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hen the American electorate re-elected George . Bush as their President in November 2004, the rest of the world shook its head in collective amazement. They could not understand how someone the world 'loved to hate' and who, in their opinion, had committed 'monumental blunders' in his four years in office, could be chosen by so many Americans as their leader. They need not have been surprised having been forewarned by people such as Alexis de Tocqueville and Seymour Lipset about the phenomenon called 'American Exceptionalism.' Good or bad, America is different and the Americans often behave in vastly different ways from people living in the rest of the world. This essay highlights some of these differences.
The roots of 'American Exceptionalism' can be traced to the very origin of the country -- the United States having been founded on the principles of "equality," the inalienable rights of…… [Read More]
When we speak of Puritanical values, however, some events in America's history seriously clash with its "pure values" or its belief that it's a world liberator. The first one was slavery. No where in the world have we witnessed just harsh case of slavery as in the United States. To this day, African-Americans have been unable to liberate themselves completely from the ugly history of slavery that had seriously marred social relations in the country. Would it be wrong to assume that pure values somehow did not consider slavery a contaminated value? How can puritans justify enslavement of tens of hundreds of blacks from Africa? There is no way America can seriously believe in its puritanical values and still justify its ugly past.
But in its defense, we can say that America was in the end responsible for abolishment of slavery too. If it started slavery, then it brought an…… [Read More]
" This view appears to be excessively negative, not least because of its lack of balance. It fails to acknowledge balance and uses all arguments to the contrary to perpetuate itself. Neither the view of American exceptionalism being wholly good or wholly bad is therefore entirely realistic.
Much more realistic is perhaps Koh's view, although it still tends towards the somewhat negative side. I do agree with this author in terms of the double standard issue. However, several of the other issues appear to be an attempt to unnecessarily demonize and complicate the issue of American exceptionalism. Towards a more balanced view, it is important to weigh both the positive and negative aspects of American exceptionalism equally.
Such a view is presented by Dennis Phillips (2), who accurately notes that "a balanced approach to the study of American exceptionalism is easily distorted by assumptions of superiority." Indeed such assumptions lie…… [Read More]
While some believe that America is truly exceptional, others believe that it is just another country in history that has many of the same problems that other countries have. Furthermore, some people even go further towards the opposite end of the spectrum, against the idea of the U.S. being exceptional in any way, and believe that its actions and its presence are largely counterproductive among world affairs. For example, in one international Gallop poll, individuals were surveyed with a few questions about world peace and what they believed were the greatest threats to peace. Within the United States, the majority of people felt that Iran was the world's biggest threat to world peace. However, individuals living outside the U.S. that were surveyed believed that the United States was the greatest threat to world peace by an overwhelming margin. However, despite the individual perspective, it is hard to argue…… [Read More]
The Myth of American Exceptionalism
The myth of American exceptionalism is a familiar one to Americans and non-Americans alike. It suggest that America, as the home of the free and the brave, is unique in its allowance of freedom and social mobility, in contrast to Europe, Asia, and other, much older civilizations. Yet as noted by Stephen M. Walt in his essay, “The Myth of American Exceptionalism,” perhaps one of the most ordinary aspects of America is its view of itself as exceptional. A more critical approach to America’s history, ideology, and identity is needed for America to move forward and to make needed political and social evolution into the future. Of course, it is fine to take pride in one’s nation. But to view one nation as exceptional and the only nation worthy of defending and defining liberty will inevitably lead to strife with the rest of the world.…… [Read More]
To wit, "half of Americans deem religion very important in their lives; fewer than a quarter in Spain (22%) feel this way, and in Germany (21%), Britain (17%) and France (13%), even fewer say religion is "very important" to their lives (PE).
Fifty-three percent of Americans are more apt to agree that it is vital to believe in God prior to having good morals and values while just 33% of Germans, 20% of the British, 19% of Spaniards and 15% of those in France agree with that statement. omen and the elderly are more apt to agree that God is indeed the "necessary foundation for morality and good values" (PE). Fifty-nine percent of American women say religion is "very important" to them but only 41% of American men agree with that statement (PE).
Meanwhile, in the Journal of Beliefs and Values (illiams, et al., 2009) the authors point out that…… [Read More]
The quest for primacy is likely to lead to the formation of adversarial alliances and greater distrust of American intentions, endangering international stability and peace. In the domestic sphere, quest for primacy will lead to greater abuse of power and the expansion of the military, threatening the health of American democracy. Democracy may be eroded and the U.S. economy may be drained before advocates of American primacy may achieve their dream of American primacy.
Allison, Graham and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Longman, 1999.
Bacevich, Andrew. The New American Militarism: How Americans Are Seduced by ar. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Blainey, Geoffrey. The Causes of ar. New York: Free Press, 1973.
Jervis, Robert. "Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma," orld Politics 30.2 (1978): 167-214. JSTOR. eb 14 Oct. 2011.
Jervis, Robert. System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life. Princeton, NJ:…… [Read More]
This viewpoint was the justification for global colonization, the enslavement of numerous groups of indigenous people, and the massive enforcement of certain religions (such as Christianity) on different peoples throughout the world. There are a couple of interesting facts in denoting the contemporary view of this subject among the Western world. The U.S. was the only country surveyed in which more people still adhered to the belief that their culture was better than that of other civilizations and countries. All of the European countries have apparently abandoned this notion, or at the very least have more people who disbelieve the fact that they are culturally superior to others than those who do. Germany is nearly evenly divided on this subject (No author, 2011).
The category in which the U.S.'s views on autonomy are most prevalent is that in which compares the values of individualism vs. The importance of a state…… [Read More]
history seems only like a carefully curated set of facts, figures, and events that when taken together promote a specific ideology or worldview. Thus, Americans focus almost exclusively on people, places, and events that uphold the idea of American exceptionalism. ars and the conquests of men overshadow the lives of women, and Europeans are given precedence. The quote by .E.B. DuBois underscores the inherent falseness in approaching history, given that on some level there will always be editorializing. Howard Zinn also reassembles American history in a way that subverts the paradigm that had been taught related to the supremacy of capitalism and the white-washing of key turning points. A People's History of the United States gives voice to those who were systematically suppressed or oppressed. Likewise, Loewen's Lies My Teachers Told Me undoes the brainwashing that schoolchildren in the United States endure.
Loewen and Zinn take up .E.B DuBois on…… [Read More]
Robert Kohls, most Americans are unaware of the values that shape their worldviews. I completely agree with the author's assessment in "The Values Americans Live By." Americans are extremely concerned with values such as self-reliance and independence because these extend from the myths of American exceptionalism and concepts like Manifest Destiny. Americans have been taught to celebrate pioneers of the Wild West and the cowboy culture that goes along with it. Collaboration and cooperation take a back seat in America to values like self-help. For example, Kohls notes that in other cultures, a person asking for directions will often find that someone will walk with them until they find what they are seeking. This is of course not true for all other cultures, but certainly some. One of Kohls's goals is to show readers why some foreigners seem perplexed about American culture, and the seeming dichotomies therein. Americans see themselves…… [Read More]
Is There Room at the Top?
The question as to whether the United States is currently and will remain a superpower is the topic of much scholarly debate and in the general population around the dinner table. The follow up question to that, of course is, is there room at the top for another superpower, and if so which country or countries will rise to the occasion? Is America really finished as the world's superpower? There are respected intellectual, members of the elite media core, think tank theorists, and many in society at large that seem to think so. In many newspapers, magazines, and on reputable news programs around the world, learner authors announce the end of the American era and advise that the rise of China and India, the resurgence of Putin's Russia, and the noted expansion of the European Union signifies a significant and profound shit…… [Read More]
Such was the case with Vietnam and Iraq (Hanhim ki, 2004). The people of these nations have to deal with the absence of utilities and the destruction of the nation's infrastructure (roads, hospitals, schools). The people also have to deal with the general instability of the country and the government caused by the American invasion.
While many American families have lost loved ones in the war, the majority of Americans are not personally affected by the war in the manner that the Iraqi people are affected. Not only are such policies detrimental to people who have to live through war, Americans suffer in far reaching ways (Pierce). According to an article entitled "American Values or Human ights" contains a quote from Henry Kisiinger which states, the tradition known as American exceptionalism, within which American values were historically embedded, was one of the most important casualties of the Vietnam War...he claimed…… [Read More]
.....grand overarching themes connecting American history with the history of the world is the theme of population migration. The American narrative is frequently framed as a narrative of continual migration. American migration patterns have continually shifted, from the prehistoric migrations of people via the Siberian land bridge and early Viking migrations to North America through the more familiar American narrative of the first pilgrims arriving from England. Both McKeown (2004) and Tyrell (2007b) points out, educators need to be careful to avoid repeating the Eurocentric or even purely Anglocentric narrative of migration. Migration is not a static process that has clear beginnings and endings, but is an ongoing process in which groups of people gradually shift their identities as well as their geospatial surroundings. Kupperman (2002) warns educators against perpetuating the "central myth" of an American history that simly started in the east with the pilgrims and ended in the…… [Read More]
Era of the American Revolution, 1760-1791, by Richard D. Brown. Specifically it will use only pages 47-59 & 79-87 to answer the following question: Did a separate Colonial identity emerge in the decades before the American Revolution?
Ultimately, a separate Colonial identity was emerging as soon as the first settlers touched land in America in the 1600s. The colony was formed with dissidents who left England because of religious persecution, and they were far enough away from the mother country to form their own working political relationships. As essayist Greene notes, the relationship between England and America was "in many respects an uneasy connection" (Greene 48). By the 1760s, we had developed our own judicial system, our own educational system, and our own political institutions, such as the assembly, which actually worked better than their English counterparts did. The colonists were also productive and successful. Many who had…… [Read More]
From Patricia Limerick's approach, this paper can derive its own thesis as to how the frontier phenomenon truly influenced the development and values of the American society. In my opinion, the truth is that the United States is such a large country that a phenomenon such as the frontier and Westward expansion could not have influenced to the degree to which Turner believes it had the development of the American society. There are several reasons for this, all discussed below.
First, many of the values, especially the institutional and democratic values, have, in fact, been unchanged for the best 250 years. The Constitution itself has barely been modified, with the exception of a limited number of amendments. The main institutional powers, the executive, the legislative and the judicial powers are all based on the same principles and format from 1776 and the first years thereafter. The political system, with minor…… [Read More]
Not simply risky in that he is trying to create an integrated Middle Eastern policy when the issues involved are so complicated and so volatile (and the grievances so intractable). But also because by applying specifically religious language to the situation he runs the risk of exacerbating the tensions in the region that run so deeply along religious lines. (On the other hand, by emphasizing the important of connections among all Muslims, Obama may have some success in reducing the conflicts along national, ethnic, cultural, and linguistic lines.)
The importance of studying U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East is that all carefully considered information and theories about this subject, by adding to the marketplace of ideas, help even if only incidentally to move the world towards a more rational (and equitable) set of policies in the region (Dworkin, 1996, pp. 46; Hanania, 2009).
The thesis that I will be…… [Read More]
This will continue to be the case for the foreseeable decades as the United States fights wars that are so far not yet even imagined. If these wars have been fought (as many have suggested) over the presence of the scarce resource of oil, the next wars may be fought over the even more precious resource of water.
Looking not too far into the future, the next wars may be fought over the consequences (the magnitude of which has not been determined) of climate change. As the surface of the world itself changes with rising seawater and increasing disastrous floods, hurricanes, and droughts, the nature of war is likely to change ever more dramatically and ever more quickly. Petraeus has proven to be the kind of military leader who can understand that strength is based on intelligence and flexibility, not a clinging to traditions and -- most importantly -- the…… [Read More]
Changing Nature of arfare
According to generals like Rupert Smith and David Petraeus, postmodern conflict is radically different from warfare between industrialized states, such as the American Civil ar and the world wars of the 20th Century. It does not begin with a condition of peace or return to it after the total defeat of the enemy, but rather is a "continuous crisscrossing between confrontation and conflict," often with indecisive results (Smith 19). Confrontations with North Korea and Serbia, for example, continued long after the end of the actual fighting on the battlefield, and the political issues that gave rise to the conflicts remained unresolved. These types of conflicted often dragged on for years or even decades, as in Afghanistan and Somalia, and were always fought among the people, with enemies who had a strong tactical advantage over their better funded and equipped opponents because of their familiarity with local…… [Read More]
Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American ar and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.
Texas and the est itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…… [Read More]
Defined as “an aggressive program of expansion,” Manifest Destiny characterizes American national identity (Haynes, 2006, p. 1). Manifest Destiny refers to both a philosophy and a strategy: a means of crafting the notion of American exceptionalism as well as the methods used to construct American geo-political power. The geographic shape of the United States today owes itself to the principles and widespread embrace of Manifest Destiny, in which Washington laid claim to lands that had to be taken by force, from the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 through to the acquisition of Texas and northern Mexico, to the takeover of Hawaii. The consequences of Manifest Destiny continue to reverberate more than two centuries after the initial rise of territorial expansion programs. Manifest Destiny emboldened the American experiment, fueling its economy, bolstering its military and political power, and exacerbating social unrest and disparity.
The relative ease with which the United States acquisitioned…… [Read More]
During Catherine Beecher’s time, the extent to which women should be educated and the composition of that education was hotly debated. This short book is an outline of what should constitute an appropriate education for a young lady. Beecher spends equal time detailing a young woman’s moral education as she does the ideal young woman’s domestic education. The first half of the book is primarily devoted to theorizing about how women should be educated and a defense of a holistic approach to female education while the second half of the book details the specifics of how Beecher believes a house should be run.
According to Beecher: “We are not to annihilate the love of praise and admiration; but so to control it, that the favor of God shall be regarded more than the estimation of men” (Beecher 171). Also contrary to the commonsense wisdom of her day, Beecher suggests that…… [Read More]
Corporate Mergers and the Public Good
The United States of America, during the last years of the Nineteenth Century, witnessed a rash of corporate mergers. The Industrial Revolution had taken firm hold, and the nation was changing rapidly. Millions of Americans who had once been independent farmers or tradesmen now found themselves in the position of what some termed "wage slaves." At the mercy of their corporate employers, they worked long hours at low pay, and often under appalling conditions. The reasons for the merger mania of this period are many and complex, as are its effects upon the population as a whole. In breaking down the traditional vocational environment, the gigantic new conglomerates also transformed the entire social landscape. ork was no longer a family business shared by all generations. Communities no longer clung together for mutual protection and aid. Suddenly, the citizen of this new world was out…… [Read More]
Frederick Douglass: Abolitionist
Frederick Douglass, one among the leading personalities in civil rights history, escaped a life of slavery and went on to become a social justice advocate; he is counted among prominent personalities like President Lincoln, Harriet Tubman, Susan rownell Anthony and William Lloyd Garrison. The historic 13th Amendment was the fruit of Douglass' and others' efforts towards civil rights; but Douglass knew well that African-Americans had a long way to go in gaining complete freedom. Douglass, in 1832, was sent away from the city, to Thomas Auld's plantation. Thomas (Hugh Auld's brother) sent Frederick to Edward Covey, the infamous "slave-driver and negro-breaker" who was known for crushing the resistance of any slave. Here, Douglass was beaten severely. Once, the 16-year-old Douglass retaliated, physically besting Covey; hereafter, he was never whipped again. In 1841, Douglass got acquainted with William Lloyd Garrison (a highly outspoken abolitionist and founder of abolitionist…… [Read More]
Statistics show that black murderers are far more likely than white murderers to get the death penalty, especially if the victim was white. Blacks make up 12% of the population but 40% of the population on death row, as noted. Georgia can serve as a case in point. Statistics show that a black man accused of killing a white person in Georgia is substantially more likely to receive the death penalty than a white person convicted of killing either a white or a black, and forty-six percent of the inmates on Georgia's death row are black, with most on death row for killing a white person. The situation is much the same in the 35 other states that have capital punishment. In Maryland, blacks make up nearly 90% of the prisoners on death row; in Illinois, 63%; and in Pennsylvania, 60%. The disparity nationwide is even greater when the race…… [Read More]
ashington Rules: America's Path To Permanent ar
ritten by a former Army Colonel, ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) is a striking analysis of America's pro-military psyche and determination to "to lead, save, liberate, and ultimately transform the world" (Bacevich, 2010, p. 12) through worldwide militarism. Commencing post-orld ar II, the global military presence that has become a fact of American life has been supported by Democrats and Republicans alike, though it has significantly drained our resources. hile some critics and this reader take issue with some aspects of Bacevich's book, in many respects it provides a voice of sanity in the face of the U.S.'s now-unbearable global pro-war stance.
Bacevich's book is anything but the compliment, "ashington Rules!" ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) relates his own educational journey from a pro-military conservative soldier to a questioner who attacks the American…… [Read More]
obert Kagan has been described as a "neoconservative historian,"[footnoteef:1] and yet the commentator's views are more complex than can be squeezed into one phrase. Kagan does exhibit some of the hallmarks of neoconservative ideology, including the continued belief in American exceptionalism, and a willingness to use terms like "new world order."[footnoteef:2] Kagan vehemently opposes the belief that the American hegemon is declining in status and power, admitting only that the United States is rethinking its role in foreign policy and international affairs. Kagan is a foreign policy advisor who Barack Obama has reportedly heralded and cited in presidential speeches.[footnoteef:3] One reviewer of books in The New York Times described the author's work as being "wonderfully argued."[footnoteef:4] Another claims that glaring logical fallacies, "fuzzy generalizations, debatable assertions and self-important declarations of the obvious," generally discredit the international relations maestro.[footnoteef:5] Therefore, obert Kagan emerges as a highly controversial commentator who, at…… [Read More]
American frontier in a comparative analysis using two books (Luis Alberto Urrea, In Search of Snow, 1994; Sam Shepard, True est, 1981) and a film, No Country for Old Men, Directed by Ethan and Joel Coen, 2007. These books will be presented in a comparative analysis with the film. The analyses used in this paper will focus on values, setting, conflicts and the way of life presented in each.
How factual are entertainment portrayals of the American frontier?
How much of what has been written about the American frontier is myth, and how much is factual? According to history professor Richard . Slatta scholars have "debunked three of the est's central myths," including rugged individualism, frontier violence, and American exceptionalism (Slatta, 2010). riters and film-makers have gone about creating a western frontier "the way they want it rather than the way it was" (Slatta, 84).
No Country for Old Men…… [Read More]
As the leader of the free world, the United States remains in the limelight as the rest of the world keeps a keen eye on how they conduct their affairs. As it appertains to constitutional interpretation, the U.S. has a sound philosophy dubbed 'living constitutionalism.' In the American constitutional dispensation, as in other countries, the letter of the law is unequivocal. That notwithstanding, many agree that every society is dynamic in nature. As such, as society keeps changing, there is a growing need for the constitution to be equally as dynamic in view of various considerations. Implementing and enforcing the letter of the law as stated in constitutional clauses often has its shortcomings. The concept 'Living Constitutionalism' revolves around humanizing the law. By adding the element of humanity in the law, the constitution gains a dynamic element. This idea relates to the view of the society as contemporaneous,…… [Read More]
death toll rises in Iraq and questions are raised regarding the foreign policies practiced by the United States, books like Jack Donnelly's International Human Rights become particularly relevant. American intervention in Iraq has become one of the salient political issues of our time, one that begs a thorough investigation of the need for international human rights policies. In his book, Donnelly presents a thorough overview of the politics of human rights, tracing its role in domestic and foreign policies since the Second orld ar. In fact, the author notes that before the 1940s, international human rights were of little importance. Isolationism and strict respect for national sovereignty guided foreign relations policies and precluded nations, individuals, or organizations from taking action to promote human rights outside of their own communities. Pointing out how the Holocaust moved human rights into the realm of international politics in conjunction with a burgeoning global economic…… [Read More]
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…… [Read More]
My brother has been unemployed for two years. He is not a moocher -- he works odd jobs and takes care of our ailing grandmother. But the economy in upstate New York has suffered a lot as the result of the financial meltdown. While the bankers on Wall Street continue to get richer and richer, ordinary people continue to struggling with the effects of their corrupt ways. Don't get me wrong -- I love what capitalism can do for us -- everything we take for granted today. But we a capitalist system that works for everybody.
Consider that real wages have flatlined since the 1970s, while the wealth of the richest 1% keeps growing exponentially. We want wage equality and equal rights for all Americans, not just wealthy ones. We want corporate money out of politics. Consider that the Supreme Court rulings that corporations are people (What?
) and that…… [Read More]
S. It is now the Germans, the British, the Italians, the Swedes, and all of the European Union."
Over the last fifty years the American foreign policy has been characterized by "liberal internationalism and globalism"
During the period between 1781, which was the beginning of the confederation through the year 1941 the country was equal in unilateralist and isolationist in theoretical framework of international affairs. However in 1941 at the time Pearl Harbor was attacked oosevelt sold the theoretical stance of internationalism to the citizens of America as well as to the epublican Party. Isolationism stated that our neighbors were far away across vast oceans, so therefore, why bother with problems that far away from our homes. Stated by Kupchan (2003) is: " The unilateralism came from two things:
1) American exceptionalism, the sense that we were a new, unique nation, and we don't want to engage in the world,…… [Read More]
America and controversial issue
According to historian Frederick Turner, America is by nature a 'pioneering' nation. It is distinctly different in its worldview from Europe, given that it has been founded upon the ideals of newness, expansiveness, and the drive to move forward. Americans are practical, self-reliant, and tough. Turner also suggested that Americans innately 'crave' the frontier to realize the full scope of their ambitions. Americans are hardy, and feel they can overcome any challenges. They disdain hierarchies based upon aristocracy, and instead value a person's merit and ability to rise to a challenge. In contrast, Oscar Handlin stressed America's identity as a nation of immigrants. Founded by people seeking refuge from persecution, Handlin saw the forging of the American character as something difficult, as it required bringing together people of vastly different cultures, all of whom had overcome tremendous challenges to arrive in America.
Americans who take the…… [Read More]
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…… [Read More]
President Kennedy's term of office arrived at a transitional time in American history, when the idealism of the 1950s was slowly beginning to fade into the realities of the Cold ar. Foreign policy concerns were not the only thing to plague the Kennedy administration. Domestic issues were perhaps even more important. Shifting social norms presented problems related to race, class, gender, and power. Moreover, the anti-Communist scare was causing the administration to assume an aggressive interventionist policy the likes of which was unprecedented in American history. Involvement in Vietnam, committing American troops to a remote war, eventually led to a massive anti-war movement. Kennedy's assassination shook the nation awake, and ushered in a new era of social unrest. Civil rights and a broad mistrust of government would be themes in the next decade of American history. hen Kennedy refers to the "larger freedom and a more equal and spacious…… [Read More]
Anti-science is nothing new and in fact has been seamlessly woven into the story of human progress. Locating historical incidents linked to the repercussions of anti-intellectualism or anti-science is easy. One of the first European examples of the repercussions of anti-intellectualism is the story of Socrates's death sentence due to his philosophy of reason contradicting the established religious authorities in ancient Athens. Anti-intellectualism permeates European history, culminating with the excommunication of prominent scientists like Galileo and Kepler. Science, truth, and intellectual inquiry can present clear threats to an established authority like the Catholic Church or any other religious body, as well as threatening powerful political authorities or social systems like patriarchy. Any social system that relies on propaganda and myth-making to preserve its integrity is naturally going to be threatened by science and intellectual or critical inquiry. On the surface, there is a sort of quaintness about anti-intellectualism that appeals…… [Read More]
People have been unmotivated to offset the cabon dioxide emissions of automobiles due to a pesonal attachment to thei cas. Howeve, they have also been moe willing to implement pocedues and poducts in thei home that ae moe enegy efficient. One notable example of this concens electicity and light fixtues. In ecent yeas, lighting that is moe enegy efficient has become incedibly popula, and it has been shown that people ae even willing to pay geate sums of money to puchase lighting systems that ae moe enegy efficient (Stall-Meadows, Hebet, 2001). Such behavio stands in stak contast with consume habits with egad to automobiles, and this is pehaps attibutable to the fact that electicity is viewed as being moe utilitaian and less of a status symbol. It may also be a esult of the fact that cas ae moe public while electicity is featued in the pivacy of one's own…… [Read More]
The presentation of propaganda is one of the ways political agendas are advanced using the educational system. Historically, educational systems are used to teach ideas that are often scientifically false. An example of this would be the teaching of the inferiority of blacks as a way to shape the argument on race relations during the slavery period. A more recent example of that practice would be the attempt to change the content of text books to shape the concerns relating to the evolution and creation debate. The pro-creation side of the debate would like text books to not contain statements that support evolution. The debate for civil rights and in particular gay rights required educational changes to advance the movement. The gay rights movement while political is supported by having an educational system that suggests gays should have rights. This approach uses education to shape the ideas of future generations…… [Read More]
Enforce the Death Penalty for Murders Over a Life Sentence
This paper addresses the question: Is it more cost effective to enforce the death penalty for murders over a life sentence? Several topics will be covered such as why it could be cost effective and why it has not been cost effective. Several articles point to the need for prisons to carry out death penalties in order for death penalty sentencing to be cost effective. The introduction will highlight why the death penalty has been regulated more so than enforced.
Other articles will also show how death penalty sentencing can be used a means of creating persuasive plea bargains as criminals do not want to experience death row. Another article states how expensive maintenance of death row inmates are vs. inmates who received life sentences. It also shows how many inmates were killed on death row vs. The…… [Read More]
China in the South China Sea
The geopolitical and economic consequences of China's occupation of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea can perhaps best be measured the est's (or simply ashington's) response to China's move. As Durden notes, the South China Sea is not just important to China; it is important to ashington, too, which is accused of "militarizing the region" by the Chinese. But this is essentially what the U.S. is accusing China of, while Japan meanwhile claims that China is siphoning natural gas from its side of the "economic zone" (Durden). Thus, by building islands and runways in the Spratlys and expanding itself in the South China Sea, China is provoking a host of reactions from other nations (estern or estern-supported), indicating that there is a serious economic and geopolitical clash at hand over this issue. The main economic consequence coming from the U.S. will be…… [Read More]
Flying and How Amelia Makes it "Thinkable"
The Amelia Earhart website does continue to make flying thinkable because it showcases flying as such an adventurous, bold and beautiful -- not just mode of transportation -- but way of life. The fact that the first video link is to the trailer for the Hollywood movie Amelia (2009) staring Hillary Swank just emphasizes the point: Amelia (the brand) has embodied the spirit of Americanism, Freedom, and Flying for generations of Americans -- making the concept of aviation much more appealing to the average consumer (Corn, 1979). It is now the case that for young people, flying is looked upon as an exciting experience, one that takes them out of the ordinary into the realm of the extraordinary -- so that they are kindred spirits of Amelia -- the pioneer woman in aviation and history.
Thus, flying is made "thinkable" because of brands…… [Read More]
Liberals & Conservatives
The rather divergent swath of political ideology that pervades the United States political scene is hard to miss. Indeed, the obvious and apparent idea differences that exist between the right and left wings is impossible to miss. Also hard to miss are the pejoratives and demagoguery that happen all of the time. Even with all of that, there are many people that openly monitor and assess this political dichotomy. There are even some such as assert that such a "yin" and "yang" is necessary as the two groups of thought "need" each other to contribute to a health political system. While the idea that political strife that leads to such nasty insults being normal and the natural order of things might be foreign or even insulting to some, this brief report shall explore the idea in earnest.
Even with the political bomb-throwing and jockeying that is…… [Read More]
pursuit of education in a wide variety of area. Two areas of educational pursuit apply to the criminal justice and security management fields. Criminal justice can best be described as ensuring that criminal acts do not go unpunished while the perpetrators of these acts receive the quickest, most efficient and fairest scrutiny of the crimes and are judged accordingly.
In determining what is criminal justice and how does society determine exactly how to administer it, oftentimes research is used to help guide decisions, form policies, and present standards to society. The research will often use different methodologies to determine in which manner to apply justice. These methodologies include quantitative, qualitative, action, and mixed research as the primary sources of analysis.
Qualitative research can be used to help determine perceptions, thoughts and ideals, while action research takes place after certain actions are implemented. Mixed research is used when a variety of…… [Read More]
Workplace Conflict Management
The modern business environment comprises individuals from different nationalities, racial and ethnic backgrounds because of increased globalization and rapid technological advancements. As a result, human resource management practices in today’s business atmosphere have incorporated diversity as a crucial component towards promoting the wellbeing and success of the workforce. Diversity is seen as an important factor in enhancing the contributions of the workforce toward achievement of organizational goals and objectives. However, organizations are faced with the need to handle conflicts effectively because of the diverse nature of the workplace and workforce (Oni-Ojo, Iyiola & Osibanjo, 2014). Therefore, workplace conflict management has emerged as an important factor toward promoting the suitable functioning of the workforce. Effective workplace conflict management requires understanding the causes and impacts of conflict and utilizing appropriate strategies to lessen unnecessary conflicts and/or deal with them.
Causes and Impacts of Workplace Conflict
According to Overton &…… [Read More]
Thomas Bender is qualified in telling the story of America as he sees it given that he is a professor of history, the University Professor of Humanities, and director of the International Center for Advanced Studies at New York University. He is also the author and editor of many books, has been awarded prizes and scholarships, and is a renowned historian of American culture. In this way, well acquainted with the history of America, he is able to critically asses the fashion of its narration as well as recommend the way that it should be told, and its narration, he informs, us does not cohere to the way that American history actually occurred in reality.
According to Bender, we are apt to view American history as autonomous and independent events that signaled the rise of an autonomous and independent nation, but the country's history, he tells us, is really part…… [Read More]
Crazy Horse and the Western Hero
Crazy Horse, believed born sometime in 1838, was a respected member of the Oglala Sioux Native American tribe and is noted for his courage in battle. He was recognized among his own people as a visionary leader committed to preserving the traditions and values of the Lakota way of life and leading his people into a war against the take-over of their lands by the White Man. The location of Crazy Horses birth is not conclusively known. Some sources report his birthplace as the South Cheyenne River. Other sources point to either Rapid Creek, near present day Rapid City, South Dakota, or near ear utte outside Sturgis, South Dakota.
Crazy Horse earned his reputation among the Lakota not only by his skill and daring in battle, but also by his fierce determination to preserve his people's traditional way of life. Celebrated for his ferocity…… [Read More]
It wasn't until the 1920s and '30s that their blue-collar counterparts began to get paid vacations as well.
Americans in the late 20th century "worked more days per year than workers in other prosperous nations, such as those in Europe, yet on average, had less vacation time (Sabga, 2001)." Americans averaged two to three weeks off a year, in sharp contrast to many European nations which guaranteed up to six weeks a year. This is due to the fact "unlike in other countries, particularly Europe, vacations in the United States are not guaranteed by the government (Sabga, 2001)."
oles of Women
Women have played important roles in science and technology, however many times they have faced "social, economic, and intellectual obstacles (Kohlstedt, 2004)." In the early 20th century, the United States benefited from the efforts of "women of distinction like Anna
Botsford Comstock and Ellen Swallow ichards, while in Europe…… [Read More]
America was a wonderful experiment in freedom and democracy which had never before been attempted by any nation. Nations either tried to give power to the people in order to prevent monarchies from rising to despotic power, or they allowed monarchs, despots and other sole figure heads to rise to power. In the case of allowing the people to rule, Europe and European's had learned many times that unbridled power in the hands of the people was no more just than the rule of despots. obs could become just as dictatorial as individual monarchs who sat upon golden thrones. Until America came into existence, nations could only expect to exist for a short time before political turmoil would create change of government, and the nation would start over again.
So as America grew from a fledgling nation to a powerful and economically stable country, those who had watched democracy struggle…… [Read More]
Yes, technology generates problems, and it is shrewd and apt to point out that for every net gain to certain members of society via technology there is a net loss. The hand weavers of the 18th century were put out of business by 19th century factories that could manufacture clothing cheaply, computers have probably collectively caused the art of calligraphy to die, and made even professional writers overly reliant on spell check and less willing to rewrite their work from scratch. However, would any of the authors included in the collection summarized in the essay really wish to go back to a world without antibiotics? Technology has enabled people whose vision would be a blur to see with 20/20 perfection, and made travel financially accessible to millions who would have been relegated to the narrow point-of-view of their homes. hile it is easy to find detriments to these benefits…… [Read More]
Orfield (2009) points out, in the beginning of his article, that after fifty-five years from the historical rown decision, segregation in school remains a big problem for the African-American and Latino populations, quite often to a higher degree than before. As he continues, this trend is particularly worrisome in suburban locations and in ghetto locations in the cities as well.
This paper, however, argues that this is more a consequence of economic and social factors rather than a racial issue, as in the past. The documentary Detropia provides useful arguments towards this thesis. The first thing to consider is that communities tend to be static rather than dynamic. This is a statement that is true not only for Africa-American and Latino communities, but also for Chinese or even European communities. It is much simpler for people to remain within the same community, benefiting from its protection (from an economic…… [Read More]
It is hard to determine what was the foreign policy used by the George . Bush administration in the Iraq ar. The U.S. foreign policy was shaped by outside factors up to the 9/11 events. The presidential administrations preceding George . Bush's were aware that they had to adapt their foreign policies on account of their interests and of the interests of the international public. Surprisingly, at the apex of the Iraq ar, a large number of Democrats in Congress conveyed ambiguous criticism. Moreover, through their criticism, Republicans proved that they were in fact supportive of the war (Forsythe, 2004, p. 79).
Throughout his first term, George . Bush managed to generate positive feedbacks from the American public. "Culturally conservative voters and especially white evangelical Christians" appeared to have become fond of him and thus turned most of their votes toward choosing him to complete a second term. One of…… [Read More]
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…… [Read More]
Davis, Natalie Zemon. Trickster Travels: A Sixteenth-Century Muslim etween Worlds. New York: Hill & Wang, 2006.
One of the most famous Shakespearean plays is Othello, but few people today are aware of the figure who inspired the central character or how any early European modern authors gained knowledge of the Muslim world.[footnoteRef:1] In her book Trickster Travels: A Sixteenth-Century Muslim between Worlds. Natalie Zemon Davis chronicles the life of Yuhanna al-Asad al-Gharnati (also known as Ioannes Leo Africanus), who wrote a series of volumes designed to introduce the Christian reader to the Muslim way of life. His works were to become seminal texts in defining how Europeans saw the Muslim world as well as Jews and Semitic persons deemed to be 'other.' The author was a Muslim who converted to Christianity after being captured and enslaved and wrote his text under the auspices of Pope Leo X, who was fascinated…… [Read More]
change' these non-acknowledgements of the disease?
hange will not come overnight given that the non-acknowledgement of the disease has roots in Japan's culture that are very deep -- roots that reach back before the beginning of AIDS in regards to Japan's sense of exceptionalism and sense of remove from what are seen as Western problems. However, given the fact that Japan desires to be part of the international community and economy, it cannot afford to ignore pressure from international AIDS organizations. Organizations which bring together activists from many nations and international health organizations like WHO (the World Health Organization) can work in conjunction to create an international climate in which an insufficiently aggressive AIDS policy is viewed as a profound negative for a nation in PR terms. Activists within Japan can also put pressure on the government, create privately-funded public awareness campaigns, and help to raise the public profile of…… [Read More]
Huntington's disease (HD) was the first autonomic dominant disorder for which genetic prediction became possible" (Harper, et al., 2000, Journal of Medical Genetics, p. 567). HD is a disease that occurs due to an inherited disorder leading to the death of brain cells. A diagnosis of HD is accomplished through genetic testing which can be implemented at any age regardless of whether the symptoms manifest or not. Although, the specific symptoms vary between people, nevertheless, symptoms can start with people between 35 and 45 years of age and can also start in some individuals at even anearlier age. The disease may affect successive generations if health interventions are not implemented (Mandel, 2016).
Additionally, "the cause of HD is due to a dominant mutation of autosomal form of the gene called Huntington. This shows that a child born by an affected person has a 50% chance of developing or inheriting the…… [Read More]
The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…… [Read More]
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…… [Read More]
The author explains that is the case because it would lead to complete chaos (Ikenberry 2005). In addition a neo-imperial system of American rule is too expensive and burdened with inconsistencies, and based on an exaggerated accounting of American power (Ikenberry 2005). The asserts that Likewise, there are an array of incentives and impulses that will persuade the United States to try to organize unipolarity around multilateral rules and institutions. The United States may want to renegotiate rules and institutions in some global areas, but it ultimately will want to wield its power legitimately in a world of rules and institutions. It will also have incentives to build and strengthen regional and global institutions in preparation for a future 'after unipolarity'. The rising power of China, India, and other non-Western states presents a challenge to the old American-led order that will require new, expanded, and shared international governance arrangements (Ikenberry…… [Read More]
Man's Ability To Treat Humans Like Animals
It is a vivid fact that the feelings of cruelty, discrimination and racial distribution are embedded well in to human nature since its very inception. This world depicts several cases where humans treat other humans like animals and ignore their right of living peacefully and according to their own will. This article highlights the work of several writers who have depicted the different ways in which humans have been treated brutally by other humans. Majority of the cases deal with racial discrimination and poverty-based cruelty issues encountered by humans. The article presents an in depth analysis of the works of seven different writers and how their works represent the ill treatment encountered by the human race.
Charles Chestnutt's "Po Sandy" and its Linkage to Human Cruelty
"Po' Sandy" written by Charles Chestnutt is basically the story of Sandy, who is made the slave…… [Read More]
Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995 as a type of punishment in Alabama prisons, thus bringing back to life one of the most shameful and powerful symbol of America's bequest of institutionalized ethnic subjugation and racial prejudice. The 8th Amendment prohibits all punishments that are not in agreement with the evolving decency standards that exhibits the growth of an emergent civilization. Slavery was not abolished immediately as a consequence of implementation of the 13th Amendment.
Despite the constitutional provisions for the total prohibition of slavery; the remnants of slavery could still be found in several economic, political and social contexts. Under the disguise of criminal justice, slavery was almost unashamedly re-implemented. Before the 13th Amendment saw the light of the day, repressive labor practices were introduced into…… [Read More]