytics is part of data mining focusing on extracting information from historical data and used the data to predict behavioral patterns and trends. Typically, predictive analytics can be applied to any type of unknown events in order to predict the presents and future events. Banks are the early adopters of predictive analytics model. For example, banks use the data collected from credit scores to determine the likelihood of an individual to qualify for a bank loan. The technique has assisted banks to minimize the risks by detecting applicants likely to…… [Read More]
Categories of Software and Their Relationships
Enterprise software -- Used in large-scale businesses, enterprise software is commonplace throughout many of the world's largest companies. This class of software is used for orchestrating complex business processes that require tight integration to ERP, CRM, SCM and pricing systems.
Personal productivity software -- Software including Microsoft Office, Outlook and personal productivity applications. Personal pro0ductivty applications are often used for accessing and analyzing the large-scale databases in enterprise software systems.
Cloud-based software -- Software that resides on servers at diverse, remote locations that are used for managing a wide variety of personal productivity and collaborative tasks. These applications are typically relied on in companies that have diverse working relationships and need to have access to data in nearly real-time.
Explain the relationship of algorithms to software
Algorithms are the foundations of software applications as they orchestrate diverse areas of a program's code that runs…… [Read More]
Social media is a big boom when it comes to business, entertainment, and media. It has crossed over from something the youth use to something everyone uses. Many people do not understand how much of an impact social media has on people from their employability to how the public views them. This example essay will show social media’s influence and how it has come to be what it is today.
Social Media: Then and Now Social Media and it’s Impact on Business Social Media as a Social Movement Social Media and it’s influence on our Lives Social Media: Changing the Way People Communicate
Social Media Platforms The Impact of Twitter and Facebook on Business The Rise of YouTube Difference Between Social Media Platforms How Social Media is used to Communicate Social Media Effects on Society
a. Social media has transformed the ways people communicate and…… [Read More]
Mobile Device Security
Analysis of Routing Optimization Security for Mobile IPv6 Networks
Defining and Implementing Mobility Security Architectures
Approaches to defining, implementing and auditing security for mobility devices have become diverse in approach, spanning from protocol definition and development including IPv6 through the creation of secure mobile grid systems. The wide variation in approaches to defining security for mobility devices has also shown the critical need for algorithms and constraint-based technologies that can use constraint-based logic to isolate and thwart threats to the device and the network it is part of. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the recent developments in constraint-based modeling and network logic as represented by mobile IPv6 protocols and the role trust management networks (Lin, Varadharajan, 2010). These networks are predicated on algorithms that are used authenticating the identity of specific account holders, in addition to defining a taxonomy of the factors that most…… [Read More]
Healthcare System Practice Guideline
Introduce an overview of one healthcare system practice guideline
There are numerous areas within health care that demand change in everyday healthcare practice. More often than not, irrespective of the healthcare setting, an inventive group is required to conduct research and facilitate change. There are numerous practices that require change or upgrading. This is facilitated through the establishment and advancement of clinical practice guidelines. The selected healthcare system practice guideline is Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care (2017). This particular guideline delineates the important decision points in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and provides well-outlines and wide-ranging evidence based recommendations assimilating prevailing information and practices for practitioners throughout Department of Defense (DoD) and Veretan Affairs (VA) Health Care Systems. Diabetes mellitus is an illness that is caused either by an absolute or relative deficiency in insulin giving rise to hyperglycemia. Type 1 DM (T1DM)…… [Read More]
4. Transparency, authenticity, and focus are good. Bland is bad. Many people are looking for someone who is in authority to share their ideas, experiences, or suggestions (Bielski, 2007, p. 9).
Moreover, just as content analysis of other written and symbolic forms has provided new insights that might have otherwise gone unnoticed, the analysis of blog content may reveal some unexpected findings concerning hot topics and significant social trends that are shaping the users of this information. For example, a data infrastructure engineering team intern working at Facebook recently generated an eerily accurate global map based on Facebook friendship links. According to the developer, "I was interested in seeing how geography and political borders affected where people lived relative to their friends. I wanted a visualization that would show which cities had a lot of friendships between them" (Butler, 2010, para. 3). While Butler had some vague ideas about the…… [Read More]
In actual fact, because of STCP's option of multiplicative amplify, STCP have to in stable state persuade congestion actions approximately all 13.4 round trip times, in spite of the connection speed. HSTCP encourages packet losses at a slower speed than STCP, but still much quicker than CP-eno.
3. Problems of the Existing Delay-based TCP Versions
In contrast, TCP Vegas, Enhanced TCP Vegas and FAST TCP are delay-based protocols. By relying upon changes in queuing delay measurements to detect changes in available bandwidth, these delay-based protocols achieve higher average throughout with good intra-protocol TT fairness (Cajon, 2004). However, they have more than a few deficiencies. For instance, both Vegas and FAST suffer from the overturn path congestion difficulty, in which simultaneous onward and overturn path traffic on a simple bidirectional blockage connection cannot attain full link operation. In addition, both Vegas and Enhanced Vegas employ a conservative window increase strategy of…… [Read More]
It also has only printable characters
The character is unsuitable since it contains more than 8 characters. It can be guessed by dictionary attack since it is a common name
The password is unsuitable since it has more than 8 characters. Can be guessed by a dictionary attack since it is a common name
The password is suitable since the character length does not exceed eight characters and it contains printable characters
The password is too obvious so it is unsuitable
The password is suitable since it does not contain more than 8 characters. It also contains printable characters.
95*95*95*95*95*95*95*95*95*95 + 6.4 million
DAC is used to define the basic access control policies to various objects. These are set according to the needs of the object owners. The MAC are access control policies that are system-controlled. The…… [Read More]
a) it generates set of good layout alternatives, which are presented to the decision maker; B) it uses the decision maker's preference further to generate another best alternative, and C) generates the best layout alternatives using an interactive method (Jannat, S. 2010).
Optimal facility layout is a culmination of data process production and operation in a manufacturing or service layout. A good layout can work wonders in terms of single line flow of materials and work-in-progress items, leading to substantial cost reduction, which when passed on to the consumer, will relate to a very successful balance sheet. In addition, it contributes to employee efficiency and health, and the principle can be applied to the service sector as well as several sectors unconnected with manufacturing or service.
Chakraborty S. And Banik B (2007), "An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Based Approach for Optimal Facility Layout Design," Journal of the Institution…… [Read More]
To implement this algorithm, it is essential to simulate locking of what the books mentions as an item X that has been transcribed by transaction T
is either committed or aborted. This algorithm is not what would turn into deadlock, for the reason that T. waits for T
only if TS (T) > TS (T
) (Elmasri, 2011).
According to the book, strict timestamp ordering differs from basic timestamp ordering because basic timestamp ordering is utilized whenever some transaction T. attempts to subject a read item (X) or a write item (X) operation, the basic to algorithm is the one that compares the timestamp of T. with read_TS (X) and write_TS (X) to ensure that the timestamp where as the strict timestamp does not. Another difference is the fact that the basic lets us know that if the proper order is violated, then transaction T. is the one…… [Read More]
Image Enhancement Techniques
Research shows that out of the five senses which are hearing, smell, sight, touch, and taste -- which humans utilize to observe their environment, sight is the most influential (Jeong, 2011). Analyzing images and getting them really does form a huge part of the unchanging cerebral activity of human beings during the course of their lives. Actually, beyond 98% of the activity of the human brain is included in managing images from the visual cortex (Guruvareddy & Giri Prasad, 2011). In today's communications system it is vital to recognize that the multimedia is an area that is continually increasing.
Basically, it is a field that is growing more and more each day. Many are starting to see the various avenues that a person can go into when it comes to image enhancement techniques. There used to be an era when the options were very limited, but now…… [Read More]
Why is clustering interesting? How to value cryptocurrencies has been a major question ever since so many began finding their way to market. As Qunitero (2018) points out, “having a clear and unbiased benchmark while evaluating new decentralized projects in the crypto economy” could help to answer the question of valuation. Clustering commonly occurs around token type: thus, one routinely sees the clustering of currency tokens, platform tokens, utility tokens, brand tokens, and security tokens. Yet these are not the only clusters that may appear, the more closely one looks at the space. As clustering shows which cryptocurrencies move in tandem at the top of the market cap, it is useful to examine clustering cryptocurrencies to see what similarities in movement might tell us.
Are fundamental similarities backed by market metrics? That is the main question to be asked and an important one because clusters can…… [Read More]
Certificates can be personal or set up by the users for certain trusted authorities. Once an SSL connection is recognized, the server certificate in use can usually be scrutinized by looking at the assets of the page conveyed over the SSL connection. Certificates and keys are normally stored on the hard disk of the computer. Additionally to needing a password when the private key is used, it is typically also required to import or export keys and certificates. Some browsers also hold key and certificate storage on a secure external device (Using PKI, 2004).
Certificates given to web servers and individuals are signed by a Certificate Authority. The signature on a certificate recognizes the particular Certificate Authority that issued a certificate. The Certificate Authority in turn has a certificate that connects its identity to its public key, so you can verify its uniqueness. A certificate authority issues a policy defining…… [Read More]
BluetoothTM is a low cost, low power, short-range radio technology- originally perceived as cable replacement alternative for the cable / wire connected devices such as mobile phone hand, headsets, and portable computers. The BluetoothTM's goals expanded to include standardized wireless communications between any electrical devices and created a notion of Personal Area Network. The write-up traces history of BluetoothTM starting with its unusual name to formation of Special Interest Group, SIG's formation, its growth culminating into implementation of version 1.0b.
Version 1.0 of the Bluetooth came out in 1999-starting as early as 1994 by engineers from Ericsson. The specification is named after Harald Blatand- a tenth century Viking. Ericsson Corp. founded the Bluetooth SIG in February 1998, Intel Corp., IBM Corp., Toshiba Corp., and Nokia Mobile Phones. In December 1999, core promoters group enlarged to include four major players, namely, Micorsoft, Lucent, 3 Com and Motorola.
Then, the components of…… [Read More]