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Anne Bradstreet and Edward Taylor
The popular notion that the Puritans were wholly focused on their religion is not much of an exaggeration. Even a casual exploration of writing from the colonial period in America underscores this thematic dominance: Puritan authors felt duty-bound to use their writing to support believers to stay the righteous course. The Puritans believed that life on earth was test of faith in God and an opportunity to demonstrate an unalterable dedication to living righteous lives. The quotidian existence was a battle against evil, the victory of which required intimate knowledge of God's will and absolute avoidance of hazards to the spirit. Writers such as Anne Bradshaw and Edward Taylor used their talents to help their brethren stay on a very straight and narrow path, indeed.
The Puritans were a surprisingly well-educated group of people (owe). Edward Taylor was a teacher and studied at Harvard (owe,…
Cowell, Pettie. "Anne Bradstreet 1612-1672." In The Heath Anthology of American Literature, vol. A., Paul Lauter, ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, 2009.
Rowe, Karen E. Saint And Singer: Edward Taylor's Typology And The Poetics Of Meditation. Cambridge studies in American literature and culture. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
-."Edward Taylor." In The Heath Anthology of American Literature, 3rd Edition, Paul Lauter, editor Richard Yarborough, et. al., 2 vols., Boston, Houghton Mifflin (1998), vol. 1, pp. 366 -- 407.
Anne Bradstreet, Phillis Whatley, Emily Dickinson part a developing tradition American women poets. Discuss significant differences similarities . N.B.: The sources provided writing. One thing I'd simple original.
Anne Bradstreet, Phillis Whatley, and Emily Dickinson are some of the most representative female American writers that have had a significant contribution to American literature as we know it today. Despite their undisputed role in American literature, the three writers are bound by similarities as well as divided by differences in terms of style of writing, themes discussed, and means through which they dealt with their emotions and beliefs.
In terms of similarities, all three writers were well-educatedwomen, which for their time represented a great achievement. In this sense, Anne Bradstreet was educated in the spirit of the first feminist poetry and determined a wave of writing that reflected the first attempts of women writings. More precisely, "Bradstreet's refined verse conforms to…
Gates, Henry Louis.The trials of Phillis Wheatley: America's First Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathers. Perseus Books: New York, 2003.
Schlotterbeck, Marian. Modestly Appropriating Conventions:Anne Bradstreet, Phillis Wheatley and the Literary Sphere of Early America. 2002. Available online at http://www.oberlin.edu/library/friends/research.awards/m.schlotterbeck.pdf
Bradstreet also wrote about her fear of death and whether her husband might remarry. "Through her dread of dying in childbirth lets us see that her deeper fear is a jealous one that her husband might remarry," (Hensley xxiii). Bradstreet's description of childbirth as being a shade away from death shows what life was like for women in the colonies. "The last month of pregnancy was not only a time for making 'pyes' but also a time of making peace with the idea of approaching death," (Gordon 135).
Motherhood is another prominent theme in Anne Bradstreet's poetry. Bradstreet's protective instinct is expressed in the verse, "great was my pain when I you bred, great was my care when you I fed, long did I kept you soft and warm, and with my wing kept off all harm," (cited by Gordon 151). Bradstreet continues the bird analogy: "I had eight birds…
"Anne Bradstreet Biography." Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.annebradstreet.com/anne_bradstreet_bio_001.htm
Bradstreet, Anne. The Works of Anne Bradstreet. Ed. Jeannine Hensley. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard UP, 1967. Print.
Gordon, Charlotte. Mistress Bradstreet: The Untold Life of American's First Poet. New York: Little Brown and Company, 2005. Print.
Nichols, Heidi. Anne Bradstreet: A Guided Tour of the Life and Thought of a Puritan Poet. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R publishing company, 2006. Print.
/My garments are not silk nor gold,/nor such like trash which Earth doth hold,/but Royal Robes I shall have on,/More glorious than the glist'ring Sun./My Crown not Diamonds, Pearls, and gold,/but such as Angels' heads infold./the City where I hope to dwell,/There's none on Earth can parallel./the stately alls both high and trong/Are made of precious Jasper stone,/the Gates of Pearl, both rich and clear,…/the Streets thereof transparent gold/Such as no Eye did e're behold./a Crystal River there doth run/hich doth proceed from the Lamb's Throne./of Life, there are the waters sure/hich shall remain forever pure./nor Sun nor Moon they have no need/for glory doth from God proceed. (Bradstreet)
Spirit develops the idea that the world of Flesh is shallow and piteous but then has no language, but gold, jade, crystal and silver to describe that which makes up the place in heaven she wishes to dwell. The work has…
Bradstreet, Anne. "The Flesh and the Spirit" inforplease.com Retrieved, September, 5, 2008.
Jaskoski, Helen. "The Catacombs and the Debate Between the Flesh and the Spirit." Critique 35.3 (1994): 181-192.
Millier, Brett C., and Jay Parini, eds. The Columbia History of American Poetry. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
The Flesh attempts to tempt her sister, the pirit, with physical wealth and beauty. he argues that meditation alone is not enough to live on, and that earth cannot be divorced from the spirit. Bradstreet however demonstrates that there is a basic imbalance in this view. Flesh does not argue for a balance between the Flesh and the pirit, but rather suggests that the world of the Flesh is far more satisfying than the pirit, and therefore should take precedence over the latter. Indeed, the Flesh suggests that the spirit is "fancy-sick" or even a "ot" for believing in treasures beyond the fleshly world. The pirit answers in equally strong terms, arguing equally vehemently for the importance of the pirit world. The first words of the pirit's stanza "Be still, thou unregenerate part," suggest that the pirit and the Flesh are part of the same being. Anne Bradstreet therefore recognizes…
Bradstreet, Anne. "To my Dear and Loving Husband"
The Flesh and the Spirit" http://www.annebradstreet.com/anne_bradstreet_poems.htm
Taylor, Edward. "Huswifery"
The Joy of Church Fellowship Rightly Attended." http://www.puritansermons.com/poetry/taylor.htm
" This allusion to the Garden of Eden reminds the reader of how they should be suspicious of their own, base instincts, for that is how human beings fell in the garden -- by being disobedient and acting upon their base desires. Instead, they must appeal to God for guidance. Rather than seek success on earth, for the Spirit: "my ambition lies above." The Spirit replies to every temptation made by the Flesh with a reference to the world above.
Although the two are sisters within the same human family, the Spirit is confident that she will triumph over the Flesh. Perhaps the most powerful imagery of the poem is the reversal of the conventional image of humankind as slaves of fleshy desire. hen the Spirit triumphs: "hen I am victor over thee, / and Triumph shall, with laurel head, / hen thou my Captive shalt be led." Lest the…
Bradstreet, Anne. "The Flesh and the Spirit." WebBooks e-text. [26 Oct 2006] http://www.web-books.com/classics/Poetry/Anthology/Bradstreet/Flesh.htm
Woodlief, Ann. "Biography of Anne Bradstreet." The University of Toronto. [26 Oct 2006] http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/webtexts/Bradstreet/bradbio.htm
Howe-Pinsker, Rebecca (1998). Confession, Exploration and Comfort
In Anne radstreet's "Upon the urning of Our House July 10th, 1666" Retrieved June 2006, from The Science of Art. Ampersand. The Art of Science. Web site: http://itech.fgcu.edu/&/issues/vol1/issue1/bradstreet.htm
3. (2003-2006). The Early Seventeenth Century Topics. Emigrants and Settlers: Text and Contexts. Anne radstreet, from "A Dialogue etween Old England and New, Concerning their Present Troubles, Anno 1642"(2003-2006). Retrieved June, 2006, from The Norton Antology of English Literature. Norton Topics online. Web site: http://www.wwnorton.com/nto/17century/topic_4/bradstreet.htm
4. Woodlief, A. Anne radstreet, iography. Retrieved June, 2006. Web site: http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/webtexts/radstreet/bradbio.htm
5. Heinsohn, Robert Jennings (2000). Pilgrims and Puritans in 17th Century New England. Retrieved June, 2006, from Sail 1620 Web site: http://www.sail1620.org/discover_feature_pilgrims_and_puritans_in_17th_century_new_england.shtml
6. radstttreet, A (1994-2002). Anne radstreet (ca. 1616-1672). The Flesh and the Spirit. Retrieved June 2006, from Representative Poetry online
Web site: http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/212.html
7. Cowell, P. (1983) The Early Distribution of Anne radstreet's Poems. Critical Essays…
1. Bradstttreet, A (1994-2002). Anne Bradstreet (ca. 1616-1672). Verses upon the burning of our House, July the 18th, 1666. Retrieved June 2006, from Representative Poetry online
Web site: http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/218.html
2. Howe-Pinsker, Rebecca (1998). Confession, Exploration and Comfort
In Anne Bradstreet's "Upon the Burning of Our House July 10th, 1666" Retrieved June 2006, from The Science of Art. Ampersand. The Art of Science. Web site: http://itech.fgcu.edu/&/issues/vol1/issue1/bradstreet.htm
Strength Through ords:
Anne Bradstreet and Phillis heatley
hile their lives were vastly different in many ways, Anne Bradstreet and Phillis heatley are two poets that share the experience of writing through some of life's most difficult circumstances. Both women faced new beginnings in the New orld, although these experiences could not be more different. Bradstreet's experience was as a colonist thrust in to a new world facing hardships previously unknown. heatley was also thrust into the New orld but she was brought as a slave, with no rights and no hope. Each experience meant survival in some way and writing became a form of salvation for these women as they penned their thoughts and feelings for the world to see. Because they did take the time to express their thoughts, they contributed to the fabric of their society more than they could know. Bradstreet's poetry covers more that her…
Bradstreet, Anne. "To My Dear and Loving Husband." The Norton Anthology of American
Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. New York: W.W Norton & Company, Inc., 2007.
-. "As Weary Pilgrim." The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. New York: W.W Norton & Company, Inc., 2007.
"Anne Bradstreet." Pilgrim New Media. ProQuest Resource Database. Information Retrieved
The literary techniques used in both poems help deliver the message of unending and perfect love.
The intended audience is different for each poem; in "To My Dear and Loving Husband," the poet is speaking directly to her husband as opposed to making a more declarative statement as we see in "How Do I Love Thee." Bradstreet is speaking directly to her husband and Browning is speaking to readers. This difference does not diminish the effect of either poem but it is significant when examining strategy. e can look at Bradstreet's poem as more personal in that she might not have intended this poem for public consumption and even if she did, she still chose to address her husband directly, giving him all of her attention. Bradstreet's poem is also composed with a mood and tone of humility, indicating that the love she shares with her husband is invaluable. Browning's…
Bradstreet, Anne. "To My Dear and Loving Husband." Text. City: Publisher. Year.
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett. "How Do I Love Thee?" Text. City: Publisher. Year.
Puritan women in the New World of the United States were torn between belief that their "hope and treasure lies above" and their very real need to survive and create a loving community on earth. The Puritans were English Protestants, and they had very strong views on a variety of issues. For example, Puritans believed in the literal authority provided by the Bible, and that individuals who did things wrong in life would be punished by God (Coffey & Lim, 2008). There was also no guarantee of salvation for Puritans, and anything they would do for atonement was not enough to protect them from potential damnation in the future. The women in that society were not equal to men, and they were left to do what men wanted them to do and act a certain way in society, or they were not accepted (Coffey & Lim, 2008). Because…
Bradstreet, Anne. (1666). "Upon the Burning of Our House July 10th, 1666"
Coffey, John and Paul C.H. Lim (2008). The Cambridge Companion to Puritanism, Cambridge University Press.
Cook, Faith (2010). Anne Bradstreet Pilgrim and Poet, EP Books: Darlington.
Rowlandson, Mary (1682). A true history of the captivity and restoration of Mary Rowlandson. Clorifts-Church Hospital.
Throughout American history, the work of American literary artists has helped shape how people think about America and its values. In the modern moment, American literary artists and those involved in other media tend to represent ideals of freedom, autonomy, and individuality. However, this is a perception which has only developed through centuries of artists trying to speak with a unique American voice. Artists who have been oppressed are most successful in their attempts to explain how difficult existence is for people who have to live with some character trait which allows the social setting to suppress. Women writers, in particular, have used their artistry to show the intelligence of females and to help carve a niche in a male-dominated society. Three female poetry writers from three distinct historical periods, Anne Bradstreet who lived in the colonial period, Phillis Wheatley who was a slave living during the first…
Michael igglesworth, Edward Taylor, and Anne Bradstreet can all be classified as American Puritan poets. God makes an appearance in nearly every poem penned by each of these three writers. Yet the poetry of igglesworth, Taylor, and Bradstreet differs significantly as well. Bradstreet exhibits neoclassical trends: especially in poems such as "The Prologue," in which the poet refers directly to the Greeks: "shure the ancient Greeks were far more mild." In "The Prologue," Bradstreet also mentions figures from Greek mythology and literature like Calliope. Edward Taylor's poetry is far more Christian in nature and imagery. The first line of "Upon edlock, and Death of Children" is "A Curious Knot God made in Paradise." Equally as religious are the poems of Michael igglesworth, who makes ample Biblical references in his poem "The Day of Doom." igglesworth, Taylor, and Bradstreet represent the common elements in Puritan writing, but each presents…
Bradstreet, Anne. Poems from: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/bradstreet/bradstreet.html#burn
Taylor, Edward. "Upon Wedlock, and Death of Children." Retrieved online: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/175405
Wigglesworth, Michael. "The Day of Doom." Retrieved online: http://www.puritansermons.com/poetry/doom001.htm
First, his use of rhyme is incredibly heavy, and quickly becomes awkward and intrusive:
Ye sons of men that durst contemn the Threatnings of Gods ord,
How cheer you now? your hearts, I trow, are sthrill'd as with a sword.
The internal rhyme in the odd numbered lines of each stanza, especially when coupled with the end rhyme in the even numbered lines (this pattern repeats in the second half of the stanza), gives the poem a condescending feel as though it is an instruction for children, while at the same time hammering itself into the mind of the reader in an obsessive manner. The complete lack of enjambment strengthens this effect, especially when reading the poem out loud.
In comparison to this, Bradstreet's sometimes stilted rhyme comes out very favorably. In one of her most well-known poems, "To My Dear and Loving Husband," even her twelve straight…
Bradstreet, Anne. "To My Dear and Loving Husband." Accessed 5 May 2009. http://www.annebradstreet.com/to_my_dear_and_loving_husband.htm
Bradstreet, Anne. "In Honour of that High and Mighty Princess, Queen Elizabeth." Accessed 5 May 2009. http://www.annebradstreet.com/in_honour_of_that_high_and_mighty_princess_queen_elizabeth.htm
Wigglesworth, Michael. "The Day of Doom." Accessed 5 May 2009. http://www.puritansermons.com/poetry/doom001.htm
Despite this hardship she still managed to publish the first volume of poetry written by a woman in the New orld. This volume of poetry marked a milestone and reflected her faith, as did her other works, in the goals of her Puritan faith, and are not without skepticism.
God doth not afflict willingly, nor take delight in grieving the children of men: he hath no benefitt by my adversity, nor is he the better for my prosperity; but he doth it for my Advantage, and that I may bee a Gainer by it. And if he knowes that weaknes and a frail body is the best to make me a vessell fitt for his use, why should I not bare it, not only willingly but joyfully? (orks, 20)
Bradstreet's faith was essential to existence in her society and this struggle is the core of her works.
Hensley, Jeannine, ed., the Works of Anne Bradstreet Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.
Martin, Wendy. An American Triptych Anne Bradstreet, Emily Dickinson, Adrienne Rich. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1984.
Burning of Our House -- July 10, 1666
The poem Upon the Burning of Our House -- July 10, 1666 was written by Anne Bradstreet. Bradstreet is considered by many to be America's first authentic poet was born and raised a Puritan. She and her husband, Simon, who she married at the age of eighteen, lived in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Bradstreet composed her poetry while raising eight children and performing her other domestic duties. She only wrote for herself and only shared her writings with family and friends; however her brother-in-law took some of her poems back to England without her knowledge and had them published. In this poem Bradstreet speaks of the lessons she learned from the fire that destroyed her home and her devotion to a higher being.
One of the meanings Bradstreet takes from the fire is that all of her possessions that were burned she…
Many peoples' lives, destinies, and hopes for the future, and not only American ones, depend and will depend in the future on this taking place sooner rather than later, and now more than ever before in America's history.
Illegal Immigration." ikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html>.
Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual
Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.
Flores, illiam V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d" Love Unites Them, La Migra Separates Them." El observador, 30 Nov. 2006. http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id= b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d.html>.
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John inthrop. New York: Longman 2nd Edition, November 20, 1998.
Snyder, Tanya. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlinesTo Slow Immigration from El Salvador, Understand its Causes."
Baltimore Sun, 11 Jan. 2007. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlines.
Young Migrants Risk All to Reach U.S." ashington Post. 28 Aug 2006.
Illegal Immigration." Wikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html >.
Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual
Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.
Flores, William V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
The choice cannot be repudiated or duplicated, but one makes the choice without foreknowledge, almost as if blindly. After making the selection, the traveler in Frost's poem says, "Yet knowing how way leads on to way/I doubted if I should ever come back" (14-15). And at the end, as one continues to encounter different forks along the way, the endless paths have slim chance of ever giving the traveler a second choice. One can see this as similar to Mrs. Mallard's change. As she looks out into the future, she sees endless possibilities for choice and nothing feels like she would ever return to the determinate state of marriage.
The final two lines of "The Road Not Taken" say, "I took the one less traveled by / and that has made all the difference" (19-20). Unlike in Chopin, the traveler determines to take the path. In Chopin, the path forces…
Carver, Raymond. (1981). Cathedral: stories. New York: Vintage.
Chopin, Kate. (2003). The Awakening and selected short fiction. New York: Barnes & Noble.
Frost, Robert. (1969). The Poetry of Robert Frost: the collected poems E.C. Lathem, Ed. New York: Holt.
Point ONE: Billy Budd: Critic Eugene Goodheart is the Edythe Macy Professor of Humanities Emeritus at Brandeis University. He writes that while critics are generally divided between those who see Captain Vere as "an unwitting collaborator" with Claggart and those who feel Vere was correct to have Billy sent to the gallows. In his piece Goodheart explains that Billy is "…variously seen as Adam before the fall, as a noble barbarian, as Isaac the sacrificial victim…and as a Christ figure" (Goodheart, 2006, p. 81).
Point TO: Goodheart makes the most of his assertion that no matter what allegorical link to Billy, the protagonist is symbolic of innocence. hen Billy lashes out at Claggart, it is due to his innocence. He is first of all innocent of the charge that he was leading a mutiny, Goodheart explains. Secondly, Billy is innocent when it comes to the existence of evil (Goodheart, p.…
Claviez, Thomas. "Rainbows, Fogs, and Other Smokescreens: Billy Budd and the Question of Ethics." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory. 62.4
Donoghue, Denis. "Moby-Dick' after September 11th." Law and Literature 15.2 (2003): 161-
Goodheart, Eugene. "Billy Budd and the World's Imperfection." Sewanee Review 114.1 (2006):
The existence of true love has been a debate among writers, authors, and philanthropists for years. There are many things in this world that we as people share together, but nothing else can bare, mend, or even heal like love. Every place we go and everything we see has in some point in time been touched by some form of love. It is through stories and poems that we indeed do find the existence of true love. I believe that stories and poems provide us with the necessary evidence to prove that true love does exist and we will analyze these poems and stories in the following work to indeed provide evidence of its existence. We find that true love does exist and it is real, when we analyze the writings of those who are most known for acknowledging it. In our world today, society explains love as…
Fern Hill (Dylan Thomas)
The "Poetry Explications" handout from UNC states that a poetry explication is a "relatively short analysis which describes the possible meanings and relationship of the words, images, and other small units that make up a poem."
The speaker in "Fern Hill" dramatically embraces memories from his childhood days at his uncle's farm, when the world was innocent; the second part brings out the speaker's loss of innocence and transition into manhood. This explication will identify and critique Thomas' tone, imagery (including metaphors) and expressive language (as it contributes to the power of the poem). ("Fern Hill" uses 6 verse paragraphs; there are 9 lines in each paragraph.)
"Now as I was young and easy under the apple boughs / About the lilting house and happy as the grass was green / the night above the dingle starry / time let me hail and climb / golden…
Bible Meanings. (2011). Lamb. Retrieved December 9, 2012, from http://www.biblemeanings.info/words/animal/lamb.htm.
Cox, C.B. (1959). Dylan Thomas's 'Fern Hill.' The Critical Quarterly, 1(2), 134-138.
Thomas, Dylan. (2012). Fern Hill. Academy of American Poets. Retrieved December 9, 2012,
from http://www.poets.org .
Thomas Paine was an earlier conqueror of the special association that was formed between America and France. His part in this association was initiated with his responsibility of the post of American Congress Secretary of Foreign Affairs where he continually used dialogue to make relations between the two better. He retained this post throughout the American evolution. Paine, however, is better noted for his works written throughout the American and French evolutions Eras. In his writings, Paine offered spirited protection of accepted autonomy, human rights, and the republican government. Both Common Sense (1776) ights of Man (1791-1792) stick out as the most broadly read political areas from the era. Paine's distinctive global thought also can serve as the building blocks for liberal cosmopolitanism in worldwide relations. His unrelenting faith in aspects of democratization, free trade, and respect for human rights being the factors that cut back worldwide conflict stands among…
Fruchtman, Jack, Jr. "Thomas Paine and the Religion of Nature." Johns Hopkins University Press . 1993.
Fruchtman, Jack, Jr. "Thomas Paine: Apostle of Freedom." Four Walls Eight Windows. 1994.
Keane, John. "Tom Paine: A Political Life." Little, Brown. 1995.