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The figure of Elvis, the king of rock and roll, the scenes of famous blockbuster productions, McDonalds and Coca Cola, the fashion presentations in New York or Los Angeles, the Super Bowl, all these are symbols of the American culture and a means through which the U.S. is manifesting its Americanism.
On the other side, there is the notion of Americanism as a means of politically controlling the war. The most recent manifestation of this was the 2003 war in Iraq that was often justified through three components, as Francis Fukuyama suggests, "the Bush Administration based its arguments for the war in Iraq on three elements: firstly, this country had weapons of mass destruction and it was about to build many more; secondly, this country had ties with the Al Qaeda terrorist network; thirdly, Iraq was yet another dictatorial tyranny and its people disserved to be rescued from under its…
Fukuyama, Francis. America at the crossroads. Democracy, power, and the neoconservative legacy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
Americanism and Multiculturalism
Definition of the concepts
Strategies for synthesizing
Differences between right wing and left wing
Education and Multiculturalism
Education and Americanism
Role of intelligentsia
Political ideals have shaped the history of America more than any other element. This factor has had an influence on the multi-cultural outlook of America and subsequently educational disciplines have struggled with balancing multiculturalism and Americanism within the educational realm. Providing expansive definitions for both Americanism and multiculturalism will help elaborate how Americanism and multiculturalism can be incorporated in education while not divorcing any one of them from the field of education.
Educators can communicate Americanism and embrace multiculturalism in education by synthesizing the theoretical perspective and purpose of both the concepts whilst not disregarding true tenets of ideological foundations of both Americanism and multiculturalism. Having elaborately defined the theoretical perspective of Americanism and multiculturalism, it can state that both…
American Legion. (n.d.)Americanism. Retrieved from: http://www.americanlegionpost52easleysc.org/content.php?id=101
Glazer, N. (1997). We are all multiculturalists now. . Harvard University Press .
Kazin, M. & . (2006). Americanism: new perspectives on the history of an ideal. University of North Carolina Press.
Kintz, L. (1997). Between Jesus and the market: The emotions that matter in right-wing America. Duke University Press Books.
Moreover, while the U.S. did not seem to be particularly affected with the fact that North Korea was in possession of nuclear weapons, it was reluctant to support South Korea in developing a nuclear weapon program, in point of fact emphasizing that this would come in disagreement with the country's international obligations (Shorrock 18).
Tensions grew significantly in the last few years, given that the U.S. is still reluctant to accept North Korea's actions, in spite of the fact that South Korea becomes more and more exposed with the passing of time. Strong anti-American feelings developed in South Korea as a result of the fact that Americans expressed little interest in consolidating its security and because the overall state of affairs pointed toward a significant crisis experienced by their country (Shorrock 18).
Roh Moo-hyun, the sixteenth South Korean president was much more determined in expressing an anti-American behavior than his…
Katzenstein, Peter J. And Keohane, Robert O. "Anti-Americanisms," Policy Review
Kim, Mikyoung "Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Impact of AntiAmericanism on Locally Employed Staff at the American Embassy in Korea," Public Personnel Management 34.3 (2005)
Larson, Eric V. Levin, Norman D. Baik, Seonhae and Savych, Bogdan. Ambivalent Allies? A Study of South Korean Attitudes toward the U.S. (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2004)
Olsen, Edward a. Toward Normalizing U.S. -- Korea Relations: In Due Course? (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002)
"Communities of all types also were affected by the growth of roadside business establishments that catered to the automobile. The two most important generic categories in this regard are facilities that provide fuel (the gas/filling / service station) and food (roadside/fast-food restaurants)." (Berger 2001, 193)
There is even a great deal of evidence that the hamburger and the fast food industry have transformed marketing and even the architecture of the U.S. through transforming the ease of use and creating iconography that represents the image of America all over the world, but particularly American roads.
More specific in terms of food, but not necessarily of architecture, is Jeffrey Tennyson's Hamburger Heaven: The Illustrated History of the Hamburger, which, among other things, treats the design of hamburger restaurants and fast-food chains in a chapter entitled "Architecture and Signage." broader perspective is offered in John F. Mariani's America Eats Out, wherein the author…
Berger, Michael L. 2001. The Automobile in American History and Culture: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Betts, Raymond F. 2004. A History of Popular Culture: More of Everything, Faster, and Brighter. New York: Routledge.
Cudahy, Brian J. 1990. Cash, Tokens, and Transfers: A History of Urban Mass Transit in North America. New York: Fordham University Press.
Hamburger today website at http://www.ahamburgertoday.com/archives/2005/08/the_history_of.php
Pictures on the news of American flags being burned seem to appear more often than they used to. Perhaps my generation just isn't used to having our nation criticized to the extent that it has been since our response to September 11; we all know there have been anti-American protests in the past, that flags have been burned and protests against certain American military endeavors waged. Anti-Americanism has many definitions and encompasses many things, but "new" is not an applicable descriptor. Sentiments deriding American values, attitudes, and actions have existed since the establishment of the colonies, expressed in a variety of formats and with various causes. What has changed is not the existence of anti-Americanism, but what it means for the nation in international relations today.
his essay will examine anti-Americanism: first, its history and various forms throughout the world; at the same time, the causes of anti-American sentiment will…
Takis, M., 2002. "America the Despised," National Interest, Issue 67, p94
Toinet, M., 1990. "Does Anti-Americanism exist?" In Lacorne, D., et. al., eds., The Rise and Fall of Anti-Americanism, Macmillan, London.
Various Authors, 2005, "America the Dangerous" Foreign Policy, Special edition, Issue 146.
Anti Americanism & Iranian Revolution
Anti-Americanism is not a new concept in Iran and has been characterized by increased calls and support for death to America. Anti-Americanism sentiments started in Iran in 1979 following the Islamic Revolution in Iran, which had considerable impacts on the relations between the United States and Iran. hen the Islamic Revolution occurred in 1979, Iranian Islamic radicals captured the American Embassy in Tehran and brought widespread anti-Americanism throughout the country. Anti-Americanism in the Iranian Revolution of 1979 was characterized by various factors including statements that the United States was "the Great Satan" and the fall of Mohammad Mossadeqh. There were also other incidents related to this revolution including the Shah's modernization of Iran and human rights violations under the Shah. The evaluation of anti-Americanism and the Iranian Revolution also require examining the significance of Iran in the context of the Cold ar.
Importance of Anti-Americanism…
Clawson, Patrick. "THE PARADOX OF ANTI-AMERICANISM IN IRAN." Middle East Review of International Affairs 18.1 (2004): 16-24. The Washington Institute - Improving the Quality of U.S. Middle East Policy. The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Mar. 2004. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .
Tabaar, Mohammad A. "Strategic Anti-Americanism in Iran from the Hostage Crisis to Nuclear Talks." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 4 Nov. 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .
Wise, Krysta. "Islamic Revolution of 1979: The Downfall of American-Iranian Relations." Legacy 11.1 (2011): 1-16. Southern Illinois University Carbondale. Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 2011. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .
Zanchetta, Barbara. "THE UNITED STATES AND THE "LOSS" OF IRAN." INTERNATIONAL HISTORY AND POLITICS. GRADUATE INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES, June 2009. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .
Klan's Fight for Americanism
*hy do you think this document was written?
This document was written because of the author's growing admiration for the KKK and from a desire to demonstrate clear and public support for it. By demonstrating such public support for the KKK, Evans is essentially making this organization stronger and more vital. Evans is pushing the organization forward through this publicity, by taking a clear and positive stance on it. Evans is also asserting himself as a supporter of the racist, white-power movement, and is fundamentally lending his name to help strengthen the cause of the KKK in general. In this sense, there is a sort of symbiotic association which is present through Evan drafting this material: by aligning himself with the KKK, he is feeding off their power and strength, and vice versa. Furthermore, Evans is asserting himself as an expert on the KKK and the…
Evans, H. (1926). The Klan's Fight for Americanism. The North American Review, 33-63.
Racial division in American society has always been a critical social, political and economic issue. Andrew Hacker in his work 'Tow Nations' argues that racism still plagues our society and its various sectors and also accounts for poor performance or low representation of blacks in various job and educational sectors. Glenn Loury attacks Hacker for his oversimplified vision in his own review of Two Nations entitled 'Liberal Racism'. I agree that Hacker's is probably the most cliched argument we have ever heard and what is even more hackneyed about the whole writing is the way Hacker tries to impose his views without presented any evidence to support his thesis. Granted, blacks are not as dominant in medicine or that black children's performance on SATs and other standardized tests is at par with their white counterparts but how can we prove that it is due to poor exposure which…
Power & Nationalism
Koreans seems to have grown tired of the American presence in their country. Is this a fact? What are its causes and how has it come to this status? The American presence in the Korean Peninsula dates from the Korean War, which was the first major war after the Second World War. The war started in 1950 with the invasion of South Korea by the Communist North. The war had been predictable for some time, as the Communist threat had become more persistent in that part of Asia, with the Communists having gained power in China in 1949, however, the United Stats had previously stated that it held no interest in the area and that it would not intervene.
Albeit this, Harry Truman and his advisors decided to send air strikes in North Korea and gained a United Nations mandate to send troops under its emblem to…
Korean War History Guide. Can be found on The History Beat, on the World Wide Web at http://www.searchbeat.com / http://www.korea.army.mil/welcome/sofa.htm (for the SOFA agreement)
http://www.yonip.com/main/articles/declaration_on_current_situation.html (for a case of two Americans that crushed to death two Korean girls in a car accident)
Therefore, regardless of their system of manifestation, they are considered by the law suspicious of any possible acts of violence.
The government is the highest authority to impose rules and regulations. Despite the fact that there are local governments as well, at the level of the federal one, action needs to be taken. For instance in schools, the government may offer free access to the internet. Possible programs that would ensure the communication may be available for getting to know one's country and develop a sense of acceptance of different vaues.
5. Give your overall assessment of the U.S.A. PATIOT ACT. Do you think it has contributed to the lack of terror attacks in the United States since 9/11? If you were in Congress, would you vote to renew the act as is? Would you change anything? Why or why not?
The U.S. Patriot Act is the result of the…
Gregory, a. (2005). Nationalism and Anti-Americanism. 24 Jan. 2008 http://www.lewrockwell.com/gregory/gregory97.html
Principles of the Just War. (2006). 24 Jan. 2008. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/justwar.htm
The Detroit Arab-American Community. (2008). Arab Detroit. 24 Jan. 2008 http://www.arabdetroit.com/arabamericans.php
Even if the torture of these people would save lives it is a slippery slope that we do not want to begin. Once we allow the torture of suspects or terrorists it could begin a landslide witch-hunt in which people who are not terrorists and have not committed any crimes could be tortured based on suspect or circumstantial evidence.
While there is justified outrage at what happened in this country we, as Americans, must maintain our ethical standards at all times. It is only by maintaining these standards that we can hope to set and example worldwide about the strength and dignity of our nation and all that it stands for.
The history of "just war" philosophy stems from religious and secular issues. One of the longest standing Just War traditions centers on religious differences including the differences between Muslim and Christian faiths. In addition the "Just War" theories support…
Anti-American Backlash The Washington Post; 10/16/2001 The Washington Post
10-16-2001 Anti-American Backlash
IRAQ WAR MIGHT NOT BE A 'JUST WAR' United Press International; 10/1/2002
United Press International 10-01-2002
Among these statements include:
1. "We must oppose this action now, or we do a disservice to our members and will regret it later."
2. "I had lunch the other day with a group of members, and everyone was in agreement that if you opposed this measure, they would vote for you…. This will set the stage for your re-election next year at the end of your present term." The lace of threat of a negative consequence for the decision maker is also palpable in this statement, as it appeals to self-preservation.
3. "I speak for truth and common sense…" is also a shot at arguing based on the fallacy of glittering generality.
While statistics are used to support the arguments, questionable authority on the matter are used such as the case of the brother-in-law, who has not demonstrated as an expert on the issue at hand, and Wikipedia, which…
Browne, M. And S. Keeley. (2007). Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking. NJ: Prentice Hall.
O' Connor, B. (2004). A Brief history of anti-Americanism: From cultural criticism to terrorism. Australasian Journal of American Studies, 77-92.
Hollander, P. (2002). The Politics of Envy. The New Criterion. Retrieved from http://www.newcriterion.com/articles.cfm/the-politics-of-envy-1868.
Taibl, P. (1997). Outsourcing and privatization of defense infrastructure. Business Executives for National Security.
Huckleberry Finn and What Makes an American
What Makes Twain's Huckleberry Finn American?
"Those canonic ideals -- self-government, equal opportunity, freedom of speech and association, a belief in progress, were first proclaimed during the era of the evolution and the early republic and have developed more expansive meanings since then," these are the basic core ideals which make something truly American (Kazin & McCartin 1). The freedom to live as we want, say what we want, and govern ourselves -- these are what make us Americans in culture and ideology. In literature, these core elements are also often what define a book or character as truly American. Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn adheres to the very ideals of what it is to be an American, which is what makes the work and its author truly Americanized in style and content.
One of the most important ideals in the concept of Americanism…
Jehlen, Myra. "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Classic American Literature." Banned in Concord. 1995. Web. http://www.dlackey.org/weblog/docs/Banned_in_Concord.pdf
Kazin, Michael & McCartin, Joseph Anthony. Americanism: New Perspectives on the History of an Ideal. University of North Carolina Press. 2006.
Twain, Mark. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Harper Bros. 1910.
Is the world becoming ineluctably American? This anxious thought has taken off and occasioned substantial discussion in the twenty-first century. But in some sense, asking the question betrays a species of anti-Americanism already. I hope by examining the arguments of three writers who claim that Americanization is rampant and unstoppable -- Mark Rice-Oxley, Vicente Verdu, and Brendon O'Connor -- to show that their anxiety is overstated. Their concerns about America's present military and cultural ubiquity should be contextualized within history itself.
Mark Rice-Oxley's view of Americanization is largely cultural. He notes that "as the unrivaled global superpower, America exports its culture on an unprecedented scale. From music to media, film to fast food, language to literature and sport, the American idea is spreading inexorably, not unlike the influence of empires that preceded it" (Rice-Oxley 2004). Yet there are a number of assumptions underlying this view of encroaching Americanization…
O'Connor, Brendon. "A Brief History of Anti-Americanism: From Cultural History to Terrorism." Australasian Journal of American Studies 23:1 (July 2004): 77-92. Web. Accessed 6 March 2014 at: http://www.anzasa.arts.usyd.edu.au/a.j.a.s/Articles/1_04/OConnor.pdf
Rice-Oxley, M. "In 2,000 Years, Will The World Remember Disney Or Plato?." 15 Jan 2004. Christian Science Monitor. Web. Accessed 6 March 2014 at: http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0115/p16s02-usfp.html
Verdu, Vicente. "We Are All Americans." El Pais. 27 April 2002. Web. Accessed 6 March 2014 at: http://www.worldpress.org/Europe/590.cfm
Primary Source Analysis
One of the key ideas of this document was to reveal to Americans the Klu Klux Klan's perception on white supremacy and also why they considered themselves to be the greatest race in the world. In particular, Evans employs patriotism in some manner to proclaim to Americans that one important element of being American, is to understand that they are superior to other people. In addition, Evans attempts to justify the actions and ideas of the group by linking them to "the mass of the old-stock Americans" who cannot be linked to the "intellectually mongrelized Liberals." In addition, Evans delineates the aspect of Americanism, which he ties to his notion of anti-aliens. He asserts that the immigrants are the ones that should be considered a threat against Americanism. He considered aliens to be a threat because he thought that they blatantly lacked the qualities that made Americans…
Evans, Hiram Wesley. "The Klan's fight for Americanism." The North American Review 223, no. 830 (1926): 33-63.
Simkin, J. "Hiram Wesley Evans." Spartacus Educational, 2016.Retrieved from: http://spartacus-educational.com/USAevansH.htm
Schram, Jamie. "KKK Plans to disrupt Black Lives Matter Rally in the Hamptons." New York Post, 2016. Retrieved from: http://nypost.com/2016/08/17/kkk-plans-to-disrupt-black-lives-matter-rally-in-the-hamptons/
They might make good holiday spots but they do not make good political partners.
Because almost all of the countries that do not maintain a military have treaties with nations that do, few nations can be classified as being truly demilitarized. The nations with explicit pacifist clauses in their constitutions like Costa Rica would be unable to withstand invasion from a hostile nation and are therefore useless in terms of political coalitions. Although not despised per se, nations like Costa Rica would simply be obliterated at the hands of an aggressor.
No nation with meaningful economic or political assets has ever been unarmed. Like Machiavelli points out, wise leaders study the great societies of the past and model their states after them to ensure stability. Even nations with small populations and a reputation for non-interference like Canada have relatively strong militaries. Just as any wealthy person would want an alarm…
Countries without Armies." Army.com. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://www.army.com/countires_without_armies.html
Largest Military Expenditures, 2005." InfoPlease. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0904504.html
List of Countries by Size of Armed Forces." Wikipedia. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_size_of_armed_forces
List of Countries Without Armed Forces." Wikipedia. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_without_an_army
September 11, 2001 changed everything. We hear sentiments such as this one often; what do they really mean? Other than the obvious -- stricter security at airports, increased demand for Middle East experts -- what really changed? Are Americans fundamentally different people than we were on September 10? Perhaps as a nation our priorities changed, but has our personality been altered? The 9/11 Commission Report emphasizes national unity: "remember how we all felt on September 11...not only the unspeakable horror but how we came together as a nation -- one nation. Unity of purpose and unity of effort are how we will defeat this enemy." (National Commission 2004, executive summary 34)
The raw freshness of the attacks on September 11 inspires amnesia regarding other national security crises: the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis. America has never been without military involvement in the world, at…
Spanier, John and Steven Hook. American Foreign Policy Since World War II. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2004.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the U.S., The 9/11 Commission Report. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2004,
More than 80% of all Arabs in the U.S. are legal citizens, thus creating an Arab-American cultural foundation consisting of over 3.5 million Americans (AAI, 2009). This single clustered group in reality consists of people from 22 countries like Egypt, Palestine, Morocco, and Lebanon. Today, a third of this population lives in California, New York, or Michigan, with 94% of all Arab-Americans living in urban areas. Only 5% of Arab-Americans are unemployed, and 46% have college degrees. Of all countries represented, over a third of all Arab-Americans are of Lebanese descent (AAI, 2009).
The first wave of Arab immigrants coming into the U.S. were clumped together and known as Syrian-Lebanese (Hajar and Jones, 2011). The majority of them were indeed of Lebanese, Christian descent, and their immigration fluctuated for decades from the late 19th century until the 1920's. hat initially brought them to the U.S. were stories told by…
Mamdani, Mahmood. Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: A Political Perspective on Culture and Terrorism. American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 3 (Sept. 2002), pp. 766-775.
Leonard, Karen. American Muslims and Authority: Competing Discourses in a Non-Muslim State. Journal of American Ethnic History, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Fall 2005), pp. 5-30.
Salaita, Steven. Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism: Arab-Americans before and after 9/11. College Literature, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Spring 2005), pp. 146-168.
Hajar, Paula, Jones, Sydney J. Lebanese Americans. http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Lebanese-Americans.html Advameg Inc. 2011.
Klan politics are eerily being played out in modern conservative movements such as the Tea Party. While the Tea Party does not officially endorse the KKK, the two groups share many common objectives including the mistrust of new immigrants. Today's Klansmen are basically "unhappy about the social politics of America's post-industrial, pluralistic society" and they "feel left out."
The official stance of the KKK resembles much of conservative America in that the group claims to espouse "Christian morality" and "eschews violence."
The Klan's own Web site claims that the group is "ringing a Message of Hope and Deliverance to White Christian America! A Message of Love NOT Hate!"
ecause of this misleading message, the KKK has the potential to woo new recruits and influence public discourse: neither of which can be tolerated.
Anti-Defamation League. "About the Ku Klux Klan." Retrieved online: http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/default.asp?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk
ullard, Sara. The Ku Klux Klan. Southern…
Anti-Defamation League. "About the Ku Klux Klan." Retrieved online: http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/default.asp?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk
Bullard, Sara. The Ku Klux Klan. Southern Poverty Law Center, 1996.
Chalmers, David M. Hooded Americanism. Duke University Press, 2003.
Gitlin, Martin. The Ku Klux Klan: A Guide to an American Subculture. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2009
In estern discourse, Eastern civilizations including Islam are associated with anti-estern values whereas Jews and Christians have come to embody what estern civilization entails: social and economic progress and colonial dominion. After September 11, Islam became the est's arch-nemesis and vice-versa. Yet the clash of civilizations had begun centuries earlier: during the rise of the Ottoman Empire and its face-off with the predominantly Christian Europe.
If Huntington's argument is correct, then the clash of civilizations must transcend the East/est divide. Instead of East and est, the world's culture clashes will take place between the various cultures that comprise East and est. For instance, a cursory examination of the diversity of cultures in the Middle East proves that intra-Eastern culture clash is as significant a source of military and political conflict as the East/est culture clash. The Sunni/Shi'ite divide poignantly affects foreign relations in the Muslim world, often to a far…
Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations." 1993. Retrieved April 4, 2008 at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19930601faessay5188/samuel-p-huntington/the-clash-of-civilizations.html
Makdisi, Ussama. "Anti-Americanism" in the Arab World: An Interpretation of a Brief History." Retrieved April 4, 2008 at http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/89.2/makdisi.html
The second case of cultural reaffirmation that Huntington discusses is that of Muslim societies which have followed a different path towards the reassertion of their cultural identity. In these societies, religion has been the main factor of cultural distinctiveness and influence. Huntington argues that religion is the main factor which distinguishes Muslim societies from the others, and that the resurgence of Islam "embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world" (Huntington 1998: 110). As far as the causes behind this resurgence, Huntington talks about the failure of state economies, the large and oftentimes rather young population of these countries, as well as the authoritarian political regimes of these nation states.
In light of these arguments, Huntington predicts great clashes will occur among civilizations. However he also identifies a possible cooperation between Islamic and inic cultures…
Simon & Schuster, 1998.
Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs 72.3 (1993): 22-49.
Kamrava, Mehran. "Political Culture." In Democracy in the Balance: Culture and Society in the Middle East. New York: Chatham House Publishers, 1998: 201-223.
He also observes the poignant problem of racism that arises here, which is also his reason for calling the new cult "white" Buddhism: in spite of the fact that the hite Buddhists may adopt all the traditional Asian customs- from their name to the food they eat or to the rituals as such, they will still be part of the "mainstream of the white culture." (Allitt 1999, 459). That is to say, the racial differences, still linger no matter what, and are emphasized by the American racism, which is the dark side of American culture.
Finally, Eldin Villafane analyzes the way in which the Catholicism of Spain was imposed to the Native Americans in Mexico, emphasizing the great religiosity of the Hispanic people. The author discusses the differences between Christendom and Christianity, the first being the powerful and complete assimilation of all life-matters into the religious frame.
Thus, all these…
Allitt, Patrick. Major Problems in American Religious History: Documents and Essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999
Moore, Laurence R. Touchstone Jesus. The Mixing of Sacred and Secular in American History. Westminster: John Knox, 2003
The accident in the Tonkin Gulf when North Vietnamese forces attacked the U.S. vessels and caused two airplanes to crash was a good reason to start the conflict, as the troops of North Vietnam violated the Geneva Convention and attacked a foreign navy in the neutral international waters. The United States has to react on this accident, as it was the mater of international respect, but at the same time the presidents administration had to estimate the future consequences of the military strike back. It was not secret that a lot of Soviet weapon was concentrated in North Vietnam, and Viet Kong army was ready to start the war for the unification of the country as it was guaranteed to have a support from Soviets.
Invention in Grenada was caused by the Cuban influence on Grenada's government in early 1980 iers. Grenada changed its political orientation and turned to the…
John J. Johnson, a Hemisphere Apart: Foundations of U.S. Policy toward Latin America Westview Press; 2nd edition (January, 2001)
Alonso Aguilar, Pan-Americanism from Monroe to the Present Monthly Review Pr (June 1, 1969)
counterfactuals or theoretical, normative, or political implications of the facts conveyed in the assignment.
n his "Arsenal of Democracy," Zelizer (2010) indicates that, contrary to the popular truism that "politics stops at the water's edge," domestic concerns has intruded onto national security. Pages 431 onwards document George Bush's controversial War on Terrorism and show how Bush stoked his house with conservative Republicans of like-minded views and how these people carried their partisan politics into everything including their fight against terrorism.
Clinton, for instance, had battled terrorism by bringing it into the legal and judicial field and treating domestic terrorism as a high-level crime
For Bush, it was a war from the beginning.
Bush's stance reveals as much:
"Today our nation saw evil," The president said in a televised address on the day of the [9/11] attack, "the very worst of human nature." On September 13, he said, "We have just…
In 1950, political scientist Robert Dahl had warned that the national legislature "Is remarkably ill-suited to exercise a wise control over the nation's foreign policy." (ibid.). Unfortunately, this is just what occurred during Bush's ill-reputed War on Terror; in fact, during his entire era. America's truism that "politics stops at the water's edge" was evidenced to be inaccurate. As illustrated by Bush, partisan fighting has always shaped American politics and domestic affairs have always stepped into national security. It has shaped the celebrities of the moment and it has shaped the way that his country deals with foreign issues. "The relationship, "says Zelliser, "is one that will not go away, and one that will only intensify as the international challenges facing the nation grow more complex." (506). National security is influenced by the same dynamics as all other issues. It is indistinct from domestic partisan concerns.
Zellizer, J. (2010) Arsenal of Democracy. Basic Books, NY
How have worries over WMD terror attacks distorted a balanced approach to policy on terrorism?
Intelligence failures led to the presumption that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction (Jervis).[footnoteef:1] The presumption was rooted in a widespread policy playing upon mortal fears, rather than on reason. "Although administration officials exaggerated the danger that Saddam posed, they also revealed their true fears when they talked about the possibility that he could use WMD against the United States or its allies," (Jervis, p. 57).[footnoteef:2] It also "made little difference" that Saddam was shown to have no WMDs (Jervis, p. 57).[footnoteef:3] Therefore, the approach to policy on terrorism has been overtly shaped by fear mongering rather than on intelligence. [1: Jervis, obert, 2005.] [2: Jervis, obert, 2005, p. 57] [3: Jervis, obert, 2005, p. 57]
At the same time, policy on terrorism is always going to entail some type of trade-off between preparing…
"Global Salafi Terrorist Networks." Unrestricted Warfare Symposium. March 1-415, 2006.
Jervis, Robert, 2005. American Foreign Policy in a New Era. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.
Pillar, Paul. R, 2001. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Sageman, M., 2008. Leaderless Jihad. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Should the United States Normalize elations with Cuba?
It has been more than forty years now since Fidel Castro and his communist insurgents captured control of the Island of Cuba. Originally supported by the American government, Castro quickly lost United States backing once the communistic nature of his government became clear. The evolution did its work, and thousands upon thousands of Cubans were deprived of their property, property that was taken over by the Cuban State, and in accordance with Marxist tenets, "redistributed" among the workers. In response, huge numbers of Cuban citizens fled the country. Many settled in the United States, especially in and around Miami, where they quickly came to constitute a powerful bloc with strong influence over American policy toward their homeland. Of course, over the years, attitudes have softened. Originally cut off from all except its fellow communist nations, and from the non-aligned states of…
Augustine, Jean P.C., M.P. Secretary of State. "Speaking Notes on the Occasion of The 7th Annual Toronto-Cuba Friendship Day," Toronto, Canada: 24 August 2002.
Buaza, Vanessa. "
Comedians and Levity Have Their Limits." The Sun Sentinel. 16 February 2003.
Feehan, Colleen E. "Prague in the '90's: The Paris of the '20s?" 1995. URL:
United States as Superpower: The Right to Remove Tyrants from Power
Since its pioneering days, North America was known for its ideal as a safe haven for refugees. Furthermore the country is known as the "land of opportunity," embodied in the American dream. While much blood has been shed along the way towards true freedom and democracy for all, the United States has continued moving towards these ideals of humanity. Perhaps now more than ever before, the country has begun to truly realize its ideal not only of democracy, but also of opportunity and promise.
This is also why the United States as superpower can now extend its influence to countries in suffering. The ideal of democracy has extended from within the United States towards the rest of the world. This is now at the center of accepted humanity, and all abuses of human rights are frowned upon by most…
O'Sullivan, John. "Making the World Safe -- Period: The place of democracy in our foreign policy." In National Review. Oct 14. National Review, Inc., 2002.
Ruben, Michael. "How to Liberate Iraq." In American Enterprise, Dec. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 2002.
Shuja, Sharif M. "The United States and China." In Contemporary Review, Feb. Contemporary Review Company Ltd., 2002.
Walker, Jesse. "What next for U.S. foreign policy? Power, stability, and the post-Iraq world order." Interview in Reason, June. Reason Foundation, 2003.
Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).
The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).
The authors present…
Alter, Jonathan. "Leading Democrats to Bill Clinton: Pipe Down." Newsweek. (2008).
Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.newsweek.com.
Balz, Dan, and Johnson, Hanes. The Battle for American 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary
Election. New York: Viking, 2009.
The cost to its economy is greater than just lost opportunity as it extends to further damage the credibility of a relationship which the public views as suspect, in accordance with Campbell's estimation.
The oversight of international regulation is undertaken by the orld Trade Organization, which brings the globe's free trade partners together to broker affairs of economic cooperation or contract. However, this has proved to be an agency with too diluted a focus to effectively maintain balance between such partners as Canada and the U.S. Campbell addresses most of the regulatory differences between the two nations as being historical and incidental in some ways, indicating that perhaps the inconsistencies are simply in need of concentrated attention. This notion accounts for the 2005 launch of a Trilateral Regulatory Commission, partnering Canada, the U.S. And Mexico in an agreement to acknowledge a central forum for regulation of trade discrepancies. Though its…
AFX. (2006). WTO Rules Against Canada in Lumber Dispute with U.S.
Forbes. Online at http://www.forbes.com/markets/feeds/afx/2006/04/03/afx2644053.html
Anderson, a.D.M. (1995). Seeking Common Ground Canada-U.S. Trade Dispute Settlement Policies in the Nineties. San Francisco: Westview Press.
Campbell, B. (2006). Canada-U.S. Relations: Paul Martin's Dilemma. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
And so America continues to search subconsciously for ways back, for snorkels to lower to those buried souls. Consider the resurgence of magical literature in America over the last decade and a half. Never since Tolkien has the fantasy genre -- the Twilight books and the wealth of vampire chronicles accompanying for example -- been so widely successful. J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter novels are a recent manifestation of that search for snorkels. What could be more escapist than to imagine being a wizard estranged and insulated from his magical heritage and forced into the mundane -- muggle -- world? As Shoeless Joe was to Ray Kinsella, as writing was to W.P. Kinsella, so has Harry Potter been to a recent generation of Americans. Harry Potter is a mythological symbol of the type Campbell knows has been lost to the detriment of the people. He is the truth Americans wish they…
1. Kinsella, W.P. Shoeless Joe. New York: First Mariner Books, 1999. Print.
2. Twigg, Alan. "Kinsella, W.P." ABCBookworld, BC Bookworld. 2005. Web. 28 April 2010.
3. Besner, Neil. "Kinsella, William Patrick" the Canadian Encyclopedia. 2010. Web. 28 April 2010.
4. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. California: Joseph Campbell Foundation, 2008. Print.
What he found, in contrast to Europe, was that the American social ethic was not based on aristocracy, and in fact Americans seemed to have a deep-seated fear and loathing of European titles (at least the middle and common classes). Instead, Americanism was based on a system in which hard work and money-making (e.g. aggressive capitalism) was the dominant ethic of the time. In this period of radical change and development, he perceived that the common (free) person never deferred to elites and where one was rewarded for being a greedy individualist. He writes: "Among a democratic people, where there is no hereditary wealth, every man works to earn a living… Labor is held in honor; the prejudice is not against but in its favor" (Ibid., 398).
What is also interesting is that, at times, no matter how unbiased a historical or sociological account portends, what is excluded is often…
Letters on American Slavery. (2006, June 5). Retrieved September 2010, from Anti-Slavery Literature: http://antislavery.eserver.org/tracts/lettersonamericanslavery/lettersonamericanslavery.html
Damrosch, L. (2010). Tocqueville's Discovery of America. New York: Farrar, Sraus, and Giroux.
de Tocqueville, A. (2007). Democracy in America. Stilwell, KS: Digireads Books.
The other major communities in Iraq are both ethnically Arab -- though from different areas -- or sects -- of Islam: the Sunni and the Shi'a (Munson 2009). The Shi'a in Iraq make up about 20% of the current  population while the Sunni make up about 20% of Iraq's  population (2009).
The Shi'a, Sunni and Kurds are important to the overall picture of democracy in Iraq since primary identity has always been an important factor in Iraqi politics and across the broader Middle East. "Although primary identity changes over time, even within the span of a single lifetime, it is the most basic level of group identity and can engender strong feelings" (Munson 2009). These feelings can also be overwhelmingly powerful when "primary identity is politicized and used to draw seemingly ancient distinctions between peoples, even though the distinctions may be imagined or recently concocted" (2009).
Chandrasekaran, R. (2010). Green zone (Imperial life/emerald city movie tie-in edition). New York: Vintage; Mti Spl edition.
Dawish, Adeed. (2005). The prospects for democracy in Iraq: Challenges and opportunities. Third World Quarterly,26(4-5), 723-737.
Janda, K., Berry, J.M., Goldman, J. (2009). The challenge of democracy: American government in a global world. Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Munson, P.J. & Metz, S. (2009). Iraq in transition: The legacy of dictatorship and the prospects for democracy. Dulles: Potomac Books, Inc.
93 (Hispanicism), .89 (Americanism); test-retest (6weeks) .50 (H)/.79 (a). This Likert scale involves rating of 1-5, in which scale 1 represents not feeling comfortable and scale 5 indicates very comfortable at accepting the American music, TV programs and English printed media.
This relational study incorporates statistical devices of Multiple egression Analysis to test the hypothesis. Correlations between variables will be performed as well. Each predictor derived from individual analysis represents time spent on each of these three specific media, with the criterion variable being acculturation level. Hours per viewing per day and per week with moderators such as English proficiency level, are included in each of the analysis presented.
Fox, S., ainie, L., Larsen, E., Horrigan, J., Lenhart, a., Spooner, T., & Carter, C.
(2001). Wired Seniors. The Pew Internet and American Life Project. etrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Wired_Seniors_eport.pdf
Furlong, M.S. (1989). An electronic community for older adults: The SeniorNet…
Fox, S., Rainie, L., Larsen, E., Horrigan, J., Lenhart, a., Spooner, T., & Carter, C.
(2001). Wired Seniors. The Pew Internet and American Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Wired_Seniors_Report.pdf
Furlong, M.S. (1989). An electronic community for older adults: The SeniorNet network.
Journal of Communication, 39 (3), pp. 145-153.
The attorney general also made sure that the mainstream media had plenty of scary stuff about terrorists to cover in a dramatic fashion. For instance, Dettmer notes that, "The manner of the announcement by a live TV linkup for Ashcroft in Moscow and a star-studded news conference at the Justice Department added massive drama. With the surprising exception of Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, aides and officials appeared determined to talk up the dirty-bomb threat" (2002, p. 47). With the terrorist alert standing at orange today, and riveted up to red tomorrow, who knows where it will be next Tuesday? Indeed, anum (2004) emphasizes that, "The media, of course, doesn't really want definitive answers to the problems of homeland security. In fact, the media is probably happier with unanswered or unanswerable questions since these make for better stories and provide a good forum for endless pundits to discuss endless…
Allan, S. & Zelizer, B. (2004). Reporting war: Journalism in wartime. New York: Routledge.
Beale, S.S. (2006). The news media's influence on criminal justice policy: How market-driven news promotes punitiveness. William and Mary Law Review, 48(2), 397-399.
Billeaudeaux, A., Domke, D., Hutcheson, J.S. & Garland, P. (2003). Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 166-167.
Crockatt, R. (2003). America embattled: September 11, anti-Americanism, and the global order.
Current PAC-10 Consulting Management
REF.: The AIG Rescue
As the global financial crisis began to unveil, all of the financial institutions with positions on the market that exposed them to the crash began to feel under pressure. AIG was one such company, where a combination of credit swaps and other esoteric financial instruments weakened its position and its capacity to remain competitive on the market in the face of the financial losses such instruments generated. As of the that point, the U.S. Administration, usually in the form of the Federal Reserve or the Treasury Department, intervened with significant bailouts for many of these companies, including AIG, which received $85 billion in exchange for a 79.9% stake in the company
This memo will aim to briefly analyze the pros and cons of the governmental intervention, briefly analyze the future implications of this intervention and determine whether or not this…
1. Luhby, Tami. Fed in AIG rescue - $85B loan. CNN Money. September 2008. On the Internet at http://money.cnn.com/2008/09/16/news/companies/AIG/index.htm . Last retrieved on November 26, 2009
2. AIG Bailout. On the Internet at http://www.homebiz.bukiki.com/aig-bailout/. Last retrieved on November 26, 2009
3. Solomon, Deborah. AIG's Rescue Bedevils U.S. The Wall Street Journal. November 2009. On the Internet at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703819904574554241356640428.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_LEFTWhatsNewsCollection . Last retrieved on November 26, 2009
Luhby, Tami. Fed in AIG rescue - $85B loan. CNN Money. September 2008. On the Internet at
They went into a spending frenzy that would carry them though the next decade. They bought houses, started families and settled down to a life of normalcy after a decade of chaos. Illustrations began to return to resemble that of fine are of earlier times.
The Invitation. Ben Stahl. Date unknown magazine photo. Al Parker. Date unknown
ise of the Atomic Age (1950-1960)
The prosperity that came with the end of the war continued into the new decade. Americans attempted to settle into a life or normalcy. There was a significant return to traditional gender roles, as many women were forced back into the household and the men went off to work as usual. Women, now used to providing for themselves represented a new target market. To fill their days they read the "seven sisters" (McCall's, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmopolitan, edbook, Good Housekeeping, Seventeen, and Women's Day). These magazines began…
Crow, T. 2006. The Practice of Art History in America. Daedalus. 135, no. 2. Questia Database.
"Jesse Wilcox Smith" 2000. http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/jwsmith.htm
Reed, Walter and Reed, Roger. 2008. The History of Illustration. Society of Illustrators. Online. http://societyillustrators.org/about/history/283.cms
Murphy, J. 2007. Making Virtual Art Present. Afterimage. 35, no. 2. Questia Database.
From Patricia Limerick's approach, this paper can derive its own thesis as to how the frontier phenomenon truly influenced the development and values of the American society. In my opinion, the truth is that the United States is such a large country that a phenomenon such as the frontier and Westward expansion could not have influenced to the degree to which Turner believes it had the development of the American society. There are several reasons for this, all discussed below.
First, many of the values, especially the institutional and democratic values, have, in fact, been unchanged for the best 250 years. The Constitution itself has barely been modified, with the exception of a limited number of amendments. The main institutional powers, the executive, the legislative and the judicial powers are all based on the same principles and format from 1776 and the first years thereafter. The political system, with minor…
1. Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. Henry Holt and Company. 1935
2. West, Elliott, "American Pathways," Montana the Magazine of Western History 51 (Autumn 2001)
3. Limerick, Patricia. Trails: Toward a New Western History. University Press of Kansas. 1991
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. Henry Holt and Company. 1935
He encourages people to come aboard a train being engineered in "weirdo abandon" by musicians who "dramatized a sense of what it is to be American" (1987, p. 10). Christgau, another writer who sees the correlation between this music and the greater society in which it occurred, adds: "rock criticism embraced a dream or metaphor of perpetual revolution. . . . Worthwhile bands were supposed to change people's lives, preferably for the better. If they failed to do so, that meant they didn't matter." (2003, p. 140)
ock and roll is recognized much more than by its musical and stylistic differences. It is also utilized in many different ways by its followers. Grossberg (1983) analyzes the way that rock and roll functions in societal transformations. He notices that although rock and roll has a variety of different local effects, it appears to also have a unified historical identity. He says…
Cohen, S. (1993) Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music. 12(2), 123-138
Christgau, G. (2003) a History of Rock Criticism, in National Arts Journalism Program: Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America, Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, and Andrew Tyndall (Eds) New York: NAJP at Columbia University, 140.
Finnegan, R. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town Cambridge: Cambridge University
Greil, M. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n Roll Music (1975) New York: Penguin Group
3) Hiroko taking Jack to her family's home -- Eliot realizes that he is the outsider, the one who is bumbling, even his long legs do not fit comfortably under the table. Hiroko is obviously fond of him, and in the simple ceremonies of dining, and the reactions of her grandparents, Eliot realizes that it is again his own "bumbling" that is causing the conflict, not Japanese culture. In addition, Eliot learns that "The Chief' is actually Hiroko's father, who is quite literate in English, but proves to Eliot that he is in Japan, it is up to him to learn some Japanese.
4) the team's reaction to his apology -- ealizing his set of faux-pas, Eliot admits his deficiencies to the team, and rather than his expectations of continued ostracizing, Eliot learns that there is a real camaraderie within the team, that they genuinely like him, and once he…
Adler, N. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Florence, KY:
Hofstede, G. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York:
McGraw Hill, 2005.
At the same time, at some point, the standard of living equalized, also through the effects of mass consumption, which meant that the population was no longer feeling the positive effects of Fordism. The idea of Fordism was to bring the product on the market at a lower price, while with the industrialization process, this was no longer necessarily a competitive advantage.
At the same time, with higher living standards, the client became much more particular in their picks off the market, which led companies in the U.S. To adapt to this new trend and introduce post-Fordism as a way to counter this and to better suit their needs.
The post-Fordism proposed specialization and customization as a reversal of the standardization that had characterized the Fordism previous. With this, post-Fordism proposed an increased focus on the client and the demand as opposed to the supply. The study of the client…
1. Roediger, David, ed. "Americanism and Fordism - American Style: Kate Richards O'hare's 'Has Henry Ford Made Good? In Labor History 1988 29(2): 241-252.
2. Chudacoff H. & J.E. Smith. (2005) the Evolution of American Society, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
3. Koch, Max. (2006). Roads to Post-Fordism: Labour Markets and Social Structures in Europe
S. exports, but only reduced them, to increase imports from Mexico, to stimulate the opening of manufacturing plants in Mexico and to lead to the loss of jobs for the American population
Ultimately then, the free market is a beneficial theoretical model, but its practical implementation has only proven profitable for the corporations in the highly developed western economies.
3. Are impediments to economic and financial reconstruction worse in a particular region of the developing world?
The tumultuous world history has impregnated its effects upon all players. And these effects are multiple and depend on various other features. On the other hand, they can be used to explain the contemporaneous stages of economic development presented by each state. While some countries enjoy the benefits of high levels of economic growth and development, others still strive to make do. And the differences are not only obvious among the groups of developed,…
Collier, P., the Market for Civil War, Foreign Policy, 2003
Huntington, S.P., the Clash of Civilizations, Foreign Affairs, 1993
Llosa, M.V., the Culture of Liberty, Globalization at Work, 2001
Ottaway, M.S., Schwedler, J., Telhami, S., Ibrahim, S.E., Democracy: Rising Tide or Mirage? Middle East Policy, Vol. XII, No. 2, 2005
In many ways, the Vietnam ar represented the height of Cold ar tensions in much the same way that the decade was giving way to an inevitable breaking point in environmental negligence. Though the years which would follow would see a gradual intensification of environmental protection laws, these have by and large been nullified by the impact of that for which Abbey offers the most criticism. ith both Vietnam and the destruction of many of America's richest points of flora and fauna diversity being the products of our ongoing 'evolution' toward technological, industrial and commercial advance, Abbey is persuasive in drawing a sympathetic mistrust of modernity from the reader. Ultimately, it produces a sense of loss for ildland Recreation opportunities while simultaneously reinforcing the primal importance of such experiences.
In this way, Desert Solitaire stands in 20th century environmental history as a guide to alternative living. hile he is unflinching…
Abbey, Edward. (1968). Desert Solitaire. McGraw-Hill Group.
Duryee, Kent. (1996). Edward Abbey: A Man Hard to Talk About. Desert USA. Online at http://www.desertusa.com/mag00/nov/papr/abbey.html
Temple, Eric. (1982). An Interview With Edward Abbey. Phoenix, AZ: KAET-TV
Thus, paramount American interests were to be presented as being really the interests of the Europeans themselves. It would be a situation wherein America was simply helping along people who were, at present, unable to adequately help themselves. The concept had much in common with the goals of many charity or self-help organizations - people grow and are transformed by learning to help themselves. They are given assistance so as to be enabled to learn the skills and life ways necessary to improve their own conditions. Naturally, everything that was in the "real" interests of Europeans would also be in the interests of the United States. The more similar the peoples of the two continents could become, the more readily Europeans could identify their own aspirations with those of the American people, the closer would be the bond between the two sides. In effect, the new post-ar Europe would be…
Adelman, Carol. "Foreign Aid: Effectively Advancing Security Interests." Harvard International Review 29.3 (2007): 62+.
Agnew, John, and J. Nicholas Entrikin, eds. The Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor. London: Routledge, 2004.
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
.. A very fine negro girl, about eight years of age" or "Wanted immediately, a Negro boy... not above 15 or under 12 years of age" and "To be sold one stout negro, young fellow, about 20 years of age" (Katyal; 1993).
These advertisements show a great deal about history. For example, not are these slaves only for sale in the Southern colonies. They were also in newspapers in the North.
For example, the woman who is described in this advertisement could only speak English. Therefore, she could not communicate easily with those New Yorkers, both white and black, whose primary language was Dutch. These advertisements also provided information about the clothing. They also shed light on the survival of Africanisms in dress and body adornment and proficiencies in occupations and language(s).
Consumption and the products that people want is highly dependent on the times. They are based on need.…
Basic Books.: New York. 1988.
Fiske, John. "Shopping for Pleasure: Malls, Power and Resistance," in Reading the Popular. 13-42: 1989
Kumar, Neal Katyal Men Who Own Women: A thirteenth Amendment Critique of Forced Prostitution Yale Library Journal (1993) 103.
" (Langguth, 309)
Conclusion: Costa Gavras' film "State of Siege," therefore, despite being criticized for being biased against the Americans, is largely an accurate portrayal of events that took place in Uruguay during 1970. The film helped to highlight the unsavory practices being committed by the CIA in collaboration with the Office of Public Safety (OPS), and led to the official closure of the OPS in 1974. The Tupamaros, however, never achieved their stated goal of "liberating Uruguay" and were brutally crushed by the Uruguayan military in 1972, after President Bordaberry suspended all individual liberties in the country and placed it under virtual martial law. (einstein, 41)
Blum, illiam. Killing Hope. Maine: Common Courage Press, 2003
Cocks, Jay. "Spurious Suspense." Time Magazine. April 23, 1973. April 11, 2007. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,945253,00.html?promoid=googlep
Langguth, a.J. Hidden Terrors. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978
Rius. The Tupamaros: Comic Book Adapted from text of "Los…
Blum, William. Killing Hope. Maine: Common Courage Press, 2003
Cocks, Jay. "Spurious Suspense." Time Magazine. April 23, 1973. April 11, 2007. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,945253,00.html?promoid=googlep
Langguth, a.J. Hidden Terrors. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978
Rius. The Tupamaros: Comic Book Adapted from text of "Los Agachodos" by Rius. Berkley, California: NACLA
" (Liu, 90)
As the author notes, his feeling of coming to Chinatown was that of a merely curious tourist, not that of a native who links himself to his past or origins. Like other writers on the subject of Asian-Americans, Liu also noted that they seem to be a special case, the "new Jews," that is a minority that is neither black nor white. Racism is usually seen as bipolar, and this is why the Asian-Americans seem even excluded from this categorization:
The question is multilayered. Is yellow black or white? is a question of Asian-American identity. Is yellow black or white? is a question of Third orld identity, or the relationships among people of color. Is yellow black or white? is a question of American identity, or the nature of America's racial formation. Implicit within the question is a construct of American society that defines race relations as…
Liu, Eric. The Accidental Asian. New York: Vintage Books, 1999
Okihiro, Gary Y. Margins and Mainstreams: Asians in American History and Culture. Washington: University of Washington Press, 1994
Let the wenches dawdle in such dress
As they are used to wear, and let the boys
Bring flowers in last month's newspapers.
Let be finale of seem.
The only emperor is the emperor of ice-cream.
The children gather around the curls of cream, to wonder at the miraculous substance and this ordinary, humble labor is made momentarily great by his trade, a European Emperor who can give and take at will, and thus also seems faintly sinister in his muscularity.
Stevens celebrated "the emergence from old ideologies in the form of what was rapidly becoming an aesthetic ideology," a form of "American home-grown" modernist abstraction that still had its roots in the concrete, the concrete nature of imagism, and also of plain, simple, profound American reality. Unlike other American modernists, like T.S. Eliot (who eventually became a British citizen and converted to Anglicanism) or Ezra Pound (a permanent expatriate)…
Filreis, Alan. "Beyond the rhetorician's touch: Steven's painterly abstractions."
Originally published in American Literary History. Spring 1992: pp. 230-63. Accessible 4 Dec 2006 at http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Stevens/talcoat-alh.html
Groundbreaking Book: Harmonium by Wallace Stevens." Poets.org. Online publication of the Academy of American Poets. [4 Dec 2006] http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/5952
Modernism." Poets.org. Online publication of the Academy of American Poets.
Internment of Japanese-Americans in orld ar II
hen the national interests are threatened, history has shown that American presidents will take extraordinary measures to protect them, even if this means violating the U.S. Constitution. For example, the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act enacted immediately following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, watered down civil liberties for American citizens. Likewise, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus during the Civil ar just as President Franklin D. Roosevelt did during the outset of orld ar II following the Japanese sneak attack on American forces at Pearl Harbor when tens of thousands of Japanese-American citizens were interred for the duration of the war. Despite the compelling circumstances that were involved, this paper will show that the internment of Japanese-Americans during orld ar II was not only unconscionable, it was also a fragrant violation of the U.S. Constitution and should not have taken…
Crockett, Rosemary F. (2002). "America's Invisible Gulag: A Biography of German-American
Internment and Exclusion in World War II." The Oral History Review 29(2): 191-193.
Flamiano, Dolores. (2010). "Japanese-American Internment in Popular Magazines: Race,
Citizenship, and Gender in World War II Photojournalism." Journalism History 36(1):
" Real Americans support the right of religious people to worship, and would never base legislation on a religious conviction rather than a conviction based on constitutional rights, constitutional law, and Enlightenment ethics.
American political identity is continually changing also because of the incredible ethnic and cultural diversity within the nation's borders. hen gender, sexual identity, socio-economic class, and other factors are also included in the mix, America's political philosophy is naturally heterogeneous. hen new immigrants enter the United States, they contribute to the common ideals of a nation founded on principles like universal liberty and justice. "Debates about immigration and national identity cut to the core of our national self-image as a nation of immigrants, and invariably includes allusions to the past -- real and idealized -- as a way of under- standing and coping with social and demographic changes today," (Segura 278). hite supremacist Americans are currently in…
Brooks, David "One Nation, Slightly Divisible." The Atlantic Monthly; Dec 2001; 288, 5; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 53
Hartz "The Concept of a Liberal Society"
Hooks, Bell. "Postmodern Blackness." 19 Apr 1994.
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 16 April 1963.
South African Perspective on United States Africa Command
As the United States continues its drawdown of troops in the Middle East and reevaluates its prosecution of the global war on terrorism following the recent elimination of key Al-Qaeda leaders, most especially Osama bin Laden, it is important to assess the impact of these events on American military forces elsewhere, especially in sub-Saharan Africa in general and South Africa in particular. The so-called BIC (Brazil, ussia, India and China), with China taking the lead, are taking an increasingly active interest in developing improved trade and political ties with sub-Saharan African nations, and misperceptions of American global hegemonic intentions may interfere with the legitimate goals of the U.S. military in establishing improved relations with these countries. To help identify key challenges and potential solutions, this paper reviews the relevant literature to describe current U.S. military strategy in South Africa to provide salient…
"AFRICOM." (2011). (2011). GlobalSecurity.org. [online] available: http://www.globalsecurity.
Gilbert, L. D,. Uzodike, U.O. & Isike, C. (2009). "The United States Africa Command: Security
for Whom?" The Journal of Pan African Studies 2(9): 264-266.
However, there are some techniques that I have found help me, even when feeling less than motivated.
First, before even starting the writing project, create a simple outline. For me, the idea of the five-paragraph theme can be expanded to meet most any assignment: that is a topic, then at least three supporting paragraphs, perhaps one that compares and contrasts. Then, I have learned to do a synopsis that will allow me to still be creative, but redo individual paragraphs and/or scenes that support what I have already written. Then, I was reading a blog awhile ago and the person said the best way to proof and get a sense about spelling, grammar and the drugeries of writing was to read backwards. Then, anything odd pops out.
I also learned that the best way to learn writing is two-fold: just do it, and read more. For some reason, many people…
Abnormal Psychology:pop Culture
Abnormal Psychology: Pop Culture
Abnormal Psychology: Pop Culture
In asking the question of what abnormal psychology is really supposed to be, it makes sense that we must first quickly think about the very definition of our word "abnormal . By all rights, is a remarkably puzzling word that is very dependent on what is called "normality . Both terms may justifiably change fundamentally from one era to another and one culture to a different one. How then do we choose upon what is abnormal and what is normal? Of course, this is much more of a philosophical issue than a psychological one. For logical reasons of practicability, it is essential to generate an approximately uniform definition of abnormal psychology that we can more or less decide upon as a cluster of caregivers. This general definition would obviously be typical in its nature, but…
OW, M.G.T., KENARDY, J.A., JOHNSTON, D.W., NEWMAN, M.G., TAYLOR, C.B., & THOMSON, A. (2007). Prognostic indices with brief and standard CBT for panic disorder: I. predictors of outcome. Psychological Medicine, 37(10), 1493-9. doi:10.1017/S0033291707000670
King, S., Waschbusch, D.A., Pelham Jr., W.,E., Frankland, B.W., Andrade, B.F., Jacques, S., & Corkum, P.V. (2009). Social information processing in elementary-school aged children with ADHD: Medication effects and comparisons with typical children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(4), 579-89. doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9294-9
Mandel, H.P., & Hampson, W. (2000). Abnormal psychology perspectives. Canadian Psychology, 41(4), 282-284.
Medved, M.L. (2008). Essentials of abnormal psychology, first Canadian edition. Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 73-74.
Both have in their own way gone against the norm. When Babli, embittered by the men in her life, and after losing hope of ever having the man she loves decides to have a baby alone, she breaks her fathers will. For in a traditional Hindu family the girl accepts the match set up by the father, but here, we read how she chooses her mate, loses him and then goes against her own values to have a child. it's the ultimate rebellion from the conventional ways and undermines the very conception of hindu family values as understood by the traditional Indians, and hence creates a conflict of conventional and modern ways and starts the debate of whether second and third generation immigrants will ever completely follow their own cultures as set forth by their parents.
5. The Gold-Legged Frog by Khamsing Srinawk
Passage: "You sure are lucky,' the words…
hile " resurgence of support for the Klan was manifest in the surprising popularity in the early 1990s of David Duke in Louisiana, actual membership in Klan organizations is estimated to be in the low thousands (Unknown)." The "Ku Klux Klan still exists and holds power today. They are responsible for many attacks and killings of blacks, immigrants, Jews and Catholics (www.learntoquestion.com/vclass/seevak/groups/2001/sites/dees/back)."
hen the Ku Klux Klan was originally organized, and in the 1920s, it had a major influence on politics in the United States. However, over the years the political climate in the United States has changed and membership in the Klan has declined, diminishing the KKK's political power today.
Background: Ku Klux Klan. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.learntoquestion.com/vclass/seevak/groups/2001/sites/dees/back...).
Klein, Anne. "Unmasking the Oregon Klansman: The Ku Klux Klan in Astoria 1921-1925." (accessed 03 May, 2005). ).
Lynching. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAlynching.htm).
Unknown. "Ku Klux…
Background: Ku Klux Klan. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.learntoquestion.com/vclass/seevak/groups/2001/sites/dees/back...).
Klein, Anne. "Unmasking the Oregon Klansman: The Ku Klux Klan in Astoria 1921-1925." (accessed 03 May, 2005). ).
Lynching. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAlynching.htm).
Unknown. "Ku Klux Klan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2005): 24 February.
Language, Cultural Narrative, Symbols, and Myths Used for Political Purposes in the "ar on Terrorism" Today
In the initial years of the 21st century, the United States has entered a new heyday of manipulative language use, especially by high-level post 9-11 politicians and political operators. Increasingly, for example, metaphor, myth, cultural narrative and storytelling (for often distracting, obfuscating, or even downright nefarious purposes) by high-level politicians and their associates, is used to construct politically advantageous "truths," usually out of thin air. Moreover, in post-9-11 America, these sometimes even humorously hyperbolic, supposedly patriotically-inspired phrases and slogans are remarkably successful, in their aim convincing many Americans to think, act and believe in particular "appropriate" or "patriotic" ways. In fact, it increasingly seems that manipulative metaphorical or hyperbolic language is employed, with frequent effectiveness, to draw verbal distinctions between supposedly "patriotic" Americans (those who still favor the war with Iraq) and "unpatriotic" ones…
Brown, Drew, and Lisa Fadel. "U.S. General's Remarks Contradict Cheney on Strength of Insurgency. Knight Ridder Newspapers. Jun. 23, 2005.
Retrieved August 15, 2005, from: .
'Bush Administration Orwellian Logic." Center for Media and Democracy. March 23, 2005. Retrieved August 14, 2005, from: www.sourcewatch.org/index.php
The confidence of Disney was to some extent based on the number of Europeans visiting U.S. Disney parks. The Europeans would be visiting the parks based in U.S. As they were in America but not going to America with the specific motive to pay a visit to the parks. Therefore these figures do not exactly show the popularity of Disney theme parks in Europe. The American Disney Parks are viewed as a part of the American experience and not as a complete holiday destination. All the predictions of attendance are based on parks inside the U.S. And Japan that is also much Americanized. (Euro Disney - Why it failed)
Besides one more striking mistake on the cultural front has been the attention to the wrong details. There will be very few Europeans who will be paying attention to the leather wallpaper when they cannot get their normal breakfast or wine…
Dinechin, Florent de. (1994) "Euro Disney: Marne-le-Vallee, France Earth" Retrieved at http://www.galactic-guide.com/articles/2R56.html. Accessed 3 October, 2005
Disney World Paper" Retrieved at http://homepages.wmich.edu/~j0iskend/disney%20world%20paper.doc. Accessed 2 October, 2005
Euro Disney SCA: Perspectives from two Cultures" (2002) Retrieved at http://exams.infodiv.unimelb.edu.au/2002/economics/325303s2.pdf . Accessed 3 October, 2005
Euro Disney - Why it failed." Retrieved at http://www.patrickzimmer.com/eurodisney.htm . Accessed 3 October, 2005
McGovern's failed candidacy reshaped the Democrats. His followers gave full convention voting expression to a gamut of groups who make up the "liberal coalition."
Despite the unpopularity of the Vietnam ar, President Richard Nixon won by an unprecedented landslide against his Democratic rival, Senator George McGovern. ("The Presidential Election of 1972," 2005) The incumbent Nixon received 61% of the popular vote and 520 votes in the Electoral College to McGovern's 17. The American electorate had apparently granted Nixon the popular mandate that he had always craved. After the debacle of the rioting that took place during the 1968 Democratic Convention, the Democratic Party had undergone internal reforms that had important repercussions in the 1972 campaign, resulting in the nomination of the liberal anti-war pacifist from South Dakota who had little popular appeal.
The traditional power brokers of the Democratic Party, such as big labor, lost representation in the 1972 convention,…
"Clinton: William Jefferson." Welcome to the American Presidency.2005. Retrieved 15 Nov 2005 at http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0097755-00& templatename=/article/article.html
"John Ashbrook: 1972 Announcement Speech." (2005) 4 President Speeches. Retrieved 15 Nov 2005 at http://www.4president.org/speeches/johnashbrook1972announcement.htm
"Presidential Election of 1972." (2005) Elections. Retrieved 15 Nov 2005 at http://www.multied.com/elections/1972state.html
'The Twilight of Liberalism: The Nixon Years." 1999 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Retrieved 15 Nov 2005 at http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture29.html
European countries have absorbed a great deal in the way of material and culture from the United States, they have not become "Americanized," and that each country has incorporated what it takes from the United States into its own nationalism. In addition, the author argues that American culture has been influenced by European countries, although our culture has remained distinctly American. Finally, he makes the point that "Europe" is not one culture -- and that the United States is made up of many cultures as well. While European countries are "not like us," Europe and the United States have the presence of multiple cultures in common.
The book is organized into two sections. In the first three chapters, the author gives an overview from prior to World War II and continuing through the end of the Cold War. Then the author looks at specific cultural components affected by American influences…
Nevertheless, the American influence on other countries should not be diminished. In the 1990's, over 50% of McDonald's income came from foreign countries (303). Some American concepts did not translate well to Europe. Euro-Disney struggled at first, partly because Paris has a winter not present in either southern California or central Florida. But in addition, European vacation practices differed: Europeans tended to take long vacations, sometimes as long as a month, rather than the shorter 4 -- 5 day trips often preferred by Americans. Europeans tended to be more rigid about their schedules, causing bottlenecks for park admission and meals. In addition, Disney followed its policy of no alcohol on the premises to the dismay of Europeans accustomed to having a beer or glass of wine with a meal (311). So while it may have at first looked as if Euro-Disney was attempting to force Americanism on the French, in reality, such tactics simply didn't work. Disney had to adjust in major ways in order to make a success of Euro-Disney.
Pell's book takes a long and careful look at the interchange of cultures between the United States and Western Europe, and presents a picture that is far more complex than whether, for instance, the French might have been affronted to see a McDonald's in the heart of Paris. Instead, the author shows an inexorable process of influence flowing at least to some degree, both ways. In retrospect the reader should not be surprised by this. Greece and Rome both influenced each others' culture. The Phoenicians sailed around their known world and had profound influences on the cultures they met with, but that cultural exposure did not cause the loss of the other cultures. Perhaps it is the nature of human beings to meet, compare notes, notice how practices differ, and absorb and modify what is useful from the other culture.
Pells, Richard. Not Like Us: How Europeans have Loved, Hated and Transformed American Culture since World War II. New York: Basic Books, 1997.
With him, this vital energy goes its own way, independent of the pessimism and the disillusionment so typical of the age.' Hemingway did not go to the awards ceremony due to illness, some time before that same year his plane crashed and he lived to read his own obituaries. y then he was already experiencing the results of his fast paced lifestyle and at the end of his life he dealt with sicknesses such as mental depression, and eventually a form of paranoia. This was written of his last days 'After Hemingway began talking of suicide his Ketchum doctor agreed with Mary that they should seek expert help. He registered under the name of his personal doctor George Saviers and they began a medical program to try and repair his mental state. The Mayo Clinic's treatment would ultimately lead to electro shock therapy. According to Jefferey Meyers Hemingway received "between…
1. We didn't start the Fire, Billy Joel, http://www.teacheroz.com/fire.htm
2. Frederick W. Turner III, 1971
3. Morgan Kathryn, Associate Director for Special Collections Alderman Library, University of Virginia / Charlottesville, Virginia / 22903
4. Shelton Robert, Bob Dylan: "20-year-old singer is bright new face at Gerde's Club" September 29, 1961 New York Times.