Anemia Essays (Examples)

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Medical Disorders

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45572513

Pernicious Anemia

Many people hate to go to the doctor's office -- especially when they know that they will be receiving an injection. However, I, along with millions of people the world over, consider ourselves very lucky to do just that, each and every month of our lives. You see, for people like me with a disorder known as "pernicious anemia," the doctor and her needle are the important link between a healthy life and a life of absolute misery. This is because, unlike classic anemia, the common form of the blood disorder that usually results in little more than fatigue, pernicious anemia can result in catastrophic changes in the body, chief among them severe neurological impairment that, in its severe form, can result in absolute madness. For those of us who suffer from this disease caused by an inherited deficiency, or caused from some disruption or disorder in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Intelihealth. "Pernicious Anemia." Web site. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004

Medline Plus. "Pernicious Anemia." Medline Plus Medical Enclyclopedia. 2003 Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004
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Hydroxyurea Segal J B Et Al 2008 Hydroxyurea

Words: 990 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99155433


Segal, J.B., et al., (2008), Hydroxyurea for the Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease,

Baltimore, MD: AHRQ

Variables/Key Concepts

To determine efficacy, effectiveness, harms, and barriers of the use of hydroxyurea treatment of sickle cell disease for determining solutions and further research need.


Research studies based on variables.

Conducted by experts in sickle cell disease management, clinical trial methodology, systematic review, epidemiological studies, and ethics and adherence research.

Instruments/Data Collection

Instruments were quality assessment, data extraction, and evidence grading. Literature inclusion tailored toward research questions. Studies on children and adults evaluated separately. Included randomized trials, non-randomized trials, cohort studies with control groups, and pre/post studies. Evaluations of data was based on variable-based research questions.


Hydroxyurea lowered the rate of hospitizations among children with sickle cell disease and raised HbF cell percentages.


Limited evidence for toxicity, barriers, and guide dosing. Insufficient evidence for efficacy and safety.


Even…… [Read More]

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Nutrition Plan

Words: 485 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36989448

Diet Plan (Anemia)


The following iron rich diet plan is designed to help my 18-year-old sister address her iron deficiency anemia. Health needs include a more balanced diet and healthier eating habits with more consistency. This includes 18 milligrams of iron per day (based on age, condition and gender). This nutritional recommendation will decrease anemia effects such as general fatigue and body chills.

General Guidelines

Three meals (with 2-3 snacks) per day are recommended for a balanced diet. This includes the appropriate intake of iron and other basic nutrients. Limits should be placed on white sugar, soda and sweets; they should be consumed in moderation or eliminated from her diet due to their low nutritional value. Iron rich foods are recommended -- lean poultry and fish are more easily absorbed sources of iron and foods high in Vitamin C aid in absorption. Choices include citrus juice and fruits,…… [Read More]


Pynaert, Delanghe, Temmerman, & De, H. (2007). Iron Intake in Relation to Diet and Iron Status of Young Adult Women. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 51(2), 172-181. doi:10.1159/000103278
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Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn HDNB

Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78769784

Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) is also called erythroblastosis fetalis. This condition occurs when there is an incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and baby. "Hemolytic" means breaking down of red blood cells; "erythroblastosis" refers to making of immature red blood cells; "fetalis" refers to fetus (alker et al. 1957).

HDN most frequently occurs when an Rh negative mother has a baby with an Rh positive father. hen the baby's Rh factor is positive, like the father's, problems can develop if the baby's red blood cells cross to the Rh negative mother (Issit & Anstee 1998). This usually happens at delivery when the placenta detaches. However, it may also happen anytime blood cells of the two circulations mix, such as during a miscarriage or abortion, with a fall, or during an invasive prenatal testing procedure (i.e., an amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling).

The mother's immune system sees…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Frigoletto, F., et al. "Ultrasonographic fetal surveillance in the management of the isoimmunized pregnancy." New England Journal of Medicine 315-1986: 430-32.

Issit, P. & Anstee, D. Applied Blood Group Serology, 4th Edition. Durham, NC: Montgomery

Scientific Publications, 1998.

Judd, W., et al. "Prenatal and perinatal immunohematology: recommendations for serologic management of the fetus, newborn infant, and obstetric patient." Transfusion 30, 1990: 175-83.
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Syncope Its Most Important Causes

Words: 2158 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16660379

Syncope -- Cardiovascular and Anemia

Syncope, or fainting, can be caused by a number of different things. Some of the most common problems with fainting come from a sudden change in position and the corresponding drop in blood pressure that can come with that. Additionally, other causes for syncope are anemia and cardiovascular problems. Syncope that comes from cardiovascular issues can be among the most serious, since heart-related problems can often lead to significant health problems and even death. In order to fully address syncope issues that come from cardiovascular problems or anemia, one must understand how these issues should be treated and what kinds of treatment plans work the best for each individual patient.

Syncope -- Cardiovascular and Anemia


The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of evidence-based management of a common problem encountered in primary care. The problem addressed here will be syncope (fainting) as…… [Read More]


Dicpinigaitis, P.V., Lim, L., & Farmakidis, C. (2014). Cough syncope. Respiratory Medicine, 108(2): 244-251.

Freeman, R. (2011). Chapter 20: Syncope. In Longo, Dan L.; Kasper, D.L., Jameson, J.L., Fauci, A.S., Hauser, S.L., & Loscalzo, J. Harrison's principles of internal medicine (Textbook) (18th ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Gauer, R.L. (2011). Evaluation of syncope. American Family Physician, 84(6): 640-650.

Gaynor, D., & Egan, J. (2011). Vasovagal syncope (the common faint): What clinicians need to know. The Irish Psychologist, 37(7): 176-179.
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Sickle Gene Therapies for Sickle

Words: 1128 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95693355

Implications for ongoing research into genetic therapies and side effects/later developments are discussed at length.

Yannaki, E. & Stamatoyannopoulos, G. (2010). Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization strategies for gene therapy of beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1202: 59-63.

Though the clinical trial these two researchers are involved in does not yet have results that are ready for publication, the review of the risks they provide regarding the use of stem cell mobilization with G-CSF in patients with sickle cell is highly useful information. So, too, is the practice of pre-treating patients with hydroxyurea before administering the stem cell treatment, which the authors describe in detail and which forms the basis of the related clinical trial. Potential reduction of risks appears to be quite promising, though final results from the clinical trial and other supporting evidence will of course be required.

Ye, L.,…… [Read More]

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Selecting the Perfect Baby

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46943143

Ethics of Embryo Design

Selecting the Perfect Baby

With all the recent advances in science and technology, there are new options for couples looking to get pregnant. This includes not only first time couples who have had trouble getting pregnant, but also couple looking to design their perfect baby using science to pick out the most desired genetic markers. This is the choice given to the Shannons, who are looking to have certain genetic markers in their next child to avoid a diagnosis of fanconi anemia that their older child has, as well as to provide a potential future match for a bone marrow donor for their current daughter, Sally.

Thus, the Shannons are looking into the pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) procedure. According to the research, this procedure is "a technique that enables people with a specific inherited condition in their family to avoid passing it on to their children.…… [Read More]


American Pregnancy Association. (2013). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: PGD. Infertility. Web.

Human Fertilization & Embryo Authority. (2014). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Treatment and Storage Options. Web.
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Patient Assessment and Analysis

Words: 825 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89222306

Patient Assessment


Diagnosis and Disease Processes

Using an appropriate patient assessment form (Sample Forms, 2013), D.M. has been found to have uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, uncontrolled hypertension, chronic anemia, and probable hypothyroidism (Sample Forms).

Diabetes Type 2

is most probably on a poorly controlled diet of high cholesterol and high simple sugars. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a metabolic disease wherein the body is not able to properly use ingested food because of insulin resistance. If more simple or refined sugars are consumed, the less the body is able to process them as nutrients. These tend to stay and float in the blood stream, un-used, and in this condition, they cause trouble in the different parts of the body. These include the end organs, such as the brain, the eyes, the kidneys, the heart, and even the feet. A poorly controlled diet and the lack…… [Read More]


Glasgow, R.E., et al. (2005). Development and validation of the patient assessment of chronic illness care. Vol. 43 # 5, Medical Care: PuMed. Retrieved on October 15,

2014 from 

Sample Forms (2013). Patient assessment form. Sample Retrieved on October 15, 2014 from
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Student Degree Health Adminstration I Worked a

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50970112

student, degree Health Adminstration. I worked a health care staffing supervisor 10 years. personal experience incorporated paper fact husband sickle cell anemia I cared 20 years.

I have always been drawn to helping people, both in my life and in my career pursuits. In planning the next phase of my life, I wanted to follow a path which would allow me to better the lives of others while also learning new things every day. I have come to realize that nursing is the profession that suits me best because of my interests, my experience, and my goals.

A degree in nursing would be the second degree that I have pursued. My first degree was in Health Administration. I chose to study that field because I knew that I wanted to work in a health care setting, where my actions would be at least indirectly responsible for aiding in the well-being…… [Read More]

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Cuban Case Study Mrs Demetilla Hernandez a

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52134499

CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez a 63-year- Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic weakness, lethargy, fatigue experienced 2 months. A week ago, cooking dinner daughter, Mariana's house, momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor.


As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?

Latino families are often multigenerational in their composition. As the grandmother, Mrs. Hernandez assumes control over the family meals. This is a very important part of her identity. ather than communicating directly, food is love and emotions and feelings are communicated through food.

Q2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez

in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?

People who have grown up in poor, food-insecure settings often develop patterns of eating high-calorie, high-carbohydrate comfort foods and many Latino…… [Read More]


Ortiz, B. (et al. 2007). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Hispanics in the United States. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41(6):994-1004.

Dura-Vila, Gloria, and Matthew Hodes. (2011). Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among

Spanish nationals and Hispanic-American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. Retrieved:
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Operation Identify the Role and

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22779969

For a fifty-seven-year-old man with a fairly unremarkable past medical history, surgery was recommended. Also, performing the surgery could have a positive impact upon his diverticulosis, urinary hesitation, Gerd, BPH (benign prostrate hyperplasia, or enlarged prostate) and mild anemia. A surgery to correct the inguinal hernia had been successfully performed in 1998 without incident, as did the patient's other surgeries, including his varicose vein stripping done in 1987 and eye surgery in 1995.

During an inguinal hernia repair procedure, first, the surgeon makes an incision and separates the muscle and tissues to expose the hernia sac. The sac is cut open and the contents are replaced into the abdomen, the neck of the hernia sac is tied, and the muscles and tissues are sutured. During a laparoscopic procedure the procedure is performed through tiny incisions, using an instrument with a camera attached and a video monitor to guide the repair.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Culvert, Lee L. (2004). "Inguinal Hernia Repair." Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery.

General Anesthesia Information." (2007). Surgery. Retrieved 15 Sept 2007 at

Goverman, Jeremy (23 Jan 2006). "Hernia" Medline Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 15 Sept 2007 at

R'os, J. Rodr'guez, P. Munitiz, D. Alcaraz, P. Perez, Flores. (Sept 2001)."Parrilla using a prosthesis." Hernia. 5(3): 1265-4906 (Print) 1248-9204 (Online).
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Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn

Words: 2311 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51187925

History of Pediatric Hemolytic Monitoring

Retrospect to the career of physician, Dr. James A. olff I and his early progress in treatment of Rh hemolytic disease as described in Pochedly (1984), looks at the development of interest in hematology in European field hospitals during orld ar II. After the war period, the transformation of olff's research in this area was advanced by research conducted during a pediatric residency at the Boston Children's Hospital, between 1945 and 1947. During his tenure at Children's he was engaged with Dr. Louis Diamond in his seminal investigation on treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion.

Collaborative efforts with Drs. Diamond and Farber focused on preliminary clinical trials of aminopterin for the treatment of acute leukemia, of which olff was in observation. Instrumental to the development of the concept of treating erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion; collaborative in the area of pathophysiology of disease where…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Eisa, A. And Al-Hajeri, M. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in Kuwaiti Arab children. Pediatric Nephrology 16.12 (2001): 1093-1098.

Blouin, P. et al. Syndrome d'Evans: etude retrospective de la societe d'hematologie et d'immunologie pediatrique (36 cas). Archives De Pediatrie: Organe Officiel De La Societe Francaise De Pediatrie 12.11 (2005): 1600-1607.

Feldman, S.D. And Tauber, A.I. Sickle Cell Anemia: Reexamining the First "Molecular Disease." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71.4 (1997) 623-650

Friedmann, A.M. et al. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a child due to warm-reactive immunoglobulin M. antibody. Journal Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: Official Journal Of The American Society Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 20.5 (1998): 502-505.
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Case Study Identification and Rationale of Disease

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63590215

Alterations of Hematology and Cardiovascular Systems

Sickle Cell Anemia

Ms. A is suffering from Sickle cell anemia. In this disease, the red blood cells appear in the shape of sickles or letter C. The normal red blood cells are disk-shaped. The disk-shape allows them to move smoothly in the blood vessels. Normal red blood cells have hemoglobin. The hemoglobin is responsible the red color. It helps in the transportation of oxygen. Sickle cells, on the other hand, have abnormally low hemoglobin, which results in the C-shape. This form is sticky and stiff and so cannot move easily through the blood vessels. Ms. A's condition was a case of Menorrhagia as well as dysmenorrhea. The sickle cells lump together and block the flow of blood through the blood vessels leading to the organs and the limbs. Such blocked blood vessels may lead to pain, infections and even organ damage (Health 24,…… [Read More]


Health24. (2014, APRIL 30). The seven types of anaemia. Retrieved from

UoM. (n.d.). Sickle cell disease. Retrieved from University of maryland:
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Cultural Differences That Surface When

Words: 2655 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50518383

These, then, eventually die leaving the transfer of oxygen in your blood being absolutely limited and far below the point at which the flow of oxygen needs to be in a human body. The flow of blood and transfer of oxygen eventually slows down tremendously and can cause terrible pain as well as make the immune system to be vulnerable to a variety of different diseases. There are many medical procedures that can allow the individual to find a relief (Lozoff et al., 2003).

In our case study, we will mainly highlight how the mother's approach was tentative and skeptical and how the four points that have been mentioned initially (communication, social organization, spatial dynamics and locus of control) are impacted through her approach. The first important thing to note about the attitude of the mother is that she does seem very forthcoming to find out as much as she…… [Read More]


Black R. (2003) Micronutrient deficiency -- an underlying cause of morbidity and mortality. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 81:79.

Dr Izumi, S., (2008) Japanese Patients' Descriptions of 'The Good Nurse', accessed on February 28, 2009.

Kino*****a, J., & Palevsky, N. (1992) Gateway to Japan (Rev. ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha International.

Lozoff B, De Andraca I, Castillo M, Smith JB, Walter T, Pino P. (2003) Behavioral and developmental effects of preventing iron-deficiency anemia in healthy full-term infants. Pediatrics.112:846-854.
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Kidneys and How They Function

Words: 2771 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33287328

However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."

In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus ( explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients

With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at

Harvard Medical School. (2006). Higher Doses of Anemia Drug for Chronic Kidney Disease

Does Not Improve Quality of Life and Increases Risk for Cardiovascular Events. Retrieved February 9, 2008, at
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Ulcerative Colitis Initial Presentation the Patient Is

Words: 2339 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12190706

Ulcerative Colitis

Initial presentation

The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.

Historical information

The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.

Presenting Symptoms

He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…… [Read More]


Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.

Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.

Libbey Eurotext.
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Menses and the Appearance of Iron Deficiency

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42656211

normal hemoglobin and below normal hematocrit percentages. Her erythrocyte count is also below the normal levels. For ten to twelve years (or for the majority of her life as a menstruating woman) she has suffered from menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal. Because of the heavy bleeding and cramps experienced during menses, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit and microcytic/hypochromic cells in her BC, it is likely that Ms. A has iron-deficiency anemia. This paper will discuss the circumstances and preliminary workup regarding Ms. A's anemic condition explain why this diagnosis is the most likely.

Ms. A is an active, young, 26-year-old woman, who was treated for light headedness, loss of energy, low blood pressure, and elevated heart rate after feeling dizzy at her golf outing. She noted that during her menses (which it is assumed she was experiencing at the time), she typically suffered from heavy bleeding and cramps,…… [Read More]


Brady, P. (2007). Iron deficiency anemia: a call for. Southern Medical Journal,

100(10): 966-967.

McDonald, C., McDonald, S. (1998). A woman's guide to self-care. Natural Health, 1:
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Beta Thalassemia

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45245449

Beta Thallasemia

Beta Thalassemia

Beta thalassemia is the severer of the two main types of thalassemia -- an inherited blood disease resulting from defective production of hemoglobin. About 100,000 people are born worldwide every year with beta thalassemia which occurs most frequently in people of Italian, Greek, Middle Eastern, Southern Asian and African Ancestry. (Learning about...," 2004) People with beta thalassemia usually develop anemia, resulting in inadequate delivery of oxygen to the body's tissues and it proves fatal in most cases, if left untreated. In this paper we shall discuss the disease develops; the types of beta thalassemia, how it is inherited, its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

How Beta Thalassemia develops?

Hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen in the blood, is made up of four chains of amino acids: two identical alpha chains and two identical beta chains. Thalassemia is the result of an imbalance in the production of beta…… [Read More]


Beta Thellasemia." (2001) Child Health A-Z. Website of Children's Hospital, Boston Updated on 04/03/2004. Retrieved on April 4, 2003 at

Beta Thellasemia." (2004) Retrieved on April 4, 2003 at

Learning About Thalassemia." (2004) National human Genome research institute. Retrieved on April 4, 2003 at

Nathan, David G. And Nisbet-Brown, Eric. (2003). "Thalassemia." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
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Genomic Medicine

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65995336

Human Genome Project

Launched in 1990 as a collaborative initiative between the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Human Genome Project completed its goal ahead of time despite the enormous challenges that were involved (Greene, 2006). The goals of the Human Genome Project included developing comprehensive genetic and physical maps of the human genome in order to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the three billion base pairs that make up the human DNA and to identify the estimated 100,000 genes that are contained within the human genome (Greene, 2006). To determine the importance and implications of the HGP, this paper reviews the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and salient findings concerning this initiative in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion


How will research in the Human Genome Project further medical research? What disorders are most likely to benefit from the…… [Read More]


Burnes, D.P. & Antle, B.J. (2008, August). Mothers raising children with sickle cell disease at the intersection of race, gender, and illness stigma. Health and Social Work, 33(3), 211-

Greene, L.A. (2006, January). Human Genome Project information. Environmental Health

Perspectives, 109(1), 19.

Human Genome Project. (2015). National Portfolio Online Reporting Tools. Retrieved from
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Johnson & Johnson's Marketing Mix

Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79906587

Specifically focused on products for each phase of a persons' life, this business segment is the most mainstream in terms of promotional strategies. Skin Care, OTC and Nutritionals have successfully given JNJ a permanent marketing strategy for selling to women in the 25-34 and 25-45 segments, two of the fastest growing demographic markets for these products.

Product Strategy

The biggest challenge for JNJ is the ability to quickly develop and launch products across all of their business units. This is the most challenging task internally for the entire company to coordinate on, specifically in the area of pharmaceuticals where Federal Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and the need for compliance are very high.

The costs of producing a new drug can be well over $800M according to AM esearch (2004). An analysis of each phase of the development of a new drug is shown in the following graphic from PhMA (2005).…… [Read More]


AMR Research (2006) - Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences Industry Overview. AMR Research Alert. Monday June 5, 2006. Hussain Moorai and Roddy Martin.

Credit Suisse (2006) - Johnson and Johnson Research Brief. January 24, 2007.New York, NY.

Life Science Analytics (2007) - Life Science Analytics Johnson & Johnson Pipeline Report. January 3, 2007. Boston, MA

PhRMA (2005) - Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) Conference Proceedings. Accessed from the Internet on February 10, 2007 at
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Marketing Research in Practical Terms There Is

Words: 2517 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67296514

Marketing esearch

In practical terms, there is very little difference between Gatorade and PowerAde. Both are forms of dietary supplements which often pose an unknown source of danger for individuals growing up to be sportsmen. All the growing up sportsmen should be educated on the subject as they are likely to face troubles in their life later, otherwise.

Many products that are marketed provide good returns for the marketing organization, but little benefits for the user.

The products are sports drinks and they are promoted with the images of sportsmen and Michael Jordan appeared on Gatorade bottles, but he did not get the benefit of having his own flavor. Now there is a new favorite of the sports world, and he is LeBron James, and his image will be the advertising for PowerAde's Flava 23. When the flavor was selected, James was a part of the process. The process took…… [Read More]


Anemia and Blood Boosting. Sports Science Exchange. Vol: 14; No: 2; 1998. Retrieved from Accessed 21 September, 2005

Davis, Jeanie, Lerche. Sports Drinks Go Way beyond Gatorade. 19 April, 2002. Retrieved from Accessed 21 September, 2005

Dietary Supplements. Retrieved from Accessed 22 September, 2005

Gibala, Martin. J. The Role of Protein in Promoting Recovery from Exercise. Retrieved from Accessed 21 September, 2005
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Improving the Quality of Medical

Words: 4818 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29120759

This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)

The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.

esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]


Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1

Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.

Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO

Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
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Postoperative Vision Loss Elements of

Words: 8700 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21606334

More times than not, a patient will argue that he did not understand what the physician stated to him; even amidst documented proof the medical professional and the patient did engage in an informed conversation. "The fact that a meeting took place does not necessarily mean that there was a meeting of the minds" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 5). This issue leads some health care providers to assert that informed consent forms possess little value, particularly when a legal battle ensues and the professional cannot prove the patient did, in fact, understand the informed consent process.

Currently, lawyers routinely challenge informed consent forms in courtrooms throughout the United States (U.S.). "The model consent forms incorporate substantial details of anesthesia techniques, risks and other elements of 'informed consent', so that a strong presumption is established on its face" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 7). During the informed consent process, to help inoculate…… [Read More]


Anaesth, B.J. (2009). Perioperative visual loss: What do we know, what can we do? Department

of Anesthesia and Critical Care. University of Chicago. Retrieved January 25, 2010 from

Booth, B. (2008). Informed consent at the heart of New York lawsuit. Retrieved January 26,

2010 from
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Hellp Syndrome Records Show That

Words: 1965 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49995775

The dexamethasone group showed meaningful improvements in several variables. After 48 hours, the women who received dexamethasone has a significantly reduced mean arterial pressure at 115 mm Hg v 94 m Hg, P < 0.05 and mean asparatate aminotransferase level at 100 IU/1 v 50 IU/1; P < 0.05. Their urine output also improved at 60 ml/h v 40 ml/h; P < 0.05 and a mean platelet count at 115-000 v 70 000; P < 0.05. The researchers concluded that their findings supported a high dose corticosteroid treatment of women with the HELLP syndrome. Although three control patients showed infectious complications, there were no statistically significant differences in morbidity.

As part of nursing and medical management, dexamethasone is often given to women with this condition and are between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation at risk of pre-term delivery to accelerate the maturation of fetal lungs (Matchaba and Moodley 2005). While…… [Read More]


Campbell, S. (2005). Preeclampsia Sufferers at Great Risk of HELLP Syndrome During Pregnancy. The North Scott Press.

Chen, P., reviewer (2004). HELLP Syndrome. University of Maryland Medical Center.

2004). HELLP Syndrome. Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Department of Health and Human Sciences.

Clenney, TL. And Vierra AJ. (2004). Costicosteroids for HELLP Syndrome, a clinical review, 329:270-272 (31 July), doi: 10.1136/bmj.329.7460.270. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
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Race Genetics

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58844915

ace and Genetics

On the surface, race seems like a legitimate way of categorizing human beings. Physical characteristics are passed down from parent to child, thereby recreating racial markers. However, the concept of race is generally rooted in ignorance. ace is an ephemeral construction, and genetic science is proving this to be so. If race were real, then there would be ways of tracing different races back to a few ancestors: such as an ancestral Polynesian, ancestral African, and ancestral Jew. As it stands, though, all human beings trace ancestry to the same basic gene pool from humanoid ancestors in Africa. This one fact alone is sufficient to debunk the concept that race "exists," or is a form of biological determinism. There are other reasons to believe that race is not as real as was once thought. ace is not real, and the reasons are rooted in genetic science, anthropology,…… [Read More]


Adelman, L. (2003). Race and gene studies: what differences make a difference? Retrieved online: 

Entine, J. (2012). Jews Are a 'Race,' Genes Reveal. The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved online:
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Premarital Screening Program in Saudi Arabia

Words: 5506 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71851874

Edit Research Premarital Screening

Evaluating Premarital Screening Knowledge in Saudi Students

The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of premarital screening (PMS) in Saudi Arabia. The use of PMS as a means to identify and approach both and infectious and hereditary disease was investigated in order to determine the impact of this practical approach.

A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jazan University from January to June 2014 to perform this research. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 Jazan University Students, both males and females. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts. The first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.


The vast majority of the participants (922; 94%) believed that a PMS program was a preventive measure. More than two thirds of…… [Read More]

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Iron Deficiency

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9520990

Iron Deficiency

In our high technological and global economy, we Americans think of malnutrition as a thing of the past. It is almost unheard of for our children to go hungry with a McDonald's on every corner. But that is only in our world. his report is a review of the 2003 report written by Karen Olness in the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics called "Effects On Brain Development Leading o Cognitive Impairment: A Worldwide Epidemic." In keeping with the theme of nutrition and iron deficiency, this story points out that the world food shortages and other epidemic situations in developing nations has a direct bearing on the brains of children. For the poor nations of the world things like malnutrition, genetic disease, infectious diseases like meningitis, parasites, and cerebral malaria, in utero drug and alcohol exposure, newborn asphyxia, low birth weight, head injuries, and endocrine disorders to name…… [Read More]

The author points out that iron deficiency has been attributed to behavior problems in children who suffered in infancy. These children are seen as problematic. They also have very high counts of anxiety or depression, social problems, and other attention issues. With these statistics, the author seems to be pointing out how crucial it is to help feed the mothers and children in third world nations. "More than 30% of pregnant women in developing countries have iron-deficiency anemia, and iron deficiency without anemia is even more widespread. If the central nervous system effects of iron deficiency in the developing infant lay the ground for later learning problems, there is a large population of children at risk." (Olness, 2003)

My thoughts & Do I agree/disagree

I feel, like the author, that these cognitive brain issues are preventable. Iron deficiency for example seems like a very simple problem to fix. Give these pregnant mothers and infants iron supplements. But that is easier said then done. The problem is -- how do we take the last Miss America up on her speech where she said that she would attempt to solve world hunger? Fine, when is she or any of us going to start? "It is reported that 38.5% of children in developing countries are underweight, and that 42% are stunted. The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) reports that 35% to 40% of children suffer from moderate malnutrition and that 10% of all children suffer a period of severe malnutrition during the crucial first 2 years of life." (Olness, 2003) I know I ate today and did not think once of a baby in Uganda not getting his share of the crop. I wonder if the last Miss America was more in line with
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Genetic Screening

Words: 2160 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55745991

Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.

Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alberts, Bruce. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell, 4th ed. New York: Garland Science.

Genetic Science Learning Center. 2004. Genetic Disorder Corner. University of Utah. 07 May 2004.

McCarrick, Pat Milmoe. 1993.Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening. Scope Note 22. National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Georgetown University, 1993. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (KIEJ), Reprinted September 1993, 17 p. (Last updated February 2002). 07 May 2004.

Miller, Kelly. 1999. Genetic Screening. Phil McClean, Professor, Ph.D. Colorado State University, PLSC 431/631 - Intermediate Genetics. 07 May 2004. The mundane by excellent cinematography and an effective cast.
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Incompatibility of Rh

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74686866

Rh incompatibility is a condition reported to occur during a woman's pregnancy when the woman's blood is Rh-negative and the baby's blood is Rh-positive. Rh-negative and Rh-positive are references to whether the individual's blood has Rh factor which is a protein reported to be on the individual's red blood cells. (National Heart, Lung and lood Institute, 2014, p. 1)

The problem with the mother with Rh-negative blood carrying a child with Rh-positive blood occurs when the baby's blood somehow crosses into the blood stream of the mother and this is reported to occur most often during delivery of the baby. The mother's body with Rh-negative blood will have a reaction to the blood of the baby as though the baby's blood were a foreign substance and the mother's body creates antibodies or proteins that fight against the blood of the Rh-positive baby. These antibodies are reported to be such that…… [Read More]


Rh Incompatibility: Erythroblastosis Fetalis (2014) Merck Manual. Retrieved from:

The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy (2013) The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Retrieved from: 

What is Rh Incompatibility? (2014) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Retrieved from:
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Using Antibiotics

Words: 1386 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98812868



Mechanism of Action

Penicillin G, when injected into the patient, will act against actively proliferating penicillin-sensitive strains of bacteria (, 2011). This does not include several strains of staphylococci producing penicillinase or bacteria that are quiescent. The mechanism of action is inhibition of cell-wall mucopeptide biosynthesis. Penicillin G. works best against staphylococci groups A, B, C, G, H, L, and M, pneumococci, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponemapallidum, and many others.

Clinical Uses

Penicillin is used to treat serious infections, such as septicemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, pericarditis, empyema, and meningitis (, 2011). Penicillin is also indicated in cases of anthrax, botulism, actinomycosis, diphtheria, listeria infections, erysipelothrix endocarditis, severe infections of the oropharynx, lower respiratory tract, and genitals. Penicillin is also used to treat gonorrhea, syphyilis, rat-bite fever, and Haverhill fever. Only penicillin-sensitive bacteria should be treated due to the risk of creating penicillin-resistant strains. Although treatment should begin immediately in…… [Read More]

References (2011). Penicillin G. Sodium Injection (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from (2013). Septra (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from (2014a). Gentamicin Sulfate (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from (2014b). Zithromax (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from
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Diagnosis of Possible Anorexic

Words: 1472 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50977080


The author of this report has been asked to review the results and history of a woman who has come for treatment. She is a woman with Irish descent and there are some fairly disturbing signs that can be seen through her medical history, her current results, what she is taking in terms of drugs and her list of diagnoses. Each of those factors, facts and diagnoses will be explored in terms of the implications, the likelihood of a problem and so forth. While anorexia would be a pretty bad thing for this patient to have, it does indeed seem to be the most pressing and likely thing going on with this patient.


Before getting to the primary and other diagnoses, there are a few things in the vitals and basic information that should be explored. First, the woman in question is a scant five feet tall and…… [Read More]


CDC. (2015). Adult BMI Calculator: English -- Assessing Your Weight -- Healthy Weight -- DNPAO -- CDC. Retrieved 20 October 2015, from

Kaye, W., Bulik, C., Thornton, L., Barbarich, N., & Masters, K. (2004). Comorbidity of Anxiety Disorders With Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa. American Journal Of Psychiatry, 161(12), 2215-2221.

Mayo. (2015). Hypothyroidism - Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 20 October 2015, from

WebMD. (2015). The Basics of Anemia. WebMD. Retrieved 20 October 2015, from
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New Ways to Treat Cancer

Words: 1980 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20394557

neoplasm: "abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

benign: noncancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

malignant: cancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

carcinoma: "Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs," ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

sarcoma: "A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy ("Anaplasia," 2016).

Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:

Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors

Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)

Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)

Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma ("Tumors…… [Read More]


About immunotherapy. (2016). Chemocare. Retrieved from:

Anaplasia. (2016). USC. Retrieved from:
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Applying the Nursing Process to

Words: 3260 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69113498

Therefore, a nurse must be fully aware of these sensitivities when providing care to a patient, especially when the patient is a member of cultural group from outside the U.S.

The third criteria is social organization. For example, most African-American families tend to be based on a matriarchal system with either the mother or another female member of the family serving as its leader. This matriarch may also serve as the source for advice on certain

family matters; of course, the patriarch of the family (i.e., the father figure) also plays a role in family decision-making. Thus, most African-American families are composed of a support network made up of mothers, fathers and other close relatives, something which often creates tension and dissent. In this respect, a nurse must be aware of this matriarchal system and its network in such a way as to gain the trust of family members when…… [Read More]


Duncan, Veronica. (2005). Towards achieving maat: communication patterns in african-american, european-american and interracial relationships. New York:


Giger, Joyce and Ruth Davidhizer. (2004). Transcultural nursing: assessment and intervention. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Glanze, Walter D. (2005). Mosby's nursing and allied health encyclopedia. 8th ed.
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Aviation Risks Pilot Hypoxia the

Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79901827

Histotoxic Hypoxia refers to hypoxia specifically caused by toxins in the blood that interfere with the ability of hemoglobin to absorb oxygen even in the presence of sufficient quantities and at normal atmospheric pressure (Jepperson, 2007; USDOT,

2003). In that regard, alcohol is the most likely toxin to affect pilots, but other poisonous substances like cyanide and certain narcotics and other medications (including some sold over-the-counter) can also cause histotoxic hypoxia. Finally, Stagnant Hypoxia refers to insufficient oxygen absorption caused by underlying circulatory problems that reduce blood flow, and therefore, the efficient transport of oxygen, even where the quality of air, atmospheric conditions, and oxygen absorption by hemoglobin are normal (Jepperson,

2007; USDOT, 2003).

Signs and Symptoms of Altitude-Induced Hypoxia:

One of the most dangerous aspects of all forms of hypoxia is that its onset is not noticed by the pilot. Another danger is that while hypoxia severely reduces physical…… [Read More]


Jepperson. (2007). Guided Flight Discovery: Private Pilot Englewood, CO: Jepperson.

Jepperson. (2006). Guided Flight Discovery: Instrument Commercial Englewood, CO:


Reinhart, R.O. (2008). Basic Flight Physiology New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Teaching on the Cognitive Learning

Words: 9169 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78651518

The kidneys of someone that has chronic renal failure are generally smaller than average kidneys, with some notable and important exceptions (ogers, 2004). Two of these exceptions would be polycystic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy (ogers, 2004). Another diagnostic tool that is used, that of the study of the serum creatinine levels, can not only diagnose chronic renal failure, but also help to distinguish it from acute renal failure, as the acute version would see a rapid and sudden spike in the serum creatinine levels over several days or several weeks, as opposed to a gradual rise that is seen over months or even over years (ogers, 2004).

Sometimes, the levels of serum creatinine have not been measured in the past, and therefore the patient is often first treated as having acute renal failure. Only when blood tests continue to show elevated serum creatinine levels and it is determined that…… [Read More]


Anderson, B.L. (2002). Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 590-610.

Arszyla, D.M. & Gastelum, K. (2001). Coursework Document: Theorist Presentation. Retrieved at

Boston College. (2003). The Roy Adaptation Model. Retrieved at

Coresh, J. & Greene, T. (2003). Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult U.S. population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. American Journal of Kidney Disease, 41, 1-12.
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Business Law Discuss the Doctrine

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35418091

A company cannot refuse to hire someone with sickle cell anemia (a disease that primarily affects persons of African ancestry), because the person might require costly health insurance, for so long as the person was strong enough to perform the job, discrimination would not be acceptable as it would affect persons disproportionately of one racial category.


Explain trade secret and how it could be protected legally and in day-to-day operations. Provide an example.

According to, an online legal dictionary, a trade secret is:

in] most states, a formula, pattern, physical device, idea, process, compilation of information or other information that 1) provides a business with a competitive advantage, and 2) is treated in a way that can reasonably be expected to prevent the public or competitors from learning about it, absent improper acquisition or theft" ("trade secret, 2007, Perhaps the most famous trade secret in business is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elias, Stephen. (1998)."Trade Secret Law: Overview." Nolo Press. Retrieved 8 Apr 2007 at: 

Estoppel." (2007). Retrieved 8 Apr 2007 at

Messiha, Dominic J. & Hillary R. Ross. (May 2006). "EEOC Revises Compliance

Manual to Target More 'Contemporary' Forms of Discrimination." ASAP: Littler Mendelson Time Sensitive Newsletter. Retrieved 8 Apr 2007 at
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Gastrorrhagia as Early as 1500

Words: 2265 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37200878

2003, p. 247).

The use of NSAID has been associated with increased risks of gastrointestinal bleeding in unselected patients, approximately five-fold for musculoskeletal pain and two fold for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with low-dose aspirin (Clinical Guideline 17: Dyspepsia 2004). Therefore, depending on the level of pain management required, a simple analgesic that can be used for pain management is paracetamol; this preparation does not cause bleeding of the stomach and it has been found to be highly effective in relieving mild to moderate pain; furthermore, it can be purchased without a prescription from chemists and supermarkets (Henderson & Wood 2000).

Discussion of Health Education Advice Required.

The U.K. Department of Health recommends the following educational advice and support for people suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding:

Patients and their relatives should be offered as much information as they want. GPs should ask what they would like to know, and give…… [Read More]


Barve, S., Hill, D., Marsano, L.L., Mcclain, C.J., & Mendez, C. (2003). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholic Liver Disease and Its Complications." Alcohol Research & Health 27(3):247.

Dyspepsia: Management of dyspepsia in adults in primary care. NICE Clinical Guideline 17. [Online]. Available:

Garcia, N., Jr., & Sanyal, a.J. (2001). "Portal hypertension." Clinics in Liver Disease, 5(2):509- 540.

Govoni, R., Mann, R.E., & Smart, R.G. (2003). "The Epidemiology of Alcoholic Liver Disease." Alcohol Research & Health 27(3):209.
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Impregnated Mosquito Bed Netting in

Words: 5949 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35956222

The race between new drugs and new resistances has not stopped since then.... And in 1986, WHO's expert panel concluded that a magic solution could not be relied upon, and that furthermore, malaria patterns were determined by a variety of socioeconomic as well as biological, climatic and geographic factors. " (Banfield, 1998. p. 35)

The article refers as well to the impact of malaria on the people of Kenya "... where people in the Bomet district were dying at a rate of three or four a day..." (Banfield, 1998. p.35)

Another general study which includes informative data relative to the topic of this study is The Heavy Cost of Malaria and AIDS by De Giorgio (2000). This article refers to some significant economic aspects and to the way that the high rate of malaria infections is affecting the economy of Kenya, as well as other countries in the region. The…… [Read More]



Banfield, J. (1998, September). Malaria: Africa's Public Enemy No. 1. African Business 35+. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from Questia database:

Brown D. (1994) When Disease Resists; Malaria's Toll Rises in Tropical Regions As Effectiveness of Chloroquine Falls Off. Washington Post.;19940217%5dFebruary 14, 1994

Brown D. (1996) Antimalarial 'Bednets' Greatly Reduce Child Mortality in Africa, Studies Show. The Washington Post April 4, 1996.
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Maternity Nursing Labor and Delivery and Newborn

Words: 3389 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35692201

Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn

Labor and Delivery Terms

Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).

Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).

Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).

Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).

Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2010). Childbirth. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from

Heller, Michelle E., and Veach, Lynette M. (2008). Clinical Medical Assisting: A Professional,

Field Smart Approach to the Workplace. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.

Jailkhani, R., Patil, VS., Laxman, HB, Shivashankara, AR, Kulkarni, SP, and Ravindra, MS.
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Galectin-1 in the Regulation of

Words: 4060 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10094274

The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)

Muscle atrophy

Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)

All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More]

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Africans Had Poor Health Care in the

Words: 1577 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90177845

Africans had poor health care in the 1950s

There is much that still remains swept under the proverbial carpet about America's treatment to its African immigrants. One of the chapters, little known and often left untold has only recently started to emerge and concerns American health care system and its using Blacks as guinea pigs.

Attorney and author Vernellia . Tandall tells the story in her book 'Dying While Black' showing how America's health care system was built on the bodies of African-American individuals from the 19th century continuing to present days. Some f the information is unbelievable at best shocking at worst such as her allegations that AIDS was created by a government-sanctioned health care for the purposes of medical advancement.

Countless stories from Black residents of both North and South tell about how they were unwillingly and unknowingly abducted and exploited for medical experiments. There were the 'night…… [Read More]


Brooking Institute (2008) "Meeting the Dilemma of Health Care Access" (PDF). Opportunity 08: A Project of the Brookings Institution. Retrieved on 2/19/2011

Orlando Sentinel. (Dec., 04. 1993). Clinic On Wheels To Take Health Care To Elderly Poor . retreived 11/7/2011 from 

Skloot, H. (2010) The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks NY. Random House.
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Interrelationships Between Nutritional Deficiencies in the Third World

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88302584

Health is one of the major problems in third world countries such as India. One of the many reasons why this occurs is because of poverty. Poverty will eat you slowly till you die; it is one of the reasons why most of the babies were not vaccinated, there were poor support from the government about the health of the people and some of the medicines were not provided and usually the cost is unaffordable.

The nutritional deficiencies affect child's health such as insufficient vitamins, iron and iodine. And it is not only the child that are affected but also women particularly those who are pregnant. Lack of Vitamin A leads to blindness and can lead to death for severe infection. Lack of Iron leads to anemia because iron supplies the red blood cells and if this cannot be supplied white blood cells will increase thus will lead to anemia…… [Read More]


Benti, D., et al., Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) in Developing Countries"

Deen, T., "Poverty, the number one killer worldwide, warns UN" Third World Network (2001)

Eliason, B., et al., "Gastroenteritis in Children: Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment" American Family Physician (1998)
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Exposure Effects of Arsenic and Mercury Exposure

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29326897

Exposure Effects of Arsenic and Mercury

Exposure Effects of Mercury and Arsenic

Symptoms of Effects of Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury

Mercury is considered as toxic metal causing neurological disorders while Arsenic is considered as a human carcinogen. Mercury mainly affects areas which are associated with the sensory, visual and auditory functions and those concerned with co-ordination. On the other hand, Arsenic exposure results in chronic diseases pertaining to skin tumors, hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis of palms. This paper revolves around the explanation of symptoms pertaining to the harmful exposure effects of mercury and arsenic, and also highlights how the symptoms of both differ from each other.

Symptoms of Effects of Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury

Elevated levels of exposure to Mercury and Arsenic cause harmful effects to human health, deteriorating human reproductive and nervous systems. Coal burning power plants emit mercury; home thermometers, "button" batteries, the new energy-saving fluorescent…… [Read More]


Keil, D., E., Ritchie, B., J. & McMillin, G., A. (2011). Testing for Toxic Elements: A Focus on Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Lab Medicine, 42, Pp. 735-742, Retrieved

December 21, 2012, from

WHO (2010), Exposure to Arsenic: A Major Public Health Concern, WHO Document

Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland, Pp. 1-5, Retrieved December 21, 2011, from
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Large Strongyles

Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37763335

dozens of internal parasites that infect horses, the most dangerous and most capable of causing serious harm are the large strongyles parasite. They are considered to be the ones in charge of causing severe parasite related health problems in horses and they have the ability to kill. They have cylindrical bodies and unlike other parasites like tapeworms, strongyles have different sexes- male and female and can be told apart by the shape of their tails. The female lays eggs almost all the time and even though this makes it easier to detect any signs of infection, it does not stop it from growing. Several horses are affected by this disease every year, but careful research and study has been done and soon this disease will be a thing of the past and horses will be able to live a longer and healthier life.

Since an encounter against internal parasites was…… [Read More]


Gore, T., P. Gore, and J. Giffen. Horse Owner's Veterinary Handbook. John Wiley & Sons,

2008. 692. eBook.

The illustrated veterinary encyclopedia for horsemen. Equine Research Publications, 1975.

702. Web.
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Effects of the Experimental Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin on the Body

Words: 2091 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73531200

Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin


Cytotoxic metabolites are created when bio-reductive drugs go through a metabolic process because they contribute to curing cancer by lowering oxygen to areas where the cancer affects the body. The local auto regulation process of the body provides the oxygen to all parts of the body where it is needed. The arterioles supplying that tissue for oxygen dilate to supply more oxygen than usual. This happens also in the case of the tumor when it demands more oxygen; it is supplied by the body and anaerobin affects the auto regulation process in all areas as it reduces the blood flow to all organs, except the lungs. It can reduce the oxygen and supply of nutrients to the tumor by up to 99%. Therefore this bio-reductive drug can help in treatment of cancer in modern therapy.

Anti-cancer drugs reduce the cell…… [Read More]

Linda Bren, 2005. Cancer Drugs: weighing the Risks and Benefits. FDA Consumer, 41(1), pp.10+.

Nootropic. Available at: Http:// (Accessed at 2 December 2011)

Paual Ravasco, Isabel Monterio-Grillo, Pedro Marques Vidal & Maria Ermelinda Camilio, 2005. Dietary Counseling Improves Patient Outcomes: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(7), pp. 1431-1438.
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Strokes and African Americans

Words: 4072 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81628730

Strokes and African-Americans

African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the issue of African-Americans and stroke. The significance of this study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing base of knowledge in this area of study. The methodology employed in this study is of a qualitative and interpretive nature and has been conducted through a review of literature in this area of study.

Strokes and African-Americans

African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose…… [Read More]


National Stroke Association (2010) What is Stroke? Retrieved from:

The Office of Minority Health (2010) U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from:

National Stroke Association (2010) African-Americans and Stroke. Retrieved from:

Neipris, Louis (1998) African-Americans and Stroke Risk. My Optum Health. Retrieved from:
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Direct to Consumer Advertising History of Drug

Words: 16271 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71118969

Direct to Consumer Advertising











In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.

Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]

On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.

Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.

In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems.
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Supplements Fatigue and Lethargy

Words: 1207 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59874048

Supplements, Fatigue and Lethargy


Vitamin E (p 1- 1.5)

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and antioxidant, which inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species or ROS when fat is oxidized (NIH, 2013). The body produces ROS when it converts food into energy. As an antioxidant, Vitamin E protects body cells from the ill effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules containing an unshared electron. They damage cells and contribute to the development of heart diseases and cancer. Unshared electrons are very active and quickly react with oxygen to form ROS. Health experts conjecture that limiting the production of free radicals may, alone or through other mechanisms, help prevent or delay the formation of these dreaded chronic diseases associated with the action of free radicals. Vitamin E may serve that function (NIH).

As an antioxidant, it also plays a role in the immune function of the…… [Read More]


Bain, J. (2001). Andropause: testosterone replacement therapy for aging men. Vol. 47,

Canadian Family Physician: Janvier. Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from 

NIH (2013). Vitamin E Office of Dietary Supplements: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from

Watson, S. (2014). The causes of women's fatigue. WebMD Magazine: WebMD LLC.
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Curing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43631899

Chonic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML): Teatment Options

Patients suffeing fom chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) expeience ecuent infections, anemia, and thombocytopenia, signs and symptoms often manageable without pofessional help. Accodingly, patients often failed to seek medical cae until late in the disease couse and would have had a poo pognosis in the 20th centuy. Today, a numbe of effective teatments ae available, including the highly effective kinase inhibito imatinib. Kinase inhibitos suppess the activity of the fusion potein p210BCR-ABL, which is the poduct of a chomosomal tanslocation between chomosomes 9 and 22. Ove half of all CML patients will become symptom fee with the use of kinase inhibitos and live a long and poductive life, but a smalle pecentage will equie moe aggessive and iskie teatment appoaches, among which is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell tansplantation following high dose chemotheapy.


CML Etiology

Chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a pogessive disease that impais…… [Read More]