Ancient Civilizations Essays (Examples)

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Olmec Ancient Civilization

Words: 6598 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83782582

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4. Social and Political Life

There is a general paucity of information about the actual societal and political structure of the Olmec. While there is not much evidence to build a comprehensive picture of the daily and social life of these people, there is enough available data from certain archeological sites to provide some reasonable speculations.

One of the assumptions that is derived from the excavation of sites at San Lorenzo and then at La Venta is that the society was very centralized. This in turn has led to the view that the society was highly structured, with a hierarchical basis of order and class stratification. This also implies the existence of a ruling elite and a system of power and control, which was possibly based on religious beliefs. This view of the structure of the society is summarized as follows: "Olmec society was & #8230;highly centralized, with a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Griffin Gillett G., the Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership,

http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/olmec / (accessed 8 November, 2010).

Jones, David M. Mythology of the Aztecs and Maya, New York: Lorenz, 2007.

Lemonick M.D., Mystery of the Olmec,( Time Magazine, July 1, 1996, Volume 148, No.
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History of Economic of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 5166 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16341967

Economics in Ancient Civilization

It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.

Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.

Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.

Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
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Civilizations in the Amazon Until

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57241561

The roads connected two hierarchical clusters of towns and villages, each with a ceremonial center and satellite towns, precisely oriented in terms of the center. According to the author, it is likely that the towns held 1,000 or even more citizens. In total, Heckenberger notes that the total regional population could have been some 30,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. However, the number is difficult to determine accurately, as a large part of the region is still to be studied.

In his article, Charles C. Mann addresses the find of "geoglyphs" in Acre, Brazil during the 1970s. This find was the first to lead to an acknowledgement of more than small civilizations in the ancient Amazon (Man 1148). Although the purpose of the geoglyphs is unclear, they do suggest a sophisticated civilization as recently as 1250 C.E., according to carbon dating. Indeed, researchers suggest that indigenous people lived in the region in…… [Read More]

References

Heckenberger, Michael J. Lost Cities of the Amazon: The Amazon tropical forest is not as wild as it looks. The Scientific American, Oct. 2009.

Mann, Charles C. Ancient Earthmovers of the Amazon. Science, Vo 321. 29 Aug. 2008.
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Ancient Cultures the Purpose of

Words: 1299 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55561573

Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.

Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications.

Hingley, R. (2005). Globalizing Roman Culture: Unity, Diversity and Empire. London: Routledge

Hurwit, JM. (1987). The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C. New York: Cornell University press.

Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications
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Ancient History Egypt Was More

Words: 1434 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73046620

their political systems were far less developed too, and although Egyptian religion had taken root in most of the communities of Upper and Lower Egypt temples had yet to reach their characteristic grandiose size until the pharaonic period. The rise of the great pharaohs meant an enormous boost in wealth and political power to the demigod/kings who could commission the large architectural projects that epitomize dynastic Egypt. During the Old Kingdom, massive pyramids flanked the Giza plateau, and later tombs and temples proved the might of pharaonic wealth and power. Egypt was therefore easier than Mesopotamia to manage and control under one centralized government because prior to the first King Menes, Egypt was comprised of relatively small and simple agricultural villages. Mesopotamia, on the other hand, was made up of city-states that had substantial wealth and power bases as well as centers of learning and technology. It is naturally easier…… [Read More]

References

The Story of Sinuhe." Retrieved Jun 16, 2008 at   http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/storysinuhe.html  

Wenamun in Byblos." Retrieved Jun 16, 2008 at  http://phoenicia.org/wenamun.html
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Ancient Civis an Examination of

Words: 1418 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25047016

Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).

The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belmonte, Juan Antonio. From the Atlas to the Caucasus: The Other Side of the Mediterranean Before Islam. Archaeoastronomy 15.(2000): 78.

de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York, NY: Harcourt and Brace, 1980.

Dimock, Wai Chee. The Egyptian Pronoun: Lyric, Novel, the Book of the Dead. New Literary History 39.3 (2008): 619-643.

Maddison, Angus. The Contours of World Development. The World Economy, OECD, 2010.. Web.
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Ancient Early Church Middle Ages and Renaissance

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31339101

Ancient, Early Church, Middle Ages, and Renaissance Civilizations to the Contemporary Western Civilization

Two primary civilizations had emerged to form the first civilization of mankind -- that of the Mesopotamia, and Egyptian civilizations. Although other important civilizations had been formed during the ancient times such as the Sumerian and Akkadian empires, the important contributions and use of innovations and progress of the three aforementioned civilizations had influenced and developed the Western Civilization of today, thus, the focus of this paper will be on the contributions of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilization to the present civilization of mankind.

One of the primary contributions of the ancient civilization to the Western civilization is the development of a water irrigation system. Through the development of water irrigation system, the Mesopotamians were able to cultivate plants as their food, giving way to the development of agriculture. The need to establish laws regarding irrigation control…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Civilizations of Latin America

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96852312

Civilizations of Latin America

Human beings have always expressed themselves through culture; throughout history. The achievements made are a product of continued refinement over the ages. They are an inherited product of a diverse modified and complex evolution from the past through time. The Latin American case is a complex one. There is plenty of diversity exemplified but there are contradictions too. The complication arises from the fact that there is a remarkable cultural diversity in the vast continent; spanning Patagonia to Mesoamerica and from the past to modern day. The Latin American region has been full of controversies, disagreements, legends and mysteries that show the reasons why the continent should exist despite great pressure mounted by the West[footnoteef:1]. In order to understand our existence as unique people, and for a clear coexistence attitude embedded in a social fabric, we must study, live and imagine the cultural orientations of Latin…… [Read More]

References

Kahn, J.S. El concepto de cultura: Textos fundamentales. Anagrama. (1974)

Nanda, Serena. Antropologia cultural. Adaptaciones socioculturales. Mexico. 1987

Navarrete Orta, Lu's. Literatura e ideas en la Historia hispanoamericana. Cuadernos Lagoven. 1991

Zea, Leopoldo. La esencia de lo americano. Mexico. 1971
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History of Master Builder and Design Build Tradition of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38744496

Master Builders

Today, the professions of architect, engineer and construction worker are well-known. Yet, from the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome, the "master builders," who planned and directed the design and construction of many of the greatest structures, held one of the most prestigious positions in society. The fact that some of these structures -- thousands of years old -- remain standing, and many of these same engineering sciences are still used, pay tribute to the abilities of these master craftsmen who were responsible for all steps in the "design-bid-build" project delivery method.

Before the existence of master builders in design and construction, the Code of Hammurabi referred to building as a simple process. Produced approximately between 1792 to 1750 B.C., this is the first known building code. Its rules and responsibilities and acceptable standards of workmanship were carved on stone tablets. Failure to adhere to these…… [Read More]

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Ancient Near Eastern Values in

Words: 2893 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90605352

The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000947937

Abusch, Tzvi. "The Development and Meaning of the Epic of Gilgamesh: An Interpretive Essay." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 121.4 (2001): 614+.

Gardner and Maier. FULL CITATION NEEDED www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000950008

Jager, Bernd. "The Birth of Poetry and the Creation of a Human World: An Exploration of the Epic of Gilgamesh." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 32.2 (2001): 131+.
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Ancient Art in the Ancient World Polykleitos

Words: 1420 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97191063

Ancient Art

Art in the Ancient World

Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)

As Paul Johnson (2003) notes, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness, and helped steer the direction of Grecian art and sculpture. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting. It also serves as a good example of the relationship…… [Read More]

Reference List

Cunningham, L. (2009). Culture and Values: a Survey of the Humanities. Boston:

Cengage Learning.

Dembskey, E.J. (2009). Aqua Appia. The Aqueducts of Ancient Rome. Retrieved from http://www.romanaqueducts.info/aquasite/romappia/

Hansen, R.D. (n.d.). "Water and Wastewater Systems in Imperial Rome." Retrieved
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Ancient Iraq the Land Where

Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55232532

Since they did not have stone, the Sumerians made do with brick, building a myriad of famous constructions during this period according to their needs.

As kings of rival city-states ruled Sumer during this period, they would often go to battle. For this reason, the Sumerians also engineered many important forms of warfare technology. These include the wheeled chariot and the discovery of bronze (via the melding of copper and tin.)

The second major stage of Sumerian development was marked by the invasion of Sargon the Great, who would come to rule all of Mesopotamia. Sargon would conquer the first known empire, which extended all the way across Syrian into southeastern Turkey. Among Sargon's many accomplishments, he standardized weights and measurements in the disparate lands that he came to rule over. This made trading possible in his kingdom. Sargon was also the first Sumerian king who managed to maintain a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,

Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. New York: Penguin USA, 1993.

Tripp, Charles. History of Iraq. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
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Ancient China the Xia Dynasty

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29243765

The cultures shifted from a primarily agrarian economic base to one that used metal as a means to craft practical and ritual objects. In addition to the ritual cauldrons that were emblematic of the Xia dynasty, other uses of advanced metallurgical techniques include the manufacturing of "jue," vessels used to hold a grain alcohol beverage commonly translated as "wine," (Class unit: 12). In fact, bronze objects were cast en masse during the Xia and Shang dynasties (Class unit: 12). Warfare over metals, especially tin and copper, transformed the balance of power in the region (Class unit: 12). Commoners were frequently conscripted for military service during the Shang dynasty ("The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,": 446). Bronze casting allowed Shang rulers to have access to advanced weaponry. Their bronze weapons, their centralized leadership, and their control over a large number of peasant soldiers enabled the Shang to become the first…… [Read More]

References

Class Unit.

The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,"
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Ancient Accomplishments and Later Appearances

Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87655464



The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were also the first to use iron, They recovered the metal from meteorites and used it for spear tips and ornaments. Later smelting techniques developed in the area to purify the iron, and these spread to Europe via trade routes. By the Middle Ages, large foundries existed for smelting and forging iron into the many things it was used for. Basic trade rules and organization also passed from the Sumerians to Europe; methods of keeping accounts and even early guilds and merchant groups were part of Sumer, and passed est with trade (Airmet).

orks Cited

Airmet. "The History of Iron orking." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html

Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm

O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html… [Read More]

Works Cited

Airmet. "The History of Iron Working." Accessed 26 July 2009.  http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html 

Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm

O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
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Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building Ancient

Words: 1649 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27599323

Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building

Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.

It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

History of the Peloponessian War, Thucydides

Herodotus, Translations of the Histories, by A. de Selincourt

Hobbes, Thomas. "Of Commonwealth." Leviathan. Ed. Nelle Fuller. New York:

Everyman's Library, 1973.
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Ancient Culture Development

Words: 916 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9617420

Ancient Culture Development (AC)

Ancient Culture Development

As ancient man developed, they were faced with various challenges that were as well confronted in particular ways, in order to survive in the environment that was full of challenges. There was the use of stones shaped like chisels, flaked at the tip to provide a sharp edge to cut meat. This is one of the earliest documented tools that are estimated back to around 2.5 million years ago (Anne Pyburn, 2003). These were tools that were discovered in East Africa at Olduvai Gorge as one of the ancient man's abode.

There was division of labor apparently, and men who were faster were commissioned to hunting while women did the gathering of plant products and caring for children. This was a simple governance structure that had to do mainly with domestic labor structure. This was during the lower Paleolithic.

During the upper Paleolithic…… [Read More]

References

Anne Pyburn, (2003). The First People and Culture. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_10.html

Anne Pyburn, (2004). Middle and Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers The Emergence of Modern Humans, The Mesolithic. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_11.html

The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010a). The 'Neolitic Revolution'. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from  http://teachmiddleeast.lib.uchicago.edu/foundations/origins-of-civilization/essay/essay-02.html 

The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010b). Life in Mesopotamia: Law and Governance. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from  http://mesopotamia.lib.uchicago.edu/mesopotamialife/article.php?theme=Law%20and%20Government
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Ancient Roman History the Objective

Words: 717 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1078821

" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.

III. BEST RESENTATIVE of the GOOD SIDE of ROME

The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.

IV. RULE…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Charlemagne (2006) Lucid Cafe Website. Online available at  http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96apr/charlemagne.html .

Rome (1986) New Standard Encyclopedia. Standard Educational Corporation Chicago, Illinois.

Durrant, Will (nd) a Story of Civilization. Online available at http://www.chronique.com/Library/MedHistory/charlemagne.htm

Ancient Roman History
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Ancient Buddhism Buddhist Religion and

Words: 474 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25105635

(Kumar, 2004)

Colors were essential as a means of expression in art as well.

Explanation of laughter

Laughter is rarely allowed in public, a cordial smile being always preferable. This limitation is yet again a proof of the influence Buddhism had on the aesthetic values of the world. (Clasquin, 2001)

Conclusion

Buddhist religion, as one of the oldest in the world, represents the expression of the constant quest for the meaning of life and the overcoming of suffering.

The philosophical system it set in place, the artistic standards it established, along with the moral percepts it promoted, Buddhism is an important influence on the aesthetic values of modern civilizations.

eferences

Clasquin, M. (2001) eal Buddhas don't laugh: attitudes towards humor and laughter in ancient India and China. [electronic version] Social Identities, vol. 7, no. 1. University of South Africa. etrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf

Indianchild. (2000) Buddhism in India,…… [Read More]

References

Clasquin, M. (2001) Real Buddhas don't laugh: attitudes towards humor and laughter in ancient India and China. [electronic version] Social Identities, vol. 7, no. 1. University of South Africa. Retrieved, March 28, 2007, at  http://www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf 

Indianchild. (2000) Buddhism in India, ancient Buddhism in India, India and Buddhism. Retrieved March 28, 2007, at http://www.indianchild.com/buddhism_in_india.htm

Kumar, N. (2004) Love and Passion in Tantric Buddhist Art. Retrieved, March 28, 2007, at  http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/tantra.html 

Lefebure, L. (2001) Ultimate journey: retracing the path of an ancient buddhist munk who crossed asia in search of Enlightment- book review. Retrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_17_118/ai_75496693
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Ancient History of India the Purpose of

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65633001

Ancient History Of India

he purpose of this work is to compare and contrast the cultural and societal differences and likenesses in the areas of Northern and Southern India specifically during the period of c.100-1100 C.E. Further, this work will research and state why their cultures were differential in their development and in what ways they remain different from one another today. he historical and ideological relationship between Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism will be discussed.

he culture in India is ancient with it's roots in the beginnings of civilization along the Indus River in farming communities in southern India. he history of the sub-continent is stated to be one that is "punctuated by constant integration with migrating peoples and with the diverse cultures that surround India." (Indialife.com Online, 2005) India is located in the center of Asia at what is called the "crossroads of culture from China to Europe."

he…… [Read More]

Timeline of India (2005) [Online available at http://www. .askasia.org/imag e/maps/timeind.htm]

Gelber, Ethan (2004) Divine India History Online available at:

http://gorp.away.com/gorp/location/asia/india/empires2.htm
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Perceived Superiority of Modern Western Civilization Is

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28741881

perceived superiority of modern Western civilization is unfounded. There is little evidence to suggest that our cultures are any more advanced than the ancient cultures of the Fertile Crescent, Greece, or Rome. The argument for a linear progression or an evolution of civilization can be countered by evidence to the contrary in areas as diverse as science, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture. Although definite improvements have been made in women's rights, forced labor, and governmental systems, for instance, the accomplishments of ancient cultures rival our own. They may not have possessed microchips or jet engines in ancient Athens, but they did create the structures upon which we base our society today. We are still reaping the rewards that ancient civilizations sowed millennia ago. In fact, Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, Israel, Greece, and Rome comprise the beginnings of Western civilization.

Ancient civilizations possessed a remarkable understanding of nature and the…… [Read More]

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Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight

Words: 1831 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37943619

Hours of Ancient Sunlight

Explain Hartmann's argument connecting the "younger culture" mentality/way of life to the rise of violence between groups of people (e.g. "races" and genders) and against Nature.

To Hartmann the younger culture and the older culture are different on the basis of individual reality. Previously, in the older culture, the meanings of the actions and the intentions of these actions were limited, but today the younger culture is not only receptive but also reactive to everything, from the very basic to the most modern of the reality. The only difference lies in the difference of reality of the younger and the older culture. While writing from an environmentalist notion, he argues that the younger culture has by far contributing to the rising of violence in the world about and has gained full access to thoughts and cultures that aims to reap and harvest the seeds of violence.…… [Read More]

Resources on this plant are made for the betterment of the people and its inhabitants, not for the destruction. Destruction of the inhabitants is against the law of nature, and going against the law of nature means inviting destruction to us. So the solution lies in knowing the exact nature and purpose of our existence, whether it is survival, competence, control, dominance, rebellion, violence, or whether it is peace and harmony between every one. Thus, the proponents of the younger culture need to think deep which is better, present day control and dominance over the resources and people or the future peace and harmony and survival knowing our planet is getting hot and hot every passing day due to this trend of younger culture.

Work aCited

Hartmann, T. (2000) The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight: Waking Up to Personal and Global Transformation, Three Rivers Press

The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight
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Classical Civilization Citizens the Death

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 144783

We will look to the representatives of the middle class for advice and help in our good governance.

We will promote a peaceful and non-conflicting approach towards all other empires and countries and will try to sort out the differences we have with some of our enemies. One of the first things in terms of foreign policy is meetings with our enemies and discussion of current problems. We don't believe in wars: wars cost money and we want to spend money doing more useful things, such as building the infrastructure and developing new public use projects. Negotiations will be undertaken, but remain assured that we will not give up on anything that is fundamentally vital for the survival of our great nation.

The competition for resources is a challenge we must all face, but finding alternatives such as wind power can help us become more independent in terms of our…… [Read More]

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Cycladic Female Figure Many Ancient

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4893072

).

The Cycladic Female Figurine- Most of the Cycladic sculptures are similar in tone to many of the Stone Age pieces found in the Aegean, Near East and Western Europe. They represent nude women with their arms folded across their abdomens. They have been found in many sizes ranging from a few inches to almost life-size, in graves, settlements, and even in places suggesting idolatry or religious activities. However, some modern scholars think that the term figurines or idols is not really correct. Idols imply a religious function that has not been confirmed and figurines do not fit with some of the larger figures. However, because of the distribution of these pieces of art, we can tell they were popular among the people of Crete and Mainland Greece as well; and their distribution suggests they were produced not just for the wealthy, but had a broader appeal (Doumas, 1969).

The…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Female Figure. (2008). Learner.org. Retrieved from: http://www.learner.org/courses / globalart/work/139/index.html

Doumas, C. (1969). Early Cycladic Art. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Gimbutas, M. (1991). The Language of the Goddess. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Higgins, R. (1967). Minoan and Mycenaean Art. New York: Thames and Hudson.
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Ruddiman's Account of Ancient Human

Words: 2518 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69627461

Humanity might not have the same effective power over the environment when fossil fuels run out. While this assumption is certainly believable, humans will not doubt reach a point where the greenhouse gas absorbing plants and bodies will no longer be able to keep up with human activity. This will further exacerbate the problem of human-caused global climate change. On the other hand, if humans are able to develop non-fossil fuel alternatives that do not have a negative effect on the environment on a global scale, the warming trend might very well be reversed in a generation or two. Either way, Ruddiman's arguments will likely be proven to be wrong or right, on a long enough timeframe.

ection IV: Opposing Points-of-View

Anthropologists, specifically, disagree with Ruddiman. ince the author himself is not an anthropology professor and admittedly has very little experience in this field, it would only seem natural that…… [Read More]

Sources

Allen, Robert, Scott Seaman and John DeLascio. "Emerging Issues: Global Warming Claims and Coverage Issues." Defense Counsel Journal 76 (2009): 12-9. Web. 10 Apr. 2010. .

Bast, Joseph. "Eight Reasons Why 'Global Warming' is a Scam." The Heartland Institute. The Heartlander, Feb. 2003: n.pag. Web. 10 Apr. 2010.

Bert, Ray. Rev. Of Plows, Plagues, & Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate, by William F. Ruddiman. Civil Engineering 78 (2008): 73.

Morgan, Sally. Global Warming. New York: Heinemann, 2009. Print.
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Afrocentrism and Egyptology Western Civilization

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89973533

For example, rather than directly disputing the belief that ancient Egyptians were black, the author prefers to emphasize the underlying fallacy of racial categorizations in the first place. Anthropologists have long rejected the traditional racial classifications familiar to us all, and continually remind us that all Homo Sapiens are identical, from an evolutionary perspective, as they are all members one species.

The author cautions that disputing the belief directly without addressing the underlying fallacy of racial categorization by anatomical features within a given species invites accusations of racism and "Eurocentrism." Instead, she reminds us of the importance of recognizing that racial categorization is not capable of scientific meaning, and represents nothing more than social conventions and cultural beliefs about various physical features contained within the genetic material of all of us.

Likewise, oth points to the exaggerated claims about the extent of Egyptian scientific and mathematical knowledge and, in general,…… [Read More]

References

Building Bridges to Afrocentrism: A Letter to My Egyptological Colleagues. Ann Macy Roth, (1995) Encyclopedia Britannica Online, Accessed September 9, 2007, at  http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/afrocent_roth.html
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Law in Ancient Times Comparison

Words: 2944 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44453630



If the purpose of law is to maintain the order of society yielding the best possible circumstance for each individual man, woman, and child, then the argument arises as to whether such direct revenge is actually conducive to preventing further disorders. Revenge can easily run in endless cycles, and fear of punishment may not in and of itself be any deterrent at all, in particular if the act which is to be punished was committed in the heat of passion or without premeditation. Philosophers of law and ethics have long discussed the precise nature of the divine code that was given to Moses. On a fundamental level, there exists the question as to whether these laws are immutable expressions of an unchanging natural order such as has always existed, or whether these Mosaic laws represent merely the decrees of God that are applicable to a particular, time, place, or situation.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=58992717

Dalley, Stephanie, a.T. Reyes, David Pingree, Alison Salvesen, and Henrietta McCall. The Legacy of Mesopotamia. Edited by Stephanie Dalley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106890738

Del Testa, David W., ed. Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. Westport, CT: Oryx Press, 2001.
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Ancient Near East the Story

Words: 1051 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74640015

At the same time, the presentation of his work, the lives of the community in which he lived and the way in which he succeeded in forming a family must be relevant for the actual depiction of the historical background, the environment, and the customs of the time. For instance, the fact that he was given to marry the elder daughter of the ruler of the land he had chosen as his next home, Amunenshi, represented indeed an appreciation of his qualities and virtues as an Egyptian. Therefore, it can be said that the piece of writing is also an important source of history of the Near East.

Another important perspective of the story is the historical one which offers a view on the current situation of the time in Egypt. Therefore, the story focuses on the way in which king Sesostris was involved in political actions and maneuvers that…… [Read More]

References

The Story of Sinuhe. (n.d.) Retrieved 19 May 2008, from the Ancient Egypt Online web site:   http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/storysinuhe.html
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Civilizations the Topic Is Religious and Social

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83889752

Civilizations

The topic is religious and social life in the Achaemenid Empire. The purpose of the project is to learn more about this subject and dispel some of the myths in today's media. I will use books on the subject to learn about what this empire was like, and what their religion was like. I expect that I will be able to come to some conclusions about the Achaemenid Empire. Furthermore, I believe that I will demonstrate that the rulers of this empire were enlightened and had a high level of tolerance for the customs of those over whom they ruled.

Purpose Statement

The subject of this report will be the Achaemenid Empire that flourished in ancient Persia, from 550-330 BCE. This empire is interesting for several reasons, not the least of which was its Zoroastrian religion and general religious tolerance. This empire has been cast as villain in popular…… [Read More]

References

Armayor, O. (1979). Herodotus' catalogues of the Persian Empire in the light of the monuments and the Greek literary tradition. Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 108 (1979) 1-9.

Choksy, J. (1989). Purity and pollution in Zoroastrianism: Triumph over evil. University of Texas Press.

Dandamaev, M. (1989). A political history of the Achaemenid Empire. EJ Brill: New York.

Dusinberre, E. (2003). Aspects of Empire in Achaemenid Sardis. University of Michigan: Ann Arbor.
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Brief History of the Mayan Civilization

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87821864

Ancient

A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization

The Maya are a group of people of southern Mexico and northern Central America with some three thousand years of loaded history. The Maya were a division of the Mesoamerican Pre-Columbian civilizations. Dissimilar to popular belief, the Maya people never vanished completely, there are millions that still live in the area, and a lot of them still speak one of the many Maya languages (A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization, 2011). The Maya are perhaps the most well-known of the traditional civilizations of Mesoamerica. Mayan history began in the Yucatan around 2600 B.C., Mayan history grew to fame around A.D. 250 in contemporary southern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, El Salvador, and northern Belize (Mayan History, n.d.).

Building on the innate inventions and thoughts of previous civilizations such as the Olmec, the Maya advanced astronomy, calendrical systems and hieroglyphic writing. The Maya…… [Read More]

References

A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.art-poster-

online.com/maya.htm

Cecil, Jessica. (2011). The Fall of the Mayan Civilisation. Retrieved from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/cultures/maya_01.shtml 

Central America: Connecting Continents, Keeping Oceans Apart. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=46#
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Greek History World Civilizations

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92648679

Greek History World Civilizations

What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?

Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.

The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.

It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.

The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…… [Read More]

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Compare and Contrast the Development of Ancient Near East and Mediterranean

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33818213

civilization in the ancient Near East (3500-1000 B.C.E.) and the Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) shared a great number of similarities as well as numerous differences. These points of comparison covered the political, economic, and social realms, cultural and intellectual ideas, as well as values and institutions. Further, each civilization differed in their specific impact on the creation of estern civilization, and the degree of that impact.

Civilization in the ancient Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) arose out of a number of important causes. First, the location of the Mediterranean area between three continents, and the influence of civilizations like Mesopotamia, India and China nearby. Further, the excellent communication by sea, the mild climate, and the invention of writing were important factors in encouraging the development of civilization in the area (Poiycratis).

The history of civilization in the Mediterranean is not one of a single cultural, political, social,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ancientnewreast.com. Near eastern history, language and culture. 03 June 2004. http://www.ancientneareast.com/

Carlos, Michael C. Near East. Odyssey Online. 13 June 2004.  http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/NEAREAST/homepg.html 

Poiycratis, G.S. 1992. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN CIVILIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CULTURES. Annals of the MBC,5(1). 03 June 2004.  http://www.medbc.com/annals/review/vol_5/num_1/text/vol5n1p5.htm
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Compare and Contrast With Ancient Mythology

Words: 1382 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10390886

Ancient Mythology

Comparison of Modern and Ancient Mythology

Imagination is still an inseparable aspect of his nature regardless of the claims on rationality and logic. Human beings are mythmakers. They have a tendency to imagine worlds that don't immediately exist which gives rise to mythology and religion (Armstong). Since the age of enlightenment; men began to believe in philosophy as the only method of disclosing world and nature. It can be shown that even philosophy stands on myth (Muszynski). Therefore, mythology still exists both at a personal level and a public level, in the form of religion. Mythology arises to explain ideas which cannot be explained with rationality alone - nature, the origin of people, and the existence of the universe. The root and grounds of development of mythology has not changed since the ancient times, therefore, mythology in the new world shares many similarities with the ancient mythology. Nevertheless,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Armstong, Karen. A short history of myth. Canongate U.S., 2005.

Bartlett, Sarah. The Mythology Bible: The Definitive Guide to Legendary Tales. Great Britain: Godsfield Press, 2009.

Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousan faces. Pantheon Books, 1949.

Muszynski, Joe. "Thinking in Narrative:Seeing Through To the Myth in Philosophy." Mythological Studies Journal 1.1 (2010).
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Egyptian Civilizations Classical Greek or

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90859767

As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.

The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting

Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…… [Read More]

References

American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm

Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/

Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1

Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
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Witness Accounts of Ancient Eastern

Words: 1789 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44780395

Ever since the time when the Muslims raided the city, it became obvious that Christians would lose their influence in the territory, even with the fact that the latter were given permission to keep most of their churches. During the years in which I stood witnessing the Christian population being assimilated into the more powerful Muslim population, I observed that people belonging to both religions came to the church to worship God. Regardless of their personal convictions, people were united through religion and through their dedication to believing in God.

The finances spent for building such an architectural colossus are surely mind-blowing, taking into account that the structure's magnitude expresses magnificence. However, because the Muslim population thrived during the period, it is not surprising that they were willing to support such a spending, especially given that they too were aware of the consequences such a building would have on their…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Flood, F.B. The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture (Boston: Brill, 2001).

2. Smith, E.B. Egyptian Architecture as Cultural Expression (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1938).

3. Thackara, W.T.S. "The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Spiritual Biography." Retrieved October 2, 2010, from the Teosophy Northwest Website:   http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/world/mideast/mi-wtst.htm
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Aztecs Civilizations of the Past

Words: 3577 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86354412



The author points out that there were more commoners than nobles but the commoners were often at the mercy of nobles and were expected to serve them. Although this was the case, it was also true that commoners had a great deal of control over their lives and in most cases they had enough to meet their basic needs and the needs of their family.

eligion

One of the most interesting aspects of Aztec civilization is Aztec religious practices. According to an article found in the Journal of the Southwest, the Aztec religious system dominated the way of life for the Aztec people. The research indicates that the religious system of the Aztec people was very much associated with the Aztec Calendar. This calendar was based on the yearly agricultural cycle.

For instance when the winter solstice occurred the Aztec people would participate in fire festivals. The purpose of such…… [Read More]

References

Ancient Aztec Government. 16 April, 2008   http://www.aztec-history.com/ancient-aztec-government.html  

Aztec Society Family. 16 April, 2008   http://www.aztec-history.com/aztec-society-family.html  

Hassig Ross. Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control-Book by. University of Oklahoma Press; 1988

James, Susan E. "Some Aspects of the Aztec Religion in the Hopi Kachina Cult." Journal of the Southwest 42.4 (2000): 897.
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Greek Artifacts the Civilization of

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27467730

Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).

Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.

Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp.

Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.

New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
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Women's Lives in Ancient China

Words: 776 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36208429

Women Live in Ancient China

China is one of the world's oldest nations, being more than 4000 years old it shows no signs of decline. China has a rich history. It was ruled by several men and by various dynasties. Each ruler set standards for how the Chinese civilization was to be governed and every emperor and dynasty makes the history of China only more interesting.

The ancient Chinese society was predominantly male oriented. Women were considered to be unequal and inferior to men. Most women lived an oppressed life. Even women who belonged to rich and noble families could not always escape from the oppression; however, to an extent their lives were easier than the majority of the other females. (Waley)

The role of women in ancient China was defined by Confucius who was a philosopher, teacher and politician. He believed that women should spend most of their lives…… [Read More]

References:

Brown, M. A brief history of Chinese civilization. Cengage Learning.

Buckley, P. Chinese civilization: A sourcebook . Simon and Schuster.

Falkenhausen, L. Chinese society in the age of confucius. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California.

Harold, T. (2009). China: A history. Hackett Publishing.
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Sumerian Civilization Approximately 4000 B C

Words: 1702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45192160

Although they still remain a mystery as to their origin, the Sumerians seem to have appeared as a fully developed society with technology and organizational skills far superior to any other societies of that era. The Sumerians evolved from hunters and gathers to communities of farmers who faced an unpredictable and hostile environment, yet their innovations in writing and recordkeeping influenced future civilizations. Not only are they credited with inventing the wheel, the plow, and timekeeping, but the earliest known literature, the epic of Gilgamesh, is attributed to the Sumerian civilization. Thus, modern civilizations owe much to this mysterious ancient peoples.

orks Cited

Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

atkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.

Retrieved December 09,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Watkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.

Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.  http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/sumer.htm 

Waymire, Gregory B. "Recordkeeping and human evolution." Accounting
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Alexander the Great Western Civilization Has Wide

Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59934789

Alexander the Great

Western civilization has wide range of historical aspects and it encompasses civilization of ancient Rome, ancient Greece and a Judaic civilization. A civilization is said to exist from Stone Age until today, ranging from China to Egypt, Mesoamerica and Africa.

Alexandros III (356-323 B.C.), Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. e conquered and governed civilizations of that time, ruled by his great desire to conquer the world and thus laid the foundation of universal world monarchy.

Arrian describes Alexander, as a great leader, always leading his army in enthusiastic way. e was first leader and conqueror who reached Greece, Egypt and Asia. e always led best military formation of the time, the Macedonian Phalanx, which was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. Alexander created ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered populations,…… [Read More]

He was considered an excellent king, general, and conqueror. His innovative empire assisted and improved the way of life in his kingdom in many ways. Victorious conquest of vast area of land stretched Greek traditions and language far and wide and immensely affected western civilization.

Apart from the given source, following site was consulted:

Popovic, J.J. Alexander the Great Macedon. Accessed from World Wide Web:  http://1stmuse.com/frames/index.html
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Formation of Ancient Societies the

Words: 2084 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91389503

Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.

As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.

Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.

Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.

Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
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Jewish Civilization Time Periods of

Words: 1408 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52724854



While the Jews eventually did find a King - King Saul, their king was not a supreme ruler with complete control over the people and the land. Again, the Jews indicated their diversity and divergence from the surrounding cultures. Their king was supposed to be a model Jew, one the people could emulate and admire. This period of the Israelite kingdoms was a time of growth and change that would end in a tumultuous exile of the Jews to Babylonia, one of the first of many Jewish exiles and persecutions. Many scholars believe King Saul helped aid the fall of the Jews by not taking on the nation of Amalek and eradicating it. The nation hated Jews and their religion, and caused many of the early Jewish troubles in the area. Saul did not take them on, and many feel this was his fatal flaw (Spiro). After a brief rule…… [Read More]

References

Edelheit, Hershel, and Abfaham J. Edelheit. History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.

Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "The Time of the Judges." AISH.com. 2007. 26 March 2007.  http://www.aish.com/literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_Part_15_-_The_Time_of_the_Judges.asp
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Origin of Ancient Nepal

Words: 1987 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23683912

Origin of Ancient Nepal

Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people were living in the Himalayan region in the distant past, although their culture and artifacts are only slowly being explored. Written references to this region appeared only by the first millennium .C. During that period, political or social groupings in Nepal became known in north India. The Mahabharata and other legendary Indian histories mention the Kiratas (Roberts JM, History of the World), who still inhabited eastern Nepal in 1991.

Some legendary sources from the Kathmandu Valley also describe the Kiratas as early rulers there, taking over from earlier Gopals or Abhiras, both of whom may have been cowherding tribes. These sources agree that an original population, probably of Tibeto-urman ethnicity, lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago, inhabiting small settlements with a relatively low degree of political centralization.

Monumental changes occurred when groups of tribes calling themselves…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Roberts JM History of the World.

WWW.resource-  http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/52/index-c.html
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Triumph of Western Civilization in the Book

Words: 790 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22674882

Triumph of estern Civilization

In the book Guns, Germs, and Steel, the historian and New Guinea anthropologist Jared Diamond argues that the geography and the environment of the est played the major role in determining the dominance of estern civilization of the modern world. According to Diamond, although geography and the environment do not automatically lead to dominance over other civilizations, these two factors do make major contributions to the four factors that are responsible for all historical developments. The first of these factors is the widespread availability of potential crops and domestic animals as a sustainable food source. This first factor's importance is followed by the need for a nation's location near the a continental axis in a way that facilitates the sustenance of year-round agriculture and yields the seasonal and climatic advantages for a variety of foodstuffs. Third in importance to holding sway over other nations is an…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel W.W. Norton & Company.1999.

Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), pp.93.

Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), pp.321-323.
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Pottery Making Art Islamic Civilization Please Illustrative

Words: 1579 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22094179

pottery making art islamic civilization. Please illustrative timeline. Please include outline beginning.

Islamic pottery is an essential part of the Islamic culture

Early beginnings of Islamic pottery

Historical and geographical challenges

Pottery as a necessity, not an art

Islamic pottery transformed from an activity to an art

The periods of the Islamic pottery

Middle period

Influences of Chinese pottery

Color

Materials

Graphics

Improvements of techniques and materials

ole of calligraphy and technical discoveries

Increase of the value of pottery for the Islamic culture

The Islamic art is one of the most significant parts of the Islamic culture and of the world heritage. Islamic pottery has in this sense an important place in the structure of the Middle Eastern art.

The history and development of Islamic pottery is representative for the development of Islamic art and reflects the influences of external cultures on the evolution of art in the region.

Given…… [Read More]

References

Atwood, R. (2005) "Basra's Inventive Potters" in Archaeology, Vol. 58, No 2, March / April, available at http://www.archaeology.org/0503/reviews/basra.html

Grube. E (n.d.) "The Art of Islamic Pottery." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Available at  http://www.metmuseum.org/pubs/bulletins/1/pdf/3258167.pdf.bannered.pdf 

Jenkins, O. (2000). "Emergence and Evolvement of the Islamic Tin-glazed Pottery," The 8th Research Seminar on the History of Middle Eastern Ceramics. Available at  http://www.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/IAS/HP-e2/eventreports/44ceramics8IM.html 

Luter, J. (1974) "The Potters of Islam." Saudi Aramco World. Available at http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/197404/the.potters.of.islam.htm
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Art of Classical Antiquity in the Ancient

Words: 1563 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18582454

Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…… [Read More]

References

Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop

"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online:  http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm 

"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html

"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
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Learn'so Little About These Ancient Eastern

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5086656

learn so little about these ancient Eastern civilizations?

Ancient Greece and Rome are often called the cradles of modern, Western civilization. Greece 'gave birth' to democracy and major philosophic and scientific ideas spanning from the concept of atoms to geometry. Once upon a time, all roads famously lead to Rome, reflecting the importance of Rome in shaping the landscape of the modern globe. But simply because these civilizations were so important in shaping our own worldview does not mean we should discount the contribution of the East.

The recent excavation site of the Dadiwan relics of Qin'an at the Gansu Province is a demonstration of the richness of the early civilizations of the area. The archeological site has yielded some of the earliest findings of agriculture and pottery ever discovered, pushing back the date of the discovery of millet to a far earlier time than originally assumed. New evidence of…… [Read More]

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Aztecs the Ancient Mexican Region Not Only

Words: 1803 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2819959

AZTECS

The ancient Mexican region not only stands out as a mythological haven, but also as a culturally vibrant and technologically advanced civilization. Among the Mesoamerican civilizations, the Aztecs standout for their significant contributions in the fields of astronomy, medicine, and also for their bizarre ritualistic practices.

The Aztecs represent an important group of the Mesoamerican civilizations. They arrived from the north to the 'valley of Mexiaco' or what is currently the city of Mexico, during 1200 AD. Known as the 'Tenochca' or the 'Toltec' tribe, the Aztecs dominated the Mexican valley between the 14th and 15th centuries. Initially, confronted by the Culhuacans the Tenochcas had to flee the mainland and move towards the island. Under the command of Itzacoatl, the Tenochcas gained freedom and undertook the construction of the grand city of Tenochtitlan. As new regions in the valley of Mexico came under the Aztecs they also absorbed the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Glenn Welker, " The Indigenous People," Accessed Oct 17th 2005,

Available at,  http://www.indians.org/welker/aztec.htm 

2) Richard Hooker, "The Mexica / Aztecs," Accessed on 17th Oct 2005,

Available at, http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/AZTECS.htm
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Aztecs the Great Aztec Civilization

Words: 1924 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61994646

Consequently, the social distinctions were not as static as their European counterparts.

Religion was also a major aspect of Aztec life and it has become, perhaps, what they are best known for:

The Great Temple was a place for human sacrifice. Prisoners captured in battle were led up the steps to the platform on top. Here, the prisoners were stretched on their backs over a stone block. That an Aztec priest cut out their hearts with a stone knife. The hearts were burned as offerings to Huitzilopochtli, god of war and the sun, and the bodies were thrown down the steps (Chrisp 2000:16).

This practice was clearly what the conquistadores found most deplorable, most barbaric, and the most incongruous with the rest of Aztec society. The obvious monuments to Aztec achievement -- the towering temples of the sun and the moon -- were used for bloody and horrific shows on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berdan, Frances. Indians of North America: The Aztecs. New York: Chelsea House, 1989.

Chrisp, Peter. The Aztecs. Austin: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 2000.

Fagan, Brian M. The Aztecs. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1984.

Hicks, Peter. Look into the Past: The Aztecs. New York: Thomson Learning, 1993.
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Olmec Civilization Long Before the Maya Aztec

Words: 3378 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40152055

Olmec Civilization

Long before the Maya, Aztec or Toltec flourished in Central America, there lived the Olmecs, a civilization that has come to continue to intrigue and amaze the world. They were the most prevalent group in Mesoamerica and a highly developed and well organized society with a complex calendar and hieroglyphic writing system. The Olmecs were the mother civilization in Mesoamerica.

The Olmec lived around the areas of La Venta in Tabasco, San Lorenza Tenochtitlan, and Laguna de los Cerros in Veracruz during the pre-classic period. They built their cities around a central raised mound. These mounds, used for religious ceremonies, were replaced with pyramid-shaped structures around 900 B.C. The Olmecs used basalt, found in the Tuxtla Mountains, to construct plazas and religious pyramid structures. Houses were made of wooden walls with clay and palm roof tops, and a hierarchical society separated the elite from the common groups in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Indian Empires." http://www.american-indians.net/empires.htm.(accessed 11-24-2003).

Lemonick, Michael D. "Mystery of the Olmec: Ancient Culture of Mesoamerica."

Time. July 01, 1996. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1G1:18419168&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=Time&author=Lemonick%2C+Michael+D%2E&title=Mystery+of+the+Olmec%2E+%28ancient+culture+of+Mesoamerica%29&date=07%2F01%2F1996&query=Olmecs&maxdoc=30&idx=1&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 11-24-2003).

Olmec Civilization: 1200 B.C.- 600 A.D."            http://www.crystalinks.com/olmec.html           .(accessed 11-24-2003).
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African Athena Controversy Ancient History

Words: 1784 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11222459



This exchange of cultural ideas and manifestations sounds suspiciously like that propagated by Bernal under his Revised Ancient Model. Yet, for some reason, Lefkowitz feels the need to spend the bulk of her article antagonizing Bernal and polarizing him as if he is advocating some sort of Afrocentric stance. This fact is evinced by the preceding passage, in which she references another author -- one who is decidedly pro-Afrocentric -- in what is supposed to be her critique or commentary about ideas advocated by Bernal. Still, the fact remains that even Lefkowitz agrees with Bernal in the notion of the Revised Ancient Model

A review of the works of all three authors demonstrates how necessary competitive plausibility is for the study of history. Since none of the authors were present during the historical events they are discussing, they can only surmise (in as logical a fashion as possible) what they…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lefkowitz, Mary R. "Ancient History, Modern Myths." Black Athena Revisited. Eds. Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers. Chapel Hill & London: The University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

2. Bernal, Martin. "Introduction" Black Athena Writes Back. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2001.

3. Berlinerblau, Jacques. "The Aryan Models." Heresy in the University: The Black Athena Controversy and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. New Brunswick, New Jersey, and London: Rutgers University Press, 1999.
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Evolution of Civilizations as a

Words: 4219 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37397855

, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.

When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.

Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.

Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…… [Read More]

Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4

Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4

Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
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Early vs Later Aegean Civilization -- Minoan

Words: 388 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33584419

Early vs. later Aegean Civilization -- Minoan and Mycenaean vs. Classical and Hellenic Ages

The early Minoan and Mycenaean cultures of the Aegean represent, respectively, a palace-ruled island-based culture and a more militaristic land-based culture, that were eventually to converge into the singular culture of the Classical Age of mainland ancient Greek civilization. At first, this development may seem surprising. The differences between the early and late artistic and political eras seem striking to the modern eye. hile Minoan and Mycenaean statues are static and almost Egyptian in their stylization, Classical and particularly Hellenic sculptures and depictions of the human form are 'realistic,' idealized, or highly emotional in their stance and expression. The earlier civilizations were either royal or military-run, and fairly enclosed. Athens was to form the cradle of democracy for later civilization, and even Sparta formed alliances with other city-states. Still later, Hellenic society became extremely porous, as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hawkes, Jacquetta. (2002) "Cultural Explanations." PhpWiki. http://metamedia.stanford.edu/traumwerk/index.php/Knossos%2C%20the%20Pacifistic%20Mother%3F%3A%20Comparisons%20with%20Mainland%20Greece. [23 Feb 2002]
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Athens Greek Civilization Takes a

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27545272

Mortgaged lands were marked by special debt-stones, named pillars and debtors had to pay 1/6 of their harvest or income to the creditor. The success of Athens can be explained by the fact that it was the first city to abolish practice of enslaving for debts. It raised city's prestige and authority in the region and in many respects stimulated economical and political stability. Since 6th century BC most of Athenian tyrants were making shifts towards democratic rule, balancing interests of elite and poor. The most important reforms in government were made by Solon, who was elected in 594 BC. Solon's reforms were directed on the consolidation of alienated Athenian society: he abolished pillar practices, proclaiming that all Greeks are free citizens. Solon liberalized political structure of Athens, expanding influence of ecclesia, giving it the right to participate in elections of archons. He reformed membership of Areopagus, which was no…… [Read More]

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Classical Greek Indian Civilizations Egyptian Civilization

Words: 2201 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63746864

art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.

The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…… [Read More]

References

Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html.

Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site:  http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .

Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.

Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site:  http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/ .
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Aztecs and Andean Civilizations The Writer Presents

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23845470

Aztecs and Andean civilizations. The writer presents each civilization and explores the differences and the similarities in them both. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

The Aztec civilization hailed in the South Central region of what the world now calls Mexico. They built their homes in the highlands of Mesoamerica. It is believed that the Aztecs migrated to the area in the 13th century. The Aztec survived on fishing, hunting and gathering. In addition the Aztecs were known for their gardening abilities even in those early times. History has shown that the Aztecs were once captured in whole and made into slaves by another tribe early in their history (Aztec (http://www.anthro.mankato.msus.edu/cultural/mesoamerica/aztec.html).Aztecs were also capable of warring and raiding. This was done mostly for the purpose of religious sacrifice. Aztecs took over many tribes during their reign but even after capture the tribes were allowed to maintain their…… [Read More]

References

Aztec (Accessed 2-2-2003)

http://www.anthro.mankato.msus.edu/cultural/mesoamerica/aztec.html

PRE-COLUMBIAN ANDEAN CIVILIZATION (Accessed 2-2-2003)

http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/andean~1.htm
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Fire in Ancient Warfare Greece

Words: 986 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40493590

104).

In Ancient Israel, the use of fire is also part of the tradition of warfare. For example, we are not sure whether the prophet Elijah is stating that the fire hurled against the Moabites is divine, or simply falls down upon the enemy from Israelite war machines: "If I am a man of God," Elijah replied, "may fired come down from heaven and consume you and your fifty men!" Then the fire of God fell from heaven and consumed him and his fifty men (2 Kings 1:12, New International Version).

Similarly, since most ancient gates were nothing but fortified wood, when the armies of Israel set out to use siege warfare, the rules for such are outlined in Deuteronomy 20: 10-20; however, use of flaming arrows, lit pots of oil shot from frames arranged on the outsides of walls -- more like a slingshot than a catapult, in fact,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bradford, a. (2000). With Arrow, Sword, and Spear: A History of Warfare in the Ancient World. Praeger.

Crosby, a. (2002). Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History. Cambridge De Vaux, R. (1997). Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. Erdmans.

Partington, J. (1998). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Johns Hopkins University

Press.
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Western Civilization and Deep Reality

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99055672

They must occupy themselves with inventing new ways to legally persecute people as they cannot be involved in any real pursuit of knowledge.

Things changed drastically with the Renaissance, though not with the speed that many men would have appreciated. Galileo Galilei butted heads with the Catholic Church many times in his life, eventually recanting much of what he had provocatively (and rightly) claimed to be true and ending his life under house arrest. He at times tried to couch his more controversial discoveries in language more pleasing to the Church, but apparently he was not proficient enough at disguising it. His "Letter to Castelli" is a prime example of the shift that Western thought was taking during the Renaissance: "the Holy Scriptures in many places not only admit but actually require a different explanation for what seems to be the literal one, it seems to me that they ought…… [Read More]

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Rama and Odysseus the Ancient

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15362820

e. The Law of Hospitality, which stressed over the utilization of the expertise and support services towards an individual or community, which has experienced critical and crucial time, similarly, the services and obligations between the master and servant towards each other has been the focused of his teachings and practices (Steven, 2006).

The Odyssey attempted several times to return to his kingdom in Ithaca, whereas the exiled ama never planned any political or military outrage against the ruling authority to ensure his return. The major difference in both the epics has been the deep involvement and influence of the ama's family in his life. Sita, the wife of ama, contributed deeply towards the spiritual objectives of her spouse, their children were equally involved in the quest marked by their parents. The Sita was forcibly victimized by the associates of the ama, and she was alleged for malpractices which eventually resulted…… [Read More]

References

Catherine Clement. Theo's Odyssey. 1999. pp. 32-34. Arcade Publishing.

Arthur Charles Clarke, Gentry Lee. Rama Revealed. 1994. pp. 154-167. Bantam Books.

Steven J. Rosen. Essential Hinduism. 2006. pp. 54-67. Greenwood Press.

George William Cox. The Mythology of the Aryan Nations. 2004. pp. 213-222. Adamant Media Corporation.
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Islamic Civilization

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72587430

Ibn Sina

The great Avicenna or Abu Ali al-Husayn Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina, born in 980 was often known in the est by this Latin name. Among all the Islamic philosopher-scientists this Persian physician became not only the most famous but also an influential figure (Edward G, 1921). He was awarded royal favor for treating the Kings of Bukhara and Hamadan for illness which other physicians were unable to neither diagnose nor cure. He died in 1037 in Hamadan, where his grave is maintained (Edward G, 1921).

Out of his 450 works, only 240 have survived and among those surviving works, 150 are on philosophy, while the remaining majority 40 works are dedicated to medicine. Thus, his major contribution was in these two fields. However, he has also written on psychology, logic, mathematics, geology and astronomy (atan Afghanistan).

Although, he was educated and trained in the field of physics, he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edward G. Browne (1921) Arabian Medicine, London, Cambridge University Press.

Philip K. Hitti (1970) History of the Arabs, 10th ed, London, Macmillan, pp 367-368

M.A. Martin (1983) in The Genius of Arab Civilization, 2nd ed, Edited by J.R. Hayes, London,

Eurabia Puplishing, pp 196-7
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Chinese Civilization

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23330232

Chinese Civilization

Prompt 1: Pick two passages about education and explain what makes them "Confucian" or "Neo-Confucian."

Zhu Xia's Neo-Confucianism Program which is labeled "Preface to the Family Rituals" both exhibit the qualities that are found in the writings and teachings of Confucius. Confucianism is the philosophical and ethical system of belief based upon the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius which is then applied to daily life, including education and religion. The core belief of Confucianism was humanism which is the belief that human beings can change, adapt, and grow. No one's identity or personality is concrete and anyone can learn from their mistakes and change. People are asked to make decisions using reason, logic, and critical thinking. In the section "Preface to the Family Rituals," the authors explore how one man, Zhu Xi, believed in adapting Confucianism to the modern period by actually redefining the social structure of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chih, Hu. "A Record of Learning through Difficulties." The Confucian's Progress:

Autobiographical Writings in Traditional China. Ed. Pei-Yi Wu. Princeton, 1990. 243-

51. Print.

De Bary, William & Bloom, Irene. Zhu Xia's Neo-Confucianism Program.
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History and Development of Master Builder and Design Build Tradition of Western Civilization

Words: 6891 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11303212

Architecture through the Ages

Mesopotamia

Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;

228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .

Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
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Homer's Life and Epics and Their Effect and Contribution to Western Civilization

Words: 2309 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16156867

Homer was a legendary Greek poet who is traditionally credited as the author of the major Greek epics the "Iliad and the Odyssey," as well as the comic mini-epic "Batracholmyomachia" (The Frog-Mouse ar), the corpus of Homeric Hymns, and various other lost or fragmentary workd such as "Margites" (Homer pp). Some ancient authors credited him with the entire Epic Cycle, which included other poems about the Trojan ar as well as the Theban poems concerning Oedipus and his sons (Homer pp). According to legend, Homer was blind, and aside from several Ionian cities claiming to be his birthplace, there is nothing else known about him (Homer pp). Aristotle and Pindar believed that Homer was born in Smyrna, on the coast of modern-day Turkey, and enjoyed years of fame on the Aegean island of Chios (Tolson pp). Although the great scholar-librarians of Alexandria scrutinized the epics for historical and geographic errors,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Tolson, Jay. "Was Homer a solo act or a bevy of bards?"

U.S. News & World Report; 7/24/2000; Tolson, Jay

Boorstin, Daniel J. "The reign of the spoken word; Homer spun epics that survived while marble temples fell to ruin." U.S. News & World Report; 8/31/1992; pp.

Due, Casey. "Homer and the Papyri: Center of Hellenic Studies."
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Monkey Gilgamesh When Comparing the Ancient

Words: 806 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76859732



Since Gilgamesh, who hails from estern civilization, has only one life to live, and presumably that one life is very precious to him, he is far more likely to have his companions fight his battle(s) for him, far more likely to place them in immediate danger, and far more likely to think first of saving his own skin than does that of Monkey. Monkey, hailing from the Eastern tradition, loves to jump into the fray, bravely fighting his adversaries and leading his companions into the midst of challenges that Gilgamesh seems totally afraid to confront.

hile Monkey is maniacally fighting the demons, monsters and gods placed before him (usually taking on the role of instigator), Gilgamesh is hiding from Humbaba the Terrible in the Cedar Forest. He does not actually fight the guardian of the forest until his traveling companion exhorts him to be brave.

Though each hero approaches his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hooker, R. (1999) Mesopotamia: Gilgamesh, http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/GILG.HTM, Accessed November 14, 2007

Study Guide to Monkey, http://www.nvcc.edu/home/dashkenas/MONKEY.htm, Accessed November 14, 2007
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Geographic Determinism and Rise of Civilization

Words: 2349 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97965857

Geographic Determinism on the Course of Historical Events

Historical studies often highlight the qualities or actions of specific civilizations, or focus on the choices and errors of a certain significant personality. Sometimes, however, the real determining factor with regards to events in history is basically a nation's geography: the climate, the mountains, the rivers, and other elements of terrain. This historically themed paper will focus on nature itself - revealing the role of land layout on some among history's most significant outcomes. Social scientists maintain that the development process has to be derived from civilizational dynamics that have shaped particular geographic areas and their peoples. Thus, from the social perspective, the development process is evaluated within and across various civilizational "ecumene" of the world. In this context, ecumene refers to an area of continual cultural exchange and interaction (Woods, 2003).

Analysis of Geographic Determinism on the course of historical events…… [Read More]

References

Coombes, P., & Barber, K. (2005). Environmental determinism in Holocene research: causality or coincidence? Area, 37(3), 303-311.

Cramb, AW (n.d.) A Short History of Metals. http://neon.mems.cmu.edu/cramb/Processing/history.html

Diamond, J. (1999) Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton.

Easterly, W., & Ross L. (2002) Tropics, Germs, and Crops: How Endowments
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Western Civilization the Early Renaissance

Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75030989

This was partly because there was wealth enough to patronize the arts, and partly because the Medicis made it fashionable to commission public and private works from local artists. For example, the architect Brunelleschi created buildings that were testaments to the ancient buildings of Rome and Greece, which he studied. He designed the dome of the cathedral in Florence with these classic buildings in mind, and changed architecture from the gaudy medieval cathedrals to a more stately and dignified portrayal of religious belief and utility. Michelangelo rose to prominence under patronage by the Medicis, and his classic statue "The Pieta" was commissioned by a French cardinal, who originally planned to use the piece as a memorial on his own tomb. This is quite common of art at the time; it was commissioned by the powerful and the wealthy for their own enjoyment, but began to be shared with everyone. Thus,…… [Read More]

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History Geography During the Beginning of Ancient

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14863458

History Geography

During the beginning of ancient times, Classical civilization still lived as hunters and gatherers. They used the resources available to them and learned to gather grains, berries, and other plant foods and store them for the winter. This required them to live where the geography and climate could support them, and where supplies of water were easily available. Early settlements clustered around rivers and streams for this reason. y the end of the Classical Era, The Roman Empire had fallen. European cultures had been influenced by Rome's accomplishments, however, and Europeans knew how to build aquifers to bring the water to them. They had learned to build both roads and bridges. They had tamed livestock and used them for transportation. y the Classical Era, many of geography's limitations had solutions. Thus people could live in villages, towns and cities, farm the surrounding countryside and transport it to where…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Garraty, John A., and Gay, Peter, Eds. The Columbia History of the World. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1999.
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Propylaea of the Ancient Acropolis

Words: 2381 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13626198

Mystery of the Propylaea

The Propylaea (ca.437-432 BCE) is considered one of the mysteries of Ancient Greece. The structure was the gate to the Acropolis which was built during the Periclean building endeavor, the rebuilding program for Athens which began in 437 BCE. The Propylaea were designed as a means of creating a massive and monumental entrance to the plateau of the acropolis, particularly the complex of shrines and sanctuaries there. The gateway itself is truly stunning, as it is indeed tremendous and thundering with precise details carved in dark Elysian marble, but it was never finished. The fact that this dramatic and stunning gateway was never finished is indeed a mysterious prospect, and in the academic field of archeology, a range of theories abound as to why it was never finished. This paper will examine the most dominant theories regarding this fact, and attempt to determine why this was…… [Read More]

References

Goette, H.R. Athens, Attica and the Megarid. New York: Routledge Press, 2012.

Hurwit, J.M. The Acropolis in the Age of Pericles. London: Cambridge Press, 2004.

Leonard, J. The Erechtheion: A jewel in the Acropolis crown. 2010.

http://www.ekathimerini.com/4Dcgi/4dcgi/_w_articles_wsite4_1_28/12/2010_37
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Mayhem the Ancient Romans Had

Words: 2362 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7113851



On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…… [Read More]

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Popol Vuh the Sacred Book of the Ancient Quiche Maya

Words: 1684 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7511340

Popol Vuh the author sets the overarching setting: the continual tension between the forces of good and evil, order and chaos, and the divine and the human. The theme running throughout these conflicts is that of power; it is on the earth and through mankind that the Lords of Heaven are able to demonstrate their power; and this power requires mankind to adore and sustain the influence of the spirits. Essentially, man is needed by the divine in order for the divine to be praised, celebrated, and recognized as great. So, when the earth and water deities united their thoughts they immediately realized that man needed to appear or else there could be no glory or grandeur in the universe. In this respect, human beings, in the Popol Vuh are intended to be the vessels through which the power of the heavens can be demonstrated and played out. However, particularly…… [Read More]

Reference:

1. Nelson, Ralph. The Popol Vuh. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.