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Amnesia is the loss of the faculty of memory and one of the common forms of brain disorders. It is caused by any organic causes like infections, psychological trauma's or physical injuries to the brain. Amnesia can either be associated with loss of recollection of the past or of the events that immediately follow the accident. In the former case it is called as retrograde amnesia while the later condition is referred to as anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is in general viewed as a problem with recovering remote information while anterograde amnesia represents problems with registering new information. Let us have a brief outlook into the diagnosis, cause and treatment of retrograde amnesia.
Types of Amnesia
There are different types of amnesia like retrograde, anterograde, lacunar amnesia, transient global amnesia and hysterical amnesia. Among these retrograde and anterograde amnesia are the two most prevalent conditions. Amnesia can be…
1) A. Scriabine, "International Congress of Pharmacology
Munich, Germany, July 26n31, 1998, New Drugs Affecting Central Nervous
System," Accessed on November 28th, 2003, http://www.nevapress.com/cnsdr/full/4/3/287.pdf .
Health News Digest, Memory Enhancing Drugs May Worsen Working Memory, Accessed on November 26th, 2003, http://www.healthnewsdigest.com/news/hlth_memory-4.html
, 2004). Brain imaging studies confirm that those factors include the efficiency of processes unrelated to the underlying cause of amnesia, such as the subsequent neurological regeneration of nerve fibers in particular (Staniloiu & Markowitsch, 2010).
As predicted, volumes of animal studies and research involving testing individuals suffering from retrograde amnesia have subsequently identified several specific regions and structures as being involved in the development of retrograde amnesia that are completely distinct from the hippocampal regions implicated in connection with anterograde amnesia. In particular, Broca's Area and Wernicke's Area have been identified in that regard (Sadek, White, Taylor, et al., 2004). The other principal importance of these findings has to do with their roles of memory in human speech and language (James & MacKay, 2001).
etrograde amnesia is often seen in connection with injury to regions of the temporal lobe and the right temporo-prefrontal cortices (Staniloiu & Markowitsch, 2010), areas…
James, L.E. And MacKay, D.G. "H. M., Word Knowledge, and Aging: Support for a New Theory of Long-Term Retrograde Amnesia." American Psychological
Society, Vol. 12, No. 6 (2001): 485 -- 492.
Meeter, M. And Murre, J.M. "Consolidation of Long-Term Memory: Evidence and Alternatives." Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 130, No. 6, (2004): 843 -- 857.
Sadek, J.R., White, D.A., Taylor, K.I., et al., "Retrograde Amnesia in Dementia:
Memory Search and Amnesia
The concept of the central nervous system suggests that the brain and nervous system is an immutable object within the body that once developed, cannot change. However recent discoveries within the field of neuroplasticity have shown that the brain is indeed mutable and changing. Even following injury the brain has the ability to create modified functional structures and to create new synapses and electrical connections. The purpose of this paper is to explore the cellular mechanisms that underlie neuroplastic phenomena in the brain and to relate them to memory, learning and function throughout the body.
Historically neuroscientists and biologists believed the brain was a rather immutable structure that once developed, could no longer change much. The brain could retain information, memorize and learn, but past childhood the brain did not have the ability to form map new synapsis and electrical connections. Thanks to the discovery…
Bergado-Rosado, JA, Almaquer-Melian, W. (2000 Dec). Cellular mechanisms of neuroplasticity.
Rev Neurol. 1-15:31(11): 1074-95.
Chakraborty, R., Chatterjee, A., Choudhary, S. & Chakraborty, PK. 2007 Sept. Neuroplasticity a paradigm shift in neurosciences. Journal Indian Medical Association. 105(9): 513-4, 520-1.
Rossi, E.L. (2003). Gene expression, neurogenesis, and healing: Psychosocial genomics of therapeutic hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis.
Childhood amnesia, which is commonly known as infantile amnesia, is the scarcity or lack of autobiographical recollections among adults regarding incidents that took place in their early life, especially events that occurred before they turned 4 years old. Generally, most adults have no recollections of events that took place in their early life before they turned 3 years. Childhood amnesia is usually assessed through asking adults to remember their earliest memory, especially specific target incidents that happened during early life. As a result, the emergence of autobiographical memory is always regarded as the end of childhood amnesia. Childhood amnesia is an important topic in the field of psychology with regards to understanding an individual's life development. The topic is also vital in the field of psychology because it provides significant insights that help in understanding memory.
Childhood amnesia or infantile amnesia is basically described as the scarcity or…
Dean, J. (2014, February). Childhood Amnesia: The Age at Which Our Earliest Memories Fade.
Retrieved February 19, 2015, from http://www.spring.org.uk/2014/02/childhood-amnesia-the-age-at-which-our-earliest-memories-fade.php
Hamilton, J. (2014, April 8). The Forgotten Childhood: Why Early Memories Fade. Retrieved February 19, 2015, from http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/04/08/299189442/the-forgotten-childhood-why-early-memories-fade
Josselyn, S.A. & Frankland, P.W. (2012). Infantile Amnesia: A Neurogenic Hypothesis.
Anterograde amnesia is a disorder in which the patient is unable to produce new memories following the incident that caused the amnesia. While long-term memories from prior to the incident may remain, the person has difficulty recalling the immediate past. Diagnosis of anterograde amnesia is performed using a variety of tests, from imaging scans (such as MRI or CT) to blood tests (to detect whether there is infection, nutrient deficiencies) to electroencephalogram for detecting seizure activity. Physical exams (checking reflexes of the patient, sensory function) and cognitive tests are also performed, in which the patient’s short-term and long-term memory is checked. The memory evaluation is critical in determining the type of amnesia that the patient has suffered (Mayo Clinic, 2018). In the film 50 First Dates, the character of Lucy Whitmore played by Drew Barrymore suffers from what is essentially anterograde amnesia, though in the film it is given the…
Alber, J., Della Sala, S., & Dewar, M. (2014). Minimizing interference with early consolidation boosts 7-day retention in amnesic patients. Neuropsychology, 28(5), 667-675.
Dewar, M., Sala, S., Beschin, N. & Cowan, N. (2010). Profound retroactive interference in anterograde amnesia: What interferes? Neuropsychology, 24(3), 357-367.
Hurlemann, R., Hawellek, B., Matusch, A., Kolsch, H., Wollersen, M. B., Vogeley, K., Maier, W. & Dolan, R. (2005). Noradrenergic modulation of emotion-induced forgetting and remembering. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25(27), 6343–6349.
Mayo Clinic. (2018). Amnesia. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/amnesia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353366
Infantile Amnesia and Causes
Infantile Amnesia is defined as the failure of an individual to remember events from their early years of life. According to Freud, infantile amnesia usually entails a loss of memory of events that occurred before the sixth or eighth year. (Freud 1905,1953) Freud asserted that many early childhood memories were to startling to recall and were therefore filtered out and become screen memories.(Johnston n.d.)
There are several explanations for the occurrence of infantile amnesia, which include; neurological immaturity, lack of memory ability, lack of sense of self, and amnesia caused by sexual abuse. There is no clear consensus on the causes of infantile amnesia, but most clinicians agree that any of these factors play a role in infantile amnesia. Over the next few paragraphs we will explore these factors in detail.
The theory of neurological immaturity suggests that the brain of a young simply…
Bauer, Patricia J. (1996) Award Addresses: What Do Infants Recall of Their Lives? Memory for Specific Events by One- to Two-Year-olds. American Psychologist. 51: 30.
Chu et al. (1999) Memories of Childhood abuse: Disassociation, Amnesia, and Coroboration. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 156:749-755
Johnston, E (n.d.) Lecture 8 Infantile Amnesia
However, through a review of the clinical history and the semantic debate over the relationship between trauma -- especially sexual abuse -- during childhood and the surfacing of psychologically distressing consequences in adulthood, it is evident that the diagnosis of repression is often misapplied. "The term 'dissociative." As applied to these disorders, is better construed as a descriptive label (referring to loss of conscious access to memory) than any pathological process instigated by trauma." (Kilstrom, 36) This means that the 'amnesia' triggered by such events can accurately be regarded as the involuntary mode of memory loss rather than the intentional psychological conditioning to 'block out' negative experiences. To an extent, this verifies the claim that amnesia may be caused by emotional trauma, even though this is empirically elusive in a case by case basis.
Barrett, J. (2002). Amnesia. Health, a to Z. Online at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/amnesia.jsp
Gleaves, DH, Smith,…
Barrett, J. (2002). Amnesia. Health, a to Z. Online at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/amnesia.jsp
Gleaves, DH, Smith, S.M.,Butler, L.D., & Spiegel, D. (2004). False and recovered memories in the laboratory and clinical: A review of experimental evidence. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 3-28.
Kilstrom, J.F. (2004). An unbalanced balancing act: Blocked, recovered and false memories in the laboratory and clinic. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 34-41.
LEF. (2003). Amnesia: Online Reference. Life Extension. Online at
The tale of Chibana Shoichi's, the Okinawan supermarket owner, demonstrates how there is still a major segment of society that believes in the "emperor system," even in Okinawa. However, Field exposes how these people have been forced to conform with this system, though social pressure, threats, and even violence. But despite these obstacles, there are still people like Shoichi who will speak out against this system and its historical amnesia. However, this fight has only just begun and not all those who stand up against the system are successful. Mrs. Nakaya was unsuccessful in her attempt to stop the government from using her husband to reinforce a system that she felt was unjust and restricted her religious beliefs. The response by the government signifies how deeply ingrained into Japanese society is the "emperor system," and how many Japanese, including the Japanese Supreme Court, see no differentiation between tradition Shinto-based emperor…
Field, Norma. In the Realm of a Dying Emperor. New York: Pantheon, 1991. Print.
In year 1799 anesthetic properties of Nitric Oxide were discovered by Humphery Davy (1778-1829) he advised that the by using nitric oxide, pain and shock of the surgical procedure can be negated. Third person who continue with Morton and ells philosophy was Charles T. Jackson. The Fourth man who contributed to anesthetics was Thomas Mortan (Blatner, 2009). In the year 1848 James Simpson used chloroform in obstetric surgery, he used diethyl ether to anesthetize a women with a pelvic deformity for delivery (kodali, 2009) and in year 1853 John Snow did a successful induction of chloroform to her Majesty Queen Victoria at the time of Prince Leopold's Birth and also on Fenny Longfellow who wrote to her poet brother that this use of ether is certainly the greatest blessing of this era (Longfellow, 1956). In the year 1885-illiam Halsted introduced the nerve block. In 1891 Heinrich Quincke demonstrated the process…
Bergman, Norman. History of Anesthesia. chua2.fiu.edu. http://ahahq.org/Bulletin/AHA_GB_1991-10.pdf .Retrieved from 14th Jan 2013.
Conquering surgical pain: Four men stake their claims. (2012). Massachusetts General
Blatner, Adam. The discovery and invention of Anesthesia. Blatner.com. http://www.blatner.com/adam/consctransf/historyofmedicine/4-anesthesia/hxanesthes.html . Retrieved on 14th Jan 2013.
Fadden, John. Cultural, Environmental and Genetical influences on drug therapy. Jbpub.com. http://samples.jbpub.com/9780763786076/86076_CH03_FINAL.pdf . Retrieved on 14th Jan 2013.
Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.
Literature eview: Cognitive Effects
The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…
Aaro, Jonsson C., Smedler, AC., Leis, Ljungmark M., & Emanuelson, I (2009). Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury: ISSN: 1362-301X, Vol. 23 (13-14), pp. 1008-16. doi:10.3109/02699050903379354
Cozzarelli, Tara A. (2010). Evaluation and Treatment of Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. LCDR USPHS. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 10, Edition 1.pg 39-42. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Howard, RS., Holmes, PA & Koutroumanidis, MA. (2011). Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Practical Neurology [Pract Neurol], ISSN: 1474-7766, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 4-18; PMID: 21239649. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218
Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria., Greenwood, Richard., Powell, Jane Hilary., Leech, Robert., Hawkins, Peter Charlie., Bonnelle, Valerie., Patel, Maneesh Chandrakan., Counsell, Serena Jane., and Sharp, David James (2011). White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. Brain A Journal Of Neurology. 134; 449 -- 463. doi:10.1093/brain/awq347
Memento Film Analysis
Christopher Nolan's Academy Award nominated film Memento provided a new perspective on film noir and helped to redefine how a narrative was presented in cinema. Memento stars Guy Pierce as Leonard Shelby, Carrie-Anne Moss as Natalie, and Joe Pantoliano as Teddy/John Edward Gammell. Through Leonard's psyche, the film's narrative structure, and its mise-en-scene, Nolan is able to demonstrate the perpetual conflict that arises in the film between good and evil, fact and fiction, and instinct and knowledge.
Memento is the story of Leonard Shelby, a former insurance investigator, who is suffering from anterograde amnesia. In the film, Leonard is trying to find the person that raped and killed his wife, but has trouble retaining any information long enough for him to make any progress in his investigation. However, through a series of techniques designed to jog his memory, including tattoo, Polaroid pictures, and extensive note taking, Leonard…
Borde, Raymond and Etienne Chaumeton. A Panorama of American Film Noir: 1941-1953.
Trans. Paul Hammond. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2002. Print.
Memento. Dir. Christopher Nolan. USA: Summit Entertainment, 2000. Hulu. 20 July 2012.
Naremore, James. "American Film Noir: The History of an Idea." Film Quarterly 49.2 (1995-
Alzheimer's disease has developed into a major health concern for the elderly population throughout the world. This degenerative brain disorder was first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1907. Today Alzheimer's is one of the most prevalent forms of brain disorders contributing to as much as 50 to 70% of all reported cases of dementia. Over the years the study of early onset Alzheimer's disease (pre-senile AD) has kind of overshadowed the study of late onset Alzheimer in elderly group. However the disease statistics indicate an increasing susceptibility of the older population. Approximately 5% of the population above 65 years of age and around 20% of the people above 85 years of age are affected by Alzheimer's disease. Hence what was previously ignored as an inevitable old age symptom (senile dementia) is now being properly recognized as an illness. This new perspective of AD has resulted in a drastically altered understanding…
Simon Lovestone and Martin Dunitz, " Early diagnosis and Treatment of Alzheimer's
Disease," Published by Martin Dunitz Ltd., 1998
Gerry Bennett and DR Mark Jones, "The Alzheimer's Handbook," Vermilion
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…
bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.
Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.
Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.
Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.
Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
In the end of the nineteenth century, research experiments were carried out on memory. In this period, the memory dominated by the symbol of evolutionary development in nature. In nineteenth century, many new technologies were developed such as radiography, photography and cinema cameras to recall and preserve memory. "Memorializing the achievements of individuals considered as members of families is the earliest popular use of photography" (Sontag, 2001, p. 43).
These new ways to store the historical events increased the archives and documents. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, a feeling of anxiety could be seen in the people because of the interruption in the use of the traditional forms of memory.
In traditional societies, people could easily interpret the past and their behavior and they could easily and openly carry their past and its meanings. On the other hand, in modern societies, the people were disconnected from their…
Cf. Hans Mol. (1976). Identity and the Sacred. Oxford: Blackwell, Gladigow; and Eibl-Eibesfeldt.
Friedrich Nierzsche, Werke, vol. 3, ed. K. Schlechta (Munich: Hanser, 1964).
Hacking, I. (1995). Rewriting the Soul. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Le Goff, J. (1992). History and Memory, New York: Columbia University Press.
If Americans find out about government law enforcement policy primarily via media as Elias contents, it is axiomatic that we find out about international crime via media. If we cannot be bothered to read for ourselves the bills introduced to Congress that result in laws to find out what those laws really mean, we certainly cannot be bothered to read and interpret the Koran to see where the truth lies in that document.
Elias offers an insight that works equally well for the failure of America's increasingly tough stands on crime and our acceptance of Islamic murderers as martyrs, and it is this:
With few exceptions, the media have uncritically reproduced official, conservative, 'law-and-order' perspectives with little fundamental analysis of their success or failure. They have also repeatedly covered and promoted 'crime wars' and 'drug wars' which inevitably fail but which are periodically resuscitated (with the media's help) as…
Charles, R. (2005, June 2) Martyrs and language. The Washington Times, p. A18. Retrieved 11 November 2005 from www.questia.com.
Elias, R. (1994, Feb.) Official stories: Media coverage of American crime policy, The Humanist, p. 3+. Retrieved 11 November 2005 from www.questia.com.
Memory refers to a mental process where information is encoded, stored, and retrieved for use (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). The process of memory is not, contrary to what many believe, like a tape recorder that accurately records events. Instead, our recollection of events is pliable and subject to a number of influences (Loftus, 1979). For instance Buckley-Zistel (2006) discussed how the recollection of the past of horrific events such as the 1990's genocide in wanda is influenced by variables such as the roles of the people during the event or their current living situation. Connerton (2008) attempted to disentangle the notions that remembering is usually considered a virtue and forgetting is necessarily a failing of a person or people. He noted that forgetting is not necessarily a unitary phenomena and that forgetting might have a purpose. Even though wandans claim that remembering the genocide is important to avoiding reoccurrences in…
Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence, The psychology of learning and motivation Volume 2 (pp. 89-195). New York: Academic Press.
Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006). Remembering to forget: Chosen amnesia as a strategy for local coexistence in post-genocide Rwanda. Africa, 76(2), 131-150.
Connerton, P. (2008). Seven types of forgetting. Memory Studies, 1, 59-71.
Loftus, E.F. (1979). The malleability of human memory. American Scientist, 67, 312-320.
Inattentional Blindness and Amnesia
hat was the point of conducting the experiment in the Castel, et al. article?
Despite seeing the workplace fire extinguisher on numerous occasions -- perhaps as often as several times a day -- employees could not recall precisely where it was located, which was the point of this experiment. The fire extinguishers are of course bright red and placed in spots that are easily accessible so that during an emergency they can be quickly located; and yet, because of what the authors called inattentional amnesia, studies show that employees often fail to memorize the location.
Briefly summarize the experience, noting what the researchers did and what they found. The researchers conducted their experiment in the Psychology Department building (Franz Hall tower) at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). The people in this research included 54 faculty, staff, and students. Among those involved were clearly very…
Castel, A.D., Vendetti, M., and Holyoak, K.J. (2012). Fire Drill: Inattentional blindness and Amnesia for the location of fire extinguishers. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics.
Vol. 74. 1391-1396.
It is impossible in six short pages to fully comprehend the attitudes that hite Americans had to Native Indians and black Americans in the early centuries of our nation's founding. That was m not my intent. My goal rather, was to illustrate first that although we are often presented a dominant narrative as the narrative, the truth is that in surveying American attitudes towards American Indians and Blacks a single cohesive narrative does not exist. If such a narrative did exist the Native American Seminole tribe of Florida would not exist. The Seminoles were a tri-racial tribe composed of Creek Indians, remainders of smaller tribes, runaway slaves and whites who preferred to live in Indian society (Loewen). The First and Second Seminole wars (1816-18, 1835-42) in which the Seminoles fought against invading hites who demanded that they surrender their African-American members, were fought not for economic value but to eliminate…
Jordan, Winthrop D. White Over Black:American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812. University of North Carolina Press., 1995.
Loewen, James. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Miller, Eric. George Washington and the Indians. 1994. 25 March 2010 .
Root, Maria. Love's Revolution: Interracial Marriage. Temple University Press, 2001.
Families are united and in many cases, all family members live under the same roof which also applies to the case of the Buendias.
The men in the novel, from Jose Arcadio who founds, together with his wife, the town of Macondo, to Aureliano Babilonia i.e. The last generation, are marked by a homogenous fate in the sense that none of them are able to escape the repetitiveness of their ancestors' fate. Despite the fact that they all express amazing energies, and are doted with intelligence and passion, they are all unable to concretize their dreams and projects, and to achieve any kind of long-term success. Violence is an important part of these men's temperament; they are all prone to anger and violent behavior. Even when these episodes of anger do not occur, their lives are overtaken by irrational violence which interrupts their lives.
The male characters in One Hundred…
16. The theme of incest is connected to the theme of solitude, and are both consistent throughout the entire novel. Incest marks the Buendia family on two levels, and deepens their feeling of isolation and solitude. Above all else, incestuous relations are to be kept private because they are not sociably acceptable, hence those engaged in such relations must keep to themselves, and are thus unable to develop deep and meaningful relations with the world around them. This also applies to the Buendia family. They are solitary and eventually become disengaged with their surroundings. Also, the prophecy of Ursula in the beginning of the novel comes true, and at the very end of the story, a Buendia is born with the tail of a pig. This is a profoundly metaphorical image: the tail of a pig is a sign of the sin committed by the parents of the child. The fact that the child is born with a tail is both a sign of his parents' sin and of the fact that he is a result of the sin committed, one which he or she cannot escape; the child is physically marked hence emotionally scarred for life.
In One Hundred Years of Solitude, incest is at the beginning of everything as far as the plot of the novel. The first to have an incestuous relationship are Ursula and Jose Arcadio Buendia whose families will interbreed over decades. Incest shuts the Buendia men inside the boundaries of their own women-mothers-daughters, unable to love anyone else; fratricide is the way in which men finally end up contacting other men, under the mask of death and violence. The Buendia men cannot be saved because they do not learn from their mistakes, and are unable to assume responsibility for their actions. The act of incest has the emotional and psychological effect of making prisoners out of the Buendia men; they are caught in a situation which repeats itself generation after generation. Amaranta Ursula and Aureliano are the sixth - and final - Buendia generation to commit the sin of incest. They actually perform an investigation as to their ancestors in their attempt to determine whether or not they are related. Although no other Buendia has done this before them, they are not thorough and readily "accept the version of the basket" (Marquez: 415) meaning what is convenient to them. The couple are given the chance to break the incestuous cycle but take the easy path instead which leads to their destruction when their child is born with the tail of a pig.
Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Perennial, 1998
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
While it is logical that Holocaust survivors underwent severe alterations due to this traumatic experience, 'what is less well-known about Holocaust survivors is that the impact of the Holocaust and trauma was passed on to subsequent generations' (Bender, 205). In other words, although the children of Holocaust survivors did not directly suffer the tragedy, they nevertheless experienced it vicariously through their parents. This transmission of the influences of the Holocaust on the children of survivors has been termed transgenerational effects. 'Transgenerational effects can refer to transmission of trauma (e.g., a second generation child has nightmares of concentration camps although she never experienced the camps) as well as specific thought processes and behaviors that are thought to be passed down because of parental experiences during and after the war (e.g., a third-generation survivor believes that social status is the most important indicator of success in a particular society)' (Bender, 206).
Bender, Sarah, M. (2004). Transgenerational Effects of the Holocaust: Past, Present,
And Future. Journal of Loss and Trauma (9). Brunner-Routledge.
Eitinger, Leo Shua (1990). Survivors of Ghettos and Camps. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (4). MacMillan Publishing Company: New York.
Kellermann, Natan, P.F. (2001). The Long-Term Psychological Effects and Treatment
old Chinese proverb that I believe encompasses my feelings for the nursing profession. With the healthcare industry in its current state of disruption, it has become very important to re-evaluate the relationship of patient care and patient satisfaction. "Sometimes patient satisfaction needs to be measured one patient at a time. This usually has nothing to do with the impersonality of the plan, the aloofness of the provider, or the quality of the specialists to whom one is referred. Rather, it involves the basic rationing philosophies of HMOs, particularly the for-profit variety." (Birenbaum, 107) We can't forget that the business objectives of HMO's aim to purchase services and materials at the lowest price possible and trying to lock in a price in advance. HMO's have therefore changed the philosophy of the healthcare industry. As nurses, we have to make the best of this atmosphere. This essay therefore serves as the final…
From the perspective of professionalism, I have learned that as a nurse, it is best to continue to function in the day-to-day with an open mind and to also be prepared to look for a viable solution through detailed research. For example, I have discovered that the Hmong philosophy may not have been all that far fetched. Shamanism is actually the foundation of many modern medical cures including various technologies, sciences and medicines. Shamanism has also been unofficially credited with having discovered the fact that the ability of people who have suffered a state of amnesia, epilepsy or other 'soul splitting' similar to Lia's are actually one way that the body allows for time to heal from brain trauma induced by accidents or other physical abuses. "There is a doorway within our minds that usually remains hidden and secret until the time of death. The Huichoil word for it is neirika. Neirika is a cosmic portway or interface between so-called ordinary and non-ordinary realities. It is a pathway and at the same time a barrier between worlds." (Halifax, 1991)
Lia's father may not have been right about the doors slamming as the stimulus, but he may have been on to something with the notion of a splitting of the soul. Long before modern psychology or medicine, Shamanism discovered that children used soul splitting events like epilepsy, amnesia, sleep and even comas to heal from events like mentally traumatic or emotional disturbances such as the loss of their parents or siblings. Just like modern medicine and psychology, shamanic journeys that realigned the human soul have been proven to have healed some forms of depression, helped in coma recoveries and more. When Lia was alive and well years after the western world had assumed she would not live more than a few months at best, the western world could have benefited by admitting that in this case at least, the Hmong way of life may have been superior. I believe that what I have learned from this class and from the story will advance me as a future nurse because I will apply the ideas of open mindedness with detailed research.
As the HMO payment philosophy
Humor in 3 Films
Comedy has often provided the perfect vehicle for social and political commentary. Three films that use comedy to as the basis for social and political commentary are Duck Soup (1933), The Great Dictator (1940), and Some Like It Hot (1959). Duck Soup, The Great Dictator, and Some Like It Hot provide commentary on social and political issues, as well as on issues of sex and gender.
Duck Soup is a Marx Brothers classic directed by Leo McCarey in which Groucho Marx plays Rufus T. Firefly, a man who is appointed to the position of Freedonia, a small country that has recently gone bankrupt (Duck Soup). Firefly's appointment as leader is made as part of an agreement between undisclosed members of the country in exchange for continued financial support from Mrs. Gloria Teasdale, a wealthy widow. At the same time, Freedonia's neighbor, Sylvania, is plotting to take…
Duck Soup. Directed by Leo McCarey. United States: Paramount Pictures, 1933. Netflix Instant
Streaming. Web. 1 March 2013.
The Great Dictator. Directed by Charles Chaplin. United States: United Artists, 1940. DVD.
Polsson, Ken. "Chronology of World History." 14 February 2013. Web. 1 March 2013.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome -- A Case Study
Case study 'Monique.'
Case presentation and history
Monique, a female aged 30, possesses a history of depression and chronic fatigue syndrome, starting at the age of 16 to 17, together with suicide attempts (entailing overdosing), in addition to a long record of anxiety. During baseline evaluation, she reported continuous constant fatigue as well as anhedonia. She also expressed dense retrograde amnesia following a 12-week program of bi-weekly electroconvulsive therapy early in 2006 (she asserts that has no memory of any occurrences preceding this). In late 2006, Monique was also diagnosed with ADHD, however, trusts that she has had continuous problems with distractibility and vagueness. At one point, dexamphetamine was experimented on her, which, even though enhanced her attention, also reduced her mood and hence it was discontinued. Monique also reported that when she was 2 years old, she cracked her skull consequent to…
Canadian Mental Health Association, 2015. Mood Disorders. [Online]
Available at: https://www.cmha.ca/mental-health/understanding-mental-illness/mood-disorders / [Accessed 19 September 2015].
APA, 2010. Anxiety Disorders and Effective Treatment. [Online]
Available at: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/anxiety-treatment.aspx [Accessed 19 September 2015].
Individual Programmatic Assessment
TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME
Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…
American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub
Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson
Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
One cannot build the right sort of house -- the houses are not really adequate, "Blinds, shutter, curtains, awnings, were all closed and drawn to keep out the star. Grant it but a chink or keyhole, and it shot in like a white-hot arrow." The stare here is the metonymic device -- we assume it is stranger, the outside vs. The inside, but for some reason, it is also the authority involved, and one that is able to ensure adequacy. In a similar vein, the "churches were freest from it," but they offer only an homage' to safety, and use their power to shut people out from the light that "made the eyes ache" and had been inhumanly oppressive. The prison, though, is "so repulsive a place that even the obtrusive star blinked at it and left it to such refuse of reflected light as could find." The stare is…
Labor in Little Dorrit." Journal of the Novel. 31 (1) 21+.
Young, Arlene. (1996). "Virtue Domesticated: Dickens and the Lower Middle
Class." Victorian Studies. 39 (4): 483+.
But as obvious as their presence might have been, Jewish crime remained a hushed subject in the history of Jews in the U.S. This oversight was intentional and by no means an evidence of lack of criminal activities in Jewish circles. In fact it was the nefarious activities of Jewish entrepreneur Joseph Seligman that led to the stock market crash in late 1800s as Ginsberg notes:
"[the crash] ruined thousands of investors, implicated President Grant, and led to a Congressional investigation of [Jay] Gould and Seligman ... Similarly, in the early 1890s, Jacob Schiff collaborated with E.H. Harriman in the latter's attempts to wrest control of the Northern Pacific ailroad from J.P. Morgan and James Hill ... When the price of the Northern Pacific Stock collapsed, the entire market crashed in the notorious 'Black Thursday' panic that led to a nationwide economic depression." [Ginsberg., p. 73]
Thus Jewish organized crime…
Ginsberg, Benjamin. The Fatal Embrace: Jews and the State. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1994.
Silberman, Laurence J. Mapping Jewish Identities. New York University Press, New York & London, 2000
Katcher, Leo (1959/1994). The Big Bankroll. The Life and Times of Arnold Rothstein, New York: Da Capo Press
Furthermore, both statutory and tort law at the time were ill-equipped with regard to provision of environmental safeguards and taking care of the fall-out of an environmental crisis . In fact, at the time that Hoover Chemical Corporation was dumping toxins into the canal, there was no law with regard to the disposal or dumping of chemicals; thus, Hoover was acting within its purview since at all times it either had the owner's permission to dump or it was the owner of the property itself. Consequently, in order to avoid this problem in the future, legislation was passed regulating the dumping of hazardous waste. Furthermore, environmental laws were passed such as CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liablity Act, aka Superfund) that held polluters accountable or the damages they caused. Additionally, in the realm of civil tort law, in 1994, a Federal District court ruled that Hooker had been negligent…
30th Anniversary of Love Canal. (2008, June). Retrieved from http://www.chej.org
Blum, Elizabeth D., Love Canal Revisited. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2008, p.20-22.
Brown, PhD, P., & Clapp, PhD, R. (2002). Looking back on Love Canal. Public Health Reports, 17, 95-98. Retrieved from Association of Schools of Public Health.
De Angelo, L. (2008). Love Canal, New York. In the encyclopedia of Earth. Washington D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Coalition for Science and the Environment.
More generalized assessments include the Wechsler Memory Scale, created by the founder of the IQ test of that name, which offers a generalized assessment of different memory types (sensory, short, and long-term) and is most appropriate for adults.
In general, two basic types of neuropsychological memory tests exist. "In almost all objective tests, quantitative results are compared with some normative standard, including data from groups of non-brain injured persons and groups of persons with various kinds of brain injury. If the norms are based on age and educational achievement, valid comparison can be made between an individual's performance and that of persons in known diagnostic categories as well as persons who do not have a diagnosis of brain injury. Qualitative assessment of neuropsychological tests provides a look at the processes an individual may use in producing the quantitative scores. Analysis of the pattern of performance among a large number of…
Human memory: Atkinson-Shiffrin Model. (2010). IPFW. Retrieved February 9, 2010 at http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/AtkinsonShifrin.html
SCATBI. (2010). Academic Therapy. Retrieved February 9. 2010 at http://www.academictherapy.com
Swiercinsky, Dennis. (2001). Neuropsychological testing. Brain Source. Retrieved February 9,
2010 at http://www.brainsource.com/nptests.htm
There is a direct correlation with, say, Henry Hill's cocaine abuse and the increasingly rapid cuts between shots. Faster-paced narrative parallels quicker-moving shots. When viewers finally see the film in the theater, the finished product reads like a cohesive narrative when in fact the filmmakers strung together disparate shots and cuts and combined them later after thousands of hours of painstaking labor. Analyzing a movie must therefore include respect for the editorial prowess of the post-production crew.
Editors must be intimately familiar with the screenplay they work with, especially in films that do not have a linear narrative. For instance, Christopher Nolan's 2000 film Memento describes one man's struggle with memory degradation. elying on a non-linear plot, the filmmaker depended on the post-production crew to adequately convey the disjointedness of amnesia. Other elements like dramatic irony, in which the audience is privy to information that protagonists do not have access…
Bellour, R. (2000). The Analysis of Film. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Bertolucci, B. (1993). Little Buddha. Feature film.
Brown, B. (2002). Cinematography: Theory and Practice. USA: Elsevier Science.
Cameron, J. (2009). Avatar. Feature film.
Methods of Killing
The methods of committing neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide are as diverse as the women who commit the tragic crime. According to ouge-Maillart, Jousset, Gaudin, Bouju, and Penneau (2005), strangulation, head trauma, drowning, and suffocation were the four most frequent methods of filicide. However, in these researchers' study, some mothers used what they deem to be 'more active' methods. Five children died after being struck by their mothers' fists. Two women in the study used a firearm to shoot their children. Two died after being hit with a heavy object, by their mother -- one a monkey wrench the other a stone. One woman slit her 13-year-old's throat. In one case, a 3-year-old boy died by defenestration -- being thrown out of the window. Lastly, a 10-month-old died of starvation and dehydration, after being deprived of food and water for 10 days.
Krischer, Stone, Sevecke, and Steinmeyer's (2007)…
Atwood, T. (Feb 2008). Comment: National Council for Adoption's response to the Texas Safe Haven Study. Child Maltreatment, 13(1). pp. 96-97.
Craig, M. (Feb 2004). Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97. pp. 57-61.
Friedman, S., Horwitz, S., & Resnick, P. (2005) Child murder by mothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162. pp. 1578-1587.
Kauppi, A. Kumpulainen, K. Vanamo, T. Merikanto, J and Karkola K. (2008)Maternal depression and filicide. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11. pp. 201-206.
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
The psychological priming aspect of implicit memory is also responsible for the phenomenon whereby individuals are more likely to believe facts that they have heard repeatedly than equally plausible (or implausible) facts heard for the first time (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007). In fact, this type of priming is so effective that it often persists despite evidence that the statement is actually false. A typical example would include the persistence of the very commonly expressed belief that human beings "use only a small percentage of their minds" (such as 10%) even after being informed that neurologists know this is not true, simply because that bit of false trivia is heard so often.
Gerrig, ., Zimbardo, . (2007). Psychology…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, R. (2007). Psychology and Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
We are extremely close.
Amazing - I've found someone I can really trust. I feel really lucky at the moment because all my other relationships have been *****.
Too good. it's really hard to describe. Unreal! I guess I now can't live without him. it's too good. He's grown on me.
I think I need to clarify I'm still married. I feel that in a marriage there ought to be a sexual relationship but in the last four years, I have been unable to give that and nor do I desire resuming it with my husband.
Fairly close but since I broke up with my husband I find it difficult to trust somebody. He tells me I'm a lot closer to him than I realize. I find it difficult to relax and believe it's too good to be true. I'm always looking for something to be wrong.
Excellent. He's very…
Mullen, Paul E. And Fleming, Jillian (1998) Long-term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse. Issues in Child Abuse Prevention. No. 9 Autumn 1998. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/nch/pubs/issues/issues9/issues9.html
Hughes, Karen et al. (1998) the Health Impacts on Adult Women of Childhood Sexual Violence Before the Age of Twelve Years. Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse. A Report on Community Research. Online available at http://www.mincava.umn.edu/documents/report/report.html
Worrell, Judith (nd) Encyclopedia of Women and Gender - Sex Similarities and Differences and the Impact of Society on Gender. Academic Press. Google Books online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=7SXhBdqejgYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=women+and+childhood+sexual+abuse:+self-esteem,+intimacy,+friendship+in+adulthood&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0#PPP1,M1
ymbols and images should be identified from true events in order to strengthen the themes and premises of the story. Furthermore, a central theme should be identified from the events in order to help the reader understand the points that the author is trying to make.
In reading nonfiction, the reader requires imagination in order to connect the events and themes of the story to his or her own life for the purpose of personal enjoyment and growth. The reader should be able to identify the various themes and symbols that the author has chosen to include in the story, and to interpret these in order to understand the central points of the author's writing. The symbols in the works discussed for example relate directly to the ideas of separation, deceit and growth. The reader gains the most from stories that they are able to clearly interpret and understand. In…
Hughes, Langston. "Salvation." In Literature for Composition, 8th edition by Sylvan Barnet, William Burto & William E. Cain, pp. 310-311
Lam, Andrew. "Who will light the incense when Mother's gone?" In Literature for Composition, 8th edition by Sylvan Barnet, William Burto & William E. Cain, pp. 1,036-1,037
Much as in Mary Shelly's Frankenstein, the Monster has no memory of who he was in parts, only of who he is as a whole distinct person, although that abnormal brain certainly didn't help his feedback system.
Shelly, not our Shelly but Frankenstein's', reminds us that human beings are not just machines and trying to simply piece them together as if the parts are the only concern rarely works out well. However, is Frankenstein the ubermensch that Neitize talked about? If so there are certainly some problems. Of course this is metaphorical, in our experiment Smelly has been pieced together a bit, but more from a teleological standpoint in trying to ascertain the meaning of personality rather than the meaning of life. But in a sense there is also some reality to this metaphor. The scientific breakthroughs in cloning organisms and genetic manipulation, as well as this Smelly situation, certainly…
" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that…
Beamish, Patricia M. And Hill, Nicole R. (2007) Treatment outcomes for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review.(Private Practices) Journal of Counseling and Development 22 Sept 20077. Online available at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-170413211.html
Bechtel, Robert B. And Ts'erts'Man, Arzah (2002) Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Boston University School of Social Work (2007) Online available at http://www.bu.edu/ssw/training/pep/programs/workshops/boston/index.shtml
Cromer, Kiara R. (2005) a Pathoplastic Vulnerability Mode: An Association Between Traumatic Stressful Life Events & OCD. Florida State University 2005. Online available at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11/unrestricted/Cromer_Thesis_Nov_2005.pdf
Thus, he covers both sides of the issue effectively, and notes that while eighteen Americans died, between 500 and 1,000 Somalis died on the ground. Thus, as a journalist, he uses balance and both sides of the issue to make his points and back up his reasoning. That is the mark of a good journalist, and probably one of the reasons the book was considered for a National Book Award. It is an emotional book, but it is also balanced and fair, leading the reader to make their own conclusions about what happened in Somalia.
One of the great strengths of the book is the way the author portrays the soldiers. They are more than a group of men fighting together, they are a team, a cohesive group that care about each other and will never leave another behind. That is one of the enduring themes of the book, and…
Editors. "Mark Bowden: Biography." AtlanticMonthly.com. 2007. http://www.theatlantic.com/about/people/mbbio.htm
Mark Bowden. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999.
Nevertheless, Aureliano falls in love with Remedios Moscote, daughter of magistrate' head Don Apolinar Moscote. They become close to each other, but Aureliano, exhausted by prolonged scientific findings falls into insanity for quite a long time, having horrible visions about his future. Aureliano marries Remedios when she reaches puberty age and they live happily in the house of Aureliano's parents. Remedios raises Aureliano's illegitimate son from Pilar Ternera. Rebecca and Pietro Crespi start preparation for wedding ceremony but Remedios dies suddenly and the whole family is in mourning. Mourning is broken by the return of Jose Arcadio, who had changed much and became a tattooed masculine man. Jose Arcadio has affair with Rebecca, which later turns into marriage and exile caused by the will of his outraged mother Ursula. Meanwhile Pietro and Amaranta Buend'a experience revival of feelings for each other.
Solitude and grief of Aureliano caused by the death…
Adultery and any sort of infidelity turns out to be a different story for men as Rosenthal stresses: "prohibition against adultery is not about property, pregnancy, misdirected male desire, or bloodlines, as one might have thought, but about the prevention of female comparison" (Rosenthal, 2008) as sharing men would be established by the size of their sexual organs.
A recurrent theme in the play from a gender perspective relates to the fact that the play is generally a patriarchal type of play in which paternal figures are predominant and the evolution of the other characters is a direct result of this way of using power. The women in this play, especially Doralice and Melantha are victimized as women had lesser rights to speak their minds or act according to their decisions. The paternalistic environment is also observed in the way Palamede and Rhodophil behave, as all four of them find…
Denman, J. (2008) "Too hasty to stay": Erotic and Political Timing in Marriage a la Mode. Restoration: Studies in English Literary Culture, 1660-1700, Volume 32, Number 2, pp. 1-23
Dryden, J. (1981) Marriage a la Mode. University of Nebraska Press
Frank, M. (2002) Gender, Theatre, and the Origins of Criticism: From Dryden to Manley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Hansen, C. (1993) Woman as Individual in English Renaissance Drama: A Defiance of the Masculine Code. New York: Peter Lang
Its a good idea to leave behind information that is not necessary for us any more like past phone numbers and names of strangers whom we may not meet again.
Episodic memories are the autobiographical events of a person's life based on his or her experiences, relationships, learning and ideas. In a loss of episodic memory, the links that exist in the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain are broken. This happens when the patient has suffered a head injury or has been in any form of trauma. Also, episodic memory failure happens when the frontal lobes are damaged and as a result, the patient is able to remember some information though not in the order in which it happened. Further more, this leads to false recollection of events that could not have happened.
Implicit memories are those that do not require intentional remembering or…
Gibb, Barry. (2007). The Rough Guide to the Brain. New York: Penguin
Squire. L; Kandel. E. (2000). Memory: From Mind to Molecules. New York: Scientific American Library
Schacter, Daniel. (2001). The Seven Sins of Memory. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
If it was a dream, then the programmers clearly attempted to incorporate background realism. For example, the characters get dirty; like sweat, dirt is not something that the programmers would need to create to have realistic humans, but there is dirt on people. If one accepts the premise that the entire story is a dream, it is not difficult to take an additional step and assume that the programmers would think to have a character, who is supposed to appear nervous, sweating while he was on screen.
7. There are clues throughout the movie that the hero could use to discover whether his experiences were veridical or not. Perhaps the best clue is foreshadowed at the beginning of the movie and comes at the end of the movie; the appearance of the blue sky on Mars. Having never been to Mars, I have to rely upon my own conjecture, but…
Forster, M. (2006). Stranger than Fiction. Los Angeles: Columbia Pictures.
Jonze, S. (1999). Being John Malkovich. Los Angeles: Gramercy Pictures.
Nolan, C. (2000). Inception. Los Angeles: Warner Bros. Pictures.
Nolan, C. (2000). Memento. Los Angeles: Newmarket Capital Group.
Fractures and Causes
A fracture is a broken bone or a break of any size on the bone (Giza 2009, Vorvick 2009, Parmet 2010). The cause is the application or exertion of physical force, which is stronger than the bone itself. Fractures are common occurrences and experience. The average person is said to experience two fractures in his lifetime. The risk depends partly on age. It is quite common in childhood although fractures during childhood are, as a rule, less serious than those in adulthood. This is because bones become more brittle with age. Fractures result from injuries, osteoporosis, tumors near the bone, and prolonged walking or running. The severity depends on the location and extent of damage to the bone and surrounding tissues. Unless treated promptly, complications may develop. Recuperation depends on the person's age and health and the type of fracture. Healing may take a few weeks if…
Better Health 2004, 'Bone fracture,' Better Health Channel [Online] Available at http://hnb, dgs, vuc, giv, ay/dsonline/dsarticles.nsf/pages/Bone-fractures?OpenDocument
Giza, E reviewer 2009, 'Understanding fractures -- basic information,' Web MD [Online]
Available at http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-fractures-basic-information
Gould, L 2006, 'Fractures,' Education Resources and Information [Online] Available at http://www.radiology.med.sc.edu/presentations/FRACTRES.ppt
The book The Divine yans, is based on a traditional family, steeped in long tradition and hierarchy. The yan clan lives in St. John's, Newfoundland, and is a study of the interaction between family members who are often torn between tradition, family loyalty, and the ongoing process of actualization. Donald yan is the editor of the local newspaper while his brothers and sisters manage the local funeral home. Draper, Donald's son, travels to the newspaper office one day to surprise his father with a birthday cake, only to witness something traumatic (a suicide) that becomes the genesis for his exploration of myth within family, coming of age, and coping with his father's death. It focuses on the idea that in all families, dysfunction may be the operant paradigm, regardless of the public facade that traditions and hierarchical structures point. As Draper moves to explore the events that surround…
Johnston, W. (1999). The Divine Ryans. New York: Broadway Books.
The problem of internal hostility and shabby women has been a matter of great concern that attracted increasing concentration in both nationally and worldwide in the course of media campaigns, legislation initiatives, and research performed in fields like criminal justice, social science, and women's studies. (McWhirter, 120) It is estimated that on an average one women is physical abused by her husband in every 7.4 seconds in the United States. The hostility at home is considered to be the most significant cause of hurting the women who are in the health care system. With the passage of time the battering of women is growing in intensity and also in occurrence with the 75% of battering women being victimized in more than one number of cases. (Leon, 36) About 20 to 25% of married women have acknowledged the fact of physical abuse in the Identifying Battered Women National Surveys.…
Capellaro, Catherine. Help for Battered Immigrant Women - National Network for Battered Immigrant Women. The Progressive. July, 1997. pp: 6-8
Clarke, T. Identifying Battered Women. American Family Physician. May, 1989. Volume: 7; No: 1; pp: 64-68
McWhirter, Ellen Hawley. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to the Empowerment of Battered Women. Journal of Counseling and Development. September, 2003. Volume: 12; No: 1; pp: 120-125
Mirands, D. Battered Women: Why Do They Stay?. Psychology Today. May-June, 1992. Volume: 6; No: 1; pp: 47-53
September 11, 2001 changed everything. We hear sentiments such as this one often; what do they really mean? Other than the obvious -- stricter security at airports, increased demand for Middle East experts -- what really changed? Are Americans fundamentally different people than we were on September 10? Perhaps as a nation our priorities changed, but has our personality been altered? The 9/11 Commission Report emphasizes national unity: "remember how we all felt on September 11...not only the unspeakable horror but how we came together as a nation -- one nation. Unity of purpose and unity of effort are how we will defeat this enemy." (National Commission 2004, executive summary 34)
The raw freshness of the attacks on September 11 inspires amnesia regarding other national security crises: the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis. America has never been without military involvement in the world, at…
Spanier, John and Steven Hook. American Foreign Policy Since World War II. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2004.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the U.S., The 9/11 Commission Report. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2004,
He can then be influenced to live what he now understands but has yet to do. The therapist or doctor must encourage the patient or awaken his social interest and raise his level of energy along with it. y developing a genuine human relationship with the patient, the therapist or doctor can re-establish the basic form of social interest, which the patient can use in transferring it to others. oth therapist and patient must realize that the latter's ultimate cure can come only from him.
Adler's approach has similarities with that of Socrates (Stein 1991). Socrates exhorted others to "know thyself," while Adler urged that people should think for themselves (Meyer 1980 as qtd in Stein 1991). Like Socrates, he would lead the person or patient through a series of questions to a contradiction within himself as revealed by his own answers. oth philosophers were committed to the search for…
Adler, A. (1932). Mind and Body. What Life Should Mean to You. Unwin Books. http://www.marxists.org/references.org/subject/philosophy/works/at/adler.htm
Boeree, G. (1997). Alfred Adler. Shippensburg University. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/adler.htm
Holmes, L. (2002). Clinicians' Personal Theories Influence Diagnosis of Mental Disorders. Mental Health Resource: Vanderbilt University. http://mentalhealth.about.com/library/sci/1202/blscdx1202.htm
Center for Existential Depth Psychology. (2004). Philosophical Forerunners of Existential Psychotherapy. Louis Hoffman. http://www.existential.therapy.co/Key%20Figures/Philosophical_Forerunners.htm
China and the Korean War
The fall of China to Communism in 1949 came about because of many different reasons. One, Mao Zedong was popular with the people, and this helped him overpower Jiang Jieshi and his government. Mao also had territory and Japanese military items left over from World War II, which Jiang did not. Mao had more military might, and he was simply more popular than Jiang with the Chinese people. China fell to Communism because of Mao's popularity more than his power. He was a farmer like most of the population of China, and he spoke to their needs and wants. The Chinese civil war did not result from the National Security Council's Memorandum 68; it had been going on for years before and after World War II.
However, NSC-68 did have far-reaching consequences in American foreign policy with China and the Soviet Union and regarding the…
"China, Korea, and the Cold War in Asia."
Fakiolas, Efstathios T. "Kennan's Long Telegram and NSC-68: A Comparative Theoretical Analysis." East European Quarterly 31.4 (1998): 415+.
Jian, Chen. China's Road to the Korean War: The Making of the Sino-American Confrontation. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
Pierpaoli, Paul G. "Beyond Collective Amnesia: A Korean War Retrospective." International Social Science Review (2001): 92+.
Crime Attenuant: How Lawyers Have Used P.M.S as a Criminal Defence for Women
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), the unique, often troubling physical and psychological symptoms that can accompany onset of menstruation in many women each month, has been used successfully in the past, and continues now to be used by lawyers worldwide (e.g., in the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere) in defence of women accused of crimes (Johnson, 1987; McArthur, 1989; Eastreal, 1991; Dershowitz, 1994). Specifically, PMS symptoms typically are "Symptoms that begin 7 to 14 days prior to a menstrual period and usually stop when menstruation begins (Griffith, 1995, p. 500). Actual physical and psychological PMS symptoms may include:
Nervousness and irritability; Dizziness and fainting; Emotional instability;
Increased or decreased sex drive; Headaches; Tender, swollen breasts;
Bloating, constipation, diarrhea, and other digestive disturbances; Fluid
retention that causes puffiness in the ankles, hands, and face; Higher
Bailey, F.L. & Fishman, K. (1990). Crimes of Violence: Homicide and Assault.
New York: Lawyers Cooperative Publishing.
Dalton, K. (1986). Premenstrual syndrome. Hamline law review, 9(1). 143-54.
Dershowitz, A.M. (1994). The PMS defense feminist setback. In The
For example, they should be required to complete at least 20 hours of training on brain disorders. It is ideal if consumers and family members become part of the activity and process. It must also be emphasized that, in most cases, dangerous or violent acts committed by persons with these brain disorders are the consequence of neglect, inappropriate or inadequate treatment of their illness (NAMI).
The Alliance also contends that the unpopular insanity defense should be retained and should be tested according to both volitional and cognitive criteria or standards (National Alliance of Mental Illness 2006). At the same time, the Alliance opposes the adoption of laws or position on "guilty but mentally ill. Instead, it advocates systems, which will provide comprehensive, long-term care and supervision in hospitals and the community where such individuals are found who are "not guilty by reason of insanity," "guilty except for insanity," or similar…
1. Amnesty International. (2006). The Execution of Mentally Ill Offenders. Amnesty International Library. http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/ENGAMR5002206
2. Anynomous. (2006). Forensic Psychiatry - Criminal. http://www.stanford.edu/group/psylawseminar/blank%20Page%206.htm
3. Fellner, J. (2006). A Corrections Quandary: Mental Illness and Prison Rules. http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/crc/vol41_2/fellner.pdf
4. Human Rights Watch (2006). Difficulties Mentally Ill Prisoners Face Coping in Prison. Human Rights Watch.org. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/usa1003/7.htm
Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.
Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…
Butler, Gillian, and Freda McManus. Psychology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Smith, David L. Approaching Psychoanalysis: An Introductory Course. London: Karnac Books, 1999.
Extant literature has been dedicated to the evaluation of closed head injuries using the Canadian Scale and New Orleans criteria for Adult patients in rural areas.The work of Stielle et al. (2005) explored the comparison of the Canadian CT head rule and the New Orleans Criteria in various Patients suffering from minor head injuries. Their work indicated that the current application of computed tomography (CT) for cases of minor head injury is rapidly increasing.This technique is further noted to be inefficient and highly variable in its actual application. The Canadian CT Head ule (CCH) as well as New Orleans Criteria (NOC) are clinical decision rules that bwere previously developed in order to guide CT use for the patients suffering from minor head injury while also recording a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of between 13-15 for the CCH as well as a score of 15 on the NOC scale. Stielle…
Smits at al (2007). Minor Head Injury: Guidelines for the Use of CT -- A Multicenter Validation Study. Radiology: Volume 245 (3).
Smits et al. (2005) External Validation of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria for CT Scanning in Patients With Minor Head Injury. JAMA, September 28, 2005 -- Vol 294 (12)
Stiele et al. (2001). The Canadian CT Head Rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet 2001; 357: 1391 -- 96
Wu, C .,Jallo, J (2011).Developing a Clinical Guideline for CT scans involving closed head injury. Available online at http://jdc.jefferson.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1056&context=jhnj&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.co.ke%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3DDeveloping%2Ba%2BClinical%2BGuideline%2Bfor%2BCT%2Bscans%2Binvolving%2Bclosed%2Bhead%2Binjury%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26ved%3D0CB8QFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fjdc.jefferson.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1056%2526context%253Djhnj%26ei%3DcstyUJCDIIbBhAf884HoDg%26usg%3DAFQjCNFLWHfFLaCEDc4ohOwNRsgLdB4grA#search=%22Developing%20Clinical%20Guideline%20CT%20scans%20involving%20closed%20head%20injury%22
psychological impact of Katrina & Lusitania
Hurricane Katrina which took place in the year 2005 is said to be one of the worst storm disaster that took place in the history of the United States. It led to loss of many lives, and it was unavoidable. The winds both from Louisiana to Alabama caused the level of water to arise at about 80% of the New Orleans and neighborhoods. The tragedy left many people with worries asking how the tragedy like that could happen to threaten the lives of many Americans (Brinkley, 2006).
The sinking of Lusitania on the other hand, contributed to various impacts on America as well as, the World War One. However, the Americans were never interested in joining the war unless they had finished another two years. The Lusitania sinking also enraged many Americans as well as, hastening the people from United States' entrance into the…
Brinkley, D. (2006). The great deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. New York: Morrow.
Guterman, P. (2005). Psychological preparedness for disaster. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://www.academia.edu/233646/Psychological_preparedness_for_disaster
Gant, P.G., & Gantt, R. (2011). Disaster Psychology. October 10, 2012 from http://www.asse.org/professionalsafety/pastissues/057/08/042_049_F1Gan_0812.pdf .
Ballard, R.D., & Dunmore, S. (2003). Exploring the Lusitania: probing the mysteries of the sinking that changed history. New York: Warner Books.
The applicability of history in the daily life, he indicated depended on how well as professor strives to relate the lessons learned in class, the literature found in books and other sources, with the daily happenings and how this can be applied in the future life. Apparently history is one of the subjects that man begins to learn in their lives even before they are in school. The stories told to them about some long time ago lifestyle, the movies they watch on Vietnam war, the childhood books they read about some influential leaders and so on are part of history that children come across at an early age. "Our live are surrounded by history and historical effects and aftermaths" concluded the professor on this topic of skills acquired by students.
The other methods in teaching history that could enhance the outcomes of the students in history is the emphasis…
Waltz With ashir (Vals Im ashir) is a 2008 Israeli animated autobiographical docudrama by Ari Folman that is based on his experiences as a soldier during the First Lebanon War in 1982. The film is directed, written, and produced by Ari Folman, who also stars in the film as himself (Folman, 2008; IMD, n.d.). With a budget of approximately $1.5 million, the film has grossed approximately $2.1 million (Rotten Tomatoes, n.d.; IMD, n.d.)
Waltz with ashir (2008) had its world premiere at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival on May 15, 2008. Following its premiere, Waltz With ashir (2008) embarked on a worldwide film festival campaign. Waltz with ashir (2008) was screened at the Annecy Animation Festival (6/9/2008) in France; Filmfest Munchen (6/20/2008-6/28/2008) in Germany, Karlovy Vary International Film Festival (7/4/2008-7/12/2008) in the Czech Republic; Auckland International Film Festival (7/10/2008-7/27/2008) in New Zealand; Puchon International Film Festival (7/18/2008-7/27/2008) in South Korea;…
Folman, A. (2008). Waltz With Bashir. Israel: Sony Pictures Classics. DVD.
IMDB. (n.d.). Waltz With Bashir (2008). Accessed 15 October 2012, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1185616/business
Langwieler, E. (2007). Israeli cinema. Trinity College. Accessed 15 October 2012, from http://emp.trincoll.edu/~lpolate/mic/israeli_cinema/index.htm.
Rotten Tomatoes. (n.d.). Waltz With Bashir (2008). Accessed 15 October 2012, from http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/waltz_with_bashir/ .
Welty's story is the suaveness of an elderly woman. Often stereotyped as helpless, foolish, or dim-witted, the woman in Welty's tale makes us look beyond stereotypes to see the person underneath. The topic of this essay, therefore, is that externals -- in this case, elderliness -- can be misleading. People should learn to look beyond in order not to fall into the error of stereotyping.
The story starts off by describing the woman's plodding style, reminiscent of a religious pilgrimage (Saunders, 1992). We are brought into our customary ways of feeling impatience for the woman and of viewing her as someone who needs our help rather than as someone who can help herself. Welty, therefore, deliberately prolongs and elaborates on the description using character and setting as aids (Clugston, 2010; Pollack, 1997) to portray the woman.
Use of character for instance includes the following:
She wore a dark striped dress…
Welty, E. A Worn Path. The Atlantic Monthly | Feburary 1941
Clugston, R.W. (2010). Journey into literature. San Diego, California: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Pollack, H. (1997). Photographic convention and story composition: Eudora Welty's use of detail, plot, genre, and expectation from "A Worn Path" through "The Bride of the Innisfallen." South Central Review, 14(2), 15-34. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/
A Brief Description of Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder that occurs in middle-age to older adults. The disorder has a mean beginning of about 55 years of age. The incidence of Parkinson's disorder increases with age. PD affects about 0.15% percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). PD was first described in 1817 by James Parkinson's "Essay on the Shaking Palsy."
In 95% of PD cases diagnoses there is no genetic association (no one in the family has it) and these cases are designated as sporadic PD. In the small number of remaining cases the disorder is inherited (Dauer & Przedborski, 2003). A condition known as secondary Parkinsonism that resembles the physical presentation of PD can be brought on by a number of drugs or other conditions such as dopamine antagonist medications, hypoxia, and from brain tumors (APA, 2000).
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W. & Paradiso, M.A. (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain,
Second Edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Biological and Psychological Basis of Learning and Memory:
The human brain is the core of each function of the body that controls operational learning and memory and the interdependence of each of the concepts. The way with which the brain functions is basically referred to as neural processes that are linked to learning and memory. The link between learning and memory is evident through the fact that learning takes place when memory is stirred while memory is stimulated after the learning process has occurred. Notably, every process that characterizes human activity originates from the brain because it's the center of each functioning part of the body. Actually, Wickens (2005) stated that learning cannot take place without memory though some memories can be inborn such as indispensable reflexes and intuitions (p.260). This implies that the learning process is intricately intertwined with memory through a procedure that is continually transformed and updated…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Memory -- An Overview of Memory. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/a/memory.htm
Okano, H., Hirano, T. & Balaban, E. (2000, November 7). Learning and Memory. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(23), 12403-12404. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/content/97/23/12403.full
Wickens, A.P. (2005). Foundations of biopsychology (2nd ed.). New York, NY: