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Another notable development and contribution of ancient from Greek is the Olympics. The event was begun in Greek as an entertainment session but later evolved into an international event. Additional invention of Greek is the architecture. The Greek were immensely talented in art and, therefore, the exemplary architectural inventions and developments in the modern world today. They all can trace the history of the building system in this ancient region.
It is evident that any society or individual has to have a beginning in history. These ancient periods marked the beginning of many developments. The ancient and the medieval periods have created historical developments that are worth noting. All the associated forces, which are Mesopotamia, Persia, Greek and oman Empire, played a significant and worthy noting the role in the development of the modern society. The society, whose civilization has spread athwart the world and not just in Europe, originated…
Christide-s, Anastasios-Phoibos. A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007.
Eng, Susanna. "World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras." The Booklist 101, no. 16 (Apr 15, 2005): 1486-, http://search.proquest.com/docview/235498795?accountid=35812 .
Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Harper, Naomi. "World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras - Database." Media and Methods 41, no. 6 (2005): 32-, http://search.proquest.com/docview/196390314?accountid=35812 .
The nation-state that grew around the trade zones, like ancient Egypt, served to establish boundaries between trade zones, trading populations, and defined their zones by the locations of trading goods (16).
A for the territory of a city-state. Early Etruria (fig. 5) offers another instance of an arguably "pristine" civilization, which emerged into history as a hegemony of 12 city-states. The mean distance between neighbors (with common terrestrial boundaries) is 56 km. Egypt, of course, is something of an exception to this schema, since the Nile imposes a linear arrangement, and little is known of the settlement pattern or administrative organization before the unification at the outset of the Old Kingdom. The discussion here, furthermore, is restricted to sedentary agricultural societies; more mobile units are discussed later (16)."
The trade routes became integral elements of early civilization building and survival. Egypt and China did most of their trade as port…
Aitken, Ellen Bradshaw and Jennifer K. Berenson Maclean, eds. 2004. Philostratus's Heroikos: Religion and Cultural Identity in the Third Century C.E.. Boston: Brill. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114073326.Internet . Accessed 3 April 2009.
H arle, Vilho. 1998. Ideas of Social Order in the Ancient World. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27986464.Internet . Accessed 3 April 2009. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=61876787
Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C., and Jeremy a. Sabloff. 1974. The Rise and Fall of Civilizations: Modern Archaeological Approaches to Ancient Cultures. Menlo Park, CA: Cummings Publishing. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=61876787 .Internet' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Agriculture was also an important part of ancient Chinese civilization. China contains one of the longest recorded habitations of the same land by the same indigenous group of people known in history. It is difficult to tell when their civilization began, as early evidence of grain agriculture extends back as far as 10,000 years. The earliest records of the civilization show that monarchs were also religious heads here, but that they retained even more power over a more complex court than other contemporary civilizations. Due to the widespread nature of the ancient Chinese civilization, trade with other peoples was not as necessary or as prevalent.
Instead, the economy depended more on court and military spending and trade between Chinese cities. The civilization never really fell, though dynasties often changed.
The Andean civilization in South America grew out of agriculture like all other civilizations, but in a very different way. The…
civilizations we have studied thus far in this course, which do you believe has contributed the most to our present society and why? You must state you case by giving specific examples based on reading and research.
Each civilization of the world has grown and evolved on the contributions made by civilization preceding their own. It is beyond contesting that Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations (3000-12000 .C.E.) laid the foundation of Greek society that is known to historians as one having most contribution in shaping present day world. Not taking away the jewels and contributions of Mesopotamia and Egyptian civilization, it can be stated that Greek civilization contributed the most in developing major disciplines of trade, gender, politics, philosophy, law, and religion. The Greeks put the earlier developed knowledge into a system and delved into an inquiry regarding each conceivable discipline. From ethics, morality, and sciences to the contribution in democracy…
Adams, Collins, and Ray Laurance.Travel and geography in the Roman Empire. London: Routledge, 2012.
Cartledge, Paul. Ancient Greece: A Very Short Introduction . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Dalling, Robert .The Story of Us Humans, From Atoms to Today's Civilization. NE: iUniverse, 2006.
Ehrenberg, Victor. From Solon to Socrates: Greek History and Civilization during the 6th and 5th Centuries BC. Oxon: Taylor and Francis, 2010.
Slavery was not called by this name in particular, but the practices were similar. The conquest of the oman Province Dacia in the early years of the first century a.d. enables a clear view on the way in which war prisoners were treated and how this mentality was passed from one generation to the next. In this sense, by the 10th century, in the eastern region of Europe, slaves were in fact poor peasants which had no income or means to support their families and were thus forced by circumstances to work for the master of the domain (Phillips, 1985). Therefore, the practices had changed from enslaving war prisoners to enslaving free men. This in turn enabled the society to transform and to increase the gaps between the levels of the society. Thus, it can be said that the feudal system is based on the initial slavery acts performed in…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Blake, William O. The history of slavery and the slave trade, ancient and modern. Columbus: J&H Miller, 1861
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses, 1998.
Jenkins, P. . A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
The Mayans, the Itzcouatl, Tepanecas, the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan were warring civilizations, intolerable of encroachment (Spinden, p. 209). The latter three groups formed defensive alliances, and divided their spoils of war (Spinden, p. 209).
Spanish historians often liken Tenochtitlan to the seat of an empire and speak of the ruler as one who had the power of an absolute monarch while other and more recent writers have declared that the tribal organization of the Aztecs was essentially democratic. The truth doubtless lies between these extremes. The people were warlike by nature and all men, except a few of the priesthood, were soldiers. Honors depended largely upon success in war and warriors were arranged in ranks according to their deeds. The common warriors formed one rank and next came those who had distinguished themselves by definite achievements which gave the right to wear certain articles of dress or to bear certain…
Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Book online. Available from Questia,
4. Social and Political Life
There is a general paucity of information about the actual societal and political structure of the Olmec. While there is not much evidence to build a comprehensive picture of the daily and social life of these people, there is enough available data from certain archeological sites to provide some reasonable speculations.
One of the assumptions that is derived from the excavation of sites at San Lorenzo and then at La Venta is that the society was very centralized. This in turn has led to the view that the society was highly structured, with a hierarchical basis of order and class stratification. This also implies the existence of a ruling elite and a system of power and control, which was possibly based on religious beliefs. This view of the structure of the society is summarized as follows: "Olmec society was & #8230;highly centralized, with a…
Griffin Gillett G., the Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership,
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/olmec / (accessed 8 November, 2010).
Jones, David M. Mythology of the Aztecs and Maya, New York: Lorenz, 2007.
Lemonick M.D., Mystery of the Olmec,( Time Magazine, July 1, 1996, Volume 148, No.
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.
Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world,…
Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications.
Hingley, R. (2005). Globalizing Roman Culture: Unity, Diversity and Empire. London: Routledge
Hurwit, JM. (1987). The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C. New York: Cornell University press.
Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications
The roads connected two hierarchical clusters of towns and villages, each with a ceremonial center and satellite towns, precisely oriented in terms of the center. According to the author, it is likely that the towns held 1,000 or even more citizens. In total, Heckenberger notes that the total regional population could have been some 30,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. However, the number is difficult to determine accurately, as a large part of the region is still to be studied.
In his article, Charles C. Mann addresses the find of "geoglyphs" in Acre, Brazil during the 1970s. This find was the first to lead to an acknowledgement of more than small civilizations in the ancient Amazon (Man 1148). Although the purpose of the geoglyphs is unclear, they do suggest a sophisticated civilization as recently as 1250 C.E., according to carbon dating. Indeed, researchers suggest that indigenous people lived in the region in…
Heckenberger, Michael J. Lost Cities of the Amazon: The Amazon tropical forest is not as wild as it looks. The Scientific American, Oct. 2009.
Mann, Charles C. Ancient Earthmovers of the Amazon. Science, Vo 321. 29 Aug. 2008.
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…
Belmonte, Juan Antonio. From the Atlas to the Caucasus: The Other Side of the Mediterranean Before Islam. Archaeoastronomy 15.(2000): 78.
de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York, NY: Harcourt and Brace, 1980.
Dimock, Wai Chee. The Egyptian Pronoun: Lyric, Novel, the Book of the Dead. New Literary History 39.3 (2008): 619-643.
Maddison, Angus. The Contours of World Development. The World Economy, OECD, 2010.. Web.
Civilizations of Latin America
Human beings have always expressed themselves through culture; throughout history. The achievements made are a product of continued refinement over the ages. They are an inherited product of a diverse modified and complex evolution from the past through time. The Latin American case is a complex one. There is plenty of diversity exemplified but there are contradictions too. The complication arises from the fact that there is a remarkable cultural diversity in the vast continent; spanning Patagonia to Mesoamerica and from the past to modern day. The Latin American region has been full of controversies, disagreements, legends and mysteries that show the reasons why the continent should exist despite great pressure mounted by the West[footnoteef:1]. In order to understand our existence as unique people, and for a clear coexistence attitude embedded in a social fabric, we must study, live and imagine the cultural orientations of Latin…
Kahn, J.S. El concepto de cultura: Textos fundamentales. Anagrama. (1974)
Nanda, Serena. Antropologia cultural. Adaptaciones socioculturales. Mexico. 1987
Navarrete Orta, Lu's. Literatura e ideas en la Historia hispanoamericana. Cuadernos Lagoven. 1991
Zea, Leopoldo. La esencia de lo americano. Mexico. 1971
Today, the professions of architect, engineer and construction worker are well-known. Yet, from the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome, the "master builders," who planned and directed the design and construction of many of the greatest structures, held one of the most prestigious positions in society. The fact that some of these structures -- thousands of years old -- remain standing, and many of these same engineering sciences are still used, pay tribute to the abilities of these master craftsmen who were responsible for all steps in the "design-bid-build" project delivery method.
Before the existence of master builders in design and construction, the Code of Hammurabi referred to building as a simple process. Produced approximately between 1792 to 1750 B.C., this is the first known building code. Its rules and responsibilities and acceptable standards of workmanship were carved on stone tablets. Failure to adhere to these…
The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…
Abusch, Tzvi. "The Development and Meaning of the Epic of Gilgamesh: An Interpretive Essay." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 121.4 (2001): 614+.
Gardner and Maier. FULL CITATION NEEDED www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000950008
Jager, Bernd. "The Birth of Poetry and the Creation of a Human World: An Exploration of the Epic of Gilgamesh." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 32.2 (2001): 131+.
Since they did not have stone, the Sumerians made do with brick, building a myriad of famous constructions during this period according to their needs.
As kings of rival city-states ruled Sumer during this period, they would often go to battle. For this reason, the Sumerians also engineered many important forms of warfare technology. These include the wheeled chariot and the discovery of bronze (via the melding of copper and tin.)
The second major stage of Sumerian development was marked by the invasion of Sargon the Great, who would come to rule all of Mesopotamia. Sargon would conquer the first known empire, which extended all the way across Syrian into southeastern Turkey. Among Sargon's many accomplishments, he standardized weights and measurements in the disparate lands that he came to rule over. This made trading possible in his kingdom. Sargon was also the first Sumerian king who managed to maintain a…
Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. New York: Penguin USA, 1993.
Tripp, Charles. History of Iraq. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
The cultures shifted from a primarily agrarian economic base to one that used metal as a means to craft practical and ritual objects. In addition to the ritual cauldrons that were emblematic of the Xia dynasty, other uses of advanced metallurgical techniques include the manufacturing of "jue," vessels used to hold a grain alcohol beverage commonly translated as "wine," (Class unit: 12). In fact, bronze objects were cast en masse during the Xia and Shang dynasties (Class unit: 12). Warfare over metals, especially tin and copper, transformed the balance of power in the region (Class unit: 12). Commoners were frequently conscripted for military service during the Shang dynasty ("The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,": 446). Bronze casting allowed Shang rulers to have access to advanced weaponry. Their bronze weapons, their centralized leadership, and their control over a large number of peasant soldiers enabled the Shang to become the first…
The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,"
The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were also the first to use iron, They recovered the metal from meteorites and used it for spear tips and ornaments. Later smelting techniques developed in the area to purify the iron, and these spread to Europe via trade routes. By the Middle Ages, large foundries existed for smelting and forging iron into the many things it was used for. Basic trade rules and organization also passed from the Sumerians to Europe; methods of keeping accounts and even early guilds and merchant groups were part of Sumer, and passed est with trade (Airmet).
Airmet. "The History of Iron orking." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
Airmet. "The History of Iron Working." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…
History of the Peloponessian War, Thucydides
Herodotus, Translations of the Histories, by A. de Selincourt
Hobbes, Thomas. "Of Commonwealth." Leviathan. Ed. Nelle Fuller. New York:
Everyman's Library, 1973.
Ancient Culture Development (AC)
Ancient Culture Development
As ancient man developed, they were faced with various challenges that were as well confronted in particular ways, in order to survive in the environment that was full of challenges. There was the use of stones shaped like chisels, flaked at the tip to provide a sharp edge to cut meat. This is one of the earliest documented tools that are estimated back to around 2.5 million years ago (Anne Pyburn, 2003). These were tools that were discovered in East Africa at Olduvai Gorge as one of the ancient man's abode.
There was division of labor apparently, and men who were faster were commissioned to hunting while women did the gathering of plant products and caring for children. This was a simple governance structure that had to do mainly with domestic labor structure. This was during the lower Paleolithic.
During the upper Paleolithic…
Anne Pyburn, (2003). The First People and Culture. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_10.html
Anne Pyburn, (2004). Middle and Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers The Emergence of Modern Humans, The Mesolithic. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_11.html
The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010a). The 'Neolitic Revolution'. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://teachmiddleeast.lib.uchicago.edu/foundations/origins-of-civilization/essay/essay-02.html
The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010b). Life in Mesopotamia: Law and Governance. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://mesopotamia.lib.uchicago.edu/mesopotamialife/article.php?theme=Law%20and%20Government
" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.
III. BEST RESENTATIVE of the GOOD SIDE of ROME
The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.
Charlemagne (2006) Lucid Cafe Website. Online available at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96apr/charlemagne.html.
Rome (1986) New Standard Encyclopedia. Standard Educational Corporation Chicago, Illinois.
Durrant, Will (nd) a Story of Civilization. Online available at http://www.chronique.com/Library/MedHistory/charlemagne.htm
Ancient Roman History
Colors were essential as a means of expression in art as well.
Explanation of laughter
Laughter is rarely allowed in public, a cordial smile being always preferable. This limitation is yet again a proof of the influence Buddhism had on the aesthetic values of the world. (Clasquin, 2001)
Buddhist religion, as one of the oldest in the world, represents the expression of the constant quest for the meaning of life and the overcoming of suffering.
The philosophical system it set in place, the artistic standards it established, along with the moral percepts it promoted, Buddhism is an important influence on the aesthetic values of modern civilizations.
Clasquin, M. (2001) eal Buddhas don't laugh: attitudes towards humor and laughter in ancient India and China. [electronic version] Social Identities, vol. 7, no. 1. University of South Africa. etrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf
Indianchild. (2000) Buddhism in India,…
Clasquin, M. (2001) Real Buddhas don't laugh: attitudes towards humor and laughter in ancient India and China. [electronic version] Social Identities, vol. 7, no. 1. University of South Africa. Retrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf
Indianchild. (2000) Buddhism in India, ancient Buddhism in India, India and Buddhism. Retrieved March 28, 2007, at http://www.indianchild.com/buddhism_in_india.htm
Kumar, N. (2004) Love and Passion in Tantric Buddhist Art. Retrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/tantra.html
Lefebure, L. (2001) Ultimate journey: retracing the path of an ancient buddhist munk who crossed asia in search of Enlightment- book review. Retrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_17_118/ai_75496693
perceived superiority of modern Western civilization is unfounded. There is little evidence to suggest that our cultures are any more advanced than the ancient cultures of the Fertile Crescent, Greece, or Rome. The argument for a linear progression or an evolution of civilization can be countered by evidence to the contrary in areas as diverse as science, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture. Although definite improvements have been made in women's rights, forced labor, and governmental systems, for instance, the accomplishments of ancient cultures rival our own. They may not have possessed microchips or jet engines in ancient Athens, but they did create the structures upon which we base our society today. We are still reaping the rewards that ancient civilizations sowed millennia ago. In fact, Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, Israel, Greece, and Rome comprise the beginnings of Western civilization.
Ancient civilizations possessed a remarkable understanding of nature and the…
Hours of Ancient Sunlight
Explain Hartmann's argument connecting the "younger culture" mentality/way of life to the rise of violence between groups of people (e.g. "races" and genders) and against Nature.
To Hartmann the younger culture and the older culture are different on the basis of individual reality. Previously, in the older culture, the meanings of the actions and the intentions of these actions were limited, but today the younger culture is not only receptive but also reactive to everything, from the very basic to the most modern of the reality. The only difference lies in the difference of reality of the younger and the older culture. While writing from an environmentalist notion, he argues that the younger culture has by far contributing to the rising of violence in the world about and has gained full access to thoughts and cultures that aims to reap and harvest the seeds of violence.…
Resources on this plant are made for the betterment of the people and its inhabitants, not for the destruction. Destruction of the inhabitants is against the law of nature, and going against the law of nature means inviting destruction to us. So the solution lies in knowing the exact nature and purpose of our existence, whether it is survival, competence, control, dominance, rebellion, violence, or whether it is peace and harmony between every one. Thus, the proponents of the younger culture need to think deep which is better, present day control and dominance over the resources and people or the future peace and harmony and survival knowing our planet is getting hot and hot every passing day due to this trend of younger culture.
Hartmann, T. (2000) The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight: Waking Up to Personal and Global Transformation, Three Rivers Press
The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight
We will look to the representatives of the middle class for advice and help in our good governance.
We will promote a peaceful and non-conflicting approach towards all other empires and countries and will try to sort out the differences we have with some of our enemies. One of the first things in terms of foreign policy is meetings with our enemies and discussion of current problems. We don't believe in wars: wars cost money and we want to spend money doing more useful things, such as building the infrastructure and developing new public use projects. Negotiations will be undertaken, but remain assured that we will not give up on anything that is fundamentally vital for the survival of our great nation.
The competition for resources is a challenge we must all face, but finding alternatives such as wind power can help us become more independent in terms of our…
Humanity might not have the same effective power over the environment when fossil fuels run out. While this assumption is certainly believable, humans will not doubt reach a point where the greenhouse gas absorbing plants and bodies will no longer be able to keep up with human activity. This will further exacerbate the problem of human-caused global climate change. On the other hand, if humans are able to develop non-fossil fuel alternatives that do not have a negative effect on the environment on a global scale, the warming trend might very well be reversed in a generation or two. Either way, Ruddiman's arguments will likely be proven to be wrong or right, on a long enough timeframe.
ection IV: Opposing Points-of-View
Anthropologists, specifically, disagree with Ruddiman. ince the author himself is not an anthropology professor and admittedly has very little experience in this field, it would only seem natural that…
Allen, Robert, Scott Seaman and John DeLascio. "Emerging Issues: Global Warming Claims and Coverage Issues." Defense Counsel Journal 76 (2009): 12-9. Web. 10 Apr. 2010. .
Bast, Joseph. "Eight Reasons Why 'Global Warming' is a Scam." The Heartland Institute. The Heartlander, Feb. 2003: n.pag. Web. 10 Apr. 2010.
Bert, Ray. Rev. Of Plows, Plagues, & Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate, by William F. Ruddiman. Civil Engineering 78 (2008): 73.
Morgan, Sally. Global Warming. New York: Heinemann, 2009. Print.
The Cycladic Female Figurine- Most of the Cycladic sculptures are similar in tone to many of the Stone Age pieces found in the Aegean, Near East and Western Europe. They represent nude women with their arms folded across their abdomens. They have been found in many sizes ranging from a few inches to almost life-size, in graves, settlements, and even in places suggesting idolatry or religious activities. However, some modern scholars think that the term figurines or idols is not really correct. Idols imply a religious function that has not been confirmed and figurines do not fit with some of the larger figures. However, because of the distribution of these pieces of art, we can tell they were popular among the people of Crete and Mainland Greece as well; and their distribution suggests they were produced not just for the wealthy, but had a broader appeal (Doumas, 1969).
Female Figure. (2008). Learner.org. Retrieved from: http://www.learner.org/courses / globalart/work/139/index.html
Doumas, C. (1969). Early Cycladic Art. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Gimbutas, M. (1991). The Language of the Goddess. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Higgins, R. (1967). Minoan and Mycenaean Art. New York: Thames and Hudson.
For example, rather than directly disputing the belief that ancient Egyptians were black, the author prefers to emphasize the underlying fallacy of racial categorizations in the first place. Anthropologists have long rejected the traditional racial classifications familiar to us all, and continually remind us that all Homo Sapiens are identical, from an evolutionary perspective, as they are all members one species.
The author cautions that disputing the belief directly without addressing the underlying fallacy of racial categorization by anatomical features within a given species invites accusations of racism and "Eurocentrism." Instead, she reminds us of the importance of recognizing that racial categorization is not capable of scientific meaning, and represents nothing more than social conventions and cultural beliefs about various physical features contained within the genetic material of all of us.
Likewise, oth points to the exaggerated claims about the extent of Egyptian scientific and mathematical knowledge and, in general,…
Building Bridges to Afrocentrism: A Letter to My Egyptological Colleagues. Ann Macy Roth, (1995) Encyclopedia Britannica Online, Accessed September 9, 2007, at http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/afrocent_roth.html
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…
At the same time, the presentation of his work, the lives of the community in which he lived and the way in which he succeeded in forming a family must be relevant for the actual depiction of the historical background, the environment, and the customs of the time. For instance, the fact that he was given to marry the elder daughter of the ruler of the land he had chosen as his next home, Amunenshi, represented indeed an appreciation of his qualities and virtues as an Egyptian. Therefore, it can be said that the piece of writing is also an important source of history of the Near East.
Another important perspective of the story is the historical one which offers a view on the current situation of the time in Egypt. Therefore, the story focuses on the way in which king Sesostris was involved in political actions and maneuvers that…
The Story of Sinuhe. (n.d.) Retrieved 19 May 2008, from the Ancient Egypt Online web site: http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/storysinuhe.html
The topic is religious and social life in the Achaemenid Empire. The purpose of the project is to learn more about this subject and dispel some of the myths in today's media. I will use books on the subject to learn about what this empire was like, and what their religion was like. I expect that I will be able to come to some conclusions about the Achaemenid Empire. Furthermore, I believe that I will demonstrate that the rulers of this empire were enlightened and had a high level of tolerance for the customs of those over whom they ruled.
The subject of this report will be the Achaemenid Empire that flourished in ancient Persia, from 550-330 BCE. This empire is interesting for several reasons, not the least of which was its Zoroastrian religion and general religious tolerance. This empire has been cast as villain in popular…
Armayor, O. (1979). Herodotus' catalogues of the Persian Empire in the light of the monuments and the Greek literary tradition. Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 108 (1979) 1-9.
Choksy, J. (1989). Purity and pollution in Zoroastrianism: Triumph over evil. University of Texas Press.
Dandamaev, M. (1989). A political history of the Achaemenid Empire. EJ Brill: New York.
Dusinberre, E. (2003). Aspects of Empire in Achaemenid Sardis. University of Michigan: Ann Arbor.
A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization
The Maya are a group of people of southern Mexico and northern Central America with some three thousand years of loaded history. The Maya were a division of the Mesoamerican Pre-Columbian civilizations. Dissimilar to popular belief, the Maya people never vanished completely, there are millions that still live in the area, and a lot of them still speak one of the many Maya languages (A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization, 2011). The Maya are perhaps the most well-known of the traditional civilizations of Mesoamerica. Mayan history began in the Yucatan around 2600 B.C., Mayan history grew to fame around A.D. 250 in contemporary southern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, El Salvador, and northern Belize (Mayan History, n.d.).
Building on the innate inventions and thoughts of previous civilizations such as the Olmec, the Maya advanced astronomy, calendrical systems and hieroglyphic writing. The Maya…
A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.art-poster-
Cecil, Jessica. (2011). The Fall of the Mayan Civilisation. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/cultures/maya_01.shtml
Central America: Connecting Continents, Keeping Oceans Apart. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=46#
Greek History World Civilizations
What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?
Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.
The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.
It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.
The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…
civilization in the ancient Near East (3500-1000 B.C.E.) and the Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) shared a great number of similarities as well as numerous differences. These points of comparison covered the political, economic, and social realms, cultural and intellectual ideas, as well as values and institutions. Further, each civilization differed in their specific impact on the creation of estern civilization, and the degree of that impact.
Civilization in the ancient Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) arose out of a number of important causes. First, the location of the Mediterranean area between three continents, and the influence of civilizations like Mesopotamia, India and China nearby. Further, the excellent communication by sea, the mild climate, and the invention of writing were important factors in encouraging the development of civilization in the area (Poiycratis).
The history of civilization in the Mediterranean is not one of a single cultural, political, social,…
Ancientnewreast.com. Near eastern history, language and culture. 03 June 2004. http://www.ancientneareast.com/
Carlos, Michael C. Near East. Odyssey Online. 13 June 2004. http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/NEAREAST/homepg.html
Poiycratis, G.S. 1992. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN CIVILIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CULTURES. Annals of the MBC,5(1). 03 June 2004. http://www.medbc.com/annals/review/vol_5/num_1/text/vol5n1p5.htm
Comparison of Modern and Ancient Mythology
Imagination is still an inseparable aspect of his nature regardless of the claims on rationality and logic. Human beings are mythmakers. They have a tendency to imagine worlds that don't immediately exist which gives rise to mythology and religion (Armstong). Since the age of enlightenment; men began to believe in philosophy as the only method of disclosing world and nature. It can be shown that even philosophy stands on myth (Muszynski). Therefore, mythology still exists both at a personal level and a public level, in the form of religion. Mythology arises to explain ideas which cannot be explained with rationality alone - nature, the origin of people, and the existence of the universe. The root and grounds of development of mythology has not changed since the ancient times, therefore, mythology in the new world shares many similarities with the ancient mythology. Nevertheless,…
Armstong, Karen. A short history of myth. Canongate U.S., 2005.
Bartlett, Sarah. The Mythology Bible: The Definitive Guide to Legendary Tales. Great Britain: Godsfield Press, 2009.
Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousan faces. Pantheon Books, 1949.
Muszynski, Joe. "Thinking in Narrative:Seeing Through To the Myth in Philosophy." Mythological Studies Journal 1.1 (2010).
As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.
The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting
The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…
American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm
Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/
Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1
Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
Ever since the time when the Muslims raided the city, it became obvious that Christians would lose their influence in the territory, even with the fact that the latter were given permission to keep most of their churches. During the years in which I stood witnessing the Christian population being assimilated into the more powerful Muslim population, I observed that people belonging to both religions came to the church to worship God. Regardless of their personal convictions, people were united through religion and through their dedication to believing in God.
The finances spent for building such an architectural colossus are surely mind-blowing, taking into account that the structure's magnitude expresses magnificence. However, because the Muslim population thrived during the period, it is not surprising that they were willing to support such a spending, especially given that they too were aware of the consequences such a building would have on their…
1. Flood, F.B. The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture (Boston: Brill, 2001).
2. Smith, E.B. Egyptian Architecture as Cultural Expression (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1938).
3. Thackara, W.T.S. "The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Spiritual Biography." Retrieved October 2, 2010, from the Teosophy Northwest Website: http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/world/mideast/mi-wtst.htm
The author points out that there were more commoners than nobles but the commoners were often at the mercy of nobles and were expected to serve them. Although this was the case, it was also true that commoners had a great deal of control over their lives and in most cases they had enough to meet their basic needs and the needs of their family.
One of the most interesting aspects of Aztec civilization is Aztec religious practices. According to an article found in the Journal of the Southwest, the Aztec religious system dominated the way of life for the Aztec people. The research indicates that the religious system of the Aztec people was very much associated with the Aztec Calendar. This calendar was based on the yearly agricultural cycle.
For instance when the winter solstice occurred the Aztec people would participate in fire festivals. The purpose of such…
Ancient Aztec Government. 16 April, 2008 http://www.aztec-history.com/ancient-aztec-government.html
Aztec Society Family. 16 April, 2008 http://www.aztec-history.com/aztec-society-family.html
Hassig Ross. Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control-Book by. University of Oklahoma Press; 1988
James, Susan E. "Some Aspects of the Aztec Religion in the Hopi Kachina Cult." Journal of the Southwest 42.4 (2000): 897.
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…
New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.
Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp .
Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.
New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
Michael Wood’s “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” offers fascinating insight into human civilization, through a narrative of the story of Iraq. Tracing Iraq from the cradle of civilization to its current state of devastation, Wood warns viewers to learn from the mistakes of the past instead of continuing to repeat them. In addition to its overarching message, “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” includes some incredible details about the cultural diversity within Iraq and how current customs reveal cultural continuity with the past. Some of the most amazing examples of diversity include the Mandean people, who have cultural practices that are vestiges of Christian times such as a wedding ceremony that includes a full-immersion baptism in a river they refer to as the “Jordan,” even though it is the Euphrates. There is also the Yazidi people, who worship Satan but are not what a European or American would call a Satan…
Women Live in Ancient China
China is one of the world's oldest nations, being more than 4000 years old it shows no signs of decline. China has a rich history. It was ruled by several men and by various dynasties. Each ruler set standards for how the Chinese civilization was to be governed and every emperor and dynasty makes the history of China only more interesting.
The ancient Chinese society was predominantly male oriented. Women were considered to be unequal and inferior to men. Most women lived an oppressed life. Even women who belonged to rich and noble families could not always escape from the oppression; however, to an extent their lives were easier than the majority of the other females. (Waley)
The role of women in ancient China was defined by Confucius who was a philosopher, teacher and politician. He believed that women should spend most of their lives…
Brown, M. A brief history of Chinese civilization. Cengage Learning.
Buckley, P. Chinese civilization: A sourcebook . Simon and Schuster.
Falkenhausen, L. Chinese society in the age of confucius. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California.
Harold, T. (2009). China: A history. Hackett Publishing.
Although they still remain a mystery as to their origin, the Sumerians seem to have appeared as a fully developed society with technology and organizational skills far superior to any other societies of that era. The Sumerians evolved from hunters and gathers to communities of farmers who faced an unpredictable and hostile environment, yet their innovations in writing and recordkeeping influenced future civilizations. Not only are they credited with inventing the wheel, the plow, and timekeeping, but the earliest known literature, the epic of Gilgamesh, is attributed to the Sumerian civilization. Thus, modern civilizations owe much to this mysterious ancient peoples.
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
atkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.
Retrieved December 09,…
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Watkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.
Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library. http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/sumer.htm
Waymire, Gregory B. "Recordkeeping and human evolution." Accounting
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.
Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.
Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
Alexander the Great
Western civilization has wide range of historical aspects and it encompasses civilization of ancient Rome, ancient Greece and a Judaic civilization. A civilization is said to exist from Stone Age until today, ranging from China to Egypt, Mesoamerica and Africa.
Alexandros III (356-323 B.C.), Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. e conquered and governed civilizations of that time, ruled by his great desire to conquer the world and thus laid the foundation of universal world monarchy.
Arrian describes Alexander, as a great leader, always leading his army in enthusiastic way. e was first leader and conqueror who reached Greece, Egypt and Asia. e always led best military formation of the time, the Macedonian Phalanx, which was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. Alexander created ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered populations,…
He was considered an excellent king, general, and conqueror. His innovative empire assisted and improved the way of life in his kingdom in many ways. Victorious conquest of vast area of land stretched Greek traditions and language far and wide and immensely affected western civilization.
Apart from the given source, following site was consulted:
Popovic, J.J. Alexander the Great Macedon. Accessed from World Wide Web: http://1stmuse.com/frames/index.html
While the Jews eventually did find a King - King Saul, their king was not a supreme ruler with complete control over the people and the land. Again, the Jews indicated their diversity and divergence from the surrounding cultures. Their king was supposed to be a model Jew, one the people could emulate and admire. This period of the Israelite kingdoms was a time of growth and change that would end in a tumultuous exile of the Jews to Babylonia, one of the first of many Jewish exiles and persecutions. Many scholars believe King Saul helped aid the fall of the Jews by not taking on the nation of Amalek and eradicating it. The nation hated Jews and their religion, and caused many of the early Jewish troubles in the area. Saul did not take them on, and many feel this was his fatal flaw (Spiro). After a brief rule…
Edelheit, Hershel, and Abfaham J. Edelheit. History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "The Time of the Judges." AISH.com. 2007. 26 March 2007. http://www.aish.com/literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_Part_15_-_The_Time_of_the_Judges.asp
Origin of Ancient Nepal
Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people were living in the Himalayan region in the distant past, although their culture and artifacts are only slowly being explored. Written references to this region appeared only by the first millennium .C. During that period, political or social groupings in Nepal became known in north India. The Mahabharata and other legendary Indian histories mention the Kiratas (Roberts JM, History of the World), who still inhabited eastern Nepal in 1991.
Some legendary sources from the Kathmandu Valley also describe the Kiratas as early rulers there, taking over from earlier Gopals or Abhiras, both of whom may have been cowherding tribes. These sources agree that an original population, probably of Tibeto-urman ethnicity, lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago, inhabiting small settlements with a relatively low degree of political centralization.
Monumental changes occurred when groups of tribes calling themselves…
Roberts JM History of the World.
Triumph of estern Civilization
In the book Guns, Germs, and Steel, the historian and New Guinea anthropologist Jared Diamond argues that the geography and the environment of the est played the major role in determining the dominance of estern civilization of the modern world. According to Diamond, although geography and the environment do not automatically lead to dominance over other civilizations, these two factors do make major contributions to the four factors that are responsible for all historical developments. The first of these factors is the widespread availability of potential crops and domestic animals as a sustainable food source. This first factor's importance is followed by the need for a nation's location near the a continental axis in a way that facilitates the sustenance of year-round agriculture and yields the seasonal and climatic advantages for a variety of foodstuffs. Third in importance to holding sway over other nations is an…
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel W.W. Norton & Company.1999.
Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), pp.93.
Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), pp.321-323.
pottery making art islamic civilization. Please illustrative timeline. Please include outline beginning.
Islamic pottery is an essential part of the Islamic culture
Early beginnings of Islamic pottery
Historical and geographical challenges
Pottery as a necessity, not an art
Islamic pottery transformed from an activity to an art
The periods of the Islamic pottery
Influences of Chinese pottery
Improvements of techniques and materials
ole of calligraphy and technical discoveries
Increase of the value of pottery for the Islamic culture
The Islamic art is one of the most significant parts of the Islamic culture and of the world heritage. Islamic pottery has in this sense an important place in the structure of the Middle Eastern art.
The history and development of Islamic pottery is representative for the development of Islamic art and reflects the influences of external cultures on the evolution of art in the region.
Atwood, R. (2005) "Basra's Inventive Potters" in Archaeology, Vol. 58, No 2, March / April, available at http://www.archaeology.org/0503/reviews/basra.html
Grube. E (n.d.) "The Art of Islamic Pottery." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Available at http://www.metmuseum.org/pubs/bulletins/1/pdf/3258167.pdf.bannered.pdf
Jenkins, O. (2000). "Emergence and Evolvement of the Islamic Tin-glazed Pottery," The 8th Research Seminar on the History of Middle Eastern Ceramics. Available at http://www.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/IAS/HP-e2/eventreports/44ceramics8IM.html
Luter, J. (1974) "The Potters of Islam." Saudi Aramco World. Available at http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/197404/the.potters.of.islam.htm
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm
"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html
"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
learn so little about these ancient Eastern civilizations?
Ancient Greece and Rome are often called the cradles of modern, Western civilization. Greece 'gave birth' to democracy and major philosophic and scientific ideas spanning from the concept of atoms to geometry. Once upon a time, all roads famously lead to Rome, reflecting the importance of Rome in shaping the landscape of the modern globe. But simply because these civilizations were so important in shaping our own worldview does not mean we should discount the contribution of the East.
The recent excavation site of the Dadiwan relics of Qin'an at the Gansu Province is a demonstration of the richness of the early civilizations of the area. The archeological site has yielded some of the earliest findings of agriculture and pottery ever discovered, pushing back the date of the discovery of millet to a far earlier time than originally assumed. New evidence of…
The ancient Mexican region not only stands out as a mythological haven, but also as a culturally vibrant and technologically advanced civilization. Among the Mesoamerican civilizations, the Aztecs standout for their significant contributions in the fields of astronomy, medicine, and also for their bizarre ritualistic practices.
The Aztecs represent an important group of the Mesoamerican civilizations. They arrived from the north to the 'valley of Mexiaco' or what is currently the city of Mexico, during 1200 AD. Known as the 'Tenochca' or the 'Toltec' tribe, the Aztecs dominated the Mexican valley between the 14th and 15th centuries. Initially, confronted by the Culhuacans the Tenochcas had to flee the mainland and move towards the island. Under the command of Itzacoatl, the Tenochcas gained freedom and undertook the construction of the grand city of Tenochtitlan. As new regions in the valley of Mexico came under the Aztecs they also absorbed the…
1) Glenn Welker, " The Indigenous People," Accessed Oct 17th 2005,
Available at, http://www.indians.org/welker/aztec.htm
2) Richard Hooker, "The Mexica / Aztecs," Accessed on 17th Oct 2005,
Available at, http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/AZTECS.htm
Consequently, the social distinctions were not as static as their European counterparts.
Religion was also a major aspect of Aztec life and it has become, perhaps, what they are best known for:
The Great Temple was a place for human sacrifice. Prisoners captured in battle were led up the steps to the platform on top. Here, the prisoners were stretched on their backs over a stone block. That an Aztec priest cut out their hearts with a stone knife. The hearts were burned as offerings to Huitzilopochtli, god of war and the sun, and the bodies were thrown down the steps (Chrisp 2000:16).
This practice was clearly what the conquistadores found most deplorable, most barbaric, and the most incongruous with the rest of Aztec society. The obvious monuments to Aztec achievement -- the towering temples of the sun and the moon -- were used for bloody and horrific shows on…
Berdan, Frances. Indians of North America: The Aztecs. New York: Chelsea House, 1989.
Chrisp, Peter. The Aztecs. Austin: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 2000.
Fagan, Brian M. The Aztecs. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1984.
Hicks, Peter. Look into the Past: The Aztecs. New York: Thomson Learning, 1993.
Long before the Maya, Aztec or Toltec flourished in Central America, there lived the Olmecs, a civilization that has come to continue to intrigue and amaze the world. They were the most prevalent group in Mesoamerica and a highly developed and well organized society with a complex calendar and hieroglyphic writing system. The Olmecs were the mother civilization in Mesoamerica.
The Olmec lived around the areas of La Venta in Tabasco, San Lorenza Tenochtitlan, and Laguna de los Cerros in Veracruz during the pre-classic period. They built their cities around a central raised mound. These mounds, used for religious ceremonies, were replaced with pyramid-shaped structures around 900 B.C. The Olmecs used basalt, found in the Tuxtla Mountains, to construct plazas and religious pyramid structures. Houses were made of wooden walls with clay and palm roof tops, and a hierarchical society separated the elite from the common groups in…
Indian Empires." http://www.american-indians.net/empires.htm.(accessed 11-24-2003).
Lemonick, Michael D. "Mystery of the Olmec: Ancient Culture of Mesoamerica."
Time. July 01, 1996. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1G1:18419168&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=Time&author=Lemonick%2C+Michael+D%2E&title=Mystery+of+the+Olmec%2E+%28ancient+culture+of+Mesoamerica%29&date=07%2F01%2F1996&query=Olmecs&maxdoc=30&idx=1&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 11-24-2003).
Olmec Civilization: 1200 B.C.- 600 A.D." http://www.crystalinks.com/olmec.html .(accessed 11-24-2003).
, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.
When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.
Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.
Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…
Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4
Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4
Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
Early vs. later Aegean Civilization -- Minoan and Mycenaean vs. Classical and Hellenic Ages
The early Minoan and Mycenaean cultures of the Aegean represent, respectively, a palace-ruled island-based culture and a more militaristic land-based culture, that were eventually to converge into the singular culture of the Classical Age of mainland ancient Greek civilization. At first, this development may seem surprising. The differences between the early and late artistic and political eras seem striking to the modern eye. hile Minoan and Mycenaean statues are static and almost Egyptian in their stylization, Classical and particularly Hellenic sculptures and depictions of the human form are 'realistic,' idealized, or highly emotional in their stance and expression. The earlier civilizations were either royal or military-run, and fairly enclosed. Athens was to form the cradle of democracy for later civilization, and even Sparta formed alliances with other city-states. Still later, Hellenic society became extremely porous, as…
Hawkes, Jacquetta. (2002) "Cultural Explanations." PhpWiki. http://metamedia.stanford.edu/traumwerk/index.php/Knossos%2C%20the%20Pacifistic%20Mother%3F%3A%20Comparisons%20with%20Mainland%20Greece. [23 Feb 2002]
Mortgaged lands were marked by special debt-stones, named pillars and debtors had to pay 1/6 of their harvest or income to the creditor. The success of Athens can be explained by the fact that it was the first city to abolish practice of enslaving for debts. It raised city's prestige and authority in the region and in many respects stimulated economical and political stability. Since 6th century BC most of Athenian tyrants were making shifts towards democratic rule, balancing interests of elite and poor. The most important reforms in government were made by Solon, who was elected in 594 BC. Solon's reforms were directed on the consolidation of alienated Athenian society: he abolished pillar practices, proclaiming that all Greeks are free citizens. Solon liberalized political structure of Athens, expanding influence of ecclesia, giving it the right to participate in elections of archons. He reformed membership of Areopagus, which was no…
art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.
The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…
Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html .
Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site: http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .
Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.
Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site: http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/.
Aztecs and Andean civilizations. The writer presents each civilization and explores the differences and the similarities in them both. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
The Aztec civilization hailed in the South Central region of what the world now calls Mexico. They built their homes in the highlands of Mesoamerica. It is believed that the Aztecs migrated to the area in the 13th century. The Aztec survived on fishing, hunting and gathering. In addition the Aztecs were known for their gardening abilities even in those early times. History has shown that the Aztecs were once captured in whole and made into slaves by another tribe early in their history (Aztec (http://www.anthro.mankato.msus.edu/cultural/mesoamerica/aztec.html).Aztecs were also capable of warring and raiding. This was done mostly for the purpose of religious sacrifice. Aztecs took over many tribes during their reign but even after capture the tribes were allowed to maintain their…
Aztec (Accessed 2-2-2003)
PRE-COLUMBIAN ANDEAN CIVILIZATION (Accessed 2-2-2003)
In Ancient Israel, the use of fire is also part of the tradition of warfare. For example, we are not sure whether the prophet Elijah is stating that the fire hurled against the Moabites is divine, or simply falls down upon the enemy from Israelite war machines: "If I am a man of God," Elijah replied, "may fired come down from heaven and consume you and your fifty men!" Then the fire of God fell from heaven and consumed him and his fifty men (2 Kings 1:12, New International Version).
Similarly, since most ancient gates were nothing but fortified wood, when the armies of Israel set out to use siege warfare, the rules for such are outlined in Deuteronomy 20: 10-20; however, use of flaming arrows, lit pots of oil shot from frames arranged on the outsides of walls -- more like a slingshot than a catapult, in fact,…
Bradford, a. (2000). With Arrow, Sword, and Spear: A History of Warfare in the Ancient World. Praeger.
Crosby, a. (2002). Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History. Cambridge De Vaux, R. (1997). Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. Erdmans.
Partington, J. (1998). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Johns Hopkins University
Inca religious beliefs impacted the layout of their cities and the planning of their architectural design and the design of their public spaces. The same is true for the Aztecs, who stressed the importance of astronomy in layout and design. The situation of the site in relation to its natural surroundings was also critical in both cases, perhaps more so for the Incas, who constructed Machu Picchu at a high altitude and rugged, undulating, uneven terrain. Hierarchies were heavily embedded in Inca worldview, evident in the positioning of cities like Machu Picchu at altitude. In fact, symbols of hierarchy are embedded everywhere at Machu Picchu, "especially in a ceremonial context," (Nair, 2015, p. 124). The same can be said for the Aztecs, for whom order and cosmic hierarchal structure served a crucial social and political as well as cosmological function. Aztec architecture like that of Teotihuacan reflects hierarchy as much…
They must occupy themselves with inventing new ways to legally persecute people as they cannot be involved in any real pursuit of knowledge.
Things changed drastically with the Renaissance, though not with the speed that many men would have appreciated. Galileo Galilei butted heads with the Catholic Church many times in his life, eventually recanting much of what he had provocatively (and rightly) claimed to be true and ending his life under house arrest. He at times tried to couch his more controversial discoveries in language more pleasing to the Church, but apparently he was not proficient enough at disguising it. His "Letter to Castelli" is a prime example of the shift that Western thought was taking during the Renaissance: "the Holy Scriptures in many places not only admit but actually require a different explanation for what seems to be the literal one, it seems to me that they ought…