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Leaving large sums of money to descendants might not be a wise idea, but if more middle-class or poorer families do not leave their children anything, it can keep them from getting a leg up and possibly bettering their own lives. This would perpetuate the class and socio-economic status of that hereditary line, and thus not enable these people to obtain the sort of wealth that Carnegie had and was talking about in his gospel. This is very related to the idea of economic growth; without putting a substantial amount of capital back into industry, there would be no economic growth. Carnegie states in his gospel that the goal of spending during one's lifetime is to enrich the poorer people and enable them to obtain better lives and standards of living. If there is no economic growth, then there won't be any well-paying jobs for these people to take advantage…
Andrew Carnegie: Robber Baron or Captain of Industry?
Harold Livesay's biography of Andrew Carnegie portrays a man that can be called at once both a Robber Baron and a Captain of Industry. This paper will attempt to show how each title applied to Carnegie in his lifetime and how, in fact, the two titles (far from being dissimilar) may actually be considered synonymous.
Andrew Carnegie's humble beginnings do not necessarily qualify him for the title of "Captain of Industry" simply because he rose from poor immigrant status to tycoon. hat Livesay's portrayal does do is show how Carnegie came to personify the "American Dream" -- even if that dream was also a nightmare. Carnegie's unflagging disposition and pluck helped him thrive in an industry that was rapidly changing even as Carnegie himself was growing up. His work in the Pennsylvania Railroad gained for him the experience he needed to…
Livesay, Harold. Andrew Carnegie and the Rise of Big Business. NY: Pearson
There would be other incidents of violence, and it is that part of Carnegie's history where we are able in retrospect to see him as a businessman in retrospect.
There are some historians and researchers who believe that Carnegie and other wealthy men of the industrial era were not just men focused on building their industrial empires, but who were also focused on building world empires (Jenkins, Dominick, 2005, p. 223). To that end, they have been deemed internationalists by some researchers who hold that Carnegie, ockefeller, and Ford used justice acquire wealth (p. 223). It is what historian and researcher Dominick Jenkins (2005) calls "accumulation by dispossession (p. 223)." This is the philosophy that holds that these men, whose roots and origins were close to Europe, were not just ushering in an age of industrialization, but also a move towards global superiority and imperialism (p. 223).
There are signs…
Carnegie, a. (1920). Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=392826 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=43134764
Harrison, L.E. (1992). Who Prospers? How Cultural Values Shape Economic and Political Success. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=43134764 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012238167
Jenkins, D. (2005). Justice and the Return of Imperialism. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 30(2), 223+. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012238167 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106750378
His legacy lives on through his foundation, and most especially the structures he endowed upon his fellow man.
Carnegie, A. And Gordon Hunter. The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and The Gospel of Wealth. Signet, 2006.
Garrison, L.D. Apostles of Culture: Public Librarian and American Society.
University of Wisconsin Press, 2003.
Koch, T.W. A Book of Carnegie Libraries. BiblioBazaar, 2009.
Lorenzen, M. "Deconstructing the Carnegie Libraries: The Sociological easons
Behind Carnegie's Millions to Public Libraries." Illinois Public Library
Project, n.d., Cited in:
Morris, C. The Tycoons: How Andrew Carnegie, John D. ockefeller, J. Gould,
And J.P. Morgan Invented the American Supereconomy. Holt, 2006.
Nasaw, Daniel. Andrew Carnegie. Penguin, 2007.
Van Slyck, A. Free to All: Carnegie Libraries and American Culture, 1890-
1920. University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Walsh, G. History of Andrew Carnegie and Carnegie Libraries. Cited in:
See: L.D. Garrison, Apostles of Culture: Public Librarian and American…
Carnegie, A. And Gordon Hunter. The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and The Gospel of Wealth. Signet, 2006.
Garrison, L.D. Apostles of Culture: Public Librarian and American Society.
University of Wisconsin Press, 2003.
Koch, T.W. A Book of Carnegie Libraries. BiblioBazaar, 2009.
However, Andrew Carnegie did give, and his money has indeed benefited many millions of people all around the world, and people today can make use of the many libraries that he has built, in order to acquire knowledge and thereby better themselves. It must be remembered that Andrew Carnegie had a strong belief in the meritocracy of the United States of America, and also that his free libraries would be of immense benefit to the immigrants, like himself, who were arriving in America at that time. (De-constructing the Philanthropic library, the Sociological easons behind Andrew Carnegie's Millions to Libraries)
However, Andrew Carnegie is primarily remembered for two main reasons or achievements, without which the United States of America would not have been the America that it is today; one being that he managed to make enormous amounts of money as a successful businessman and an industrialist, and secondly, he managed…
Andrew Carnegie. America's Story, from America's Library. Retrieved at http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/industry/carnegie. Accessed 23 October, 2005
Andrew Carnegie, a Tribute. Retrieved at http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/carnegie.html . Accessed 23 October, 2005
Carnegie Corporation of New York, Andrew Carnegie, Biography. Retrieved at http://www.carnegie.org/sub/about/biography.html . Accessed 23 October, 2005
Carnegie Institution, New Horizons for Science. Retrieved at http://carnegieinstitution.org/carnegiemedal/background.html . Accessed 23 October, 2005
Role of Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie and the Rise of Big Business
Was Andrew Carnegie a "Robber Baron" or a "Captain of Industry"?
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish American born on 25th November 1835. He was an ordinary person but then he succeeded in becoming an entrepreneur, industrialist and a businessman who made a great contribution towards the expansion of American steel industry in the late 19th century.
The book, "Andrew Carnegie and the Rise of Big Business" written by Harold C. Livesay, is a story of the Andrew Carnegie's role as a business man. Harold has done an extensive research for this book and has not only written about Carnegie but has also included lot of information regarding the history of America. This book chronically presents the events of Carnegie who was an immigrant and a poor Scottish boy who made his fortune in America and became…
In contrast and in comparison the writings of Andrew Carnegie also lend to the idea of the apologist, as if his luck and ingenuity give him a special place in the world of men, and therefore he has contributed to the greater good. Carnegie, stresses that the differences between the rich and the common are necessary as the greatest will rise to the top and from this lofty height will be better judges of the common need. Carnegie was such an apologist that one of his foundational philosophies, which he lived by was that instead of blindly giving the wealth of the father to the son or the descendants at all was the most irresponsible of social actions for the very wealthy. Here he makes a distinction between the very wealthy with surplus wealth and those perceived as wealthy but who really simply have amassed just enough to…
Carnegie a. (1889) "The Gospel of Wealth" in Modern History Sourcebook.
Spencer, H. (1857)"Social Darwinism" in Modern History Sourcebook.
rise of business and the new age of industrial capitalism forced Americans to think about, criticize, and justify the new order -- especially the vast disparities of wealth and power it created. This assignment asks you to consider the nature and meaning of wealth, poverty and inequality in the Gilded Age making use of the perspectives of four people who occupied very different places in the social and intellectual spectrum of late nineteenth-?century America:, the sociologist William Graham Sumner, the writer enry
George, a Massachusetts textile worker named Thomas O'Donnell, and the steel tycoon
For Andrew Carnegie, wealth was a good thing. In his "Gospel of Wealth," Carnegies talks about the problem of "our age" which is the proper administration of wealth. e has his own philosophy of how wealth has come to be unequally distributed with the huge gap existing between those who have little and those…
Henry George, Progress and Poverty, Major Problems, pp. 20-?22.
Thomas O'Donnell Testimony before a U.S. Senate Committee, 1885 U.S. Congress,
Capital (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1885
Carnegie Steel Co. is one of the largest manufacturing companies in the world and it's success is largely dependent upon the workers who manufacture the best steel anywhere. It is not Andrew Carnegie, or his lapdog Henry Frick, who toil in the difficult conditions with intense heat and compounded by dangers that would make those men cringe. It is the worker who risks his life so that men like Carnegie and Frick can sit in the lap of luxury enjoying the fruits of other men's labor. The owners may have invested their money, but we the workers invest our lives and souls into the company and deserve more than to be used and discarded as though we're just another piece of machinery. Not only are the we an instrumental part of the factory, we are the most important aspect of the manufacturing process and Carnegie and Frick are…
"1892 Homestead Strike." AFLCIO: America's Union. Web. 6 Oct. 2013.
Brecher, Jeremy. "The Homestead Strike, 1892." libcom.org, 12 June 2013. Web. 6
hen Edith harton tells us that "it was the background that she [Lily] required," we understand that both Emma Bovary and Lily have a very important thing in common. They are first of all women in the nineteenth century society, fettered by social conventions to fulfill any kind of aspirations or ideals. A woman, as it is clearly stated in both novels, had no other means of being having a place in society than by acquiring respectability and money through a good marriage. To marry was the only vocation of a woman, as harton tells us.
Of course, there interferes a great difference between the two heroines here, because Madame Bovary, as her very title proves it, is already a married woman, while Lily in harton's book is in constant pursue of a redeeming marriage. But, essentially the frustration of the two heroines is the same, as Emma is as…
The American Experience: Andrew Carnegie- The Gilded Age. PBS Online. 1999. 1 Oct. 2006 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/gildedage.html .
Byatt, A.S. Scenes from Provincial Life. The Guardian. July, 27, 2002. Oct.2006 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2342/is_n1_v30/ai_18631915 .
Cahir, Linda Costanzo Solitude and Society in the Works of Herman Melville and Edith Wharton. New York: Greenwood Press, 1999
Deppman, Jed. "History with style: the impassible writing of Flaubert - Gustave Flaubert." Style. 1996. Oct 2006
Although they were considered as the bastions and foundation of America's industries and commerce, they were also considered 'models' of the gradually increasing social inequality in the country, having conquered and controlled almost all businesses in the country: railroad lines, oil refineries, and steelworks. hey were also images of business owners who had subsisted to corrupting the government in order to win business contracts and biddings and conduct their business operations without any intervention from the government.
Rockefeller was an industrialized who specialized in building construction in New York City, and though he was rumored to be one of the Robber Barons, his philanthropic activities downplayed the negative image that his wealth and businesses impressed upon the American society. Similarly, Carnegie, owner of Carnegie Steel Company, was criticized for controlling 25% of the country's iron and steel production. However, like Rockefeller, Carnegie's philanthropic programs and activities became a point for…
The Robber Barons was a title given to America's richest industrialists (with assets and riches reaching to millions of dollars), whose wealth came from war-related industries, such as the manufacturing of steel, machinery, and other tools of the industrialized society, among others. America during the 19th century had attained economic power well beyond Germany's and Britain's; moreover, the American dollar was more than what it costs prior to the war, while ordinary people's wages had also increased. However, the wealth gap between the rich and the poor widened, and criticisms of the Robber Barons' unethical conduct and practice of businesses in the country became an issue. It was purported that these rich man had attained their millions by cheating on the supplies they provided the government, producing sub-standard quality products and supplies for soldiers during the war while imposing a higher price than the product's actual unit value.
Three of the most popular Robber Barons during the 19th century are John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and Henry Huntington. Although they were considered as the bastions and foundation of America's industries and commerce, they were also considered 'models' of the gradually increasing social inequality in the country, having conquered and controlled almost all businesses in the country: railroad lines, oil refineries, and steelworks. They were also images of business owners who had subsisted to corrupting the government in order to win business contracts and biddings and conduct their business operations without any intervention from the government.
Rockefeller was an industrialized who specialized in building construction in New York City, and though he was rumored to be one of the Robber Barons, his philanthropic activities downplayed the negative image that his wealth and businesses impressed upon the American society. Similarly, Carnegie, owner of Carnegie Steel Company, was criticized for controlling 25% of the country's iron and steel production. However, like Rockefeller, Carnegie's philanthropic programs and activities became a point for society to consider him a role model for the society rather than a Robber Baron. Collis Huntington, American railroad magnate, was the owner of the Central Pacific Railroad (in 1861) and founder and president of the Southern Pacific Railroad (founded in 1884). Huntington was known for being a strong lobbyist for railroad interests, a role that downplayed allegations that he was a Robber Baron, but instead, a champion of the railroad business and the people who make a living from this industry. These examples of the Robber Barons illustrate how philanthropy and actively participating in the lobbying process for legislation in the manufacturing industry have become strategies for the Robber Barons to continuously increase their wealth while at the same time maintaining a positive public image.
John Pierpont Morgan (1837 -- 1931) is one of the more controversial figures in the history of America and the world of finance. Described as a sui generis, a colossus (McCallum, p. 2), "the organizer" (Miller, 2003), "banker of last resort" (Andrews, 1999), and "the man of the hour" (Corey, p. 348), John Pierpont Morgan has also been called a "robber baron" (Andrews, 1999). Thus, it is evident that J.P. Morgan was a man who was as much praised for his actions in saving the American economy during the 1895 and 1907 crises, as he was criticized and derided for what was seen as his calculated control of the financial world and American business. Viewed from the lens of financial history, however, there can be little doubt that no person, either before or since, has left "upon the great art of money getting so important an influence." (Flynn, p. 452)…
1000 Management Giants. "John Pierpont Morgan." Treasury of Investment Wisdom.
1999. Accessed April 30, 2005: http://www.ultimatebusinessresource.com/downloads/uk/giantscigar.pdf.
Andrews, J. "American Financier." Insight on the News. June 28, 1999. Vol. 15: 24
Trade Act of 1974 on Euro exchange rates?
Free Trade has been a key agenda for the past three presidents. In an expanding global market, tariffs and trade policies are more important today than they have been in the past. More and more countries are forming alliances such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asian Alliance, and the European Union (EU). These trade agreements are meant to level the playing for all countries, both industrialized and emerging countries.
President Bush's trade policy is aimed at helping to generate American jobs, open markets to American products, and provide economic growth. Sometimes massive increases in imports can have a devastating effect on U.S. industries. [This has been the case for the U.S. steel Industry and is the issue addressed in Section 203 (B) (1) of the Trade Act of 1974. Foreign steel makers have had the luxury of government…
Arnold, James. Steel sector stares into the abyss. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1857000/1857914.stm . Accessed April,
Arnold, James. Steel spat could mean wider worries. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
Industrialization After Civil War
The author of this report has been asked to identify and fetter out a number of short lists as a means to answer questions. The questions all relate to the history of the United States after the Civil War as the country entered the period of industrialization. There will be three major aspects of industrialization that changed the United STtaes from 1865 to 1920 in terms of society, economy and politics. Issues that could arise include geography, entrepreneurship and so forth. The next answer will be a list of three groups that were affected by industrialization and there will also be two examples of how each group was affected. Examples include immigrants, children/women and famers. How industrialization affected the life of the average American during this period will be covered. While some may deemed them to be heroes and icons, the actions of people like Andrew…
HBS. (2015). Women at Work: Manual Labor. Library.hbs.edu. Retrieved 6 May 2015,
PBS. (2015). American Experience . The Richest Man in the World: Andrew Carnegie .
Timeline | PBS. Pbs.org. Retrieved 6 May 2015, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/timeline/f_timeline.html
" In it, he showed a poor boy and a rich boy (the Prince), who exchanged places and found that they each preferred to live in the life to which they had been born. Still, each learned from the other's life and the outcome was not what the Sunday School books had all written. The rich Prince "lived only a few years," but he lived them worthily.
In conclusion, Mark Twain was saying in his Story of the Good Little Boy, it is in a situation where one might expect to find reward that one finds punishment, and it is not how one's religion wants one to live that one finds reward and satisfaction. Also, the authorities in his Story did not exercise justice, so this was another disappointment for the reader, again coming to the conclusion that religion was not the answer to life's problems. It did no good…
Library of Congrress. "America's Story from America's Library." Website at: http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/jb/gilded.
PBS, "Andrew Carnegie: The Gilded Age." Website at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/gildedage.html .
Twain, Mark. "Poor Little Stephen Girard," in Carleton's Popular Readings, Anna Randall-Diehl, ed., New York, 1879, 183-84.
Twain, Mark. The Gilded Age. New York: Classic Literature Library. 1873.
When Industrialization (1865-1920) came to the United States after the Civil War (1861-1865), it brought positive and negative impacts on the social, political, and economic aspects of the American life and society.
One negative social impact was that men like Andrew Carnegie, James Fisk, John D. ockefeller, Edward Harriman, and J.P. Morgan developed crushing monopolies in manufacturing, transportation and finance that would impact every other aspect of life in America from the 18th century onward (Griffin, 2010; McNeese, 2009).
Carnegie, for example, revolutionized the means of production regarding the steel mills and set up the U.S. as a major manufacturer of steel-based products. This serviced the military, the transportation industry (cars, railroads), the telecommunications industry (wires, cables), and the construction industry (the high rises of major cities). Without Carnegie's influence in the Industrial evolution, none of this could have come into being. Carnegie himself relied on the wealth and…
Griffin, G. E. (2010). The Creature from Jekyll Island. CA: American Media.
McNeese, T. (2009). The Robber Barons and the Sherman Antitrust Act. NY: Chelsea
Mullins, E. (1983). Secrets of the Federal Reserve. VA: Bankers Research Institute.
A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations "(Withrow,2007, p.15 ).
Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible. Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i.e. those who are the most prosperous and who accumulate the most. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.
In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…
Carnegie a. The Gospel of Wealth Reflection Questions. Excerpts of an essay written by Carnegie in 1889. Retrieved from http://learningtogive.org/resources/stories/gospelofwealth/
De Santis, V. The American Gilded Age Revisited. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 29
(2), pp. 354 -- 367. Available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119538983/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Withrow L. Success and the Prosperity Gospel: from Commodification to Transformation a Wesleyan Perspective. Journal of Religious Leadership, 6(2). Available from http://arl-jrl.org/Volumes/Withrow07.pdf.
social commentator, Thomas Frank, has published an insightful article in the February, 2011 issue of Harper's magazine assailing the members of what he describes as the privileges class in America failure to exhibit empathy and understanding for the plight of the working and middle class. In the article, entitled "Servile Disobedience," Frank states, "The rich are different from you and me (T. Frank). They are ruder and less generous. They don't get what others are thinking and apparently they don't really care." In offering these comments, Frank echoes the thoughts offered many years before by the writer and poet, Ralph aldo Emerson. Emerson saw the United States as being infected with "selfishness, fraud and conspiracy (Emerson)."
Frank in his article laments that, "e need the rich to be nicer. e need the rich to discover brotherly love, and fast." He recognizes that among the rich there are a number who…
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Essential Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson. New York: Modern Library, 2000.
Frank, Robert. "Millionaires Support Warren Buffett's Tax on the Rich." 27 October 2011. Wall Street Journal. 1 December 2011 .
Frank, Thomas. "Servile Disobedience." Harper's February 2011.
Kraus, Michael W. "Social Class, Contextualism and Empathic Accuracy." Psychological Science (2010): 11716-1723.
skyrocketing tuition costs at the highest levels of education and unfundable needs at even the lowest, sound financial policy is an integral key to the success of the American education system. In a system where public education is the bedrock of society, it is the responsibility of the public to maintain a viable financial policy. While citizens give regularly to the schools in their districts through taxes, enrollment, and requisite civic engagement, the businesses to which they matriculate and from which they find economic support are not free of responsibility. Instead, they are tethered to the concerns of America's youth; it is from the children of today that they will see profitability in the international market tomorrow. As financial problems come to define the ability of educational institutions to provide services, the access and ideology of foundational support demands examination to meet the growing market needs.
Because the education system…
Hollis, Ernest V. "The Foundations the Universities." The Journal of Higher Education. Vol. 11, No. 4. Apr., 1940. p. 177.
Hollis, p. 178.
Quinn, Jane. "Professional Development: Investing in Futures." Youth Today. Washington: Mar., 2005. Vol. 14, Iss. 3. p. 17.
8 billion, and primary metal manufactures, $1.4 billion (Exports pp). Together, these five manufactured product categories accounted for 61% of the state's total exports of goods in for that year (Exports pp).
In dollar terms, the leading manufactured export growth category is transportation equipment, rising $294 million between 1999 to 2003, while others included miscellaneous manufactures, up $248 million, processed foods, up $192 million, and primary metal manufactures, up $171 million (Exports pp). In percentage terms, the fastest growing manufactured export category is fabric mill products, which grew 70%, from $99 million in 1999 to $169 million in 2003, while others included processed foods, up 52%, miscellaneous manufactures, up 48%, and beverages and tobacco products, up 48% (Exports pp).
The Port of Pittsburgh is the largest inland river port in the United States and the 11th largest port of any kind (Water pp). The Port Commission is the central point…
Coal Mining in Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/enved/go_with_inspector/coalmine/Coal_Mining_in_Pennsylvania.htm
This is a web page from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection web site. It provides a history of the state's coal mining industry.
Gordon, John Steele. "Iron and Steel Industry." Readers Companion to American History. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_046100_ironandsteel.htm
These claims are virtually all based on the concept that corporations - particularly multinationals -- should be held accountable for their actions within their sphere of operations. "Corporations, for their part, have responded in numerous ways, from denying any duties in the area of human rights to accepting voluntary codes that could constrain their behavior" (atner, 2001, p. 436). In fact, this very point is echoed throughout the literature; for example, "At the turn of the 20th century, corporations tended to disregard the public interest willy-nilly. And even as recently as one-half century ago, corporations had so much power over the marketplace and so little responsibility to society" (Sriramesh & Vercic, 2003, p. 450). Despite these trends, things are changing, though, as atner points out: "The last decade has witnessed a striking new phenomenon in strategies to protect human rights: a shift by global actors concerned about human rights from…
Blackburn, V.L., Doran, M., & Shrader, C.B. (1994). Investigating the dimensions of social responsibility and the consequences for corporate financial performance. Journal of Managerial Issues, 6(2), 195.
Cable, V. (1995). The diminished nation-state: A study in the loss of economic power. Daedalus, 124(2), 23.
Casmir, F.L. (1997). Ethics in intercultural and international communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dalton, D.R., & Metzger, M.B. (1996). Seeing the elephant: An organizational perspective on corporate moral agency. American Business Law Journal, 33(4), 489-576.
Statement of the Issue
Beginning with a discussion of Social Darwinism's inherent logical fallacy, this study examines whether or not wealthy industrialists of the nineteenth century actually practiced what Social Darwinism called for. By considering the history of the concept and its relation to capitalism, it becomes clear that not only did wealthy industrialists practice Social Darwinism, but that they embraced it precisely because it provided a justification for the unethical business practices they were already engaged in.
Statement of the Issue
Social Darwinism was a major force in the political, economic, and social landscape of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, but it represents something of a conundrum for the historian attempting to determine whether or not the wealthy industrialists who were proponents of Social Darwinism actually practiced what they preached. The difficulty stems from the fact that Social Darwinism is itself an example of a formal…
Bannister, R. (1993). Social darwinism: Science and myth in anglo-american social thought.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Klein, S. (2003). The natural roots of capitalism and its virtues and values. Journal of Business
Ethics, 45(4), 387-401.
Review at least seven sources of information.
Being well-educated means different things to different people. It does however embody certain benchmarks that qualify a person as well-educated, including but not limited to wealth, education, worldliness, etc. It goes beyond just academic experiences.
The dictionary describes an educated person as "having an education; one above average; showing evidence of schooling, training, experience; exhibiting culture."
The image of an educated person can mean different things to different people. Some deem a well-educated person has who probably possesses great financial wealth. Others few the individual who has a superior intellect or has been exposed to worldwide culture as a person who is above the norm. Still others would describe ideal image of a well educated person as one who is smart enough to be of sound character, a good citizen and possessing intellect, emotion and heart and soul.
So what are…
House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the ise of Modern Finance, by Edwin P. Hoyt, Jr. Specifically, it will discuss the three most significant things and/or people in this book. The significance could be judged at the time of the events/persons in question or perhaps better, be seen through hindsight, i.e. its/their effect on modern finance. While there are many significant and important people and events depicted in "The House of Morgan," three stand out as the most influential and significant as the book progresses. These three things are Miles Morgan and his immigration to America, Junius Spencer Morgan and his rise in financial banking, leaving his legacy to his son, J. Pierpont Morgan, and finally, the railroad in America, which neatly cemented the family's success and rise to domination of American and worldwide finance and investment.
THE HOUSE OF MOGAN
The House of Morgan" tells the story…
Author not Available. "Milestones in J.P. Morgan History." AP Online, 13 Sept. 2000.
Hoyt, Edwin P. Jr. The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1966.
The National League was formed in 1876 and enabled spectators to observe touring athletes play the game. The first World Series was played between the National League and its rival, the American League, in 1903. The popularity of baseball allowed for the financing of large baseball fields such as Fenway Park, Shibe Park, and Wrigley Field (Sports and Leisure, 2011). This era also saw the rise of collegiate football, boxing, and basketball.
The rise of entertainment was meteoric in the Gilded Age. With Americans working less and having a higher expendable income, they were able to enjoy entertainments such as expositions, amusement parks, vaudeville shows, sports, and music. To this day, the influence of these innovations and pastimes can still be seen in modern entertainment outlets and continue to amuse audiences everywhere.
Jim Crow Laws:
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that were enacted between 1876 and 1965…
About Vaudeville. (1999). Retrieved from American Masters:
An Introduction to American Cultural Expression during the Gilded Age and Progressive
Era (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://bss.sfsu.edu/cherny/cultlexp/expo.htm
On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).
Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile…
Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
People like Andrew Carnegie and Rockefeller had reasons to justify their wealth and position. They subscribed to the concept of survival of the fittest and they felt they were the fittest.
I remember that light came as in a flood and all was clear. Not only had I got rid of theology and the supernatural, but I had found the truth of evolution. 'All is well since all grows better' became my motto, my true source of comfort, Man was not created with an instinct for his own degradation, but from the lower had risen to the higher forms. Nor is there any conceivable end to his march to the light: he stands in the sun and looks upward." think these people were unduly criticized as robber barons. They had made significant contributions to the economic condition of the U.S. And like all large businesses, they prospered rapidly too. I…
John Tipple, in "The Anatomy of Prejudice: Origins of the Robber Baron Legend," Business History Review, 33 (1959), 510-21
Hofstadter, Richard; 1959; Social Darwinism in American Thought George Braziller; New York
James L. Stokesbury. John Jacob Astor: Wealthy Merchant and Fur Trader
In retrospect, the industry failed to respond appropriately by lobbying for federal restrictions on imported steel instead of recognizing the need to embrace a newer technology in the form of modern oxygen furnaces as an improvement over the open-hearth furnaces that replaced the Bessemer process almost a century earlier.
Similarly, steel industry leaders like the infamous U.S. Steel Company continued to ignore the reality of decreased quality of North American iron ore; instead of importing higher quality foreign raw material, they invested unwisely in the expensive refinement processes required by the use of lower grade American iron ore.
Management issues and worker relations also contributed to the decline of Pennsylvania steel. Traditionally, the ranks of steel industry management consisted of former steel workers who rose into leadership positions after decades of first-hand experience. In the post-industrial age, industry management followed the general
American big business trend of hiring management candidates…
Nevins, J., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States.
New York: Pocket Books
Hoerr, J. (1988) and the Wolf Finally Came: The Decline of the American Steel Industry. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press
176) it is also interesting that the legitimate first response to the dissolution of prohibition was to officially tax it and therefore gain legitimate revenue from a vice. It would not surprise any historian if the idea to tax vice's such as alcohol, which even today the government makes a great deal of money doing, was not born of the substantial success the early mafia made of making money from its illegal production, sale and distribution.
The Irish Mafia:
The Irish Mafia, though usually not thought of as the quintessential mafia "family" were no less influential in some areas that the Italian mafia, one reason for this had to do with the sheer numbers of Irish immigrants to the country following the Potato Famine 1847-1849, and the essential disenfranchisement they felt when they arrived. Having just lived through one of the most grueling of all events, likely to have lost…
Bernstein, L. (2002). The Greatest Menace: Organized Crime in Cold War America. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Block, a.A. (2002). Environmental Crime and Pollution: Wasteful Reflections. 61.
Greeley, a.M. (1972). That Most Distressful Nation: The Taming of the American Irish. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.
Greeley, a.M. (1981). The Rise to Money and Power. New York: Harper & Row.
Three major industries emerged: cotton, tobacco and iron. It's arguable that the cotton and tobacco industries did not stray far from their antebellum roots; however, the majority of the factories were funded by Northern investors. No different was the emerging iron and steel industry of the post-Civil War South - by the early 1900s, the factories were owned almost exclusively by the Northern Andrew Carnegie (Schultz, Tishler).
The emergence of factories did more than impact society as a whole with a race to the cities; race relations were impacted as well. The majority of the new factory jobs were held by whites, with blacks doing only unskilled labor. Mill owners justified the hiring of all whites as making up for the antebellum disparity that had existed when blacks had the majority of agricultural "jobs," if their former slave labor could be called that. At the political level, after the ratification…
Ransom, Roger L. "The Economics of the Civil War." University of California, Riverside, 02-01-2010.
Retrieved from: http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/ransom.civil.war.us
The Reconstruction Acts: 1867. Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved from:
An eligible employee shall be entitled to a total of seven days of leave because of the death of a parent, spouse, son, daughter, or person for whom the employee serves as designated representative... If the deceased died in the line of duty as a member of the uniformed services. Such leave is intended to permit the employee to prepare for or attend the burial ceremony of the deceased member of the uniformed services and may be paid or unpaid leave.
Conversely, however, the United States Federal government presently has no laws in place to similarly (or otherwise, in comparable and appropriate ways) formally acknowledge and honor the passing of federal government personnel other than military personnel.
According to U.S. Code Title 5, Part III; Subpart E; Chapter 63; Subchapter II (2005), the federal government does in fact authorize, according to three separate sections of Title 5: (1)…
Acuff, J. (c2004). The relationship edge in business: Connecting with customers and colleagues when it counts. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Andrus, P. (2005). Grief in the workplace. Martin & Castille. Retrieved February 3, 2005 at http://www.mourning.com/your_grief_workplace.html .
Banusiewics, J.D. (2004). Customs of military funerals reflect history, tradition.
United States Department of Defense. Retrieved January 31, 2005, at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jun2004/n06102004_200406106.html .
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…
House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf
Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf
Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-
78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
American Labor Movement
The "labor question," its origins, components, and whether or not it is still relevant.
The "labor question" is the foundation of the American Labor Movement. Drawing from our classwork and paraphrasing Rosanne Currarino's modern restatement of the "labor question(s)": "hat should constitute full participation in American society? hat standard of living should citizens expect and demand?" (Currarino 112). Concerned with the ideal of an industrial democracy, including a more equitable society with social and financial betterment of working class people, the "labor question" arose during and in response to America's 19th Century (Second) Industrial Revolution. America's Industrial Revolution occurred within the "Gilded Age," named by Mark Twain (Mintz), and lasting roughly from the end of the U.S. Civil ar until the beginning of orld ar I (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services). Fueled in part by refined coal and steam power, the American Industrial Revolution transformed America from…
AFL-CIO. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924). 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011. Print.
D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services. "The Gilded Age - Industrial Revolution in America." 2011. Raken.com Web site. Web. 7 February 2012.
Dictionary.com, LLC. Xenophobia. 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
Cold War, the president of the United States was often referred to as the "leader of the free world." This connotes an image of someone with an unsurpassed amount of power and responsibility. From 1861 to 1969, the role of President of the United States progressed from being that of the leader of a moderately powerful, factious republic to being one who was almost singularly responsible for the defense of most of the world's population against Communist tyranny. To understand this evolution requires an broader inquiry into the nature of these leaders and the constantly changing polity that they were elected to represent.
Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt bear the distinction of having lead the country into its largest conflicts during this time frame, which makes them among the most intriguing to historians. Although McKinley, Lyndon Johnson and Truman were also 'wartime' Presidents, their respective conflicts were…
Oxford University Press, 1992.
George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy. Ayer, 1975
Carl Degler, Out of Our Past. Harpercollins, 1986
How managers in an organization delegate as part of their management responsibilities
Delegation results in more competent managers. It is not feasible to organize all the responsibilities of the department directly by the manager. With a view to achieving the objectives of the organization it is quite necessary to concentrate on its goals and to see that all the works are performed skillfully, that entails the delegation of the powers by the managers. The powers of the managers here signify to the legal influence of the managers within the vicinity of their positions to steer the junior staffs in desired directions. With the increase in scale, such authority of the managers or a fraction thereof is delegated and utilized in the name of the manager. Delegation in general refers to downward flow of powers from higher authority to lower ones. The delegation vests the employees with necessary authorities to…
Allen, Gemmy. (1998) "Delegating" Retrieved at http://ollie.dcccd.edu/mgmt1374/book_contents/3organizing/deleg/delegate.htm. Accessed on 19 October, 2004
Blair, Gerard M. "The Art of Delegation" Retrieved at http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/Management/art5.html. Accessed on 19 October, 2004
Business leadership skills: delegating tasks effectively to your employees http://www.webguru.com/delegation-skills.htm . Accessed on 19 October, 2004
Delegate: It's Easier than you think" (2003) Retrieved at http://www.ittoolkit.com/articles/projects/ease_delegation.htm . Accessed on 19 October, 2004
Industrialization After the Civil War
Industrialization was, in all aspects, a game changer in the U.S. because it brought about a complete transformation in people's ways of life. It changed how businesses were run, transformed how people earned money, made transportation easier, and caused a social and economic revolution.
Within four decades (1865-1920), the U.S. had "transformed from a predominantly rural agrarian society to an industrial economy centered in large metropolitan cities" (Hirschman & Mogford, 2009). In addition to the unity that had been created by the uniting states, three other factors played a crucial role in the rapid diffusion of technology during this period. These are;
Legislative representation - the pieces of legislation that furthered the efforts of reconstruction and promoted civil rights for the marginalized. For instance, the 13th, 14th and 15th econstruction Amendments which illegalized slavery, awarded citizenship to all people naturalized or born in the U.S.,…
Berkin, C., Miller, C., Cherny, R. & Gormly, J. (2007). Making America: A History of the United States, Vol. II from 1865 (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hirschman, C. & Mogford, E. (2009). Immigration and the American Industrial Revolution from 1880-1920. Social Science Research, 38(4), 897-920.
Weinberg, M. (2002). Chapter 7: Capitalism Dominant, 1865-1920. A Short History of American Capitalism. Retrieved from http://www.newhistory.org/CH07.htm
Industrialization after U.S. Civil War
AMERICAN INDUSTRIALIZATION AFTER THE U.S. CIVIL WAR (1865-1920)
It is a truism that large-scale warfare tends to increase industrial production and innovation, and that societies benefit from this industrialization after the war is over. In America, the Civil War was followed by the economic prosperity of the Gilded Age -- I would like to argue that the chief effect of this prosperity was to cause new conflicts in American society, which had to be settled by reform rather than Civil War. This is in some ways a counterintuitive argument, when in 2014 many have been conditioned to believe that a prosperous economy benefits everyone, when (in the words of the old cliche) a rising tide lifts all boats. But did the booming economy of America between the end of the Civil War and the onset of the First World War actually benefit child laborers or…
Firms with what organisational patterns are more likely to acquire existing firms? In what stage of internationalisation is acquisition more likely? Such research should not assume that such decisions are always rational. It may be that irrational factors are important at times. For example, it might be that the rush to acquire businesses in Europe prior to 1992 and to acquire companies in Asia in the mid-1990s reflected a bandwagon effect with firms developing strategies to legitimise their investments after the decision has been made (McDougall, et al., 2004). Research might also give attention to a broader range of entry modes beyond exporting, licensing and FDI. Strategic alliances with local or other foreign firms may involve no transfer of funds. Alliances are another entry mode option which deliver similar strategic advantages to joint ventures but have received little attention in the literature beyond those firms whose home country is either…
Aspelund, a., and O. Moen 2001. "A Generation Perspective on Small Firms Internationalization -- From Traditional Exporters and Flexible Specialists to Born Globals," in Advances in International Marketing: Reassessing the Internationalization of the Firm, Vol. 11. Eds C.N. Axinn and P. Matthyssens. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, JAI Press, 197-226.
Bell, J., Crick, D. And Young, S. 2004. Small Firm Internationalization and Business Strategy: An Exploratory Study of Knowledge-Intensive and Traditional Manufacturing Firms in the UK. International Small Business Journal. 22(1):23-56.
Cavusgil, S. Tamer, Knight, Gary and Riesenberger, John R. 2008. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0137128339. Chapter 3.
Christensen, P.R. 1997. "The Small and Medium Sized Exporters' Squeeze: Empirical Evidence and Model Reflections," Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 3, 49-65.
New Technology/Changes in Warfare from End of French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars to American Civil War eginning
Warfare Change in Technology
In France, reforms began after the great Seven-Year-long war. The war ended in French calamity in1763. Evidently, it was important to have reforms to field soldiers that could fight for French interests and honor. The government suggested that light infantry should be increased. This later brought about initiatives for conventional infantry training in techniques for light infantry. This training created soldiers that could fight both in open and close order. The multiple gun calibers used by the artillery unit were taken away; and they were left with only four varieties. There were new guns, which were more portable and lighter than the earlier ones. The new guns featured standardized segments and enclosed rounds. Lidell-Hart stated that according to Jean du Teil, "light mobile guns for use in the field when used…
Gibson. "Napoleon and the Grande Armee: Military Innovations Leading to a Revolution in 19th Century Military Affairs." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/organization/c_rma.html .
History.com. "Civil War Technology." 2010. Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/civil-war-technology .
Scholastic. "Strategy and Tactics, Military." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/strategy-and-tactics-military .
Zapotoczny, Walter. "The Impact of the Industrial Revolution On Warfare." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.wzaponline.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Inductrialrevolution.292125935.pdf.
Frankfurter landed on the Harvard law faculty, thanks to a financial contribution to Harvard by Felix Warburg and Paul Warburg..." (Viereck, 1932; as cited by Mullins, 1984)
In the "Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of Corporate and anking Influence" as cited by The World Newsstand publication is that chart one "...reveals the linear connection between the Rothschilds and the ank of England, and the London banking houses which ultimately control the Federal Reserve anks through their stockholdings of bank stock and their subsidiary firms in New York. The two principal Rothschild representatives in New York, J.P. Morgan Co., and Kuhn, Loeb & Co. were the firms which set up the Jekyll Island Conference at which the Federal Reserve Act was drafted, who directed the subsequent successful campaign to have the plan enacted into law by Congress, and who purchased the controlling amounts of stock in the Federal Reserve ank of…
French, Douglas E. (1994) Separating Money and the State, Part I: Eighty Years of Destruction" October 1994. Online available at http://www.fff.org/freedom/1094e.asp .
Mullins, Eustace (1982) Historical Beginnings...The Federal Reserve "The London Connection." The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 1982. Online available at http://www.apfn.org/apfn/reserve.htm.
Nathaniel Wright Stephenson (1930) Nelson W. Aldrich, A Leader in American Politics, Scribners, N.Y. 1930.
Charles A. Lindbergh, Sr. (1913) Banking, Currency and the Money Trust, 1913, p. 131
Intelligence in War: Iraq, WMDS, and the Rise of the Policymakers
In 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell testified before the UN Security Council that Iraq had mobile weapons labs and was in possession of uranium, which was being used in the country's WMD program. His testimony was based on faulty U.S. and British Intelligence: the invasion of Iraq that followed found no evidence of such labs or of such a program. Joe Wilson, husband of CIA operations officer Valerie Plame and former U.S. Ambassador to Gabon penned an op-ed for The New York Times entitled "What I Didn't Find in Africa" -- a piece that described how neither he nor Ambassador Owens-Kirkpatrick had uncovered any evidence of Niger uranium sales to Iraq.[footnoteRef:1] Both Owens-Kirkpatrick and Wilson, moreover, had submitted briefings to the CIA to this point. Nonetheless, the CIA along with British intelligence stood by as the narrative…
Terrorist Attacks on New York City
Consumer ehavior and Risk
Terrorism and Consumerism in the Melting Pot
How has September 11 Impacted Americans
Economic Impact of terrorism
Outlook for the New York Economy
Examination of the Effects on usiness
Regaining Consumer Confidence
Recommendations for Further Studies
Survey of Consumer Patterns After The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Towers
Survey Results presented Graphically
Store Owner Interviews
The Impact of the Terrorist Attacks on New York City: One Year Later Chapter 1
The attacks on the World Trade Towers on September 11, 2001 threatened the American People's sense of security in a way that had not been felt since the attack on Pearl Harbor. To say that the attacks changed the lives of many people would be an understatement. The attacks literally brought the country to a halt for nearly three days. It can…
American Bankers Association. 2001. "Post Sept. 11 Survey Shows Nation's Bankers Are Optimistic." ABA Press Release, December 3, 2001.
Atkinson, J.W. 1957. Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review,
Barone, Ronald; M. Rigby, Peter;Schwartz, Bruce; Simonson; Arthur F; Chew; William H;
Eiseman, Barbara A, and Shipman, Todd A. 2002. Consequences of Sept. 11 Attacks Put
Pay equality has for the longest time been one of the most hotly debated topics in the corporate world. When the Equal Pay bill became law in 1963, women were averagely earning just 58.9% of what men were averagely being paid, according to the congressional committee that tabled the bill. In 2011, this percentage had increased to about 77% of what men were averagely being paid for full-time work. These statistics show that there is a somewhat entrenched mentality of paying women lower wages for a job that men would be paid higher for, despite the fact that many firms are claiming to have put in place measures to bring about gender equality in their workplaces (Dontigney, n.d.). This paper examines the issue underlying the equal pay between men and women.
Some human resource managers have argued that the difference in pay between women and men…
Andrews, K. (2015, July 14). Why the gender pay gap is a myth. Retrieved from The Spectator: http://blogs.new.spectator.co.uk/2015/07/the-gender-pay-gap-is-a-myth/
Babcock, L., & Laschever, S. (2003). Women don't ask Negotiation and the gender divide. Princeton: Princeton University.
Blau, F., & Kahn, L. (2007). The Gender Pay Gap. Academy of Management Perspectives, 7-23.
Bluestone, B., Murphy, W. M., Stevenson, M (1973). Low wages and the working poor. Policy papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations 22. Ann Arbor: Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations.
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…
Action in America. (2012). Drug war cost clock updated 2011. Retrieved on February 10, 2010
from http://actionamerica.org/drugs/wodclock.shtml .
Appel, D. (2004). Why can immorality be legislated more easily than morality in America
Free Leadership Thoughts. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from http://authenticleadershipinc.com/free.html
oys could crack jokes and be the class clowns, but girls would look strange if they did this (Wilson).
Comediennes had to strive harder than their male counterparts to do their job well (Wilson 2007). The audience was not sure comediennes could be funny. Comedians were uncomfortable with women cracking jokes and controlling the conversation. Doing so belonged only to men. Women and girls were supposed to be quiet and well-behaved, according to a magazine about feminism and pop culture. Many people still felt threatened by funny women as women were socialized to play nice, not to use comedy as a form of power. Simply speaking up was already considered subversive if women did so. Funny women made great contributions for feminism, according to advocates. Comedy possessed a subversive nature, they said. It was and still is a powerful way of saying what they wanted to say. It also made…
Purdy, Elizabeth. Carol Burnett. St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture: Gale Group, 2002. Retrieved on February 11, 2009 at http://www.gIepc/is_2419200154?tag=content;col1
Wilson, Emily. Are Men Threatened by Funny Women? AlterNet: Independent Media
Institute, 2007. Retrieved on February 11, 2009 at http://www.alternet.org/story/61102?comments=view&cID=7243062PID=724251
Young, Susan. PBS Finds Carol Burnett to be a "Woman of Character" Oakland Tribune:
Physical vulnerabilities, such as users who leave their systems running while still logged in can also create security concerns, even in the case of a secure system. hile systems should have automatic log-outs after a specific period of time, it is impossible for a system to be totally secure if it is being used by an employee who does not follow proper security protocols.
Question 4: Identify five (5) important documentation types necessary for the assessment and explain why they are important.
Network-based testing tests "components of application vulnerability assessment, host vulnerability assessment, and security best practices" ("Security assessment questionnaire," CMU, 2011). It is used to "assess the ease with which any outsider could exploit publicly available information or social engineering to gain unauthorized access" from the internet or intranet due to weak encryption, authentication, and other vulnerabilities ("Security assessment questionnaire," CMU, 2011).
Host-based assessment evaluates the "the health and…
Brandt, Andrew. "How to stop operating system attacks." 2009. PC World. [1 Nov 2011]
"Security assessment questionnaire." Carnegie Mellon University. [1 Nov 2011]
Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://www.cmu.edu/iso/service/sec-assess/Assessment%20Questionnaire.doc
Causes crime & process change): Choose country (*Iraq Afghanistan) crime (*Terrorism) relevant country. Obtain statistics crime show crime trends a period 8-9 years (e.g. 1995-2009). Then explain, criminological theories (*Conflict Theory Lableling Theory), crime relevant country (context), occurred place (causal factors), increased decreased years (change).
There has been much controversy in the last two decades regarding the issue of terrorism in Afghanistan, given that numerous countries have changed their international policies as a result of acknowledging the terrorist threat in the Middle East. ith the Taliban political group holding power for several years before the September 11, 2001, events at the orld Trade Center in New York, terrorism has reached a whole new level. It is difficult to determine the exact factors that fueled the terrorism movement in the country, with some of the most influential of them being the drug industry, the concept of jihad, and biased interpretation of…
Brecher, Irving. "Terrorism, Freedom and Social Justice: the War in Afghanistan," International Journal 57.1 (2002)
Chesterman, Simon. "Tiptoeing Through Afghanistan: The Future of UN State-Building" International Peace Academy. 2002.
Donohue, Laura K. In the Name of National Security: U.S. Counterterrorist Measures, 1960-2000. 2001.
Dunne, Michele Durocher. Integrating democracy promotion into U.S. Middle East Policy. Democracy and the rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. no 50, October 2004.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, originally signed on August 27th, 1928, was an effort by a combination of nations to effectively eliminate war. More properly known as the Pact of Paris, the Pact denounced war as an instrument of national policy, and stated that conflicts should be resolved through pacific means only. The Pact was one of several attempts following World War I to ensure everlasting peace for all nations and was, in theory, a solid effort to entice nations to find peaceful solutions to problems. However, in practice, the Pact was no more than an empty promise to eliminate war.
This paper discusses the origins of the Kellogg-Briand Pact, and will discuss the reasons for its signing by those nations primarily responsible for its inception. Additionally, this paper will discuss the conflicts since the signing of the Pact, and will show how countries easily avoided repercussions for violating the Pact. Further, this…
Borchard, Edwin. "The Multilateral Pact -- Renunciation of War." Foreign Relations 1929, Vol II. Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1929, 243-245.
Committee on Foreign Relations. "Hearings Before the Committee of Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Seventieth Congress on the General Pact for the Renunciation of War Signed At Paris, August 27, 1928." Foreign Relations 1929, Vol. II. Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1929, 3-10.
Crozier, Andrew J. The Causes of the Second World War. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1997.
Davies, Nicolas J.S. "The Crime of War: From Nuremberg to Fallujah: A Review of Current International Law Regarding Wars of Aggression." Z. Magazine: Law and Order, 18.2 (2005): 205-207.
Andy Warhol and the irmingham Race Riot
Andy Warhol is considered one of the most important and influential artists of the Twentieth Century. His art focused not only on creating new modes and styles of artistic expression but they also functioned as insightful social critiques and commentary. To a large extent all of his artworks are an oblique and sometimes harshly direct unveiling of modern consciousness, society and the media. He was famous for using the techniques and styles of the media to expose the harsh realities of the society around him. However it is in the directly political works and images of society's violence and discrimination that he is at his most expressive and influential as an artist.
Andrew Warhola, was born August 6, 1928 in Pittsburg. He came from a deprived background and was eventually able to attend a commercial design course at Pittsburgh's Carnegie Institute of Technology.…
Andy Warhol (1928-1987) November 1, 2005. http://www.balloon-painting.de/ewarhol.htm
Andy Warhol. October 31, 2005. http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Metro/5252/warhol.htm
Lindsay T. Segregation Protests in Birmingham, Alabama. November 1, 2005 http://www.gfsnet.org/msweb/sixties/birmingham.htm
Birmingham -- 1963. October 31, 2005.
And farther west on the Great Plains were the Teton Sioux, among them the Oglalas, whose chief was Red Cloud, and among the Hunkpapas, was Sitting ull, who together with Crazy Horse of the Oglalas, would make history in 1876 at Little ig Horn (rown 10).
After years of broken promises, conflicts and massacres, came the Treaty of Fort Laramie, said to be the most important document in the history of Indian-white relations on the Great Plains (Marrin 94). The treaty basically set aside a Great Sioux Reservation on all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River up to and including the lack Hills, and barred all whites except government officials from the reservation and from a vast "unceded" territory lying between the lack Hills and ighorn Mountains (Marrin 94). Under the treaty, these lands belonged to the Lakota "forever" unless three-quarters of the tribes' men agreed to…
American History since 1865: Wounded Knee
1988. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Amerman, Stephen Kent.
2003. Let's get in and fight!" American Indian political activism in an urban public school system, 1973. The American Indian Quarterly. June 22. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web sit.
Court records also stick on, whether the charges are dropped or followed by a conviction. People of color or ethnic minorities, such as African-Americans and Hispanics, have come to accept that they cannot avoid acquiring a criminal record. The 1990 Washington DC-based sentencing project found that one in every four African-Americans aged 20 to 29 was in prison, in jail or on probation or parole. A research conducted by the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives had a comparable finding. In a decade, the figure decreased to one out of three or 76% of 18-year-old African-Americans in the urban areas who can expect arrest and imprisonment before age 36. The racial gap became evident at the approach of the millennium. In 1926, 79% of inmates in state and federal prisons were whites and only 21% were lacks. ut in 1999, African-Americans made up 55-60% of new admissions. Including Latino inmates,…
1. Bates, D. (2006). Policy Makers Working to Find a Solution for Increased Incarceration. Falls Church News Press. http://www.fcnp.com/432/parole.htm
2. Beck, A.R.. (2001). Jail Bloating: a Common but Unnecessary Cause of Jail Overcrowding. http://www.justiceconcepts.com/jail%20overcrowding.pdf
3. ISECUREtrac. (2004). Reducing Prison Overcrowding. ISECUREtrac Corporation. http://www.isecuretrac.com/sa_po.asp
4. Joel, D. (1989). Time to Deal with America's Prison Crisis. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.otg/Research/Criminalbg735.cfm
American History Between 1870 and 1920
The years between 1870 and 1920 had been the period of astonishing changes because of the political, social and military upheaval that occurred during the period. Typically, the United States had witnessed several changes that affected the American way of life during the period. For example, period of 1877 -1900 had witnessed the rise of the industrial revolution. The years between 1870 and 1920 were the period of momentous and dynamic changes in the American history because they set in motion the industrial and socio- economic development that shaped the country for several generations which include industrialization, labor strike, westward expansion, immigration, urbanization, and integration of millions of freed American Americans.
The objective of this paper is to explore the fundamental changes that occur between 1870 and 1920 and the impacts on the American life. The paper also explores different labor strikes and massacres…
It is essential to realize that strike had played a major role in the economic, social and political life of the United States during the period. In 1880s, workers in the United States fought equally with their peers in Europe. Unlike the strikes in Europe, the United States recorded the bloodiest fatalities in the American labor history. The outcome of the strikes had influenced the life of workers because during the process, workers had been able to win increase for wages, and improved working condition that led to the increase of workers standard of living.
The study explores the American history between 1870 and 1920 revealing that the period has witnessed a fundamental change in the American history. The period marked the time of American industrial revolution, rise of mechanized agriculture and economic boom. In this period, the United States also witnessed the influx of immigrants from different part of the world that the country had ever experienced. People from all over the world immigrated into the United States to search for the economic opportunities. Despite the significant economic and political benefits that the country has experienced during the period, the United States also recorded several bloody labor strikes leading to the loss of thousands of workers. For example Pullman strike led to the loss of life of many workers. However, the strikes had led to the fundamental changes in the American labor relations.
The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich
I chose Hitler as my subject for a variety of reasons, most of which will be discussed as I outline the most important parts of this book. Hitler, in history, has always stood out to me as somewhat of a mythical figure. A man who has left an indelible mark of evil in our time and in our minds. ut with all powers of both good and evil, these stories of men and of events have a tendency to grow in size and in truth over time. This is why I chose The "Hitler Myth" as my book. I wanted to understand the persona and power behind this man.
ased largely on the reports of government officials, party agencies, and political opponents, Ian Kershaw's book details the creation, growth, and decline of the "Hitler myth." As an author,…
Kershaw, Ian. The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama ruled correctly in awarding partial summary judgment in this case. The summary judgment was granted in accordance with Rule 56(c) (3), Ala. R. Civ. P. Under Rule 56(c)(3), "summary judgment is proper when there is no genuine issue of material fact and the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law."
"If the moving party makes a prima facie showing that no genuine issue of material fact exists, then the burden shifts to the nonmovant." Bass v. Southtrust Bank, 538 So. 2d 794,798 (Ala. 1989). This burden requires the nonmovant to show "substantial evidence" in support of his position. id at 798.
Porter fails to show substantial proof of exposure to HIV on which his claim of emotional distress is based. Lacking proof of actual HIV exposure the plaintiff cannot move ahead with a claim based…
Indirect Costs Imposed on the Future of Humanity
The days in which institutions could ethically overlook the negative externalities they inflict on society have long since vanished with the introduction of a scientific consensus on anthropogenic influences and the effects they have on the health of the planet. The principle-agent argument, such as what Milton Freedman and others have proposed, is not able address the exponentially growing complexities that arise when trying to steer humanity towards a path to a sustainable future.
Before embarking on a discussion of the state of corporate leadership in regards to their considerations of externalities, it is prudent to be clear about what the concept of externality actually entails. One definition of externality is as follows:
Externalities are indirect effects of consumption or production activity, that is, effects on agents other than the originator of such activity which do…
Browner, Carol. "Polluters Should Have to Pay." 01 March 2002. The New York Times. 21 February 2011 .
Dyer, G. Climate Wars. Scribe Publications, 2008.
Flaherty, P. "BP Oil Spill Commission Chief Counsel Blames BP ." 21 February 2011. Promoting Ethics in Public Life. 21 February 2011 .
Friedman, M. "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." 13 September 1970. The New York Times Magazine. 21 February 2011 .
Nineteenth Century Reform
The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/
Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.
Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842. http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.
Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.
U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.
Emma likes the type of pulp, romantic and sentimental fiction condemned by Nabokov, the 19th century version of Harlequin Romances. Emma is not an artist of prose like her creator, she is a consumer of written culture in a very literal as well as a metaphorical sense, just as she consumes all sorts of material goods in her futile quest for fulfillment, and dies by consuming poison at the end of the novel.
his is what makes Emma so fascinating as a character. She engages in the same project of interpretation and authorship as her reader, even if it is a failed project. "But what interests me most in Madame Bovary is the heroine's fondness for reading. She dies because she has attempted to make her life into a novel -- and it is the foolishness of that quest that Flaubert's clinical style mocks." (Jong, 1997) Emma essentially dies of…
The paradox of Flaubert's project of writing to satirize reading is clear, through Jong's interpretation of his most famous work. "A novelist mocking a heroine besotted by novels? Then this must be a writer mocking himself! And indeed, Flaubert memorably said that he had drawn Madame Bovary from life -- and after himself. 'I have dissected myself to the quick,' he wrote." (Jong, 1997) This acts as an important reminder that Flaubert did not merely carefully observe and record the mundane details of the world he saw around him, but also engaged in rigorous psychological self-scrutiny to produce a sense of realism within the pages of Bovary. Emma's interior life, however focused it may be centered on shallow objects and pursuits, is what makes her stand apart from the depicted heroines of pulp novels. Flaubert's prose is not merely descriptive and realistic. It also is psychologically full of nuance and more detailed than authors of sensationalist novels, whose heroines do not have a clear, discernable motivation for why they transgress sexual norms.
Although Jong's own fiction is often described as feminist, Jong points out that Emma's sense of discontent with her life is not merely connected to the fact that her feminine role as a housewife is frustrating. Emma does not seek a more useful life, Emma seeks "ecstasy and transcendence" that is in short supply in her rural French community. Jong's stress upon the spirituality of Emma's quest is an important reminder of the fact that Emma begins her education in a convent, and actually seems to show a superficial aptitude for the life of a nun. Emma later brings her fervor for gracious living to her life as a wife, then a mistress. Emma's inner life may seem to be centered around the pursuit of empty things, like beautiful home goods, dresses, and beautiful love affairs, but she is located squarely within a society that valorizes such objects and offers them as the only secular solution to ennui. "Emma's drama is the gap between illusion and reality, the distance between desire and its fulfillment." (Jong, 1997)
Jong says: "her search for ecstasy is ours," in short, Emma is a uniquely modern heroine, for we all seek transcendence, all of us who read, and life invariably falls short. This is the final paradox of Bovary -- a novel that critiques itself and a genre likely to be very dear to the heart of a reader is so successful, and still feels modern today. Although Jong's essay does not offer an extensive, deep interpretation of the entire novel, it acts as an important reminder of critical aspects of the work that may be overlooked, like the role of religion in the novel, and the importance of reading to Emma's interior life.