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Examining the potential use of beta secretase enzymes in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease
Examining the potential use of beta secretase enzymes in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease
Efforts to develop a drug for Alzheimer's disease, which mostly affect people in older age, have not been successful. Instead, most of the treatments offered often target the behavioral symptoms of the affected individual, but not the cause of the disease. The occurrence of the disease has largely been related to amyloid plaques in the brains of the affected individuals. The plaques are composed of amyloid-beta peptides with beta secretase as the enzyme facilitating the generation of amyloid beta. The successful development of a drug for the management of this disease often targets the BACE1, which lowers amyloid beta production and eventual prevention and a possible treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study provides an account of various clinical trials on…
Cole S. L & Vassar, R. (2007). The Alzheimer's disease ?-secretase enzyme, BACE1. Molecular
Neurodegeneration 2007, 2:22 doi:10.1186/1750-1326-2-22
Dominguez D, et al. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses of BACE1- and BACE2-
deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30797 -- 30806
Some treatments may actually help with the disease.
Diets and dietary supplements
Eating vegetables like broccoli and spinach may help older women [and probably men] retain some memory abilities later on, while avoiding obesity in middle age lowers the risk of later Alzheimer's disease in both sexes, new studies suggest." The effect of the vegetables probably comes from the antioxidants and B. vitamins they contain (itter, 2004).
Herbal remedies and other dietary supplements are often promoted as effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease and related diseases. Claims about the safety and effectiveness of these products, however, are based largely on testimonials, tradition, and only a small body of scientific research. The rigorous scientific research required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is not required by law for the marketing of dietary supplements (Imperial, 1998).
Some of these dietary supplements are Coenzyme Q10 or ubiquinone, an antioxidant that occurs naturally in…
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More is learned every day in the field of medicine and nursing, and articles such as this one serve to point out that there is much more that needs to be learned. Serving the elderly population with Alzheimer's disease and treating them for their problems is often quite difficult, but the information in the article regarding what behaviors to look for in individuals that cannot express their pain verbally is very important for many that work in nursing homes, and for others that work with elderly Alzheimer's disease patients.
The article also helps to reinforce existing knowledge in that the instruments that are used to report pain in the elderly population have been seen for some time to be largely insufficient for many patients. For those that still communicate relatively well, this is not so much of a problem, but for patients that cannot verbally and correctly express where they…
Alzheimer's Foundation of America. (2008). http://www.alzfdn.org
Bally, K., Campbell, D., Chesnick, K., & Tranmer, J.E. (2003). Effects of patient-controlled music therapy during coronary angiography. Critical Care Nurse, 23(2): 50-58.
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Johnson, J.E. (2003). The use of music to promote sleep in older women. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 20(1): 27-35.
Scientists are racing to find a cure as millions of people reach the age when Alzheimer's is most commonly manifested (Plontz).
Experts are still trying to fully understand the cause or causes of Alzheimer's disease. In the meantime, it's helpful to understand the hallmarks of Alzheimer's -- plaques and tangles -- and the risk factors that affect a person's likelihood of developing the disease (Hill).
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a build-up of proteins in the brain. Though this cannot be measured in a living person, extensive autopsy studies have revealed this phenomenon. The build-up manifests in two ways: Plaques -- deposits of the protein accumulate in the spaces between nerve cells. Tangles -- deposits of the protein that accumulate inside of nerve cells.
Scientists are still studying how plaques and tangles are related to Alzheimer's disease. One theory is that they block nerve cells' ability to communicate with each…
Hill, Carrie. "What Causes Alzheimer's Disease?" 4 Mar 2009. about.com. 5 May 2009 .
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Stages of Alzheimer's and Activities for people with Dementia
Stages and Symptoms of Alzheimer's
Alzheimer's Stage 1: No Cognitive Impairment
Alzheimer's Stage 2: Very Mild Cognitive Decline
Alzheimer's Stage 3: Mild Cognitive Decline
Alzheimer's Stage 4: Moderate Cognitive Decline
Alzheimer's Stage 5: Moderately Severe Cognitive Decline
Alzheimer's Stage 6: Severe Cognitive Decline
Alzheimer's Stage 7: Very Severe Cognitive Decline
Activities for people suffering from Dementia
The Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, degenerative disease which affects the brain and leads to impaired thinking and memory processes. It is the most common kind of dementia. Dementia is a syndrome that involves symptoms like loss of memory and judgment, failure to reason and extreme changes in moods, behavior and communication ability.
This disease was first recognized by Dr. Alois Alzheimer back in 1906. He identified this disease by describing two hallmarks of the disease. Firstly, there were the "plaques" which refer…
Ballard C, Neill D. Anxiety, Depression and Psychosis in vascular dementia: prevalence and associations, 2000.
Hancock GA, Challis. The needs of older people with dementia in residential care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2005.
Hill, Carrie. Alzheimer's symptoms. 2010. Web.
In fact, many researchers believed that free radicals, produced when the body burns oxygen to produce energy consumed in food, may be at cause. Free radicals are believed to damage brain cells by taking electrons away from the body's healthy molecules to balance themselves. A few 'free radicals' is not a problem.
IF there are too many free radicals, the 'oxidative damage' affects the brain causing AD symptoms (Healing with Nutrition eb site).
Other risk factors
Odle (2003) notes that if a person has a first-degree relative (parent, sibling) with AD, that person's relative risk of getting it is about 3.5, or that person is 3.5 times more likely than the rest of us to develop AD. hen the number of first-degree relatives rises to two or more, the relative risk rises to about 7.5.
In addition, people with Down syndrome, who have an extra APP gene, which is located…
Alzheimers head injury risk." Australasian Business Intelligence, 2002, Unpaged. 25 ct. 2005 http://www.highbeam.com .
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most researched ailments in the world of medicine. This discussion will explore the working hypothesis that caloric restriction may prevent Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the paper will explore the idea that individuals with the ApoE genotype and a higher intake of calories have a higher risk of AD than those who do not carry the apoE4 allele (diet-gene interaction). Let's begin the discussion by examining the genetics of AD.
Genetics of AD - specifically the mechanism of apoE in AD
Alzheimer's Disease is a form of dementia that is marked by the loss of mental ability and various cognitive functions. The disease usually occurs in old age and is not detectable at birth. (Robinson) There is no consensus on the cause of AD but researchers have found a genetic link in the development of the disorder. The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine explains that…
Alzheimer Discourse: Some Sociolinguistic Dimensions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
Alzheimer's disease; Many voices, one message: research." The Washington Times 15 Nov. 2002: A23..
Cummings, Sherry M., and Clifford Cockerham. "Ethical dilemmas in discharge planning for patients with Alzheimer's disease." Health and Social Work 22.2 (1997): 101+. Questia. 12 Nov. 2003 http://www.questia.com/ .
Over the last several decades, Alzheimer's has become a major health issue affecting large segments of the population. Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that it impacts nearly 5.4 million Americans and it has total annual cost of $183 billion. ("2011 Alzheimer's Facts and Figures," 2011) This is significant, because it is illustrating how the overall scope and severity of the disease has been continually increasing. In the case of African-Americans, they are more likely to be susceptible to this condition. As this segment, is reporting 14% more cases in comparison to the rest of the population. ("African-Americans and Alzheimer's," 2011) To fully understand the disease and its lasting effects requires: examining the condition itself, the factors that make this segment of the population vulnerable, environmental issues that are impacting this demographic, the modes for transmission, the methods in controlling the spread of the disease…
10 Signs of Alzheimer's. (2011). Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_10_signs_of_alzheimers.asp
2011 Alzheimer's Facts and Figures. (2011). Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/downloads/Facts_Figures_2011.pdf
African-Americans and Alzheimer's. (2011). Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/national/documents/report_africanamericanssilentepidemic.pdf
What is Alzheimer's. (2011). Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp #basics
) Researcher believe that when Alzheimer's begins to attack, it hits the "factory" of cell groups that otherwise are functioning perfectly. There are breakdowns in the communications that the cell groups hitherto provided, and although scientists don't know precisely where the attack is first launched by Alzheimer's, but they do understand that "as the damage spreads, cells lose their ability to do their jobs and, eventually die, causing irreversible changes in the brain" (www.alz.org).
Prime "suspects" in that attack on the cell groups are "plaques and tangles," AA explains. Plaques are deposits of a certain protein called "betaamyloid" (pronounced "BAY-tuh AM-uh-loyd"); the protein fragments build up in the spaces between the nerve cells. Tangles are "twisted fibers" from a different protein called "tau" (that rhymes with "wow") that build up inside the nerve cells. It is known that all humans develop tangles and plaques to some degree, but those who…
Alzheimer's Association. (2010). Major Milestones in Alzheimer's Research. Retrieved Nov. 2,
2010 from http://www.alz.org/research/science/major_milestones_in_alzheimers.asp .
Alzheimer's Association. (2009). What is Alzheimer's? Retrieved Nov. 2, 2010, from http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp .
Callone, Patricia R. (2010). Alzheimer's Disease: The Dignity Within: A Handbook for Caregivers, Family, and Friends. Oregon: ReadHowYouWant.com.
S. will see average 44% increase in Alzheimer's disease by 2025.
Type of information: This fact sheet describes the potential for growth in cases of Alzheimer's disease in the first quarter of this century.
Specific Detail: 1. Southeastern and estern states will see the largest increases in Alzheimer's through 2025.
2. U.S. Census data notes that the number of Americans age 65 and over will double by 2025
3. Utah will see a 127% increase in Alzheimer's disease, Alaska hundred and 26% increase, the Colorado will see 124% increase.
4. Only the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island will not see an increase in Alzheimer's disease.
5. Close to 7.7 million people are estimated to have Alzheimer's disease by the year 2025.
Source Rating: 3. At dependable source for information on increases of Alzheimer's disease.
Source: Alzheimer's Association. Facts About Genes and Alzheimer's disease. 09 November 2004. http://www.alz.org/grtrcinc/aahatGeneticTesting.htm
Alzheimer's Association. ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE and RELATED DEMENTIAS FACT SHEET. 09 November 2004. http://www.alz.org/Resources/FactSheets/factrelateddisorder.pdf
Alzheimer's Association. Facts About Genes and Alzheimer's disease. 09 November 2004. http://www.alz.org/grtrcinc/aaWhatGeneticTesting.htm
Alzheimer's Association. Fact Sheet, 2004. Alzheimer's Disease growth: The U.S. will see average 44% increase in Alzheimer's disease by 2025.
Bennett, David a. Alzheimer's Early Stages: First Steps for Family, Friends, and Caregivers. Hunter House, 2003.
A. Harvard Women's Health Watch (2010) Preserving and improving memory as we age. Feb 1: NA
B. This is an article that is written directly to consumers who are over the age of 50 and are starting to notice changes in the ability to remember things. It addresses the fact that this wrongly causes fear in some people that they are prone toward Alzheimer's disease. Studies have shown that cognitive decline and the risk of dementia can be maintained with general health habits, such as staying physically active, getting enough sleep, not smoking, having good social connections, limiting alcohol to one drink a day, and eating a balanced diet low in saturated and trans fats. The article provides a number of different ways that people can improve their cognitive abilities, such as blocking: When someone is asked a question and the cannot immediately respond -- the answer is on the…
Ajamian, P.C. (2010) Keep Alzheimer's in mind; if optometrists could identify early Alzheimer's disease in just 1% of their patients, 500,000 people could be helped. Review of Optometry 147(2): 105-107
Bruce, L.A. (2010) Drugs for Alzheimer's Disease. MedSurg Nursing 19(1): 51-54
Doody, R.S., Paylik, V., Massman, P. et al. Predicting progression of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy 2:2
Harvard Women's Health Watch (2010) Preserving and improving memory as we age. Feb 1: NA
In light of the knowledge provided by these case studies, it is important to note certain flaws in the methodology of each cases study. The study in the case of midlife neuroticism, the researchers do not take into account pre- existing conditions such the brain structure and function associated with greater neuroticism. Failure to proper diagnosis might lead to early presentation of Alzheimer's disease in response to pathology. As for establishing a relationship between Alzheimer's disease and African-Americans, this case study provides great insight however the sample is not representative of that ethnic population. Next, studies also considered paralleling Alzheimer's disease with impaired awareness deficit and neuro-psychiatric symptoms in early Alzheimer's, researchers used a bias sample group in the sense that the participants in this study had also participated in psychosocial intervention this is clearly selection bias which renders the results of this study however great unreliable as for the…
At the current time, no clinical studies have been conducted that use a randomized sample and strict controls in relation to the use of statins to prevent and control Alzheimer's Disease. The proposed research intends to fill this important research gap and conduct a clinical study that compares the development of Alzheimer's Disease between patients that use statins and a group that does not use statins for a specified amount of time. These two groups will not be using statins for control of coronary artery disease, to eliminate any confounding variables that may be a result of CAD and Alzheimer's. Patients will be given statins for the sole purpose of preventing and/or controlling Alzheimer's disease.
The purpose of the proposed research is to provide reliable research that examines the potential for use of statins to control Alzheimer's Disease. The research will be conducted using strict clinical controls and…
Algotsson, a. & Winblad, B. (2004). Patients with Alzheimer's Disease May Be Particularly Susceptible to Adverse Effects of Statins. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 17: 109-116. PubMed.
Hoglund, K. & Blennow, K. (2007). Effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on ?-amyloid peptide levels: Implications for Alzheimer's disease. CNS drugs. 21 (6): 449-462. PubMed.
Jick, H., Zornberg, G., & Jick, S. et al. (2000). Statins and the risk of dementia
The Lancet. 356 (9242): 1627-1631 PubMed
Market Analysis of Alzheimer's Drug
Alzheimer is a disease that leads to the progressive and irreversible brain disorders, which destroy thinking skills and memory of the affected person. The disease also affects individual's ability to carry out certain tasks. The symptom of Alzheimer appears in most people at their mid-60s, and has been the common cause of dementia among people 60 years and older. Major symptoms of Alzheimer include memory loss, inability to comprehend simple language, and unpredictable problems. The symptoms occur in the affected person because there is a lack of connection in the neurons (nerve cells) of the brain. Since neurons transmit messages to the different part of the brains, organs, and muscles, the neuron of the affected persons many face challenges transmitting messages to the brains and organs. In the United States, FDA (Food Drug and Administration) has put different drugs for the clinical trials for the…
Alzheimer's Association (2016). 2016 Alzheimer's disease facts and figure. Alzheimer's & Dementia: 12(4): 459-509.
Alzheimer's Association (2015). 2015 Alzheimer's disease facts and figure. Alzheimer's & Dementia 11: 332-384.
Qui, C. Kivipelto, M. & Strauss, E.V. (2009). Epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease: occurrence, determinants, and strategies toward intervention. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 11(2): 111-128.
Reardon, S. (2015). Alzheimer antibody drugs show questionable potential. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery.
Alzheimer's Inpatient Facility
The main goal of this Alzheimer's inpatient facility is to provide a suitable alternative for outside care of patients suffering from the condition. Through this process, the facility will help caregivers and families to avoid the burdens associated with providing care for Alzheimer's patients, especially emotional stress and depression. The proposed project will specifically focus on obeson County in North Carolina, which has only one fully-equipped Alzheimer's unit that care for patients with this condition as well as dementia. In order for the proposed project to achieve its respective goals and objectives, the development of an effective operation plan and establishing effective management policies and practices is crucial.
The operation plan for this Alzheimer's Agency will incorporate daily operations, detailed description of the type of location for the facility, legal aspects for operation, handling customers, and personnel. With regards to the daily operations of the…
NC Division of Health Service Regulation. (2014, September 5). Establishing a Nursing Home. Retrieved from North Carolina's Division of Health Service website: http://www2.ncdhhs.gov/dhsr/nhlcs/flonh.htm
"Regulations and Guidelines for Special Care Units." (n.d.). Chapter 5. Retrieved from Princeton University website: https://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk1/1992/9234/923407.PDF
Wegerer, J. (2014, March 27). How to Find an Alzheimer's Care Manager. Retrieved November 20, 2015, from http://www.alzheimers.net/2014-03-27/alzheimers-care-manager/
The author of this report has been asked to lay out a "well-orchestrated" approach to treating someone that is living with Alzheimer's disease. As would be the case with many to most disorders, there are both lifestyle measures as well as pharmacological methods that could and should be used when it comes to the treatment of Alzheimer's. There is no cure for Alzheimer's. Even so, the medical field is progressing as it relates to treating the disorder, perhaps slowing it down, minimizing the nasty effects and perhaps someday curing it. hile a cure is not known right now, there are specific things that should be done for an Alzheimer's patient.
As indicated in the introduction, there are going to be two major aspects of giving relief to someone with Alzheimer's. There are the general care options and then there are the drug-related options. Also as noted in the…
Alz.org. (2016). For Sleep Changes -- Alzheimer's Association. Alz.org. Retrieved 20 June 2016, from http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_10429.asp
WedMD. (2016). Alzheimer's Disease: Overview & Facts. WebMD. Retrieved 20 June 2016, from http://www.webmd.com/alzheimers/ guide/alzheimers-disease-overview-facts
This brief report is a summary and review of the rather nasty degenerative brain disorder that is known as Alzheimer's. The disease has been known about for a decent amount of time but the overall progress come to when it comes to preventing or curing the disorder has become remained frustratingly slow. Even so, progress is indeed being made and more is now known about the disorder than was before. This report will explore the possible known causes of the disease, the symptoms, the treatments that current exist and the general prognosis for those that contract the disorder. While the disease eventually runs its course once contracted at this time, there does seem to be progress with staving it off and/or slowing it down.
Many people are familiar with the general disorder that has come to be known as dementia. Indeed, Alzheimer's is a form of dementia. In…
WebMD. (2016). Alzheimer's Health Center. WebMD. Retrieved 22 March 2016, from http://www.webmd.com/alzheimers/
WebMD. (2016). Alzheimer's Disease Stages. WebMD. Retrieved 22 March 2016, from
Alzheimer's disease is a brain disease that is irreversible and progressive which destroys memory and thinking skills slowly and eventually the ability of carrying out even the simplest tests.in most people with Alzheimer's, the symptoms first appear when one is over the age of 60 years. This is the most common cause of dementia among old people (Alzheimer's Association,2012).
Diagnosis of Alzheimer's in elderly adult
As we have seen, age is the greatest risk factor of Alzheimer's disease.it is estimated that one in every fourteen people who are above the age of 65 years and one in every six people who are over the age of 80 years has Alzheimer's disease. Another study shows that one in nine people who are 65 years and older which is estimated as 11% have Alzheimer's disease. The same study shows that a third of people who are over the age of…
Alzheimer's Association.(2012).Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures, Alzheimer's & Demential, Volume 8,Issue 2.Retrieved January 31,2013 from http://www.alz.org/downloads/facts_figures_2012.pdf
Big think Editors. (2010). Race, Gender and Alzheimer's disease. Retrieved January 31, 2013 from http://bigthink.com/ideas/race-gender-and-alzheimers-disease
Alzheimer's Society.(2014). What is Alzheimer's disease? Retrieved January 31, 2013 from http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?documentID=100
If a client is in the first or second stages of the disease they are often more able to participate. However, even in the third stages the client may benefit from the therapy though will often be more passive in that participation (Vail, 2000).
Experts in the field believe there is an added benefit to music therapy in Alzheimer's clients. In addition to the scientific brain changes that have been documented, experts believe music also helps to trigger happy memories for client's who otherwise may not have the ability to retrieve them (Play a Song, or Sing Along, for Alzheimer's (http://www.alzinfo.org/news/NewsArticle2-9-2006-11-55-AM.aspx).
emembering past events is a strength building exercise for the brain and one that often has a positive impact on Alzheimer's patients (Play a Song, or Sing Along, for Alzheimer's (http://www.alzinfo.org/news/NewsArticle2-9-2006-11-55-AM.aspx).
The research has also shown that the area of the brain that stores musical abilities is usually not…
Tapping the Power of Music for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease; Drummer Mickey Hart Relays Personal Experience in Vantage (TM). PR Newswire; 4/5/2005 NEW YORK, April 5 / PRNewswire/
Music & Alzheimer's - music therapy as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease
Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, April, 2001 by Jule Klotter
Neuropsychological and Genetic Factors Surrounding Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's disease is a debilitating illness that interferes with an individual's ability to recall short-term and long-term memory. People diagnosed with the disease can initially recall recent activities though they have difficulties with long-term memory. However, these patients have difficulties with short- and long-term memory over time as the disease develops. Given the increase in the number of people diagnosed with this condition, Alzheimer's disease is regarded as the most common type of dementia among the elderly. This clinical condition is basically caused by neurodegeneration and surrounded by a progressive decline in mental ability as well as difficulties in independent living. This paper focuses on examining the neuropsychological and genetic factors surrounding the illness, early signs of the disease, and possible cures to the debilitating disease.
Brief History of Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's disease has a history that can be traced back to over…
"Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Fact Sheet." (2015, July 20). Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center. Retrieved from National Institute on Aging -- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: https://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/alzheimers-disease-genetics-fact-sheet
Bertram, L. & Tanzi, R.E. (2012). The Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease. In David Teplow, Progress in molecular biology and translational science. (Chap. 3, pp.79-100). Retrieved from http://www2.massgeneral.org/bbs/gen228/Reading2015/Alzheimers/bertram_tanzi.chapter3.MolBiolTranslatSci.pdf
Femminella, G.D., Ferrara, N. & Rengo, G. (2015, February 12). The Emerging Role of microRNAs in Alzheimer's Disease. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(40), 1-5.
Huang et. al. (2015, July). Neurorestorative Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology India, 63(4), 583-588.
Alzheimer Healthy Community
PLANNED, PERSONALIZED CARE
Alzheimer's Healthy Community
Dog-Assisted Therapy for Older People with Dementia
A review of nine studies on the subject produced loose conclusions on the value of this type of therapy (Perkins et al., 2008). They, however, established a trend, indicating increased social behavior and decreased agitation when dogs were in the company of the respondents. This improvement in social behavior was unrelated with the severity of the respondents' dementia. Six of the 9 studies were conducted in the U.S.A., 2 in Japan and 1 in Australia on 28 respondents, all with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or dementia (Perkins et al.).
The behavioral and psychological symptoms of this ailment not only cause the afflicted individuals much pain but also put them at risk of physical harm (Perkins et al., 2008). Animal-assisted therapy, on the other hand, has shown positive effects over pro-social behavior and the…
Cevizci, S. et al. (2013). Animal-assisted therapy and activities in Alzheimer's Disease.
Chapter 12. "Understanding Alzheimer's Disease," InTech:Canakkale Onsekiz Mart
Hung, J, (2012). A study on the establishment and evaluation of adult day care service centers. Vol. 6 # 5, Global Journal of Business Research: Chao-yang University of Technology.
Iecovich, E. And Biderman, A. (2013). Attendance in adult day care centers of cognitively intact older persons: reasons for use and nonuse. Journal of Applied Gerontology:
What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions
There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.
Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002
Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.
For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…
Cohen-Mansfield J. (2001). "Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in dementia: a review, summary, and critique." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,
Cummings, J. (2004). "Alzheimer's Disease." New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1),
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Therefore the cognitive performance wasn't improved significantly by the use of DHEA though in the 3 months period only a fleeting effect might have been observed (Wolkowitz et al., 2003, p.1073.)
Vitamin is often prescribed by doctors for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. A large study which was funded by the federal government showed that the reduced ability to do daily activities is delayed slightly by the intake of vitamin E The useful aspects of vitamin E can be attributed to its antioxidant nature which helps in the protection of nerve cells from chemical deterioration. The physician supervision is necessary when someone takes vitamin E as an Alzheimer treatment. There were high doses of vitamin E used in the federal study and vitamin E when used with other medications can interact negatively including the ones used for preventing the clotting of the blood (Khachaturian, 1992, P.73).
Wolkowitz, O., Kramer, J., Reus, V., Costa, M., Yaffe, K., Walton, P., et al. (2003). DHEA
treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology, 60(7): 1071-1076. Retrieved April 1, 2010, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12682308
Khachaturian, Z. (1992). Alzheimer's disease: new treatment strategies. New York: Wiley
In stage five, the affected person will begin to experience "major gaps in memory and deficits in cognitive function" and may require some type of assistance with "day-to-day activities like preparing meals, taking a bath or putting on clothing. The affected person will also lack the ability to recall very simple, ordinary things like his/her address, telephone number or even the name of his/her spouse or close friend and will be unable to recall where they are in a physical setting, such as in a shopping mall or even their own home, and will not be able to recall what day of the week it is or the exact date (2009, "The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's," Internet).
In stage six, the affected person will experience severe cognitive decline in the form of a change in his/her personality and will not be able to "recollect their personal history, such as where…
The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's." Alzheimer's Association. 2009. Internet. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_symptoms_of_alzheimers.asp?gclid=CJfdgdv5o5gCFQrFGgodwnf7mQ .
Alzheimer's Disease: An Overview
Disease description and possible misconceptions
Alzheimer's disease is one of, although not the only type, of dementia elderly patients may suffer. The most common form of the illness occurs after age 60. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease before the age of 60 is less common, but the symptoms and worsening of the illness tends to be swifter in nature. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease has a known genetic component. "Certain genes...such as APOE epsilon4 allele" are linked to a greater likelihood of developing Alzheimer's (Jasmin 2010). In older patients, the difference between dementia and Alzheimer's can be difficult to determine. "The only way to know for certain that someone has AD is to examine a sample of their brain tissue after death," to determine if the tissue sample exhibits neurofibrillary tangles, "twisted fragments of protein within nerve cells that clog up the cell;" neuritic plaques, "abnormal clusters of dead and…
Gwyther, L.P. (2004). Ask the expert: Common questions about Alzheimer's disease.
National Women's Health Report, 26(6), 7-7. Retrieved:
Harman, D. (2000). Alzheimer's disease: A hypothesis on pathogenesis. Age, 23(3), 147-161.
After 13 months, the rats begin to show signs of dementia including reduced cognitive ability and memory impairment (McGill University, 2010).
Amyloid B. immunotherapy
Past research on the effects of active or passive a? immunization on a? buildup and AD progression provided evidence that such immunization "protects against the progressive loss of synaptophysin in the hippocampal molecular layer and frontal neocortex of a transgenic mouse model of AD" (Buttini & al, 2005). This provided further support for the amyloid hypothesis.
Since the discovery of a? immunotherapy effectiveness in the treatment of AD in mice, the AN1792 a? vaccine was developed and tested on humans (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). Unfortunately, clinical trials were discontinued when around 6% of the subjects developed meningoencephalitis (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). However, since some subjects showed improvements in a? plaque clearance, several new a? immunotherapies have been developed and are currently undergoing…
Basi, G., & al, e. (2010). Amyloid precursor protein selective gamma-secretase inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 2 (36).
Buttini, M., & al, e. (2005). Amyloid Immunotherapy Prevents Synaptic Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25 (40), 9096-9101.
Ganguly, R., & al, e. (2005). Effect of Moringa Oleifera in Experimental Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Antioxidants. Annals of Neurosciences, 12, 33-37.
Herrup, K. (2010). Reimagining Alzheimer's Disease -- an Age-Based Hypothesis. The Journal of Neuroscienc5y7e, 30 (50), 16755-16762.
Numerous studies have documented that shift workers (i.e. those who regularly rotate work shifts from one schedule to another) suffer much higher incidence of many medical problems; likewise, the third shift is widely considered to be the most dangerous in terms of workplace accidents and industrial injuries (Lamond, Dorrian, oach, et al., 2003).
esearchers have determined that there are several specific causes of the negative consequences associated with shift work, some of which are functions of circadian rhythm disruption while others are directly related to other factors, such as the quality and quantity of daytime sleep (Pauley, 2004). In most biological organisms, there is a complex circadian rhythm mechanism that is not yet understood precisely. In principle, that mechanism coordinates various biological processes, such as the secretion of various hormones, during sleep. According to evolutionary biologists, circadian rhythms evolved as means of adaptation to the natural 24-hour cycle of light…
Lamond, N., Dorrian, J., Roach, GD., McCulloch, K., Holmes, a.L., Burgess,
H .J., Fletcher, a., and Dawson, D. "The Impact of a Week of Simulated Night
Work on Sleep, Circadian Phase, and Performance" Occupational.
One of the most common mental disorders linked to Alzheimer's is depression which according to Elwood Cohen manifests itself in three important ways. First, "There are higher rates of depression among Alzheimer's patients than among non-demented adults;" second, "Having a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's," and third, Depressive symptoms can be confused with dementia in older adults" (1999, 214).
In a recent study conducted by the Cardiovascular Health Initiative, based in Washington, D.C., more than one-third of 400 dementia patients and more than one-fifth of 300 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had experienced symptoms of depression during a one-month period prior to the study. Similar results were reported by the Multi-Institutional esearch in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology (MIAGE) which discovered that "In the year prior to a patient being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, the same patient was almost five times more likely than their…
Cohen, Elwood. (1999). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Coughlin, Patricia B. (1993). Facing Alzheimer's. New York: Ballantine Books.
Powell, Lenore S. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease: A Guide for Families. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
A and Katie Courtice. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
Alzheimer's disease has developed into a major health concern for the elderly population throughout the world. This degenerative brain disorder was first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1907. Today Alzheimer's is one of the most prevalent forms of brain disorders contributing to as much as 50 to 70% of all reported cases of dementia. Over the years the study of early onset Alzheimer's disease (pre-senile AD) has kind of overshadowed the study of late onset Alzheimer in elderly group. However the disease statistics indicate an increasing susceptibility of the older population. Approximately 5% of the population above 65 years of age and around 20% of the people above 85 years of age are affected by Alzheimer's disease. Hence what was previously ignored as an inevitable old age symptom (senile dementia) is now being properly recognized as an illness. This new perspective of AD has resulted in a drastically altered understanding…
Simon Lovestone and Martin Dunitz, " Early diagnosis and Treatment of Alzheimer's
Disease," Published by Martin Dunitz Ltd., 1998
Gerry Bennett and DR Mark Jones, "The Alzheimer's Handbook," Vermilion
he research was conducted in 40-day care centers located in Baltimore County. A total of 510 newly admitted Alzheimer patients agreed to participate in the study and filled out the questionnaire during their first visit to the day care center. A follow-up survey was conducted two months later using the same instrument.
Study participants also completed an instrument designed to identify barriers preventing community services from being utilized, from the perspective of patients and caregivers. he instrument also assessed whether access to community services impacted the patient's quality of life.
he research design was based on the rans-heoretical Model (M), which assumes that individuals will differ significantly in how motivated and ready they are to change their health-related behaviors (Prochaska, and Diclement, 1983). his research design has been used by a number of researchers to investigate the association between barriers to healthcare services and quality of life measures…
The research design was based on the Trans-Theoretical Model (TTM), which assumes that individuals will differ significantly in how motivated and ready they are to change their health-related behaviors (Prochaska, and Diclement, 1983). This research design has been used by a number of researchers to investigate the association between barriers to healthcare services and quality of life measures (e.g., Skevington, Day, Chisholm, and Trueman, 2005). The hypothesis proposed here is that TTM is a valid research model for understanding the barriers that are preventing minority AD patients and their caregivers from accessing community AD services, as well as understanding the impact these barriers have on the psychological and social status of patients.
There are six stages of behavior change viewable through the TTM lens: (1) pre-contemplation of change, (2) contemplating change, and (4) preparation for changing (engaging sporadically in change behavior), (5) action (regular, but recent change activity), and (6) maintenance (long-term commitment to change activity) (Prochaska, and Diclement, 1983). Most AD patients would be expected to fall into the categories between preparation and action
Individuals who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study were asked to complete a
Particularly important is his investigation of the way in which the news is delivered. He delivers video taped evidence of the shortcomings, particularly of physician language, when delivering the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. He makes a full critical assessment of these in order to arrive at practical advice that physicians can use to make a more effective and practically useful diagnosis.
The author's use of the literature is therefore well balanced with the rest of his work, including his own conclusions, critical assessments, and recommendations. The article itself is also well organized, with the reader always being fully aware of the author's purpose. The connections between and development of ideas are logical, right to the end of the article. Furthermore, the author makes very important recommendations, and provides a full assessment of the shortcomings of current research and the need for further research.
The only criticism might be against the…
Carpenter, B. (2009, Spring). 'You Have Alzheimer's Disease.' How to Reveal a Diagnosis and How to Deal with the Reactions. Generations - Journal of the American Society on Aging.
Alzheimer's, on the other hand, directly affects brain cells, and if there is uncertainty, patients and their families should certainly ask for a second opinion.
The population most likely to suffer from the disease is the elderly, but this is not always the case. esearchers note, "Alzheimer's disease is not part of the normal aging process, although it affects predominantly elderly people. Whereas only 10% of those 65 years of age and older are affected by this disease, the percentage may be as high as 48% in those 85 years of age and older" (Handy, Turnbull, Edwards, & Lancaster, 1998, p. 1-2). In addition, there are more rare forms that strike patients in middle age. These researchers write about, "a rare form of Alzheimer's that strikes in middle age and is passed down to 50%, on average, of offspring" (Tanzi & Parson, 2000, p. xiii). This form of the disease…
Editors. (2004). About Alzheimer's. Retrieved from the Alzheimer's Association Web site: http://www.alz.org/AboutAD/WhatIsAD.asp12 Nov. 2004.
Edwards, a.J. (1994). When memory fails: Helping the Alzheimer's and dementia patient. New York: Plenum Press.
Handy, R.C., Turnbull, J.M., Edwards, J., & Lancaster, M.M. (Eds.). (1998). Alzheimer's disease: A handbook for caregivers. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Keltner, N.L., Zielinski, a.L., & Hardin, M.S. (2001). Drugs used for cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Perspectives in psychiatric care, 37(1), 31.
Health Care Delivery Structure
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive brain disease and the most prevalent root cause of dementia. In the present day, more than five million people living in America are suffering from Alzheimer's disease. It is the 6th prominent cause of death in the United States and is the 5th causal factor of death for individuals older than the age of 65 years old. It is estimated that the number of individuals suffering from this disease might even triple up by mid of the century with this number being expected to rise to one million for the U.S. (Illinois Department of Public Health, 2014). Despite the fact that plenty of the states in America were engrossed and pensive with issues of budgeting in the past four years, state policymakers have went on to develop and offer refinement to regulations on assisted living or residential care for Alzheimer and…
Illinois Department of Public Health. (2014). Alzheimer's disease Illinois State Plan 2014-2017 Report and Recommendations. State of Illinois. Retrieved 20 August 2015 from: http://www.idph.state.il.us/pdf/ADPlan_2014.pdf
Polzer, (2011). Assisted Living State Regulatory Review. National Center for Assisted Living. Retrieved 20 August 2015 from: http://www.ahcancal.org/ncal/resources/documents/2011assistedlivingregulatoryreview.pdf
Clinical Trial NCT01504854
The number of Americans with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias will grow as the U.S. population age 65 and older continues to increase. It is projected more than 3 million people aged 85 and older are likely to have Alzheimer's, when the first wave of baby boomers reach age 85 in the year 2031 (Alzheimer's Association, 2015). By 2025, the number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer's disease is estimated to reach 7.1 million -- a 40% increase from the 5 million who are age 65 and older currently affected (Alzheimer's Association, 2015). Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia and is projected to be one of the most prevalent illnesses with our older adult population in the future. Alzheimer's disease remains 100% fatal and there is no cure for the disease; however, there are medications that are believed to be able to…
Alzheimer's Association. (2015). www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_facts_and_figures.asp.
ClinicalTrials.gov. (2015). Resveratrol for Alzheimer's disease. Clinical trials identifier NCT01504854. Retrieved on March 14, 2015 from https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01504854?term=memory&type=Intr&state1=NA%3AUS%3APA&Phase=1&rank=20 .
Adult Daycare for Patients with Alzheimer's Disease
Barriers to Daycare Utilization:
Fortinsky, Richard H., Kulldorff, Martin, Kleppinger, Alison, and Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa. (2009). Dementia care consultation for family caregivers: ollaborative model linking an Alzheimer's association chapter with primary care physicians. Aging & Mental Health, 13(2), 162-170.
The study by Fortinsky et al. (2009) discusses some of the obstacles standing between family caregivers and the admission of their patients to daycare nursing communities. The purpose of the research is to evaluate strategies that might improve the willingness of family caregivers to work with these community services. In a consultation with 84 family caregivers, the study aims to determine what strategies might raise confidence in the capabilities of such services. Additionally, the study seeks to evaluate the responses of primary caregivers to the outcomes produced by this type of intervention. A third objective of the study would be to determine how successfully…
Cantegreil-Kallen, Inge, Turbelin, Clement, Angel, Pierre, Flahault, Aantoine, and Rigaud, Anne-Sophie. (2006). Dementia management in France: Health care and support services in the community. Dementia, 5(3), 317-326.
As study of community-based Alzheimer's support services in France lends greater insight into the obstacles preventing the optimization of care. According to the study by Cantegreil-Kallen (2006) et al., France provides a state-administered network of community-based services available to individuals suffering from Alzheimer's or dementia related to aging. While this federal oversight provides regulatory consistency and quality control, it may also be impeding the fullest possible effectiveness of community-based service contexts. According to the study in question, "Although GPs acknowledged carers' need for emotional support, only minimal levels of other interventions such as day care (12%) and psychotherapeutic interventions (12%) were prescribed. Reasons for under-use included non-availability and carers' reluctance to undergo psychotherapy. Lack of integrated community care services, insufficient information on services, lack of collaboration between health professionals and the frequent absence of a reliable carer were considered the most important barriers to the effective support of people with dementia in primary health care settings." (p. 317)
This confirms the general observation drawn from the preset research that while there are clear benefits to the employment of any form of daycare, community agencies often lack the resources or protocol to ensure that patients are given the best opportunity for the improvement of faculties as well as the improvement of long-term health outcomes.
Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients
The objective of this study is to construct a health promotion program for Alzheimer's Patients. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is "a form of dementia that interferes with a person's intellectual and social functioning." (NCPAD, 2012) One of the primary concerns for the individual with Alzheimer's is weight loss "due to eating problems such as poor-fitting dentures, problems in swallowing, and loss of appetite. Weight loss or loss of appetite may be caused by noise, odor, and/or conversation distractions while eating." (NCPAD, 2012) Caregivers are faced with many challenges in providing care for the Alzheimer's Patient. Findings in this study state that the primary components required for the health promotion program for the individual with Alzheimer's disease are those of: (1) nutrition; (2) physical activity; (3) mental activity; and (4) social activity and participation.
Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients
The objective of this study…
Adopt a Brain-Healthy Diet (2012) Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/we_can_help_adopt_a_brain_healthy_diet.asp
Berkman, LF (1995) The Role of Social Relations in Health Promotion. Psychosomatic Medicine. Vo. 57, Issue 3. Retrieved from: http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/content/57/3/245.short
Gillett-Guyonnet, Sophie, et al. (2000) Weight Loss in Alzheimer Disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 71 no. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.ajcn.org/content/71/2/637s.full
Growing Stronger -- Strength Training for Older Adults (2011) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/growingstronger/index.html
Longitudinal trajectories for individual participants were used at one level, while a second level included the effects of between-subjects predictors at the higher order. To construct the models, 4,193 observations were used over time, with 3,055 of these conducted ruing community caregiving and 1,148 in the nursing home.
Presentation of Data
Data are presented by means of two figures and three tables. The data appear to be very clearly explicated. The axes in the figures are all clearly marked, and the lines differentiated to indicate the data of concern. The tables clarify the information narrated in the document.
Limitations of Statistical Methods
Limitations include the lack of ethnic diversity in the sample population. Different cultures would respond differently to the burden of care and to counseling intervention. Furthermore, only spouse caregivers were targeted for the research, which limits the application of the data to households where children or other family…
What I found most interesting was the three measurements implemented as a basis for the study. These instruments help greatly towards establishing a sound basis for the study and to implement further statistical analyses of the results. In general, I was impressed with the study and I find it very relevant in a profession where the aim is to reduce suffering.
Gaugler, J.E., Roth, D.L., Haley, W.E., & Mittleman, M.S. (2008). Can counseling and support reduce burden and depressive symptoms in caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease during the transition to institutionalization? Results from the New York University Caregiver Intervention Study. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 56(3), 421-428
The disease first described and defined in 1906 by Alois Alzheimer and named after him in 1910 has led to tremendous breakthroughs in brain and neurological research, according to the Alzheimer’s Association (2018). Alzheimer, a German physician, analyzed the brains of patients with the characteristic symptoms of the disease including profound and debilitating memory loss, noticing “shrinkage,” as well as “abnormal deposits in and around nerve cells,” (Alzheimer’s Association, 2018, p. 1). Alzheimer also described the amyloid plaques now known to be linked to the symptoms of the disease, as well as neurofibrillary tangles (National Institute on Aging, 2018). Since Alzheimer’s early discoveries, subsequent researchers in psychiatry and neurobiology relied on increasingly sophisticated methods of studying the structure of the human brain.
Therefore, technology as well as human input has been instrumental in evolving research into the causes and treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to the development of…
A driver came to the house and picked Robert up five days a week at 7:30 and brought him home at around 4:00 P.M. The couple received a grant from United ay to fund the service they received from the Respite Center, which cost around $200 per week. The Respite Center had well-thought-out activities designed for seniors with dementia and Alzheimer's, and those activities "helped slow down his Alzheimer's" (Claunch). Those activities include arts and crafts, chair aerobics, games, socializing, breakfast, lunch and a snack, Claunch explains. On many days a special visitor or group comes to entertain the seniors; among those groups are the Gulf Coast omen's Club, the Garden Club, PAS Ministry, gospel groups, line dancers, pianists and sing-along singers.
hen an Alzheimer's patient is stimulated (by being entertained, walking, or engaging in a game of some kind that challenges the mind but does in minimally) the nerve…
Assist Guide Information Services. (2009). Caregiving. Retrieved November 10, 2009,
From http://www.agis.com .
Claunch, Shannon. (2009). Council on Aging: Respite Center Cares for Community.
News Herald. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from http://www.newsherald.com
Social Work Internship Experience With Alzheimer Patients
My service learning experience was a positive one. I had the opportunity to work at an Alzheimer's care facility, with patients exhibiting various stages of Alzheimer's disease. I learned through my interactions with older adults at the clinic that much like anyone else, Alzheimer's patients need stimulation, warmth, compassion and an environment that encourages interaction and relationship building.
My views of older adults have changed significantly since working with patients at the care center. Whereas in the past I might have assumed that all older adults were mentally less cognizant of their emotions and feelings and 'numb' to the world around them, I learned instead that many have a great compassion for caring, and many desire simply to enjoy much of the same things than anyone else would at their age. My experiences are described in greater detail below.
Summary of Experiences
Gebo, L. "Biological Systems and their Impacts on Later Adulthood." Chapter 14. New
York, Thompson Brooks Cole: 2004.
Functional Assessment eport
Summarization of Case
Luther, 80 years of age, was admitted to a nursing hospital due to Alzheimer's disease complications. As a farmer, Luther spent most of his life moving freely unlike what he was experiencing in the nursing home. However, he had to adapt to the new life. Despite his impairment memory problem, Luther was psychically fit as he managed to walk around the nursing premises. Later, he started experienced a problem in that he walked alone. For safety reasons, he was not allowed to go outside alone. Despite the warnings, he managed to walk go outside alone, even during cold periods without a coat. Each time he went out, the nursing staff had to bring him back. The architecture of the nursing home depicts one main door at the station, another one near the business office, and three fire doors at the sides and back of…
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (second Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780131421134.
Lu, L. & Bludau, J. (2011). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: ABC-CLIO
Miltenberger, R. G. (2015). Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures (Sixth Ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. ISBN: 9781305109391.
Identify Distinctions Among MCU, Dementia, and Alzheimer's
· Distinctions Among MCU, Dementia, and Alzheimer's
2. Information about medical conditions you are addressing
Dementia: Dementia is a syndrome characterized by diminished cognitive abilities, memory loss, and reduced thinking capacity. Dementia-related symptoms affect the day-to-day activities of the victim. Alzheimer's, a condition that causes brain cells to degenerate, is the leading cause of dementia. A slow decline of memory destroys thinking skills, and it translates into disrupted daily life. Inability to live an independent life affects the relationships, and as a result, the victims feel neglected by close family members or friends. Dementia can also occur due to other diseases such as thyroid or lack of essential vitamins in the body, but the good thing is this kind of condition can be reversed (AA, 2017).
Dementia can manifest different signs, but common ones include: Patients Being forgetful, losing track of…
AA. (2017). What is Dementia. Retrieved from Alzheimer\\\\'s Association: https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-dementia
AA. (2018). Why Get Checked? Retrieved from Alzheimer\\\\'s Association: Why Get Checked?
AS. (n.d.). Normal aging vs. dementia. Retrieved from Alzheimer\\\\'s Society: https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-dementia/symptoms-and-diagnosis/how-dementia-progresses/normal-ageing-vs-dementia
BPS. (2007). Dementia: A NICE-SCIE Guideline on Supporting People with Dementia and Their Carers in Health and Social Care. Leicester: British Psychological Society.
Burns, B. (2020, May 12). Researchers link high calcium levels in mitochondria to neuronal death in Alzheimer\\\\'s disease. Retrieved from Media Press: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-link-high-calcium-mitochondria-neuronal.html
Harada, C., Love, M. N., & Triebel, K. (2014). Normal Cognitive Aging. Clin Geriatr Med., 737–752.
Larson, E., Kukull, W., & Katzman, R. (1992). Cognitive impairment: dementia and Alzheimer\\\\'s disease. Annu Rev Public Health.
Liao, Y., Dong, Y., & Cheng, J. (2017). The Function of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Neurodegenerative Disorders. Int J Mol Sci, 248.
Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation
Understanding Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation
Caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's Dementia have massive responsibilities that come to them in the form of demands. These responsibilities are sometimes overwhelming and make them wear out and even experience burnout in some instances. These responsibilities present them with limited alternatives over their situations (DeSanto-Madeya & Fawcett, 2009). When burnouts occur, caregivers find challenges when administering their duties and sustaining their psychological and physical health. The experiences they undergo are always demanding, calling for many of them to consider alternative measures of offering their caregiver services to the patients with Alzheimer's Dementia. Burnout begins with stress developed within the normative working conditions of the caregivers. Stress takes effect upon the health, relationship, and even the families of persons involved. It is imperative for the caregivers to have some time where they take rest and resort to simple avenues that will assist them…
Cowen, P. S., & Moorhead, S. (2014). Current Issues in Nursing. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.
DeSanto-Madeya, S., & Fawcett, J. (2009). Toward Understanding and Measuring Adaptation Level in the Context of the Roy Adaptation Model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22(4), 355-359.
Fawcett, J., & Garity, J. (2009). Chapter 6: Evaluation of middle-range theories. Evaluating Research for Evidence-Based Nursing. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: F. A. Davis.
Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2013). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Saunders.
Caregivers of Alzheimer's Patients
Community Health Promotion Project Design
As we have discovered in the first part of the study, Alzheimer's is a major health issue for the population of seniors 65 years and older. Alzheimers costs taxpayers and individuals billions of dollars for the provision of care for those who can no longer care for themselves. Alzheimer's is an expensive disease and many times it is the family who must bear much of the expense. We found that the financial strain of caring for someone who has Alzheimer's creates an incredible amount of stress on family members. However, we also found that perhaps even greater than the financial strain, Alzheimer's places in incredible load on the family as they are usually the ones who must care for their family member.
The aggregate for this study consists of family members who must care for other members of the family who…
Belle SH, Czaja SJ, & Schulz R, (2003). "Using a new taxonomy to combine the uncombinable: Integrating results across diverse interventions." Psychology and Aging. 18:396 -- 405
Gitlin LN, Belle SH, & Burgio LD, et al. (2003). "Effect of multicomponent interventions on caregiver burden and depression: The REACH multisite initiative at 6-month follow-up." Psychology and Aging. 2003;18:361 -- 374.
Wisniewski, S., Belle, S. & Marcus, S. et al. (2003). The resources for enhancing old climbers caregiver health (REACH): project design and baseline characteristics. Psychological Aging. 18 (3), 375-384.
As per Dr. Sacks, Alzheimer patients take advantage from listening to the familiar music. The music entails them memory stimulus, restoring the accessibility to personal history. It is said to have motivated the powers of speech and the thought process. However, his entire emotional as well as intellectual configuration, his life history, his identity, is greatly influenced by the music. The study of psycho-neuroimmunology narrates the influence of neuropeptides on human emotions. The beta-endorphins appear to be released and the body is permitted to perform its own healing work on physiological level, while the person is in a relaxed condition. The music therapy attempts to bring such state which is revealed to be 'audio analgesisa'. (Music Heals: Music for Healing and Transition)
5. What facilities practice this form of therapy and where and is it becoming more and more popular?
The Kaiser-Permanente Medical Center in Los Angeles was regarded to…
Alzheimer's and Other Dementias: Understanding the Differences. Retrieved at http://www.helpguide.org/elder/alzheimers_dementias_types.htm . Accessed 6 June, 2006
Forgeron, Nicole. The Impact of Music Therapy on Alzheimer's Disease Patients. March, 1999. Retrieved at http://faculty.uccb.ns.ca/gcarre/courses/health/music.htm. Accessed 6 June, 2006
Gerosa, Cristina. M; Bonanomi, Claudio. Observation of the Alzheimer Patient and Music
Therapy. Retrieved from www.musictherapyworld.de/modules/mmmagazine/issues/20020801160643/20020801170306/Bonamifinal.htm. Accessed 6 June, 2006
As people age, there are three main types of cognitive changes that can impair or alter cognitive functioning: mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. All of these syndromes are more severe than the normal decline that is expected with aging, though they do not all reach the severity of dementia. Dementia refers to the "the loss of cognitive functioning- thinking, remembering, and reasoning- and behavior abilities, to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities" (NIH, 2013). While there are some similarities between these three conditions, there are also significant differences between the three syndromes. These differences can impact treatment options and also help predict impact on the patient and the family.
MCI is an intermediate stage, which features a more significant cognitive decline than that expected with normal aging, but is not as severe as full-blown dementia. "It can involve problems…
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, August 21). Mild Cognitive Impairment. Retrieved October 21, 2013
from Mayo Clinic website: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mild-cognitive-impairment/DS00553
National Institutes on Health. (2013, October 17). Alzheimer's Fact Sheet. Retrieved October
21, 2013 from the National Institute on Aging website: http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers /publication/alzheimers-disease-fact-sheet
workers engaging in eldercare-related activities are prone to suffer from stress-related factors and workplace absenteeism as opposed to non-caregiving workers. This hypothesis was confirmed by Lee in her study; 67 employees from a financial institution were interviewed while questionnaires were administered to 169 workers from a healthcare institution. Caregivers from study 1 were prone to absenteeism as well as incidences of insomnia, weight loss and tiredness. The second study confirmed the same incidences as study 1; weight loss among caregivers, drowsiness, sleeplessness as well as nervousness; however, the degree of absenteeism was not different among caregivers and non-caregivers. In line with this, it was confirmed that caregivers' tasks negatively impacted their workplace performance (Lee, 1997). Based on the results, it was confirmed that a balance between caregiving-related activities and work has the effect of bringing about stress and physical tiredness which ultimately affects workplace performance. egarding absenteeism, it is theorized…
Buffardi, L.C., Smith, J.L., O'Brien, A.S., & Erdwins, C.J. (1999). The Impact of Dependent-Care Responsibility and Gender on Work Attitudes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(4), 356-367.
Davis, L.L. (1997). Family Conflicts around Dementia Home-Care. Family, Systems & Health, 15, 85-98.
Hepburn, G.C., & Barling, J. (1996). Eldercare Responsibilities, Interrole Conflict, and Employee Absence: A Daily Study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(3), 311-318.
Lee, J.A. (1997). Balancing Eldercare Responsibilities and Work: Two Empirical Studies. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2(3), 220-228.
Myra's case is just one instance of many that a mental health nurse encounters on a regular schedule.
Nursing is best practiced when it follows the intentions of its founder Florence Nightingale who urged that nursing should be a practice that should literally provide for and care for the patient. Nursing, in other words, should be purely patient-centered. This caring extends to all aspects not just to the illness so that one treats the patient in a holistic way, considering all components of the patient such as the family, his or her social needs, hobbies, desires, spiritual inclinations and so forth. When done in this way, nursing extends itself from an automatic, robotic procedure to something that can motivate the nurse and uplift the patient (Watson, 1998). 'Nursing', in other words, extends to caring for the patient as a whole.
An effective nurse will strive to accomplish her best in…
Sansoni, J et al. (2004) Anxiety and depression in community-dwelling, Italian Alzheimer's disease caregivers, retrieved from International Journal of Nursing Practice: 10: 93-100.
Hayslip, B et al. (2008) Predictors of Alzheimer's disease caregiver depression and burden: what noncaregiving adults can learn from active caregivers. Educational Gerontology, 34: 945-969,
Broe, K et al. (2007) A Higher Dose of Vitamin D Reduces the Risk of Falls in Nursing
Home Residents: A Randomized, Multiple-Dose Study JAGS 55:234 -- 239
The exchange of the defective gene could be brought about by a process called homologous recombination. One of the first gene therapy experiments, though well intentioned, caused the death of the patient. esearchers at the University of Pennsylvania introduced a normal gene into a boy's body by using the rhino virus as a carrier. The body's immune system attacked this as a pathogen. This led to eventual organ failure and death. Gene therapy projects all over the world were largely abandoned. But more recently, gene therapy is beginning to make a comeback. (ONL, 2009)
Gene therapy has been tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is not a treatment that targets amyloid beta proteins or the tangles, but protects the brain cells from destruction. The regenerative properties of skin cells (stem cells) have been used to prevent the brain cells from "withering" away. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans reveal…
http://www.alzforum.org/drg/drc/detail.asp?id=84Alzforum . (2009). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from BBC. (2003). Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'
ChemoCare. (2005). Taxol. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from http://www.chemocare.com/bio/taxol.asp
Elements4health. (2009). PET Scans Reveal Plaques and Tangles In Alzheimer's Retrieved April 18, 2009, from http://www.elements4health.com/pet-scans-reveal-plaques-and-tangles-in-alzheimers.html
Feng, J.A., Crasto, C.J., & Matsumoto, Y. (1998). Deoxyribose phosphate excision by the N-terminal domain of the polymerase beta: the mechanism revisited. Biochemistry, 37(27), 9605-9611.
Mr. H case study
What is the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
Mr. H has shown a sharp decline in cognitive functioning. He has quit his job without warning and without consulting with his spouse (who is economically as well as emotionally affected by this decision), has shown difficulty remembering basic tasks and words that a man of his education and background should be able to retrieve easily, and is exhibiting signs of disorientation. Despite being an accomplished outdoorsman he has gotten lost while hiking; has difficulty reading; and although he was a science teacher has difficulty doing basic math. He also has trouble performing basic acts of self-care and memory exercises.
Q2. What else do you feel you need to know (or, what might be some areas you may ask about in order to determine what…
Alzheimer's disease: Treatment and drugs. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from:
Diagnostic criteria for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. (2013). BehaveNet. Retrieved from:
Sundowning Syndrome: Etiology and Treatment
An escalation in disruptive behaviors in the late afternoon and early evening among institutionalized patients suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease has been a recognized phenomenon for over 60 years (Bachman & Rabins, 2006). The timing of the onset of disruptive behaviors has led to calling this phenomenon sundowning, sundowning syndrome, and nocturnal delirium. Symptoms traditionally associated with sundowning include increased motor activity, confusion, yelling, aggression, wandering, agitation, and anxiety (Scarmeas et al., 2007). In spite of this long history, and a general consensus among clinicians and medical textbooks that sundowning is real, there is still a substantial amount of controversy among researchers whether it's more illusion than fact.
The controversy is due in part to the lack of a consensus definition for sundowning. Cohen-Mansfield (2007) cites three different definitions in order to highlight this lack of consensus: (1) "a syndrome of recurring confusion and…
4. Sterniczuk, R., Dyck, R.H., LaFerla, F.M., & Antle, M.C. (2010). Characterization of the 3 xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: Part 1. Circadian changes. Brain Research, 1348, 139-148
5. Scarmeas, N., Brandt, J., Blacker, D., Albert, M., Hadjigeorgiou, G., Dubois, B., . . . Stern, Y. (2007). Disruptive behavior as a predictor in Alzheimer's disease. Archives of Neurology, 64, 1755-1761
6. Vance, D.E. & Cowan, R.N. (2004). Activity therapy as a vehicle for resetting the biological rhythm in adults with Alzheimer's disease. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 28, 1-16
4. What is the advantage of a "patch"?
Evidently, the drug rivastigmine causes gastrointestinal side effects, but the patch allows only a small amount to be steadily absorbed into the bloodstream and thus creates fewer negative reactions to the drug. The Novartis website makes the case for a patch over a pill by saying "On average, an older American takes 5 prescription medicines. These medicines may need to be taken at different times and managing them all may seem overwhelming" (Novartis, para. 1). In this case, a patch eliminates having to remember several doses each day of one of the medications.
5. What is "moderate" dementia? What is dementia?
Dementia affects brain function. There is no known cure for dementia. It refers to several illnesses (Alzheimer's disease, Lewy or DLB) involving behavior, memory, communication and learning problems. There are other conditions in the brain which damage nerves or blood…
Activa. (2008). Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. Activa Deep Brain Stimulation. Retrieved January 20, 2008 from website: http://www.activadbs.com/symptoms.asp .
Medications and treatment. (2008). Parkinson's Disease Foundation Retrieved January 20, 2008 from website: http://www.pdf.org/AboutPD/med_treatment.cfm .
NHS. (2005). Holding Statement. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Retrieved January 20, 2008 from website: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/Alzheimer_holdingstatement.pdf .
NHS. (2007). Final appraisal determination: Donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine (review) and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Centre Director Report for Guidance Executive. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Retrieved January 20, 2008 from Website: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/GE050705AlzFADSignoffReport.pdf .
Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process
The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.
Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…
Is there anything special about the aging of source memory?
Psychol Aging. 2005 Mar;20(1):19-32.
PMID: 15769211 [PubMed - in process]
Group Process and Skill Selection
ecent developments at the medical industry increase the life expectancy. Census reported that 36.3 million Americans were 65 and over in 2004 and 71.5 million Americans will be 65 and over in 2030 (see, census.org). Therefore, the age related diseases and related industry (i.e. eldercare) have been taking an important part of the American society. Taking care of a person with memory loss, dementia and Alzheimer's disease is a demanding task as it requires mental and physical strength. Social supports groups are very helpful to deal with mental and physical distress for Alzheimer's patients' caregivers. In this brief document, a social group session is discussed.
ANALYZING GOUP POCESS AND SKILL SELECTION
Garvin, Gutierrez, and Galinsky (2004) describe the social work groups in which the social workers participate as part of their professional activities either as participants or facilitators. The interaction between social workers and…
Garvin, C.D., Gutierrez, L.M., & Galinsky, M.J., (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of social work with groups. New York: Guilford Publications.
Gitlin L.N., Corcoran M., Winter L., Boyce A., & Hauck W.W. (2001). A randomized, controlled trial of a home environmental intervention: effect on efficacy and upset in caregivers and on daily function of persons with dementia. Gerontologist 41 (1): 4 -- 14.
Mitchell S.L., Teno J.M., & Kiely D.K. ( 2009). The clinical course of advanced dementia." N. Engl J. Med 361 (16): 1529 -- 38.
Molsa P.K., Marttila R.J., & Rinne U.K. (1995). Long-term survival and predictors of mortality in Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. ActaNeurol Scand 91 (3): 159 -- 64.
Gingko Biloba -- Part I
What are the author's general conclusions (summarized) on the effectiveness of Gingko Biloba as a cognitive enhancer?
According to the author, effects of Gingko on cognition are perplexing because of its dual actions as following. It's seen improving short-term memory but at the same time it impairs digit recall ability. It slows down mental decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease but has lower dose response curve than acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Gingko slows mental decline during dementia owing to its action as an anti-oxidant and ability to combat stress. This action is of short-term and isn't seen chronically. Gingko has more scores for improvement seen in patients when compared to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil but has fewer efficacies than the later. Effects of Gingko are mainly attributable not to its direct action on improving memory but to its indirect action of improving attention…
Mark A. McDaniel, Steven F. Maier, and Gilles O. Einstein. (2003) 'Brain-specific nutrients: A memory cure?' Nutrition, vol. 19, pp. 957-973
Paul E. Gold, Larry Cahill, and Gary L. Wenk. (2002) 'Gingko Biloba: A cognitive enhancer?' Psychological Science in Public Interest, vol. 3, May, pp. 2-10.
In the film The Savages (Jenkins, 2007) two siblings (Jon and Wendy Savage, the parallel to the Peter Pan characters by the same first name is not hidden) are brought together to care for their aging father who has dementia. Lenny Savage (the father) is the patriarch of the estranged Savage family. Lenny was living in Arizona with his girlfriend, whom we suspect also has dementia, but she abruptly passes away as the film begins. Lenny has had no connection with his children who both live far away on the east coast (Jon in Buffalo; Wendy in New York). Their mother is out of the picture having left their father years before and no one knows where she is. The children, left to their own devices, have grown into isolated, repressed, emotionally-stunted, self-absorbed adults (savages). The film is more about the struggles of the sister and brother to grow…
Alzheimer's Association (2012). http://www.alz.org/about_us_about_us_.asp .
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
de Boer, M.E., Hertogh, C.M.P.M., Droes, R.M., Riphagen, I.I., Jonker, C., & Eefsting J.A. (2007). Suffering from dementia - the patient's perspective: A review of the literature. International Psychogeriatrics, 19(6), 1021-1039.
Jenkins, T. (2007). (Jenkins, T. Director & Payne, A. Producer) The savages [Film]. United States, This In That Studios.
articles seem to be saying same thing or do they contradict each other? Is the tone similar in each article, meaning can you tell what the researchers feel about the subject? Do they support the same idea, did they hypothesize similar ideas?
The following are two research essays on the burden of caregivers. The similarities of both essays are that both demonstrate the huge responsibility and unmitigated onus that caregivers carry that consequent in causing them stress and hardship. Differences include the fact that one was carried out on a population in Italy, whilst the other was carried out on a sample in America.
It is striking, too, to note, that although both concluded that caregivers needed more support, the American study recommended ways that individuals could create this for themselves, whilst the Italians-based study placed the responsibility on the community and social work profession. The tone of the articles,…
Sansoni, J et al. (2004) Anxiety and depression in community-dwelling, Italian Alzheimer's disease caregivers, retrieved from International Journal of Nursing Practice: 10: 93-100.
Hayslip, B et al. (2008) Predictors of Alzheimer's disease caregiver depression and burden: what noncaregiving adults can learn from active caregivers. Educational Gerontology, 34: 945-969, 2008
Organ transplant recipients are more susceptible to cancer due to oncogenic viral infections and immunosuppression. What is the overall pattern of cancer following an organ transplantation?
Cancer is a major adverse outcome of solid organ transplantation.2 Previous studies have demonstrated an overall 2- to 4-fold elevated risk of cancer.3- 11 Excess risk is largely due to immunosuppression, with a spectrum of cancer resembling that seen with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, another immunosuppressing condition.11 isks are especially high for malignancies caused by viral infections, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma (both due to Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]), Kaposi sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8), anogenital cancers (human papillomavirus), and liver cancer (hepatitis C and B viruses). Certain other malignancies such as cancers of the lung, kidney, skin, and thyroid also are increased in transplant recipients. Linkage of population-based transplant and cancer registries from the same geographic region can allow for systematic ascertainment of…
Engels, E.A., Pfeiffer, R.M., Fraumeni, J.F., Kasiske, B.L., Israni, A.K., & Snyder, J.J. (2011). Spectrum of Cancer Risk among U.S. Solid Organ Transplant Recipients. JAMA, 306(17), 1891-1901. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1592
Saaristo, T., Moilanen, L., Korpi-Hyovalti, E., Vanhala, M., Saltevo, J., Niskanen, L. . . . Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S. (2010). Lifestyle intervention for prevention of type 2 diabetes in primary health care: one-year follow-up of the Finnish national diabetes prevention program (FIND2D). Diabetes Care, 33(10), 2146-2151. Doi:10.2337/dc10-0410
Sperling, R.A., Aisen, P.S., Beckett, L.A., Bennett, D.A., Craft, S., Fagan, A.M., . . . Phelps, C.H. (2011). Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia,7(3), 280 -- 292. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.03.003
Mitigating isks from Dementia
Providing adequate care for an individual suffering from dementia presents many difficulties for nurses. Patients with dementia often have debilitating conditions such as Alzheimer's or similar neurologic diseases which are progressive, thereby making it challenging for them to remember, think lucidly, communicate effectively or complete activities of daily living. Furthermore, dementia can cause rapid variations in mood or even modify personality and behavior. With the tremendous number of elderly in society more and more nurses are required to care for patients with progressive dementias. It is imperative that a diagnosis be reached early in the course of the cognitive impairment and that the patient is closely monitored for coexisting morbidities. Nurses have a central role in assessment and management of individuals with progressive dementia. This essay provides some evidence-based practical strategies for managing the behavioral problems and communication difficulties often encountered in this population.…
Aud, M.A., Oliver, D., Bostick, J. And Schwarz, B. 2011. Effectiveness of Social Model Care Units for Dementia. International Nursing Research Congress 2005.
Care, N.D. 2010. Teaching and Learning. Pulse. Winter Edition.
Fletcher, S. And Zimmerman, S. 2010. Trainee and trainer reactions to a scripted dementia care training program in residential care/assisted living settings and nursing homes. Alzheimer's Care. 11(1): 61-70.
Goodman, C. 2011. The organizational culture of nursing staff providing long-term dementia care is related to quality of care. Evidence-Based Nursing. 47:1274-1282.