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Alzheimer's Disease: Summary of esults Q&A
The summary of results on the case study of AD provides that AD is still a disease of those primarily age 85 and older, and an expensive, time-consuming process. It is not a disease that is appropriate for "large, epidemiologic studies" thus screening strategies are most sell-suited so cohort studies are feasible. Diagnostic workups assist in making studies manageable and successful in diagnosing sources of AD and number of actual cases of AD in the public.
Diagnosis of AD brings with it many problems including fear and social stigma; thus it is beneficial to examine risk factors and distinguish between cognitive impairments that are minimal and evidenced in the public at large and actual early warning signs and preclinical AD. False positives are a common diagnostic problem as signs are common with advancing age and may include, "poor vision, hearing loss, arthritis" which all…… [Read More]
Another study sponsored by these marketing firms was published in the August 2001 issue of the Neurology and claimed that it improved cognition, behavior and daily activity in 290 Alzheimer's patients, only 80 of whom had a severe stage. The effect of the drug on the majority of the patients tested was, therefore, uncertain and inconclusive. The former head of the Alzheimer's research for the National Institutes of Health, said that the modest effects of the drug on respondents fewer than several hundred to 1,000 people would be a problem. Exelon, a product of Novartis, and Reminy, a product of Johnson & Johnson's Janssen Pharmaceutica, were similar subjects of small, company-sponsored post-marketing studies. FDA rules say that companies cannot promote their drug products for off-label use or for purposes other than those approved by the FDA by providing doctors or researchers with scripts for their use at conferences and other…… [Read More]
female Alzheimer's patient endures due to this disease. Alzheimer's is a progressive cognitive disorder that destroys a person's memory and hampers other functions that a normal human would expect to be able to experience each day. This paper delves into the disease and presents information through the available literature. The case of an individual that is suffering from Alzheimer's, named Sadie Cohen, will be referenced in this paper.
Severity of the disorder: Alzheimer's caused many of Sadie's brain cells to "degenerate and die," which led to her severe memory loss and the dysfunction of many of her mental abilities; a person like Sadie with Alzheimer's feels lost, confused, and incompetent (Mayo Clinic).
Risk factors: The most common risk factor when it comes to Alzheimer's is the age factor. Moving up in age brings with it the chance of getting the disease. An estimated ten percent of people beyond the age…… [Read More]
Research Article Chart
Criteria and Defining Characteristics
Abraham, R. P., Denton, D. A., Al?Assaf, A. S., Rutjes, A. W., Chong, L. Y., Malik, M. A., & Tabet, N. (2015). Vitamin and mineral supplementation for prevention of dementia or delaying cognitive decline in people with mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (10).
Kwok, T. C. Y., Lam, L. C. W., Sea, M. M. M., Goggins, W., & Woo, J. (2012). A randomized controlled trial of dietetic interventions to prevent cognitive decline in old age hostel residents. European journal of clinical nutrition, 66(10), 1135.
Dangour, A. D., Whitehouse, P. J., Rafferty, K., Mitchell, S. A., Smith, L., Hawkesworth, S., & Vellas, B. (2010). B-vitamins and fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia: a systematic review. Journal of Alzheimer's disease, 22(1), 205-224.
After reading the abstract what do you expect to learn from the…… [Read More]
Therefore the cognitive performance wasn't improved significantly by the use of DHEA though in the 3 months period only a fleeting effect might have been observed (Wolkowitz et al., 2003, p.1073.)
Vitamin is often prescribed by doctors for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. A large study which was funded by the federal government showed that the reduced ability to do daily activities is delayed slightly by the intake of vitamin E The useful aspects of vitamin E can be attributed to its antioxidant nature which helps in the protection of nerve cells from chemical deterioration. The physician supervision is necessary when someone takes vitamin E as an Alzheimer treatment. There were high doses of vitamin E used in the federal study and vitamin E when used with other medications can interact negatively including the ones used for preventing the clotting of the blood (Khachaturian, 1992, P.73).
The…… [Read More]
Clinical Trial NCT01504854
The number of Americans with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias will grow as the U.S. population age 65 and older continues to increase. It is projected more than 3 million people aged 85 and older are likely to have Alzheimer's, when the first wave of baby boomers reach age 85 in the year 2031 (Alzheimer's Association, 2015). By 2025, the number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer's disease is estimated to reach 7.1 million -- a 40% increase from the 5 million who are age 65 and older currently affected (Alzheimer's Association, 2015). Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia and is projected to be one of the most prevalent illnesses with our older adult population in the future. Alzheimer's disease remains 100% fatal and there is no cure for the disease; however, there are medications that are believed to be able to…… [Read More]
What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions
There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…… [Read More]
he research was conducted in 40-day care centers located in Baltimore County. A total of 510 newly admitted Alzheimer patients agreed to participate in the study and filled out the questionnaire during their first visit to the day care center. A follow-up survey was conducted two months later using the same instrument.
Study participants also completed an instrument designed to identify barriers preventing community services from being utilized, from the perspective of patients and caregivers. he instrument also assessed whether access to community services impacted the patient's quality of life.
he research design was based on the rans-heoretical Model (M), which assumes that individuals will differ significantly in how motivated and ready they are to change their health-related behaviors (Prochaska, and Diclement, 1983). his research design has been used by a number of researchers to investigate the association between barriers to healthcare services and quality of life measures…… [Read More]
Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.
For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…… [Read More]
One of the most common mental disorders linked to Alzheimer's is depression which according to Elwood Cohen manifests itself in three important ways. First, "There are higher rates of depression among Alzheimer's patients than among non-demented adults;" second, "Having a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's," and third, Depressive symptoms can be confused with dementia in older adults" (1999, 214).
In a recent study conducted by the Cardiovascular Health Initiative, based in Washington, D.C., more than one-third of 400 dementia patients and more than one-fifth of 300 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had experienced symptoms of depression during a one-month period prior to the study. Similar results were reported by the Multi-Institutional esearch in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology (MIAGE) which discovered that "In the year prior to a patient being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, the same patient was almost five times more likely than their…… [Read More]
Alzheimer's Disease: An Overview
Disease description and possible misconceptions
Alzheimer's disease is one of, although not the only type, of dementia elderly patients may suffer. The most common form of the illness occurs after age 60. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease before the age of 60 is less common, but the symptoms and worsening of the illness tends to be swifter in nature. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease has a known genetic component. "Certain genes...such as APOE epsilon4 allele" are linked to a greater likelihood of developing Alzheimer's (Jasmin 2010). In older patients, the difference between dementia and Alzheimer's can be difficult to determine. "The only way to know for certain that someone has AD is to examine a sample of their brain tissue after death," to determine if the tissue sample exhibits neurofibrillary tangles, "twisted fragments of protein within nerve cells that clog up the cell;" neuritic plaques, "abnormal clusters of dead and…… [Read More]
After 13 months, the rats begin to show signs of dementia including reduced cognitive ability and memory impairment (McGill University, 2010).
Amyloid B. immunotherapy
Past research on the effects of active or passive a? immunization on a? buildup and AD progression provided evidence that such immunization "protects against the progressive loss of synaptophysin in the hippocampal molecular layer and frontal neocortex of a transgenic mouse model of AD" (Buttini & al, 2005). This provided further support for the amyloid hypothesis.
Since the discovery of a? immunotherapy effectiveness in the treatment of AD in mice, the AN1792 a? vaccine was developed and tested on humans (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). Unfortunately, clinical trials were discontinued when around 6% of the subjects developed meningoencephalitis (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). However, since some subjects showed improvements in a? plaque clearance, several new a? immunotherapies have been developed and are currently undergoing…… [Read More]
Numerous studies have documented that shift workers (i.e. those who regularly rotate work shifts from one schedule to another) suffer much higher incidence of many medical problems; likewise, the third shift is widely considered to be the most dangerous in terms of workplace accidents and industrial injuries (Lamond, Dorrian, oach, et al., 2003).
esearchers have determined that there are several specific causes of the negative consequences associated with shift work, some of which are functions of circadian rhythm disruption while others are directly related to other factors, such as the quality and quantity of daytime sleep (Pauley, 2004). In most biological organisms, there is a complex circadian rhythm mechanism that is not yet understood precisely. In principle, that mechanism coordinates various biological processes, such as the secretion of various hormones, during sleep. According to evolutionary biologists, circadian rhythms evolved as means of adaptation to the natural 24-hour cycle of light…… [Read More]
Alzheimer's disease has developed into a major health concern for the elderly population throughout the world. This degenerative brain disorder was first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1907. Today Alzheimer's is one of the most prevalent forms of brain disorders contributing to as much as 50 to 70% of all reported cases of dementia. Over the years the study of early onset Alzheimer's disease (pre-senile AD) has kind of overshadowed the study of late onset Alzheimer in elderly group. However the disease statistics indicate an increasing susceptibility of the older population. Approximately 5% of the population above 65 years of age and around 20% of the people above 85 years of age are affected by Alzheimer's disease. Hence what was previously ignored as an inevitable old age symptom (senile dementia) is now being properly recognized as an illness. This new perspective of AD has resulted in a drastically altered understanding…… [Read More]
Alzheimer Healthy Community
PLANNED, PERSONALIZED CARE
Alzheimer's Healthy Community
Dog-Assisted Therapy for Older People with Dementia
A review of nine studies on the subject produced loose conclusions on the value of this type of therapy (Perkins et al., 2008). They, however, established a trend, indicating increased social behavior and decreased agitation when dogs were in the company of the respondents. This improvement in social behavior was unrelated with the severity of the respondents' dementia. Six of the 9 studies were conducted in the U.S.A., 2 in Japan and 1 in Australia on 28 respondents, all with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or dementia (Perkins et al.).
The behavioral and psychological symptoms of this ailment not only cause the afflicted individuals much pain but also put them at risk of physical harm (Perkins et al., 2008). Animal-assisted therapy, on the other hand, has shown positive effects over pro-social behavior and the…… [Read More]
In stage five, the affected person will begin to experience "major gaps in memory and deficits in cognitive function" and may require some type of assistance with "day-to-day activities like preparing meals, taking a bath or putting on clothing. The affected person will also lack the ability to recall very simple, ordinary things like his/her address, telephone number or even the name of his/her spouse or close friend and will be unable to recall where they are in a physical setting, such as in a shopping mall or even their own home, and will not be able to recall what day of the week it is or the exact date (2009, "The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's," Internet).
In stage six, the affected person will experience severe cognitive decline in the form of a change in his/her personality and will not be able to "recollect their personal history, such as where…… [Read More]
Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients
The objective of this study is to construct a health promotion program for Alzheimer's Patients. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is "a form of dementia that interferes with a person's intellectual and social functioning." (NCPAD, 2012) One of the primary concerns for the individual with Alzheimer's is weight loss "due to eating problems such as poor-fitting dentures, problems in swallowing, and loss of appetite. Weight loss or loss of appetite may be caused by noise, odor, and/or conversation distractions while eating." (NCPAD, 2012) Caregivers are faced with many challenges in providing care for the Alzheimer's Patient. Findings in this study state that the primary components required for the health promotion program for the individual with Alzheimer's disease are those of: (1) nutrition; (2) physical activity; (3) mental activity; and (4) social activity and participation.
Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients
The objective of this study…… [Read More]
The disease first described and defined in 1906 by Alois Alzheimer and named after him in 1910 has led to tremendous breakthroughs in brain and neurological research, according to the Alzheimer’s Association (2018). Alzheimer, a German physician, analyzed the brains of patients with the characteristic symptoms of the disease including profound and debilitating memory loss, noticing “shrinkage,” as well as “abnormal deposits in and around nerve cells,” (Alzheimer’s Association, 2018, p. 1). Alzheimer also described the amyloid plaques now known to be linked to the symptoms of the disease, as well as neurofibrillary tangles (National Institute on Aging, 2018). Since Alzheimer’s early discoveries, subsequent researchers in psychiatry and neurobiology relied on increasingly sophisticated methods of studying the structure of the human brain.
Therefore, technology as well as human input has been instrumental in evolving research into the causes and treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to the development of…… [Read More]
Alzheimer's, on the other hand, directly affects brain cells, and if there is uncertainty, patients and their families should certainly ask for a second opinion.
The population most likely to suffer from the disease is the elderly, but this is not always the case. esearchers note, "Alzheimer's disease is not part of the normal aging process, although it affects predominantly elderly people. Whereas only 10% of those 65 years of age and older are affected by this disease, the percentage may be as high as 48% in those 85 years of age and older" (Handy, Turnbull, Edwards, & Lancaster, 1998, p. 1-2). In addition, there are more rare forms that strike patients in middle age. These researchers write about, "a rare form of Alzheimer's that strikes in middle age and is passed down to 50%, on average, of offspring" (Tanzi & Parson, 2000, p. xiii). This form of the disease…… [Read More]
Particularly important is his investigation of the way in which the news is delivered. He delivers video taped evidence of the shortcomings, particularly of physician language, when delivering the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. He makes a full critical assessment of these in order to arrive at practical advice that physicians can use to make a more effective and practically useful diagnosis.
The author's use of the literature is therefore well balanced with the rest of his work, including his own conclusions, critical assessments, and recommendations. The article itself is also well organized, with the reader always being fully aware of the author's purpose. The connections between and development of ideas are logical, right to the end of the article. Furthermore, the author makes very important recommendations, and provides a full assessment of the shortcomings of current research and the need for further research.
The only criticism might be against the…… [Read More]
Health Care Delivery Structure
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive brain disease and the most prevalent root cause of dementia. In the present day, more than five million people living in America are suffering from Alzheimer's disease. It is the 6th prominent cause of death in the United States and is the 5th causal factor of death for individuals older than the age of 65 years old. It is estimated that the number of individuals suffering from this disease might even triple up by mid of the century with this number being expected to rise to one million for the U.S. (Illinois Department of Public Health, 2014). Despite the fact that plenty of the states in America were engrossed and pensive with issues of budgeting in the past four years, state policymakers have went on to develop and offer refinement to regulations on assisted living or residential care for Alzheimer and…… [Read More]
Adult Daycare for Patients with Alzheimer's Disease
Barriers to Daycare Utilization:
Fortinsky, Richard H., Kulldorff, Martin, Kleppinger, Alison, and Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa. (2009). Dementia care consultation for family caregivers: ollaborative model linking an Alzheimer's association chapter with primary care physicians. Aging & Mental Health, 13(2), 162-170.
The study by Fortinsky et al. (2009) discusses some of the obstacles standing between family caregivers and the admission of their patients to daycare nursing communities. The purpose of the research is to evaluate strategies that might improve the willingness of family caregivers to work with these community services. In a consultation with 84 family caregivers, the study aims to determine what strategies might raise confidence in the capabilities of such services. Additionally, the study seeks to evaluate the responses of primary caregivers to the outcomes produced by this type of intervention. A third objective of the study would be to determine how successfully…… [Read More]
Huntington's disease, also known as HD, is an uncommon degenerative disorder that greatly impacts the central nervous system of the individual. It is often characterized by surplus and unneeded choreatic movements, unusual behavioral patterns, disturbances in the mental level and dementia. (Sheth 2013) As far as the Caucasian population is concerned, the Huntington's disease is prevalent in one out of ten thousand persons. The symptoms start to appear when the individual is thirty to fifty years of age. In a few cases, adolescents start to show symptoms of HD (known as JHD or Juvenile Huntington's disease) before the age of twenty by demonstrating behavioral disorders and learning difficulties at school. However, chorea is the major sign of the onset of HD that spreads to all muscles with the passage of time. The affected individual becomes severely retarded as the psychomotor processes are affected gradually. he/she also suffers decline of cognitive…… [Read More]
A Brief Description of Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder that occurs in middle-age to older adults. The disorder has a mean beginning of about 55 years of age. The incidence of Parkinson's disorder increases with age. PD affects about 0.15% percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). PD was first described in 1817 by James Parkinson's "Essay on the Shaking Palsy."
In 95% of PD cases diagnoses there is no genetic association (no one in the family has it) and these cases are designated as sporadic PD. In the small number of remaining cases the disorder is inherited (Dauer & Przedborski, 2003). A condition known as secondary Parkinsonism that resembles the physical presentation of PD can be brought on by a number of drugs or other conditions such as dopamine antagonist medications, hypoxia, and from brain tumors (APA, 2000).
The Cause…… [Read More]
HD is extremely debilitating, and if the patient lives long enough, the symptoms can become extremely severe. It is not uncommon for patients who suffer from the disease to suffer extreme depression and sometimes suicide, so developing medications that could delay or slow the disease are extremely important, and laboratory testing should definitely continue in this area.
Laboratory work in the past decades has helped develop a much deeper understanding of the disease. A group of writers note, "Within the last 4 decades, great strides have been made that have furthered our understanding of the neural bases of HD" (Montoya, Price, Menear and Lepage 2006). This is also extremely important in the understanding and eventual eradication of the disease.
All of these results are extremely positive for families who know they suffer from the disease, and for hopefully preventing the disease in the future. Without laboratory testing and research, many…… [Read More]
" (Fleming et al., 1994)
B. Genetic Factors
hile environmental factors are shown to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease there are also specific mutations linked to the development of PD in certain populations. For example it is reported that a study conducted on Parkinson's Disease and hereditary genetic risks of developing this disease states findings that researchers in the study "...found that ethnic Chinese individuals carrying a mutation they indentified in the LRRK2 gene are over two times more likely to develop the disease than non-carriers." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004) the study was conducted at Mayo Clinic in 2004. The research team not only discovered the LRRK2 gene and the role it plays in Parkinson's disease but as well discovered "...a number of mutations in LRRK2 a gene that codes for poorly understood protein, leucine-rich repeat kinase." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004)
One of the mutations 'G209S…… [Read More]
Longitudinal trajectories for individual participants were used at one level, while a second level included the effects of between-subjects predictors at the higher order. To construct the models, 4,193 observations were used over time, with 3,055 of these conducted ruing community caregiving and 1,148 in the nursing home.
Presentation of Data
Data are presented by means of two figures and three tables. The data appear to be very clearly explicated. The axes in the figures are all clearly marked, and the lines differentiated to indicate the data of concern. The tables clarify the information narrated in the document.
Limitations of Statistical Methods
Limitations include the lack of ethnic diversity in the sample population. Different cultures would respond differently to the burden of care and to counseling intervention. Furthermore, only spouse caregivers were targeted for the research, which limits the application of the data to households where children or other family…… [Read More]
A driver came to the house and picked Robert up five days a week at 7:30 and brought him home at around 4:00 P.M. The couple received a grant from United ay to fund the service they received from the Respite Center, which cost around $200 per week. The Respite Center had well-thought-out activities designed for seniors with dementia and Alzheimer's, and those activities "helped slow down his Alzheimer's" (Claunch). Those activities include arts and crafts, chair aerobics, games, socializing, breakfast, lunch and a snack, Claunch explains. On many days a special visitor or group comes to entertain the seniors; among those groups are the Gulf Coast omen's Club, the Garden Club, PAS Ministry, gospel groups, line dancers, pianists and sing-along singers.
hen an Alzheimer's patient is stimulated (by being entertained, walking, or engaging in a game of some kind that challenges the mind but does in minimally) the nerve…… [Read More]
Social Work Internship Experience With Alzheimer Patients
My service learning experience was a positive one. I had the opportunity to work at an Alzheimer's care facility, with patients exhibiting various stages of Alzheimer's disease. I learned through my interactions with older adults at the clinic that much like anyone else, Alzheimer's patients need stimulation, warmth, compassion and an environment that encourages interaction and relationship building.
My views of older adults have changed significantly since working with patients at the care center. Whereas in the past I might have assumed that all older adults were mentally less cognizant of their emotions and feelings and 'numb' to the world around them, I learned instead that many have a great compassion for caring, and many desire simply to enjoy much of the same things than anyone else would at their age. My experiences are described in greater detail below.
Summary of Experiences
My…… [Read More]
Functional Assessment eport
Summarization of Case
Luther, 80 years of age, was admitted to a nursing hospital due to Alzheimer's disease complications. As a farmer, Luther spent most of his life moving freely unlike what he was experiencing in the nursing home. However, he had to adapt to the new life. Despite his impairment memory problem, Luther was psychically fit as he managed to walk around the nursing premises. Later, he started experienced a problem in that he walked alone. For safety reasons, he was not allowed to go outside alone. Despite the warnings, he managed to walk go outside alone, even during cold periods without a coat. Each time he went out, the nursing staff had to bring him back. The architecture of the nursing home depicts one main door at the station, another one near the business office, and three fire doors at the sides and back of…… [Read More]
Depression, Disease, And Aging
Aging brings many changes in health, social relationships, work situation, and other dimensions of life, and old age has been examined as one aspect of life development, showing how earlier stages contribute to the coping mechanisms older people have and how they apply these to new situations. A number of the changes accompanying old age can create stress and depression, and in turn these psychological states can contribute to the onset of disease or to the course disease takes. Studies have also shown that untreated depression can contribute to a higher suicide rate for the elderly.
How the elderly person is affected may depend on his or her closest relationship. The aging process for many includes physical or mental deterioration which can place considerable strain on the life partner, who now has to contend not only with his or her own diminished function because of aging…… [Read More]
Huntington's disease (HD) was the first autonomic dominant disorder for which genetic prediction became possible" (Harper, et al., 2000, Journal of Medical Genetics, p. 567). HD is a disease that occurs due to an inherited disorder leading to the death of brain cells. A diagnosis of HD is accomplished through genetic testing which can be implemented at any age regardless of whether the symptoms manifest or not. Although, the specific symptoms vary between people, nevertheless, symptoms can start with people between 35 and 45 years of age and can also start in some individuals at even anearlier age. The disease may affect successive generations if health interventions are not implemented (Mandel, 2016).
Additionally, "the cause of HD is due to a dominant mutation of autosomal form of the gene called Huntington. This shows that a child born by an affected person has a 50% chance of developing or inheriting the…… [Read More]
As people age, there are three main types of cognitive changes that can impair or alter cognitive functioning: mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. All of these syndromes are more severe than the normal decline that is expected with aging, though they do not all reach the severity of dementia. Dementia refers to the "the loss of cognitive functioning- thinking, remembering, and reasoning- and behavior abilities, to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities" (NIH, 2013). While there are some similarities between these three conditions, there are also significant differences between the three syndromes. These differences can impact treatment options and also help predict impact on the patient and the family.
MCI is an intermediate stage, which features a more significant cognitive decline than that expected with normal aging, but is not as severe as full-blown dementia. "It can involve problems…… [Read More]
Mr. H case study
What is the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
Mr. H has shown a sharp decline in cognitive functioning. He has quit his job without warning and without consulting with his spouse (who is economically as well as emotionally affected by this decision), has shown difficulty remembering basic tasks and words that a man of his education and background should be able to retrieve easily, and is exhibiting signs of disorientation. Despite being an accomplished outdoorsman he has gotten lost while hiking; has difficulty reading; and although he was a science teacher has difficulty doing basic math. He also has trouble performing basic acts of self-care and memory exercises.
Q2. What else do you feel you need to know (or, what might be some areas you may ask about in order to determine what…… [Read More]
Stem Cell Differentiation
The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…… [Read More]
Proteinaceous Infectious Particles"
Recent cases of Mad Cow Disease have focused the public attention on prion diseases and the small proteins that are believed to cause them. The scientific community has been slow to recognize this mechanism of disease, since prion-caused encephalopathies can demonstrate diverse symptoms, and share characteristics with other disorders, such as dementia.
Prions, as the acronym (Proteinaceous Infectious Particles) suggests, are small proteins that are typically expressed in brain tissue, and may exist in a normal or abnormal shape. The prion protein is encoded by a gene found on the human chromosome 20. Usually, the prion protein is translated in neural tissue, folds into its normal conformation, carries out its cellular role, and is eventually degraded by enzymes. The abnormal prion, however, folds differently from its normal counterpart. This different shape makes it more difficult to degrade, and leads to the brain damage that is seen…… [Read More]
Another hypothesis that has just began to be explored by the academic community is the possibility that flavonoids may alter growth factor signaling, thus limiting the ability of the cell to initiate rapid growth 8). Study into this area are just beginning to emerge and more information will be available in the next several years.
Potential Health Benefits
The key to solving the riddle of why persons that consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables can expect to have certain health benefits depends on the ability to understand the mechanisms at play. Let us first examine current hypothesis regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for the anti-carcinogenic effects of flavonoids. Research into the mechanisms by which certain flavonoids demonstrate anti-carcinogenic effects can be grouped into five categories. Currently these studies are at the in vitro stage, with a few animal studies in the present group. Therefore, it is not known…… [Read More]
As per Dr. Sacks, Alzheimer patients take advantage from listening to the familiar music. The music entails them memory stimulus, restoring the accessibility to personal history. It is said to have motivated the powers of speech and the thought process. However, his entire emotional as well as intellectual configuration, his life history, his identity, is greatly influenced by the music. The study of psycho-neuroimmunology narrates the influence of neuropeptides on human emotions. The beta-endorphins appear to be released and the body is permitted to perform its own healing work on physiological level, while the person is in a relaxed condition. The music therapy attempts to bring such state which is revealed to be 'audio analgesisa'. (Music Heals: Music for Healing and Transition)
5. What facilities practice this form of therapy and where and is it becoming more and more popular?
The Kaiser-Permanente Medical Center in Los Angeles was regarded to…… [Read More]
Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process
The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.
Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…… [Read More]
Genetic counseling involves the sharing vital information and knowledge by experienced and well trained experts in the field of genetics for individuals with high risks of suffering some genetic disorders or transferring it to their children. It is the responsibility of a genetic counselor to provide relevant information concerning the hereditary nature of certain diseases and their risks of reoccurrence; addresses the concerns of patients, their health care providers and their families; and lends assistance to both the patients suffering these hereditary ailments and their families.
The first genetic counseling center was the Hereditary Clinic established at the University of Michigan in the United States in 1940. Since then, several such centers have been established in different parts of the world.
Through genetic counseling, information is made available to give the needed support to people who are dealing with any genetic disorder or at risk of developing one. When dealing…… [Read More]
Cognitive Disorder in Elderly
Cognitive Disorders in Elderly
Cognitive Assessment & Lab
Kris Thomas, PhD
The research of this study is related to cognitive, dementia, Alzheimer disease, and depression issues with the elderly populations of the United States and in the world in general. Societies with a large number of elderly people such as the U.S.A. are increasingly focusing their efforts on improving the life standards of these people based on the types of services given to them. The well-being of those on palliative and hospice care is as important as the well-being of the family members of these patients. Although many health issues present themselves during the elder years of any patient, there is a lot of attention paid to cognitive and mood issues in this age group. The disorders and maladies that are relevant to this population include, among others, depression, dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI)…… [Read More]
medication for patient named KM is Prothiaden. Prothiaden is used to treat depression as well as limit the feelings of anxiety in those taking it. The case file indicates a normal MI and no previous diagnosis of neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. Patient KM has complained of depression and anxiety related to the passing of her mother. Progressive functional and cognitive decline has presented ever since mother died four years ago.
Although the patient worked until the age of 60 as an accountant, within the last 18 months patient has experienced fluctuations in mood, confusion, mild word finding difficulties and spatial disorientation. She also has visual hallucinations and violent dreams. She experienced recent falls and a slowing of motor skills. These symptoms extend to the inability to carry out motor sequences with either hand or double alternating hand movements. Although she can detect shapes well, she has poor ability in…… [Read More]
It often means interventions opening the doors of our lives to strangers, healthcare providers, whose job it is to assist the elderly in achieving and maintaining the highest quality of life possible until the individual crosses from this existence into the mystery of the next one.
Some of the physical conditions that are associated with aging are Alzheimers disease, which while associated with aging can manifest onset well before what many people might view as 'elderly." It is perhaps because it afflicts people at earlier ages that Alzheimers is one of the physical problems associated with aging that receives a lot of attention, and, therefore, more funding than some others areas of health problems associated with aging. Alzheimers is often diagnosed as dementia, an irreversible or reversible condition depending on the specific cause. It is, however, difficult to diagnose and treat because it has numerous potential causes, all of which…… [Read More]
Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly -- ACTIVE) was a randomized controlled, single-blind trial; the group design was with four groups, which included " ... 3 treatment groups and a control group" (illis, et al., 2006).
Participant selection: the researchers had recruited 2,832 elder persons (who lived independently, not in nursing homes, for example) that averaged 73.6 years of age; the researchers located the participants from community centers, senior housing, clinics and hospitals in 6 American cities (Birmingham; Detroit; Indianapolis; State College, PA; Boston; and Baltimore). These individuals were originally recruited in April 1998 and there was a follow-up in December 2004; 67% of the original sample participated in 2004.
Assignment to groups: those who were disqualified from the study included: younger than 65; or had serious cognitive decline; had other "substantial impairments"; had Alzheimer disease; were near death or in serious decline; nearly blind, nearly deaf or had…… [Read More]
Alzheimer’s Intervention Evaluation
This paper provides a basic evaluation plan for evaluating a health program for elderly patients with Alzheimer’s. The health program focuses on designing and implementing an open space concept for the patient, having a social worker regularly meet with the patient and loved one or caretakers to ensure support, having family therapy sessions available for loved ones acting as caretakers if they should want it and providing a falls prevention initiative through training in an exercise routine to strengthen the balance and agility of the elderly person—all of which are considered vital aspects to improving the health status of an elderly person with Alzheimer’s (Canning et al., 2015; Hoof, Kort, Van Warde & Blom, 2010; Rubin, 2011). The overall question an intervention evaluation asks is: Was the intervention implemented as planned? (Harris, 2010). The purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluation plan for the…… [Read More]
He would sometimes be wheel chaired to the door through which he would enter to make a public appearance, but once at the door, his leg braces would be put on him, and he would rely on his son's arm for support and balance (43-48). Later, with his son's support, he was able to use a cane, and the extent of his disability was successfully downplayed by the force of his political platform and the attention he commanded with powerful words and the presentation of himself in a dignified way with strong posture (43-48).
"Deeply concerned that the image of a 'permanently crippled man' seeking to lead a crippled nation out of the Depression would be damaging to his campaign, oosevelt's aides every effort to portray the Democratic nominee as a man who had conquered polio and who could walk. As he traveled across the country, his leg braces, without…… [Read More]
Critical Pathway: Chronic enal Failure
egents Online Degree Program
Critical Pathway: Chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure is often occasioned by chronic kidney disease, immune disorder, trauma among other conditions. It does not have any specific symptoms and might include feeling unwell generally and experiencing a reduced appetite. It is diagnosed following screening of individuals who are identified to be at risk of kidney problems, like individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure and others who have blood relative with chronic kidney disease. It always seems complex when trying to come up with the right diagnosis for a patient.
M.A. is a 60-year-old man who has a stage V chronic kidney disease mainly as a result of diabetic nephropathy and a 12-year of type 2 diabetes. He has symptomatic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and 3 years ago he had undergone coronary artery bypass 3. Within the ten months that…… [Read More]
National Institute of Nursing esearch (NIN)
History of the organization
The National Institute of Nursing esearch is a body mandated with the principal responsibility of carrying out research that relates to the nursing and medical field in general. The institution dedicates its effort to improving the health and health care of Americans through funding of nursing research and research training. The involvement of the federal government led to the formation of the research institute as early as 1946. The federal government established a division of nursing within the office of the Surgeon General, Public Health Service. The NIN commenced its activities in 1955 when the institute established a Nursing esearch Study section, which was within the Division of esearch Grants. The purpose of this Study Section was to conduct a scientific review of the growing volume of applications in the nursing sector.
In 1960, a consolidation of the public health…… [Read More]
" Her close attention to statutory detail (she once offered an amendment to a bill in order to insert an important missing comma) and complete mastery of facts is especially notable in light of her future judicial methodology. Anxious to return to law in 1974, O'Connor won a seat as a trial judge on the Maricopa Superior Court....In 1980 Babbit, who had been elected governor, appointed O'Connor to the Arizona Court of Appeals (an intermediate appellate court). (Friedman & Israel, 1997, p. 1761)
It is stated that when she was faced with particularly hard cases, she chose to seek out the most extreme views on each side and then find the moderate stand in the middle with the most logical demonstration of resolution. O'Connor is also said to have held that her nomination to the Supreme Court was "a classic example of being the right person in the right spot…… [Read More]
opportunity to work at a nursing home, offering my support during physical, occupational, and speech therapy sessions. These sessions offered insight into diverse types of therapy. I worked with a range of different health care workers and specialists, lending insight into how each member of the health care team coordinates their efforts and communicates with each other as well as with patients and family. One of the types of therapy sessions that I supported at the nursing home was therapy with animals. We brought in several animals to assist with therapy, including dogs, cats, and exotic creatures. Therapy Dogs International (n.d.) provided the animals and sometimes the trainer.
The seniors responded well to these therapy sessions, and I intend to support such programs in the future by perhaps providing fund raising for organizations that offer animal therapy. I am also interested more in music and art therapy after performing and…… [Read More]
Aging in the Bucket List and Cocoon
Aging and its natural consequence -- death -- are subjects that raise diverse emotions among persons involved in these processes. Some embrace these pivotal moments in life, some attempt to avoid them. The two films The Bucket List and Cocoon give examples of how different people deal with the issue of aging and death. This paper will examine these films from the perspective of the characters' physical and mental health, their family and social issues, their economic status and social service usage, and cultural diversity issues.
The Bucket List is a 2007 comedy-drama about two strangers who meet in a hospital: Carter is an African-American blue-collar worker, a family man and an amateur historian but a mechanic by trade; Edward is a white, billionaire health care tycoon, who is estranged from his daughter. Forced to share a room in the hospital, the two…… [Read More]
Environmental Interventions for Patients With Dementia
Dementia is a neurocognitive disorder that has been treated in various ways throughout all history. The modern era has proposed pharmacological interventions in the past but these have proved dangerous and degrading to the quality of life that dementia patients and their loved ones prefer. For this reason, environmental interventions have emerged as an alternative method for treating elderly dementia patients. This intervention method consists of altering the environment in which the patient lives by accommodating for the needs of the patient with clearly identifiable pathways, open spaces for communication, naturalistic settings, adequate stimuli and private rooms for quiet. This paper discusses the fundamental principles of environmental interventions for patients with dementia and includes a justification for this approach as a suitable alternative to prevailing psychoactive drug interventions. It also includes a discussion of the historical context of the disorder, its current description according…… [Read More]
Brain training with non-action video games and its effects on brain health among the elderly showing early signs of dementia
Past researches have revealed the potential contribution of video game-playing to the improvement of certain cognitive functions among healthy aged individuals (Lampit, Hallock & Valenzuela, 2014; Jak, Seelye & Jurick, 2013). Drawn by the above results reached by scholars in the field, game-making firms have developed and released several kinds of games aimed at brain training (for instance, Brain Age, Brain Challenge and Big Brain Academy). Ever since their earliest releases into the gaming market, games of this sort have enjoyed immense popularity worldwide (Toril, Reales & Ballesteros, 2014; Nouchi et al., 2013). Among the anticipated advantages of such games is improved cognitive functions (for instance, recall, processing pace, executive function, and concentration), indicated often using the term 'transfer effect'.
This research project specifically aims at examining the…… [Read More]
Mental therapy using non-intense video games and how it affects brain health among the aged population showing early symptoms of dementia.
The deterioration of cognitive abilities and brain tissue due to age could have several adverse effects on mental systems and could even lead to dementia. Thus, researchers are trying to discover methods which could help keep brain function, independence, health and cognition among aged people in its best shape. Usually, with age, the white and gray matter of the brain shrivels with this action seen more in its prefrontal cortex than other regions. Other affected brain parts are the cerebellum, the prefrontal cortex on the side as well as the central temporal lobe structure which includes the hippocampus. Despite this, the occipital cortices and the entorhinal do not experience any form of shrinkage (Ballesteros et al., 2015). Common symptoms of this shrinkage include reduced memory strength, lower mental processing…… [Read More]
Sundowning Syndrome: Etiology and Treatment
An escalation in disruptive behaviors in the late afternoon and early evening among institutionalized patients suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease has been a recognized phenomenon for over 60 years (Bachman & Rabins, 2006). The timing of the onset of disruptive behaviors has led to calling this phenomenon sundowning, sundowning syndrome, and nocturnal delirium. Symptoms traditionally associated with sundowning include increased motor activity, confusion, yelling, aggression, wandering, agitation, and anxiety (Scarmeas et al., 2007). In spite of this long history, and a general consensus among clinicians and medical textbooks that sundowning is real, there is still a substantial amount of controversy among researchers whether it's more illusion than fact.
The controversy is due in part to the lack of a consensus definition for sundowning. Cohen-Mansfield (2007) cites three different definitions in order to highlight this lack of consensus: (1) "a syndrome of recurring confusion and…… [Read More]
Alternatively, degeneration of the ascending cholinergic and catechola- minergic neuronal systems may contribute, at least in part, to the occurrence of this frontal-lobe-like symptomatology associated with Parkinson's disease. (Dubois & Pillon, 1996, pp.2-8)
The development of a greater understanding, over time of the causal factors as well as the manifestations and possible interventions for cognitive function in Parkinson's disease has continued since this time. Greater functional understanding of neurotransmitters and receptors as well as brain function in general have also significantly aided in the treatment Parkinson's Disease. esearch has even led to the conclusion that standards dopamine (pharmacological) treatments while they improve some cognitive function (switching between two tasks "thought to depend on circuitry connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex to the dorsal caudate nucleus) might impair others that are usually spared by PD (probabilistic reversal learning, which; "implicates orbitofrontal cortex -- ventral striatal circuitry." involvement)…… [Read More]
The exchange of the defective gene could be brought about by a process called homologous recombination. One of the first gene therapy experiments, though well intentioned, caused the death of the patient. esearchers at the University of Pennsylvania introduced a normal gene into a boy's body by using the rhino virus as a carrier. The body's immune system attacked this as a pathogen. This led to eventual organ failure and death. Gene therapy projects all over the world were largely abandoned. But more recently, gene therapy is beginning to make a comeback. (ONL, 2009)
Gene therapy has been tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is not a treatment that targets amyloid beta proteins or the tangles, but protects the brain cells from destruction. The regenerative properties of skin cells (stem cells) have been used to prevent the brain cells from "withering" away. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans reveal…… [Read More]
4. What is the advantage of a "patch"?
Evidently, the drug rivastigmine causes gastrointestinal side effects, but the patch allows only a small amount to be steadily absorbed into the bloodstream and thus creates fewer negative reactions to the drug. The Novartis website makes the case for a patch over a pill by saying "On average, an older American takes 5 prescription medicines. These medicines may need to be taken at different times and managing them all may seem overwhelming" (Novartis, para. 1). In this case, a patch eliminates having to remember several doses each day of one of the medications.
5. What is "moderate" dementia? What is dementia?
Dementia affects brain function. There is no known cure for dementia. It refers to several illnesses (Alzheimer's disease, Lewy or DLB) involving behavior, memory, communication and learning problems. There are other conditions in the brain which damage nerves or blood…… [Read More]
Organ transplant recipients are more susceptible to cancer due to oncogenic viral infections and immunosuppression. What is the overall pattern of cancer following an organ transplantation?
Cancer is a major adverse outcome of solid organ transplantation.2 Previous studies have demonstrated an overall 2- to 4-fold elevated risk of cancer.3- 11 Excess risk is largely due to immunosuppression, with a spectrum of cancer resembling that seen with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, another immunosuppressing condition.11 isks are especially high for malignancies caused by viral infections, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma (both due to Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]), Kaposi sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8), anogenital cancers (human papillomavirus), and liver cancer (hepatitis C and B viruses). Certain other malignancies such as cancers of the lung, kidney, skin, and thyroid also are increased in transplant recipients. Linkage of population-based transplant and cancer registries from the same geographic region can allow for systematic ascertainment of…… [Read More]
Neurotransmitters are chemicals endogenously produced in the body for the purpose of sending stimulus across from one neuron to the other through the synapse. Neurotransmitters, packaged in synaptic vessels, are clustered beneath the inner membrane of the axon terminal of the presynaptic membrane. The neurotransmitters upon stimulus are released into the synaptic cleft where they diffuse and attach to their particular receptors on the post synaptic membrane. The flow of action potential is the main stimulus to the release of the neurotransmitters. The main function of the neurotransmitters is to excite or inhibit certain kinds of receptors. Thereby the behavioral effect of the neurotransmitters depends on the kinds of receptors on the post synapse. Noradrenaline, an important neurotransmitter is involved in arousal and dopamine controls motor movements and cognition (Webster, 2001, p. 55).
Synapse consists of dendrites of one neuron and terminus of the other neuron. No physical connection is…… [Read More]