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The patients are kept under observation for 24 hours unless the severity of symptoms is higher (Medline Plus 2012).
Outpatient treatment of anorexia
Outpatient treatment of anorexia aims to correct signs and symptoms shown by the patient of anorexia. There are some medical conditions, based on which the anorexic patients are referred to outpatient treatment. Firstly, the patient requires psychotropic treatment, there is failures in physiological functioning and most importantly, the patient poses lesser risk to the other people. The severity of the symptoms is much lesser in outdoor patients as compared to patients recommended in outdoor treatment. Adequate control over eating as well as purging is exhibited by the anorexic patient. One of the most important symptoms is that the body weight of the patient is close to 85% of the normal body weight. An important part of outpatient treatment includes psychotherapy counseling, positive talking to make sure that…
"Anorexia nervosa." Medline Plus. 13 Feb. 2012. Web 16 Nov. 2012. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000362.htm
Fitzpatrick, K.K., and Lock, J. "Anorexia nervosa." BMJ Best Practice Evidence. 11 Apr. 2011. Web 16 Nov 2012. http://bestpractice.bmj.com/best-practice/evidence/intervention/1011/0/sr-1011-i6.html
Jensen, V.S. And Mejlhede, a. "Anorexia nervosa: treatment with olanzapine." The British Journal of Psychiatry 177 (2000): 87.
Otto, B., Cuntz, U., Fruehauf, U., Wawarta, R., Folwaczny, C., Riepl, RL., Heiman, RL., Lehnert, P., Fichter, P., and Tschop, M. "Weight gain decreases elevated plasma ghrelin concentrations of patients with anorexia nervosa." European Journal of Endocrinology 145 (2001): 667-669.
Anorexia Nervosa is defined in the Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine as "an eating disorder characterized by unrealistic fear of weight gain, self-starvation, and conspicuous distortion of body image. The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-IV (1994), defines two subtypes of anorexia nervosa -- a restricting type, characterized by strict dieting and exercise without binge eating -- and a binge-eating/purging type, marked by episodes of compulsive eating with or without self-induced vomiting and the use of laxatives or enemas. DSM-IV defines a binge as a time-limited (usually under two hours) episode of compulsive eating in which the individual consumes a significantly larger amount of food than most people would eat in similar circumstances."
The incidence of eating disorders, especially anorexia, is increasing at a worrisome rate. During the past three decades the prevalence has increased dramatically. (Tenore) reports an overall incidence of approximately…
Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders, Inc. "Causes of Anorezia Nervosa." Retrieved from www.anred.com/causes.html
Fouts Gregory. "Television situation comedies, female body images and verbal reinforcements." Sex Roles: A journal of Research. March 1999.
Hertger-Casbon, Christy. "Back from the brink." American Fitness March 2000.
Hittner, Patricia. "Dying to be thin." Better Homes and Garden. August 1997.
Parkinson's disease is a malady that all people should be afraid of because of the fact that it generally chooses its carriers randomly. Also, once having contracted the disease, people should not lose their hope, with numerous people having lived with it for decades. One of the most terrible things about the disease is that it cannot be cured and that the people that have it are forced to live with its curse all their lives.
Society needs to support and understand people that have PD. One of the most common mistakes that people make when meeting someone that had PD is to abstain from treating him or her as if they are equals to perfectly healthy people.
1. Franklin H. Silverman, Barbara Henry "Depression: A Primary Symptom of Parkinson Disease?," ; the Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol. 55, 1989.
2. John Henkel, "Parkinson's Disease: New Treatments Slow Onslaught…
1. Franklin H. Silverman, Barbara Henry "Depression: A Primary Symptom of Parkinson Disease?," ; the Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol. 55, 1989.
2. John Henkel, "Parkinson's Disease: New Treatments Slow Onslaught of Symptoms," FDA Consumer, Vol. 32, July-August 1998.
3. Pamela Quinn, "Struggling to Move: Parkinson's Disease Took Her Dance Away, but Dance Gave Back," Dance Magazine, Vol. 81, December 2007
4. Renee Twombly, "Pesticides and Parkinson Disease," Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 112, 2004.
nurture. This issue has been employed in questioning the role of genetics as well as environment in the analysis of behavior. Several researchers especially geneticists have attempted to interpret the behavior of a person on the basis of natural phenomena. The work of Strober et al. (1985,p.239) indicated that since the 19th century to date, researchers who are studying anorexia nervosa have explore several multiple causes of the illness. Through this work, Strober et al. (1985) that their scientific experiment would be crucial in suggesting that the main cause of anorexia nervosa is genetic disposition. Their study involved the directly interviewing of first degree as well as second degree relatives of several probands on various diagnoses of eating disorders as well as other forms of questions that relates to specific behaviors (p.239). The researchers chose to ask all of the relatives on issues pertaining eating habits, excessive rituals, ideal shape…
Vander Ven, Thomas. (2003) Working Mothers and Juvenile Delinquency. New York:
LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC.
Wade, T., Bulik, C., Neale, M., Kendler, K. (2000) Anorexia nervosa and major depression: Shared genetic and environmental risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 157 (3), 469-471
People in professions where there is a particular social pressure to be thin (such as models and dancers) were much more likely to develop anorexia during the course of their career, and further research has suggested that those with anorexia have much higher contact with cultural sources that promote weight-loss. There is a high rate of reported child sexual abuse experiences in clinical groups of who have been diagnosed with anorexia. Although prior sexual abuse is not thought to be a specific risk factor for anorexia, those who have experienced such abuse are more likely to have more serious and chronic symptoms (Carter, et.al. 2006).
elationship to Autism -- Psychologists suggested in the 1960s that there might be a relationship between autism and eating disorders, and following several studies in the 1990s, there seemed to be a correlation. Those on the autistic spectrum tended to have a negative outcome with…
"Anorexia: Media and Body Image." (2009). WaldenBehavioral.com. Cited in:
Brumberg, J. (2000). Fasting Girls: The History of Anorexia Nervosa. Vintage.
Carter, J.C., et.al. (2006). "The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Anorexia Nervosa."
Anorexia Nervosa is a serious eating disorder that affects millions of people all over the globe. The purpose of this discussion is to examine this disorder. e will begin by defining and characterizing anorexia nervosa. e will then discuss the factors that contribute to the development of the disorder. Finally, our discourse will investigate the treatments associated with anorexia nervosa.
Definition of Anorexia Nervosa
The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine defines Anorexia nervosa as, "an eating disorder characterized by unrealistic fear of weight gain, self-starvation, and conspicuous distortion of body image." (Tran) The disorder is a combination of two Latin words that literally mean "a nervous inability to eat."
The Encyclopedia explains that there are to different types of anorexia. The first type is described as restrictive, in which the person suffering with the disorder has a strict diet and exercises compulsively. The second type is described as a binge…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=77033243
Barlow, David Harrison. "Disorders of Emotion." Psychological Inquiry 2.1 (1991): 58-71.
Candy, Colette M., and Virginia E. Fee. "Underlying Dimensions and Psychometric Properties of the Eating Behaviors and Body Image Test for Preadolescent Girls." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 27.1 (1998): 117-127.
Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder that results from an individual's intense preoccupation with body weight. Individuals with anorexia have difficulty maintaining a normal body mass index score, and frequently make continued efforts to lose weight even if their weight is abnormally low. The psychological factors that precipitate anorexia can be quite complex, and as a result the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder often require thorough psychological assessment, differential diagnosis, and long-term therapy. This paper will explore current research on anorexia and investigate how medical and mental health professionals are using this research to inform their work with anorexic patients (Smith et. al, 2011).
According to the American Psychiatrics DSM-IV-T (American Pyschiatric Association [APA], 1994) a diagnosis of anorexia requires the following criteria:
"efusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height, for example, weight loss leading to maintenance of…
American Psychiatric Association. Treatment of patients with eating disorders, third edition. American Psychiatric Association. Am J. Psychiatry. 2006;163(7 Suppl):4-54.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Ed.) United States of America: American Psychiatric Association.
Franco, K. 2011."Eating Disorders." Center for Continuing Education, Cleveland Clinic. Foundation, Cleveland Ohio. Retrieved from http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/psychiatry-psychology/eating-disorders/ . 2, March. 2011
Halse, C.,Honey, A.,Boughtwood, D. 2008. "Inside anorexia: the experiences of girls and their families." Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Philidephia, Pennsylvania.
In fact, males account for 5-10% of reported cases of anorexia nervosa (Hayes). Research suggest that males who develop anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders differ from females in three major areas of dieting behaviors: 1) while females diet because they feel fat, males diet because they have been overweight at some point in their lives; 2) males more often than females diet to attain certain goals in sports or to avoid some type of sports-related injury that would be related to a weight gain; 3) there is a greater preponderance of men who diet to avoid potential medical problems (Hayes). Generally, males believe that dieting and exercise will allow them to fell more masculine and more in control, which will lead to greater respect from others (Hayes).
Anorexia nervosa can cause serious damage to the heart, brain, and other vital organs. Patients may experience a severe drop in pulse…
Anorexia Nervosa." National Alliance on Mental Illness. Retrieved January 23, 2007 from: http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=7409
Gold, Mark. "Anorexia and bulimia." American Family Physician. April 01, 1990.
Retrieved January 23, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hayes, Gerald L. "Male Anorexia Nervosa: A New Focus." Journal of Mental Health
Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person refuses to maintain a healthy weight for his or her age and height. It is a self-imposed starvation resulting from a distorted body image. According to The Journal of American Medical Association, individuals with the disease typically lose 25% or more of his or her original body weight. There is also evidence that anorexia nervosa runs in families and can be inherited.
The exact cause of anorexia nervosa is unknown. It is believed to be a result of psychological, biological, and social stress. It may also be related to sexual development during adolescence. Some experts believe that anorexia nervosa is a response to social attitudes that equate beauty with being thin.
Even though the vast majority of doctors and health care professionals in the United States and around the world are well aware of the dangers of anorexia nervosa and…
In addition, nutritional therapy is often necessary to balance body and brain chemistry before improvement can take place (Lock & Fitzpatrick, 2009).
Since an can be so difficult to treat after onset, some researchers are focused on possible measures to prevent the development of eating disorders in the first place, and some of their findings are highly promising (Novotney, 2009). For example, a 2008 study of nearly 500 adolescent girls with poor body image found a 60% reduction in the development of eating disorder symptomology among those who participated in intervention activities (Novotney, 2009). Preventive interventions were based on the theory of cognitive dissonance and required young women to express criticisms of society's ultra-thin female ideal through various individual and group exercises (Novotney, 2009). This suggests that at the middle school and high school levels, parents, teachers, and counselors may be able to counteract some harmful media messages about…
DeAngelis, T. (2002). Promising Treatments for Anorexia and Bulimia. Monitor, 33 (3), 38.
Hatch, a., & al, e. (2010). Emotion Brain Alterations in Anorexia Nervosa: a Candidate Biological Marker and Implications for Treatment. ournal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN. Volume: 35. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 2010. Page Number: 267+, 35 (4), 267+.
Kanarek, R., & al, e. (2009). Running and Addiction: Precipitated Withdrawal in a Rat Model of Anorexia. Behavioral Neuroscience, 123 (4), 905-912.
Anorexics, even those who are outgoing and happy, may become withdrawn and non-communicative when they suffer from the disease. Dr. Lucas writes of one of his patients, "She withdrew even more. One evening her mother found her curled up in her closet, crying hysterically" (Lucas 15). As young women lose weight, often their families become concerned about their weight loss and health, and may try to force the girl to eat or visit a family doctor. This can lead to increased stress and unhappiness in the family, putting more pressure on the sufferer. Many young women with anorexia see themselves as totally in control of their own bodies, and giving up that control (by eating more) is frightening and even horrible to them. This leads to mental anguish and fear of discovery. Many anorexics start to spend much time alone, shutting themselves off from family and friends and any criticism…
Epling, W. Frank and W. David Pierce, eds. Activity Anorexia Theory, Research, and Treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
Goff, Karen Goldberg. "Research Ties Bulimia, Anorexia to Genetics." The Washington Times 2 Apr. 2000: 4.
Gooberman-Hill, Rachael. "Feeding Anorexia: Gender and Power at a Treatment Center." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 10.3 (2004): 743+.
Lager, E. Grace, and Brian R. McGee. "Hiding the Anorectic: A Rhetorical Analysis of Popular Discourse concerning Anorexia." Women's Studies in Communication 26.2 (2003): 266+.
Another major finding of this study is that socio-cultural differences were related to anorexia nervosa. The soundness of the resarch design allowed the authors to gather comprehensive case-findings regarding anorexia incidences. Among the mixed-race population, the anorexia rate was at 9.1 per 100,000. However, it is significant to note that there were no cases of anorexia found among the black population, who constituted the largest racial group in Curacao.
Contrary to the hypothesis, however, Hoek et al. (2005) found no evidence that socioeconomic transition caused the emergence of anorexia nervosa in Curacao. After all, if there was a positive correlation, then the fact that Curacao is a "high income" country would raise its anorexia rate to a level comparable to the United States and the Netherlands. The two latter countries have similar anorexia rates, while Curacao's is much lower.
The authors present three possible explanations for this lack of a…
Hoek, Hans et al. 2005. "The Incidence of Anorexia Nervosa on Curacao." The American Journal of Psychiatry. 162(4): 748-753.
Young people with poor eating habits can develop eating disorders or these disorders may be in response to various psycho-sociological issues that arise during adolescence. Irrespective of the cause, adolescents with eating disorders run the risk of a wide range of adverse healthcare outcomes, including obesity, high blood pressure, bone loss and even death. The problem is more common than many people believe, and the prevalence of eating disorders has been increasing in recent years due in part to improved recognition of the condition by clinicians. To determine the current state of affairs with adolescent eating disorders, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to develop a background and overview of eating disorders, their effects and how these conditions are treated. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about adolescent eating disorders are provided in the conclusion.
Background and Overview
Professional and public…
Cariun, C., Taut, D., & Baban, A. (2012, March). Self-regulatory strategies for eating behavior in children and adolescents: A concept mapping approach. Cognitie, Creier,
Comportament, 16(1), 49-54.
Enos, G.A. (2013, March/April). Addressing eating disorders earlier. Addiction Professional,
Naturally, almost all human beings are concerned about adding excess weight. However, in some individuals the fear becomes obsessive, resulting in a condition called Anorexia Nervosa. Anorexia is an eating disorder that could lead to serious weight-loss. The extreme fear concentrates on bodyweight and the food eaten. Anorexia is serious and possibly debilitating life threatening mental sickness (Lloyd et al. 2014). People with Anorexia have not made a 'lifestyle choice'; they are very sick and need help. The reasons for the onset of Anorexia differ from individual to individual; known causes include previous traumatic experiences, environmental, biological aspects. For some individuals, reducing their weight and food can be a way of managing life areas that feel out of their management and their whole body image can come to determine their entire feeling of self-worth. It can be an expression of feelings related to complications like pain, stress, or…
Couturier J, Kimber M, & Szatmari P. (2013). Efficacy of Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J. Eat Disord. Vol. 46(1):3-11
Le Grange, D, Accurso, E., Lock, J., Agras, S. And Bryson, S. (2013). Early Weight Gain Predicts Outcome in Two Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa. (Int J. Eat Disord 2014; 47:124 -- 129)
Lloyd S, Yiend J, Schmidt U, & Tchanturia K (2014). Perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa: Novel Performance-Based Evidence. PLoS ONE 9(10): 1-8e111697.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111697
Treating Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia nervosa is an eating confusion described by a terror of fatness experienced during the adolescence period that leads to them to starving themselves leading to harmful low body weight, a moody fear of being fat and compulsive hunt for thinness. Though not limited to a certain age or sex, it mostly affects the female. The eating disorder affects both the physical appearance; thin appearance and psychological health. Though the origin of anorexia nervosa is blurred, severe fasting and weight loss are regularly linked with efforts to manage the increasing psychological and social burden of adolescence, the disorder leads to a reported death rate of 6-10% of the adolescent who do not seek medication in time Berkman et al., 2006.
The worry among most clinicians is whether to focus on anxieties the adolescence have during this period of growth or addressing the rigorous dieting and…
Berkman, N.D., Bulik, C., Lohr, K., Brownley, K., J., S., Rooks, A., & Gartlehner, G. (2006). Management of Eating Disorders. North Carolina: AHRQ Publication.
Cachelin, M., & Rebeck, R. (2000). Barriers to Treatment for Eating Disorders among Ethnically Diverse Women. California: Wesleyan press.
Lock, J., Couturier, J., & A., S.W. (2006). Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes in Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa Treated With Family Therapy. Ontario: DOI press.
Shepphird, S.F. (2010). 100 questions & answers about anorexia nervosa. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Since anorexia nervosa is so widely talked about and studied by
scientists and researchers all over the world, those who are affected with
this disorder sometimes find themselves the center of attention in the mass
media, due to their celebrity status and the idea that they may be affected
with this type of eating disorder. One good example is Mary-Kate Olsen who
has been fighting this disorder for a number of years. Many photographs of
Ms. Olsen show her to be quite thin and apparently undernourished, two
important physical traits linked to this disorder. Hopefully, for those
like Ms. Olsen, the true causes of anorexia nervosa may someday be
discovered which would help a great deal in finding a long-lasting if not
Glanze, Walter D., Ed., et al. (1990). Mosby's Medical, Nursing and
Allied Health Dictionary. St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby Company.
Wolfe, Barbara. (2007). "Anorexia Nervosa."…
Glanze, Walter D., Ed., et al. (1990). Mosby's Medical, Nursing and
Allied Health Dictionary. St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby Company.
Wolfe, Barbara. (2007). "Anorexia Nervosa." National Alliance on
Mental Health. Internet. Retrieved from
In fact, even executives in fashion and beauty magazines see an alarming trend of "too thin" to the point of looking emaciated and unhealthy -- certainly not a look that "sells" (Wilson 542).
What is happening is a continual push to be something different, not because there is actually anything wrong with us -- at all. It is because advertising tells us that something is wrong. Advertising is part of the marketing mix that is designed to persuade a consumer to purchase something. Of course, there are many ways of doing this, and the "science" of this media has certainly evolved in the last century. Advertising is subliminal, sophisticated, pervasive, covert, overt, and a seminal part of the contemporary world. However, advertising has become so sophisticated that it sends messages both overt and covert that even if we are not paying attention to the exact product, the images we see…
Croll, J. "From Body Image and Adolescents." Elements of Arguments. Ed. a. Rottenberg and D. Winchell. 9th. New York: St. Martin's, 2010. 536-41.
Wilson, E. "When Is Thin Too Thin?" Elements of Arguments. Ed. a. Rottenberg and D. Winchell. 9th. New York: St. Martin's, 2010. 542-4.
According to guissinguer (2003) anorectics, "...react to loss of body weight by displaying adaptive responses that originally evolved to facilitate leaving food depleted areas." Discuss.
Anorexia is a disorder attributed to attempts to attain a fashionable shape, but numerous studies suggest that it is possible for psychological and societal factors to contribute in the development of this disorder. According to Kaye et al. (1998), anorexia is a disorder characterized by unusual feeding habits, weight control, perceptions of weight and shape, and the view of body shape. In this context, the people involved diet because they fear gaining weight. Nevertheless, the etiology of anorexia is complex, but numerous studies suggest that social, biological, and developmental process influence its growth.
Interestingly, the manner in which these processes interact to enhance its growth remains a mystery. Apparently, views towards the levels of attractiveness in a given society may influence the psychopathology of…
Appetite. (2006). Monographic: Evolutionary perspectives on overeating and overweight. Appetite, 47 (1), pp. 1-35.
Eisler, I. (2005). The empirical and theoretical base of family therapy and multiple family day therapy for adolescent anoxeria nervosa. Journal of Family Therapy, 27, pp. 104-131.
Fredrickson, B.L., Roberts, T.A., Noll, S.M., Quinn, D.M., & Twenge, J.M. (1989). That swimsuit becomes you: Sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75, pp. 269-284.
Guisinguer, S. (2003). Adapted to Flee Famine: Adding an Evolutionary Perspective on Anorexia Nervosa. Psychological Review, 110, pp. 745-761.
In reality, however, this study did not expose anything that has not been discussed repeatedly for decades. The issue of control being a key issue in eating disorders has long been recognized and thus, despite their best efforts, the researchers did not really provide any new information that could be helpful in treating this disorder.
The Scharer study was somewhat more valuable in its findings simply because it focused on a specific treatment program for a specific person. While this could be considered a limitation in terms of the generalizability of the study to other subjects or populations, the intimate focal point actually provides the type of deeper insight that case studies are designed to provide. For example, specifics of Lisa's aftercare are given that help provide insight into what types of monitoring may be needed: "The neighbors who care for Lisa in the evenings may need to be included…
McNamara, C., Chur-Hansen, a. & Hay, P.J. (2008) Emotional responses to food in adults with an eating disorder: A qualitative investigation. European Eating Disorders Review, 16, 115-123
Scharer, K. (1999) Case Study: Eating Disorder in a 10-year-old Girl. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. 12 (2). 79-86.
Criteria for Diagnosis
Physical and Mental Signs and epercussions
Different Treatments of Anorexia
Anorexia Nervosa, a type of eating disorder, continues to plague some of the world's population, particularly white adolescent females obsessed with looking thinner. This paper endeavors to explore what exactly anorexia is, in relation to the category of 'eating disorder' as well as other eating disorders such as bulimia. The criteria for diagnosis will be identified as well as the population in our society most susceptible to falling victim to this mental illness. Physical and mental signs and repercussions will also be highlighted along with 3 case studies advocating different treatments to combat this sickness. Traditional treatment normally consists of hospitalization, followed by psychotherapy. However, family or support therapy is gradually gaining credibility and popularity over traditional treatment routes.
Despite the fact that there is greater understanding amongst the medical profession and general…
Being a Woman Means Being Subject to Impossible Expectations (eating disorders). http://www.geocities.com/Wellesley/1421/eating.html
Block, Jerald. (September 6, 1996). Case Example #1. http://nypisys.cpmc.columbia.edu/development/Web/nyspi/depts/psypharm/eating~1/Acase1.htm
Compulsive Exercise. http://www.something-fishy.org/whatarethey/exercise.php le Grange, D. (June 1999). "Family Therapy for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa," in Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1999 Jun;55(6):727-39. http://www.google.com/search?q=anorexia+hospitalization+case+study&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&start=10&sa=N
Nickol, Jenny. (2001). Eating Disorders Awareness: Emotional Issues Involved With Eating Disorders. http://ohioline.osu.edu/ed-fact/1005.html
Anorexia and Bulimia
Factors Influencing the Incidence of Anorexia and Bulimia
The two primary eating disorders in Western countries are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Women constitute the primary sufferers of these diseases, with 0.5% to 3.7% and 1% to 3.7% suffering from anorexia and bulimia, respectively (Scott, Hardman, and Berrett, 2007, p. 14). Men also suffer from these eating disorders, but at about one-tenth the rate.
Anorexia is defined by a subnormal body weight (
Scott, Richards P., Hardman, Randy K., and Berrett, Michael E. (2007). Spiritual Approaches in the Treatment of Women with Eating Disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
The author of this report has been charged with covering and summarizing the eating disorder known as anorexia nervosa, or anorexia for short. Along with bulimia, they are the two most prominent and nasty eating disorders that exist among the people of the world. While women are more commonly associated with anorexia, men can develop it as well. What will be covered in this report has it pertains to anorexia will include what it is, who identified and discovered it, how people deal with it and how people end up overcoming it. While it can be a huge challenge for someone to battle and overcome anorexia, it is entirely possible with the right counseling and patient determination.
There is some debate about who first described and identified anorexia. Depending on whom one believes, it was discovered either by British physician William Withey Gull or French Neuropsychiatrist Ernest Charles Lasegue.…
HelpGuide. (2016). Eating Disorder Treatment and Recovery: Tips and Strategies for Overcoming Anorexia and Bulimia. Helpguide.org. Retrieved 23 April 2016, from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/eating-disorders/eating-disorder-treatment-and-recovery.htm
Vandereycken, R. (2016). Who was the first to describe anorexia nervosa: Gull or Lasegue?
PubMed - NCBI. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2687918
WebMD. (2016). Understanding Anorexia -- Diagnosis and Treatment. WebMD. Retrieved 23
Graduate Certificate Nursing Education
Learning of Anorexia Nervosa & Handling Its Patients
Final Learning Report
DESCRIPTIN F BJECTIVES & THEIR STATUS
Drafting a learning contract and adhering to it along with constant support from my supervisor, was an effective activity which constituted of four weeks. every objective had a milestone plan and necessary measures which were required to be taken for achieving them. Self-expectation after reaching these goals was also documented in order to have a clear picture of my proficiency level in the developing knowledge of Anorexia Nervosa after this activity. The primary objective was to have clear understanding of Anorexia Nervosa, its causes, symptoms and possible treatments. Furthermore, second main objective was to deal with patients having this disorder and their families. These two major goals encompassed the rest. Through reading of the concerned topic were performed and were brought into practical application. Furthermore, efforts were made to…
Owen, T. (2002). Self-Directed Learning in Adulthood: A Literature Review.
William, J. (2009), Anorexia Nervosa: Self Sabotage in Adolescence
Final Report-Anorexia Nervosa Page 4
The course readings and many other sources show that young women suffering from anorexia are suffering from a skewed body image. In most western societies, the ideal female form is tall and thin, sometimes extremely thin. When young women mature, they begin menstruation, but they also begin to form their curves. They gain fat in their hips and breasts, and sometimes in other areas, too. Many see these curves as feminine, but others see them only as fat, and the goal is to not be fat at any cost. They become obsessed with gaining weight, and will do anything to remain thin and ideal to society. They want to conform and to fit in, and so they turn to anorexia in an attempt to maintain a body image that is really far from ideal. In many cases, they cannot see their own image at all. Even when they lost startling…
Low eight and Runway Model
Regulating the Lowest eight of a Runway Model
Fashion industry is a type of industry where there are many regulations regarding the looks of the models. One of the most deliberated topics in the fashion business of the United States of America work with the body weight of the models. The critics in this field argue that many of the male and female models are below average weight which is why many of them have developed eating disorders like anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. In the fashion capitals of the world including the New York, London, Paris, and Milan, there is a collection of different approaches that have been executed to compact with this issue (Norgaard).
In this paper we will look into some of the literature regarding the fact that why the models are so skinny especially runway models and legal implications of how…
Beyerstein, Lindsay. "Emaciated fashion models and occupational health." Oct 2006. majikthise.
14 March 2012 .
Ebony. "The Unexpected." Ebony (2008).
Hill, E.D. I'm Not Your Friend, I'm Your Parent: Helping Your Children Set the Boundaries
Eating Disorders and Gender
There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…
Bates, Daniel. "Globalization of Fat Stigma: Western Ideas of Beauty and Body Size Catching
on in Developing Nations." Daily Mail. 2011. Print.
Battiste, Nikki & Lauren Effron."EDNOS: Deadliest Eating Disorder Is Quietly the Most
Common." ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. .
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
web page works cited page. 1)Sketch a treatment plan experiencing anorexia. Make account long-term treatment . 2)Alcohol misused abused U.S.
Q1.Sketch out a treatment plan for one experiencing anorexia. Make sure to take into account both the immediate and long-term treatment needs.
or extremely underweight individuals suffering severe health consequences, the most critical initial aspect of treating anorexia is the restoration of body weight and addressing any resulting complications (such as heart problems). or some patients, this may require hospitalization; others may benefit from an outpatient setting which combines communal meals with a therapeutic program. "Cognitive-oriented therapies, focusing on issues of self-image and self-evaluation, are likely to be the most beneficial to the client" (Anorexia nervosa treatment, 2013, PsychCentral).
Some involvement of the family is often thought to be necessary, including using the family as an aid for the patient's treatment and making eating a non-negotiable priority at home. However,…
Freedman, D. (2013). 12 health risks of chronic heavy drinking. WebMD.
Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/alcohol-abuse/features/12-health-risks-of-chronic-heavy-drinking
Johnson, B. (2010). We're addicted to rehab. It doesn't even work. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/08/06/AR2010080602660.html
Motivation to Change and eduction of Symptoms in Adolescents Suffering from Bulimia Nervosa
In research published by Castro-Fornieles (et al., 2011) the relationship between recovery from bulimia nervosa and motivation to change in adolescence sufferers is examined. The authors of the research had not found any similar research which had looked at this specific area of study. However, the research is based on previous research where strong links between behavioral changes in adults suffering from eating disorders and level of motivational for change. The importance of motivation has been generally accepted as an important influence and predictor of successful change in a range of health issues, such as smoking, which rely on patients implementing and maintaining behavioral changes. When looking specifically as bulimia nervosa, further research has found that relapses are more likely where adults suffering from the condition. In adolescents there has also been research examining motivation and the…
Castro-Fornieles, Josefina,; Bigorra, Aitana; Martinez-Mallen, Esteve; Gonzalez, Laura; Moreno, Elena; Font, Elena; Toro, Josep, (2011), Motivation to change in adolescents with bulimia nervosa mediates clinical change after treatment, European Eating Disorders Review, 19, 46-54
While no one knows what the future will bring, based upon what the background / significance uncovered, it is clear that a large portion of the population sample will more than likely suffer from some type of eating disorder. This will help to achieve the various aims / objectives of project, which are to assist these people, in realizing that they do have a problem and to seek out effective treatment options. This could be a real challenge, in identifying the problem as one issue, while encouraging someone to seek out help is another matter. As these people, must be able to realize that they have a medical condition and want to be able rectify the situation. The only way that this can occur, is for someone to admit that they are suffering from an eating disorder.
Women and Eating Disorders. (2007). Now Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nowfoundation.org/issues/health/whp/whp_fact2.html…
Women and Eating Disorders. (2007). Now Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nowfoundation.org/issues/health/whp/whp_fact2.html
Alexander, L. (2010). Nutrition, Exercise and Weight Management. New Dimensions in Women's Health. (pg. 256). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Costin, C. (2007). Considering Ethnicity. The Eating Disorder Sourcebook. (pp. 35 -- 37). Los Angeles, CA: Lowell House.
Greenberg, J. (2006). Issue Related to Body Image. Physical Fitness and Wellness. (pg. 229). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
In the STAI, the researcher asks the subjects how they feel at the moment and in the recent past, and how they anticipate feeling in the future (enazon & Coyne, 2000). This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). oth physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003).
Once those tests are completed, the volunteers will be asked to cycle on an ergometer for 30 minutes. The Talk Test, Target Heart Rate Evaluation, and the org Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale will all be administered while the volunteer is cycling. This is done to determine the energy level - or the perceived energy level - of the volunteer. All of these tests and this same specific pattern will…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Benazon, N.R., & Coyne, J.C. (2000). Living with a depressed spouse. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 71-79.
Dietz, W., MD, Ph.D. (2002). The obesity epidemic: Causes, consequences and solutions. Retrieved from University of Michigan, School of Public Health Web site: http://www.sph.umich.edu/symposium/2002/keynote.html .
Hewitt, P.L., et al. (2001). Death from anorexia nervosa: Age span and sex differences. Aging and Mental Health, 5(1), 41-46.
Teen Girls and Media
Because of its pervasiveness, mass media such as magazines and television programs are increasingly in a position to influence the behavior and attitudes of teenage girls. In fact, television programs such as ER and sports-oriented teen magazines have been lauded for providing girls with positive role models.
Unfortunately, these programs and magazines remain the exception rather than the rule. Rather than promote healthy lifestyles or give positive role models, much of the media targeted to teens are both physically and psychologically harmful. This paper examines two of these main effects - the promotion of unhealthy habits and lifestyles and the growing tendency of these media to sexualize teens and turn them into consumers.
For noted feminist Germaine Greer, the popularity of television shows such as Baywatch represent a growing pandemic, where all women are expected to conform to an unrealistic body shape. Greer terms…
Brumberg, Joan Jacobs and Jacquelyn Jackson. "The Burka and the Bikini." Boston Globe, November 23, 2001: A31.
Downey, Maureen. "Media give narrow view of women, study finds." The Atlanta Constitution, April 30, 1997: D11+.
Gardner, Marilyn. "Children and body images." Christian Science Monitor. December 16, 1998: 17+.
Gerhart, Ann. "Nipped in the Bud." The Washington Post, June 23, 1999: C01.
The youngsters and children who suffer from Anorexia Nervosa in early age suffer from low body development, lack of growth of good mental health and particularly with the low growth of sex hormones that make them weaker sexually. You can see many people who have poor body structure and lack of bone density due to their improper nutrition so these children usually have weak bones and there is fear that they may face with bone fracture in their life.
While besides physical body disturbance and weakness it put effect on the brain of human being and person who is diagnose with Anorexia Nervosa have weak structure of their brain and have physiological impact on those people including poor personality, shattered body image.
There are many ways that can be used to cure this disease but first of all you need to find out that you are also suffering from this…
Cohen, Juliet. "Identifying Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms." EzineArticles 13 September 2007. 01 October 2007 http://ezinearticles.com/?Identifying-Anorexia-Nervosa-Symptoms&id=730487 .
Birmingham CL, Goldner EM, Bakan R. Controlled trial of zinc supplementation in anorexia nervosa. Int J. Eating Disord. 1994;15:251-255.
Thomsen, S.R., Weber, M.M., & Brown, L.B. (2002). The relationship between reading beauty and fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among adolescent females. Adolescence, 37, 1-19
Crisp AH, Lacey JH, Crutchfield M. Clomipramine and 'drive' in people with anorexia nervosa: an inpatient study. Br J. Psychiatry. 1987;150:355-358
Vitamin deficiency in food can cause different health deficiencies like Pellagra, Scurvy, ickets among others. Most of these negative health outcomes are evidenced in the staple diet of those in the developing and poor countries. We shall understand some diets that cause these deficiencies in this essay.
The characteristics of Pellagra are mental afflictions, diarrhea, and dermatitis. Inadequate quantity of nicotinic acid in the diet that causes niacin deficiency in the body causes Pellagra. Over dependence on maize is an observed cause of Pellagra. Though Maize contains Niacin, it cannot be absorbed in the body in the raw form. It has to be passed through alkaline hydrolysis to be absorbed by the body. Jowar also contains adequate quantities of Niacin. However, the presence of leucine in jowar inhibits the process of absorption of niacin. Additionally, chronic alcoholism is one known cause of lack of ability to absorb of niacin…
Allgrove, J., & Mughal, M.Z. (2014). Calcium deficiency rickets: extending the spectrum of almost forgotten. International Journal Of Dermatology, 45(8), 909-913. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2006.02844.x
Karthikeyan, K., & Thappa, D.M. (2002).Pellagra and skin. International Journal Of 'nutritional' rickets. Archives Of Disease In Childhood, 99(9), 794-795. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306465
Obadina, S. (2014).An overview of anorexia nervosa, bulimia and binge eating disorder. British Journal Of School Nursing, 9(9), 441-446.
Olmedo, J.M., Yiannias, J.A., Windgassen, E.B., & Gornet, M.K. (2006). Scurvy: a disease. Dermatology, 41(8), 476-481. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.2002.01551.x
Media on Eating Disorders with a Concentration of 16- to 24-year-Olds
Agency Name: ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders
Location: The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders is located high in the ock Mountains just 15 miles from Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is located on an old camp ground that is housed inside an old student union building. The facility was once part of Colorado University and now used as treatment center for teens and young adults. Led by nine of the top full-time, board-certified psychiatrists plus other professionals that will specialize in treating eating disorders, The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders will consist of a highly skilled treatment team that will works to address each patient nutritionally and psychosomatically, as well as to manage other medical issues common to eating disorders. The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders provides the best contact to some…
Derenne, J.L., & Beresin, E.V. (2006). Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30(3), 257-61.
Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (2011). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47(1), 40-67.
Jane, D.M., Hunter, G.C., & Lozzi, B.M. (2009). Do Cuban American women suffer from eating disorders? Effects of media exposure and acculturation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(2), 212-218.
Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2009). "EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT MASS MEDIA ARE/ARE NOT [pick one] A CAUSE OF EATING DISORDERS": A CRITICAL REVIEW OF EVIDENCE FOR A CAUSAL LINK BETWEEN MEDIA, NEGATIVE BODY IMAGE, AND DISORDERED EATING IN FEMALES. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 9-42.
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
Energy expenditure in anorexia nervosa." (Jan 2005).
Nutrition Research Newsletter. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_1_24/ai_n8968079
Murphy, Megan. (4 Feb 2007). "The struggle against anorexia: Former UNC swimmer battles the disease." Greeley Tribune. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.greeleytrib.com/article/20070204/NES/102030156
Paccagnella, Agostino, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Mauri%2C+Alessandra%22" Mauri, Alessandra, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Baruffi%2C+Carla%22" Baruffi, Carla, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Berto%2C+Rita%22" Berto, Rita, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Et+al%22" Et al (May / Jun 2006). "Application Criteria of Enteral Nutrition in Patients ith Anorexia Nervosa: Correlation Between Clinical and Psychological Data in a "Lifesaving" Treatment.
JPEN: Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3762/is_200605/ai_n16350972/pg_3
Trebay, G. (6 Feb 2007). "Looking Beyond the Runway for Answers on Underweight
Models." The New York Times. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/06/fashion/shows/06DIARY.html?ref=shows
Energy expenditure in anorexia nervosa." (Jan 2005).
Nutrition Research Newsletter. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_1_24/ai_n8968079
Murphy, Megan. (4 Feb 2007). "The struggle against anorexia: Former UNC swimmer battles the disease." Greeley Tribune. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.greeleytrib.com/article/20070204/NEWS/102030156
Paccagnella, Agostino, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Mauri%2C+Alessandra%22 " Mauri, Alessandra, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Baruffi%2C+Carla%22 " Baruffi, Carla, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Berto%2C+Rita%22 " Berto, Rita, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Et+al%22 " Et al (May / Jun 2006). "Application Criteria of Enteral Nutrition in Patients With Anorexia Nervosa: Correlation Between Clinical and Psychological Data in a "Lifesaving" Treatment.
Behavioral approaches alone or combined cognitive behavior therapy may be used. Behavioral techniques might include simply not buying trigger foods or avoiding certain shops; that is, building up new habits to replace existing ones. Another example would be modifying eating behavior such as eating in the same place each day, or concentrating solely on eating and not watching television at the same time (Fiona Mantle, 2003)."
It is worth noting here that research has shown that people will change and transform their eating habits, once they learn the advantages and disadvantages of their eating behavioral patterns. However, at the same time, it is also worth noting here that since eating habits can be transformed through learning, they can also be unlearned, however, the process of unlearning may take place through a lengthy passage of time. As Fiona Mantle (2003) writes, "Eating behaviors are learned behaviors therefore they can be unlearned,…
Abraham S, Llewellyn-Jones D (2001) Eating Disorders: the facts. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Bruch H (1973) Eating Disorders: Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa and the Person Within. New York, Basic Books.
Bunnell, D.W., Shenker, I.R., Nussbaum, M.P., Jacobson, M.S., & Cooper, P. (1990). Sub-clinical vs. formal eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 357-362.
Cathie E. Guzzetta. (2001). Developing and implementing a comprehensive program for children and adolescents with eating disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing.
One form of self-mutilation can be thought of as culturally accepted, even in the United States. Tattoos, body piercings and earlobe earring holes are all fairly accepted in some if not all social milieux in the U.S. While these behaviors may be viewed by some as pointless self-mutilation, they have a long and multi-varied history in this and many other cultures. The focus of this article is on generally-accepted mutilation, which causes harm to the body and does not meet cultural norms. In its worst form, self-mutilation can include cutting off a limb or self-castration; it is thus a serious problem with a subset of those in the SI cohort. As with many forms of OCD, self-mutilation generally begins in late childhood and the early teen years.
The authors argue that moderate- to severe SI requires a combination of therapies. Since much of the etiology is based in family…
Franklin, M.F. (2003). The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study: Rationale, Design, and Methods. Journal of Child and Adolescent Pharmacology, 39-51.
Geller, D.B. (2003). Which SSRI? A Meta-Analysis of Pharmacotherapy Trials in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Am J. Psychiatry, n.p.
March, J. (2004). Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, Sertraline, and Their Combination for Children and Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. JAMA, n.p.
Nelson, T.R. (2007). A Narrative Approach to Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 67-80.
These suppositions allow the researcher to view the world from a certain perspective while ignoring other perspectives. The researcher in this study assumes that his subjects are logical human beings who have a rationale point-of-view. Their thinking is valid and reasonable and their approach is more or less along the lines of scientific thinking. In addition, we assume that commonsense thinking and scientific thinking are more or less identical in nature. With these assumptions in mind, we take a post-positivism philosophical foundation; as in line with Trochim (2000) post-positivism is the outright denial of positivism (which argues that the laws of the nature are perfunctory and therefore deductive reasoning can be the only suitable approach to comprehend nature) and presupposes that day-to-day human and scientific reasoning are more or less the same and in order to understand reality, researchers have to use not only deductive but also inductive reasoning (Trochim,…
Bailer UF, Frank GK, Henry SE et al. (2005). Altered brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1032-1041.
Bloks H, Hoek HW, Callewaert I et al. (2004). Stability of personality traits in patients who received intensive treatment for a severe eating disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 129-138.
Bulik CM, Klump KL, Thornton L. et al. (2004). Alcohol use disorder comorbidity in eating disorders: a multicenter study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 1000-1006.
Byrne, B. (2000) Relationships between Anxiety, Fear Self-Esteem, and Coping Strategies in Adolescence. Adolescence. 35. 137.
They ae thee to play and not to show off thei bodies.
Female athletes with lage body size will find discomfots in the tightly fitted unifoms. This then pesents poblem to safety. The female athletes who will not be at ease to the equied unifom could not focus on the game she is playing. She will, fom time to time, ty to eaange, pull o push some pats o the gament whee she thinks she needs to be coveed. With such attention that will be given to the gament, how can it be assued that the athlete will be safe in pefoming on he spoting event?
Lastly, female athletes who have lage body size will not be motivated to join any spoting activities anymoe because of the fea fo negative judgments fom the cowd and the media. The spots aena is becoming moe of an aea fo the body image…
references of college women basketball players. Master's Thesis
Ford, S., & Feather, B. (May, 1993). Women's basketball uniform analysis. Final report presented to Russell Athletic Corporation.
Gitlin Cara. (November 2000). "Male gawkers have all the fun." The John Hopkins News Letter.
Girls Skip Meals to be like Skinny Models." news.bbc.co.uk. 04 Feb. 2003. BBC Newsround. 8 Aug. 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/uk/newsid_2726000/2726279.stm
Hellmich, Nanci..usatoday.com. "Do thin models warp girls' body image?" 26 September 2006. USA Today. 30 Nov. 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-09-25-thin-models_x.htm
Alcoholism researchers developed this model. The model presumes that a consumer is in one phase of change at any given time. This model entails Maintenance, action, maintenance, preparation or pre-contemplation (Patrick 189). The concept is that consumers have to shift from one stage to the next. The stages prepare them to move to the next ones sequentially. This suggests that if consumers hurry through or if they skip stages they are likely to experience setbacks. In addition, different stages apply different strategies. For instance, a person who is addicted to smoking and is at the pre-contemplation stage: this means that the person is not even thinking of quitting the habit. Probably, such a person is always not ready to consider making a list of alternatives (Lucas 920).
This model has been successful in areas such as drug abuse, smoking, and alcohol. However, the model has been applied in changing health…
Biederman, J et al. Are girls with ADHD at risk for eating disorders? Results from a controlled, five-year prospective study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Aug;28(4):302-7.
Busko, Marlene. Girls With ADHD Are at Increased Risk for Eating Disorders and Depression.
Nov 08, 2007. Medscape News Today. Web.
Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…
Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.
Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa
Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.
Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.
a. Key facts and statistics…
Depression and Eating Disorders
The eating disorder category in the DSM-IV includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified categories. Peck and Lightsey (2008) note that while the DSM classification symptom is currently the most used system, there has been some debate in the about how to classify people with eating disordered behavior. A viable alternative to the discrete categories used in the DSM is notion of viewing eating disorders along a continuum from having no such behaviors to the severe eating disordered behaviors. In an effort to combine the two methods the self-report Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis (QEDD) was developed. The QEDD distinguishes nonsymptomatic individuals (no symptoms) to symptomatic individuals (those that have some symptoms, but do not qualify for a diagnosis to anyone qualifying for an eating disorder diagnosis). Previous research has provided support for this conceptualization by comparing the QEDD with scores…
Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G., Jr., & Kessler, R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 348 -- 358.
Some doctors believe that genetic factors are the core cause of a lot of eating disorders. esearchers have found specific chromosomes that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia, specifically regions on chromosome 10 that have been linked to bulimia as well as obesity. There has been evidence that has shown that there is an association with genetic factors being responsible for serotonin, the brain chemical involved with both well-being and appetite. esearchers have also determined that certain proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to influence a person's vulnerability to developing an eating disorder (Eating disorders -- Causes, 2010).
The advance of food in Western countries has become extremely problematic. The food that is produced in the U.S. every year is enough to supply 3,800 calories to everyone on a daily basis. This is far more than is needed for good nutrition. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic,…
Eating Disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Mental Health Information
Center Web site: http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/ken98-
Eating Disorders. (2009). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Institute of Mental Health
It is imperative to persuade children to go outside and play and to educate them about exercise. They have to learn that there is such a thing as too much or too little. The best thing one can do for their kids is to take walks because it's beneficial to their health (the Media, 2007). Although a good argument can be made that it is not the media that leads women to get eating disorders and that it is instead society that perpetuates this, I think it could be said that one goes hand in hand with the other.
The manner that the main stream media portrays women in the images that they depict has a definite influence on the way that women feel and how they believe that they need to look like. There is a constant barrage of overly think women seen in advertisements that lead women to…
Coakley, Tedra. 2007, "Eating disorders no longer discriminate," viewed November 24, 2010,
< http://www.iccjournal.biz/eating_disorders_no_longer_discr.htm >
"Cultural Roles." 2007, viewed 24 November 2010, < http://www.something-
What hurt the most is that I felt that my personal integrity and the right to be myself were being unfairly obstructed. I am no longer a child and while I am not an experienced adult, yet I feel that I am old enough to make my own decisions. In fact I began to feel like a prisoner in my own home and this tended to increase my sense of opposition to the attitude of my parents.
A also realized that the root of the problem lay in a lack of understanding and communication. I also felt that my parents had not attempted to listen to side of the argument closely enough. I therefore decided that the argument should end and sat down with my parents one evening to convince them that my eating habits were intended not to harm myself but to increase my quality of life. I was…
These disorders have historically been experienced and treated as individual psychological and medical disorders. Women suffering from them usually came into contact with one another only in institutional settings. ut with the rise of new media technologies and modes of communication, digital communities have provided new possibilities for connections between once isolated individuals. Thus these sites provide a glimpse into the meaning making practices of non-clinical populations." (2008) Indeed what these sites actually provide is a type of framework that might be utilized in the development of treatment options across the population. Pascoe states that already participants in this "online subculture...often rework characterizations of anorexia as a disease by engaging in complex discussions of anorexia as a lifestyle choice in addition to or instead of a medical and psychological disorder. In crafting a complex community with unique symbols, rituals and identities these women provide a fuller picture of eating disorders…
Iannelli, Vincent (2003) Eating Disorders Awareness. Online available at http://pediatrics.about.com/cs/conditions/a/eatingdisorders.htm
Chisholm, Lee and Fenaughty, John (nd) Pro-Ana (Pro-Anorexia), Pro-Mia (Pro-Bulimia) and the Internet. Online available at http://www.netsafe.org.nz/Doc_Library/download/nzac_proana_promia_feb07.pdf
Pascoe, C.J.. 2008. "You're Just Another Fatty:" Creating a Pro-Ana Subculture Online. Digital Youth Research http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/node/104 .January 22, 2008. Online available at
Oppression of Class And Gender
Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)
According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.
All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."
(MAX WEER: asic Terms)
Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…
"Advertising Images of Girls and Women." 1997 Children Now. Retrieved May 12, 2005. ( http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnfall1997.html )
Chaffins, S., Forbes, M., Fuqua, H.E., & Cangemi, J.P. 1995. "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be." Education, 115(3), 380+. Retrieved May 12, 2005, from Questia database. ( http://www.questia.com )
Cohen, C.I. 2002. " Economic Grand Rounds: Social Inequality and Health: Will Psychiatry Assume Center Stage? Retrieved May 11, 2005. ( http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/8/937
"Changing Ideal Body Types over the Century." 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
Kalpidou Costin and Morris (2011) use standard social-science methodology to correlate Facebook use among college students with measures of self-esteem and adaptation to college life. Facebook use was measured according to a survey devised by Kalpidou Costin and Morris, rating emotional and social connection to Facebook, but also according to the number of hours spent on the website, and the number of "friends" on the site. The survey population deliberately included a mix of first-year college students and upper-class students, on the basis that the latter would have an "established social network" already (184). They found that a larger number of Facebook friends was related to poor academic adjustment in college, but worse for the first-year students. The academic adjustment also correlated with poor emotional adjustment, suggesting that "Facebook use, like Internet use, does not fulfill emotional needs" (187). They also discovered that the amount of time spent on Facebook…
Kalpidou, M., Costin, D., & Morris, J. (2011). The relationship between Facebook and the well-being of undergraduate college students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(4), 183-189. doi:10.1089/cyber.2010.0061
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…
AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).
Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964
Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
"I don't think the symptoms are significantly different enough from bulimia or anorexia that it deserves a special diagnostic category...It's an obsessive-compulsive problem. The object of the obsession is less relevant than the fact that they are engaging in obsessive behavior," said one such therapist with a shrug (Ellin 2009, p.1). She said that culture had little to do with the psychological problem and that healthy eating was seen by the patient as merely a way to lose weight, or an obsession fixated on a different aspect of food, beyond its caloric content.
It is true that many orthorexic patients, young and old, lose weight, and sometimes extreme amounts of weight. However, not all patients are fixated primarily on weight loss, or on the fat or caloric content of foods. The youth of the patients, and the fact that boys and girls manifest the illness in more equal numbers also…
Ellin, Abbey. (2009, February 26).What's eating our kids. The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/26/health/nutrition/26food.html?pagewanted=2
"…people with NES tend to be more depressed than obese people without NES, and the mood of those with NES tends to worsen during the evening, something not seen in other obese people"(Logue, 2004, p. 185).
Among the many studies that provide insight into the background and origins of this syndrome, one of the most enlightening was Obesity by Stunkard, in Fairburn and Brownell (2002). This provides an in-depth analysis of night eating syndrome as well as a concise overview of the background of this condition. Stunkard also refers to a detailed overview of this condition.
Studies using the above criteria estimate that the prevalence of the night eating syndrome in the general population is approximately 1.5% and that prevalence increases with increasing weight, from about 10% of persons enrolling in obesity clinics to as high as 25% of patients undergoing surgical treatment for obesity…it occurs among about 5% of…
Allison K. et al. ( 2005) Neuroendocrine Profiles Associated with Energy Intake, Sleep, and Stress in the Night Eating Syndrome . The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(11), pp. 6214-6217.
Amanda Ursell's: Feel Good. (2001, January 7). Sunday Mirror (London, England), p. 16. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5007796657' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
(5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where ideas, lessons, and strategies can be shared.
(6) Train staff on the concepts surrounding Positive ehavioral Intervention Support (PIS) and support teachers as they develop preventative behavioral intervention plans that utilize PIS strategies and concepts. (Rush, 2010, p.1)
Rush (2010) states that the key elements of the model were online, collaborative learning and accessible computer-based educational resources. The results are stated to have exceeded initial expectations for "changing the focus in self-contained classrooms from behavior control to academic achievement." (Rush, 2010, p.1) Not only is academic achievement up but as well it is reported that "behavior referrals are down, and teachers report improved student outcomes in all areas." (Rush, 2010, p.1)
The work of Pierangelo and Guiliani (2008) states the…
Pierangelo, R. And Guiliani, G.A. (2008) Classroom Management for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Step-by-Step Guide for Educators. Corwin Press, 2008.
Jolivette, Kristine, et al. (2000) Improving Post-School Outcomes for Students with Emotional and Behavioral disorders. ERIC Clearinghouse. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E597. Online available at: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org/e597.html
Salmon, Hallie (2006) Educating Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Law & Disorder. Online available at: https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/201/salmon%20educating%20students%20with.pdf?sequence=1
Rush, Sharron (2010) Improving Education for Students with Emotional Disturbances. Knowbility. Online available at: http://www.knowbility.org/research/?content=improve
By rejecting the correspondence theory of truth (namely, as truth corresponding to reality) and postulating instead a relative strata of truth as consisting of a construction of the human mind, the axes are a set of subjective opinions formulated by a socially privileged and credentialed class of individuals who are separate from their prescribed reality (Duffy, et al. (2002). Caplan (2001) (in (Duffy, et al. 2002) provides an instance of social wrongs that can consequent from this with the DSM recommendation for a new category called "Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder." Not only is there no hard evidence to support this category, but also the symptom could have been caused by environmental, instead of biological, causes. emove the environmental stressor and no such 'disease' exists. Instead the DSM axes, created by socially privileged individuals, only harm these women and teens and destroy their socioeconomic status still further by labeling them with an…
Cooksey, E. & Brown, P. (1998). Spinning on Its Axes: DSM and the Social Construction of Psychiatric Diagnosis, International Journal of Health Services, 28, 525-554
Duffy. M., et al. (2002). A critical look at the DSM-IV. Journal of Individual Psychology, 58, 363-373.
Gergen, K., Hoffman, L., & Anderson, H. (199) Is Diagnosis a Disaster?: A Constructionist Trialogue Relational Diagnosis, Wiley.
Gillig, S. (1995). Warning: this diagnosis can be hazardous to your health. Counseling Today, 38, 36-37
Obesity in Los Angeles County
The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…
About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from HealthyPeople.gov: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx
Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: http://www.fitness.gov/about/order/index.html
Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved
from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa / obesity / economic_consequences.htm
Digestive System Disorder Case Study: Gastroparesis
The paper opens with an introduction and definintion of Gastroparesis and its association to damaging of vagus nerves along the intestines and stomach muscles. This reduces their ability for function properly. People living with diabetes have a higher likelihood of advancing Gastroparesis against sequential Diabetic Gastroparesis. More persons are contracting Gastroparesis during surgical operations. The paper illustrates that more patients are yet to find a cause linking their illnesses with Gastroparesis because it triggers Idiopathic Gastroparesis. The scope of Gastroparesis has a close link to diseases of connective tissue such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as well as scleroderma. The neurological conditions worsen along Parkinson's disease. The paper concludes with proposals of Gastroparesis diagnosis through tests carried out on gastric emptying scans, x-rays, and manometry. Clinical Gastroparesis takes the definition of stomach emptying complications. There are beneficial adjustments to insulin dosage among diabetic people who…
Ellenburg, M.A., (2012). Gastroparesis: Causes, Tests and Treatment Options. New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
Parkman, H.P., & McCallum, R.W. (2011). Gastroparesis: Pathophysiology, Presentation and Treatment. New York: Springer
Sethi, A.K., & Murthi, R.K., (2011). Bowl Care and Digestive Disorders. New York: V&S Publishers
ascertaining the link between depression and eating disorders, with particular focus on young adults and teens. Not much information is available on the subject of eating disorder (ED)-diagnosed persons' nutritional status and food consumption. The objectives of this study were:
To explain eating disorder-diagnosed teens' nutritional intake and To study the relationship of depression with ED among teens without as well as with ED.
A number of data sources were employed for individual papers examined for this research. This examination facilitates the drawing of a few key inferences. ED's high stability and its major link to obesity and declining psychological health among adults highlight the necessity of timely problem identification and treatment in childhood and teenage. Depressed youngsters must be especially observed to detect restrictive ED development. Further, adult females depicting a lifetime ED diagnosis showed double the likelihood to report migraines as compared to unrelated members of this very…
Allen, K., Mori, T., Beilin, L., Byrne, S., Hickling, S., & Oddy, W. (2012). Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 459 - 469.
Christina, B., Lange, K., Stahl-Pehe, A., Castillo, K., Scheuing, N., Holl, R., . . . Rosenbaeur, J. (2015). Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early - Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control. PLoS ONE.
Costa, J., Maroco, J., Pinto Gouveia, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Shame, Self-Criticism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation and Depression in Eating Disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 315 - 328.
Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Dempfle, A., Konrad, K., Klasen, F., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2015). Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 675 - 684.
Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).
It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…
Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.
Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin
Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.
Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.