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Spurred on by European colonialism, nationalistic fervor, and fear of immigration, the new science of race dug deep roots into European mass culture. "Scientific racism," or "race science," referred to the ideology that differences in human behavior derive from inherent group characteristics, and that human differences can be demonstrated through anthropological, biological, and statistical proofs.
There is a clear sense that anti-Semitism was a standard part of almost every aspect of human development, that culminated frequently in violent and subtle acts against Jews over and over again, throughout history.
At various times throughout the modern period, the myth of a "Jewish world conspiracy" has attracted adherents. Jews have been accused of plotting to take over the world by undermining the existing social and political order. The myth of the "Jewish world conspiracy" springs from diverse sources. As one source of the myth, Yehuda Bauer has pointed to the…… [Read More]
" (Jahoda 1998). Consequently, such points-of-view may be difficult to back.
Anti-Semitism had ancient beginnings throughout Europe, but the Nazi's added a more modern scientific twist to these long-held beliefs: "The adversary is not Judaism, but Jewish genes. Nazism inverts the crucial diagnosis: the carrier of pollution is not ideology, religious dogmatics, discrete beliefs in and about God, it is, instead, the carnal being of the Jew, his or her very physical presence, that incorporates the ontological and normative antitheses of history and metahistory." (erner, 1997). So the Jew, to many German citizens, was not loathsome in the same way that capitalists or communists were -- these groups were despicable for their ideological notions -- the Jew, by contrast, was hated for traits that were biologically inherent to their makeup.
Following orld ar II, in the wake of the horrible crimes that were uncovered, anti-Semitism in Europe and the Americas…… [Read More]
anti-Semitism. hat is it? hat is its historical development? hy has it persisted until the present day? hat has been the role of Christianity in the continuation of anti-Semitism?
Michel Molloy's text Experiencing orld Religions offers powerful testimony, over the course of its eighth chapter, as to the plurality and diversity of the Jewish tradition, from the ideological conflicts between the Pharisees and Sadducees in ancient Israel, to the differences in levels of adherence to the Mosaic commandments between Reform, Conservative, and Orthodox Jews today. (Molloy, 2002) Perhaps the one unifying force for all Jews, over much of the modern age, has been the status of Judaism as a persecuted religion and the collective status of the Jews as a persecuted people.
Unlike other ethnic groups peoples, the Jewish people have often been persecuted for their religious beliefs alone, namely their refusal to accept the dominant religion of the home…… [Read More]
anti-Semitism provide illustration. Then make case greatest impact relations Jews Christians advent Christianity present day
Kinds of anti-Semitism
Scholars have often classified anti-Semitism into different categories "religious, political, murderous, 'benign,' 'eliminatory,' racial, economic, Nazi, and so forth" (Falk 8). Perhaps the earliest form of anti-Semitism is religious: during the development of the Christian religion (which sprang from Judaism), there began to be notable hostility between Jews (and later gentiles) who followed Christ and those who did not. Christianity eventually abandoned the idea that following Mosaic Law was necessary, and while it embraced the Hebrew scriptures, it viewed Jesus as a fulfillment of its prophesy and those who did accept Jesus to be fundamentally in error. Because of the Gospels' portrayal of the death of Jesus, the Jews were libeled as 'killing Christ.' This was used as a justification for anti-Semitism in the ancient world, particularly after the dissolution of the…… [Read More]
Anti-Semitism has practically been embedded into Christian doctrine. As Harrington (2009) points out, “certain Gospel texts have fostered anti-Judaism,” and “one can say that the Gospels may have an anti-Jewish potential,” (p. 1). This is true in spite of the fact that many of the authors of the gospels might have self-identified as Jews, or who were at least writing from a Jewish consciousness and Jewish point of view, for a largely Jewish audience. To extricate anti-Semitism from the synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) seems challenging. Harrington (2009) is willing to accept the challenge by first showing that the wisdom contained in the synoptic gospels reveals “common ground” between peoples of the book (p. 2). Second, Harrington (2009) offers new frameworks for reading the synoptic gospels, so as not to impose anti-Semitism or to misinterpret the author’s original meaning. Finally, the author offers important social, cultural, and historical contexts…… [Read More]
Jew English literature. The reflection Anti-Semitism racism in novels plays Jew Malta, Oliver Twist, Shakespeare's works e.g The Merchant venice. ith elaboration end racism anti-semitism.
Anti-Semitism in English literature
Anti-Semitism has been present in English culture for centuries, this being particularly obvious through studying literature and how it was influenced as a result of biased thinking. The British society put across its unwillingness to accept Jewish individuals as equals ever since the early second millennium. Lasting from that time and until the late nineteenth century English writers did not hesitate to express their anti-Semite convictions in their field of work. Influential English writers like Christopher Marlowe and illiam Shakespeare were actively involved in damaging the image of Jews through the way they presented them in their writings.
Europe has a long history in discriminating Jewish individuals, given that people in the territory came up with a series of false claims…… [Read More]
At this point in the declaration, the sentiments of the church become very expressive -- "The Church... cannot forget that she received the revelation of the Old Testament through the people with whom God... concluded the Ancient Covenant;" thus, "most of the early disciples who proclaimed Christ's gospel to the world, sprang from the Jewish people."
This declaration then concludes by focusing on the status of the Jewish people in relation to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ:
Since the spiritual patrimony common to Christians and Jews is thus so great, this sacred synod wants to foster and recommend... mutual understanding and respect...
True, the Jewish authorities and those who followed their lead pressed for the death of Christ; still, what happened in His passion cannot be charged against all the Jews, without distinction....Although the Church is the new people of God, the Jews should not be presented as rejected or…… [Read More]
There is a clear sense that Stalin and other officials had differing views and therefore actions, that depended almost entirely on the needs of the nation, as they perceived them, at the time the decisions were made.
Prior to 1948, the Soviet Union's record concerning Jews was mixed. On the one hand, Lenin, the first leader of the Soviet Union, had consistently and vigorously condemned anti-Semitism, and in the late 1920s and 1930s Stalin had acted to stamp out public manifestations of anti-Semitism. (36) on the other hand, Stalin began in the late 1930s to suppress and destroy Jewish cultural activities and institutions. The arrests and show trials of 1936-1938 included an attack upon many leading Jewish communists. Further, government tolerance of popular anti-Semitism no doubt influenced the considerable collaboration of Soviet citizens with the Nazi Holocaust.
Regardless of the overall anti-Semitic stance of the party, and Stalin it was…… [Read More]
**These sections must be completed by the student / author:
**Expected outcomes of the project
**Budget and schedule
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, outledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Cravatts, 2010, Blaming the victim for Palestinian anti-Semitism. 09-16, 2010.
http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/27746 (accessed 12-10, 2010).
-- . BLAMING the VICTIM: THE TUTH ABOUT PALESTINIAN ANTI-SEMITISM. 09-28, 2010. http://www.jewishpress.com/pageroute.do/45397 (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Dershowitz, a 2003, the Case for Israel, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Foxman,…… [Read More]
This is also possibly the least well-documented phenomenon in the racializing of Arabs and Muslims leading to the widespread acceptance of profiling and related loss of civil liberties." (2002)
The work of Nicole J. Henderson (2001) entitled: "Law Enforcement & Arab-American Community Relations After September 11, 2001" reports a study in which Arabs living in the United States were interviewed. Henderson reports that when asked about hate crimes "...community respondents across sites mentioned fear of government policies, at times equating the detention of Arab men and special registration with hate crimes. Another leader felt that "before 9/11, there were always questions of bias from people -- from individuals -- but not ever about the government and the police." A business leader commented in response to whether or not hate crimes were a problem in his community, "Now we're dealing with another prejudice. Right now, this is a very serious problem…… [Read More]
It happens during the time of economical crisis, depression, inability to realize ambitions, inability to influence the course of some events. And it often results in anti-Semitic moods of certain social groups: mostly radical working-class youth. We see this tendency now as the economical recession had penetrated into many spheres of life and touched nearly everyone, in addition there exist a conflict in Israel between Israelites and Palestinians, which still has no reference to the essence of the problem, but is used as a justification.
The Jew I am belongs to a traumatized generation. We have antennas. Better yet, we are antennas," he said. "If we tell you that the signals we receive are disturbing, that we are alarmed... people had better listen." says Elie Weisel (from Wiesel: Anti-Semitism Increase, article)
Most of Jewish organizations in Europe insist to make protective legislature, use educational instruments in order to protect Jewish…… [Read More]
It was in the World War 2 that something so huge was tried by The Nazi Germany that it was just impossible to continue it. Genocide was attempted by Adolf Hitler and his comrades; they made systematic and deliberate attempts to kill all of the Jewish community. Jews were blamed by the Nazis for the misfortune that they faced in World War 1 because of which after the war Hitler made it his mission to kill all the Jews. This genocide started in 1939 and lased till 1945. Adolph Hitler was the one by whom this whole thing was introduced as he wanted to get rid of all the minority races from Germany (Bergen, 2009).
In the World War 2 there was a lot of suffering but what happened with the Jews can't be forgotten. The Jewish people had a set of laws for them which were known…… [Read More]
The shifting perceptions of 1096, particularly when seen against the backdrop of the historical
"reality, have much to teach us."
The development of the Rhineland Massacres, often looked at in history as a linear first example of official Jewish mass persecution by the Christians, wavers in importance to the modern scholar, as well as the modern Jew and Christian. Was it a warm up for mass persecution, or a warm up for crusade actions against the Muslims? Historically it is safe to say that it is all of these things, an important period in Jewish and Christian history. One that would have served as a good lesson for detractors of reinvigoration of anti-Semitism that pervaded not only the Nazi mentality but that of much of western thought, notorious anti-Semites existed all over the world during the rise of the Nazi regime. In fact the WWII genocide could be seen as…… [Read More]
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…… [Read More]
On the other hand there is a growing consensus that these reasons do not fully explain the failure to deal with a problem like the Holocaust when the dimensions of the situation were known at a relatively early stage. The weight of the argument would the therefore be inclined towards critics such as Wyman who see political reasons for this lack of action based on anti-Semitic sentiment in the county at the time. This seems to be supported by the fact that strict immigration laws were implemented in a time of crisis
Abzug . America and the Holocaust. etrieved April 23, 2007, at http://www.utexas.edu/opa/pubs/discovery/disc1997v14n2/disc-holocaust.html
Ambrose S. How America Abandoned the Jews in World War II. etrieved April 23, 2007, at http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=gvKVLcMVIuG&b=395061 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709
Barnett, V.J. (1999). Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. etrieved April 23, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709
Brustein W.I. (2003) oots of…… [Read More]
Therefore, the totalitarian threat does not just replace the first president with Hitler, but also removes any possibility of difference or ambiguity. The multiple, varied, and multifaceted portraits of Washington are replaced entirely by a single, repeated image, because the totalitarian regime must remove any room for interpretation. Furthermore, the importance of the name of Washington himself is demonstrated by the careful attention to the ribbons which once held his name:
And on the ribbon beneath each portrait, there was no longer the name "Washington" either. Whether the ribbon curved downward as on the one-half-cent stamp and the six, or curved upward as on the four, the five, the seven, and the ten, or straight with raised ends as on the one, the one and a half, the two, the three, the eight, and the nine, the name lettered across the ribbon was "Hitler" (Roth 43).
Thus, the family's trip…… [Read More]
Greene has already experienced prejudice and hatred based on his heritage and even his father warned him that it was impossible to fight everybody who would dislike him for being Jewish for the rest of his life. It is obvious from Greene's response to anti-Semitism in his hometown that his choice is not the product of fear or cowardice, but merely the only viable option for assimilating successfully in his school community. Greene realizes immediately that his classmates are extremely prejudiced against Jews and that is what he tries to explain to his roommate in response to the suggestion that he was wrong not to divulge his heritage and that it would not have made a difference if he had been honest from the start. Ultimately, anti-Semitism affects Greene in every imaginable way in school and even precipitates his being adjudicated a cheater by his classmates, partly on the inference…… [Read More]
Another tragic page of Jewish history is tragic period of Holocaust. There's no need to explain those terrible times and German crimes - these facts are well-known but I have to mention that Jewish Zionists managed organizing resistance to the Nazi regime and also they gained success cooperating with British, Soviet and American governments which agreed and let Jews create their state after the war. "Among the few European Jews who escaped the Holocaust were Zionists who emigrated to Palestine" (Shmuel; Reinharz, Jehuda Zionism and Religion Among, p.122). They were happy to leave Europe that was their real homeland but after Hitler's crimes they got sure that having own state, which would protect its citizens, is the best way out from international violence and anger directed against Jewish nation.
1948 was a turning point of Jewish history. At last Jewish nation created an own state on their historical land -…… [Read More]
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…… [Read More]
"Sonnet 130" by Shakespeare and "Sonnet 23" by Louis Labe both talk about love, as so many sonnets do. Their respective techniques however, differentiate them from each other. Shakespeare uses a rhyme scheme that became known as Shakespearean rhyme scheme or English rhyme. He writes about love in a sarcastic manner though. He is mocking the traditional love poems and the usual expressive manner in which women are often compared to. It is ironic in a way because Shakespeare himself also uses the very techniques in his previous writing when he is writing from a man's point-of-view and describing a woman. But in this sonnet he uses the technique of mocking this exaggerated comparison. Usually women are compared to having skin as white as snow, however, in reality, Shakespeare points out, women don't really fit this description, "If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun."
Louis Labe…… [Read More]
Seamstress: A Memoir of Survival
Anti-Semitism was on the rise in the beginning of the 20th century and reached its peak under Hitler's rule in the 1930s so much so that the Jews weren't even allowed to live. This paper sheds light on the mental, emotional and physical torture that a woman by the name of Seren (Sara) Tuvel Bernstein underwent like many other Jews of her time at the hands of Hitler and his regime. The seamstress: A Memoir of Survival is an autobiography of Sara, her struggle and that of those around her in the concentration camps where they were given a life worse than death.
Spread of anti-Semitism Across Europe:
Sara had left her home in Romania when she was only thirteen against her father's wishes to continue her higher studies on full scholarship in Budapest. Like the rest of Europe here too the Jews were thought…… [Read More]
All of the residents of the attic live with the constant fear of discovery, and death looms over the Secret Annex.
However, although Anne and Peter are more grown-up in many ways than adolescents who lead a more normal childhood, they also are far more under the watchful eyes of their parents, almost as if they are small children. The growing restlessness of Anne and Peter, combined with the closeness of the environment exacerbates the normal tensions that always exist between the parents and children. The divisions between the married couples, the Franks and the Van Daans, are also amplified because of the tensions of the war, the small living quarters, and the lack of privacy.
Q4) Give an example of anti-Semitism.
Anti-Semitism is manifest in the fact that Anne and her family had wear yellow stars, to identify them as Jews, and were denied basic rights (such as the…… [Read More]
Franklin Delaney oosevelt's attitude towards the Jewish problem during the War. I have read and heard such contradictory accounts spanning from Jews who congratulate for his involvement to some scholars and others who criticize him for an alleged anti-Semitism. Being that this is a famous personality that we are talking about and a prominent President of the U.S.A.; I felt that enlightenment on the subject was important. I wanted to go to the source, and therefore I accessed original documents from the collections of the Franklin D. oosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. These, compounded with other sources, are the results that I found.
By the 1940s, news had already reached the U.S.A. about the concentration camps which Edward . Murrow described (December, 13, 1942),as "A horror beyond what imagination can grasp . . . there are no longer 'concentration camps' -- we must speak now only of 'extermination camps.'" (FD…… [Read More]
pre-World War II anti-Semitic depiction of European Jews to the depiction of Muslims in Western media today
Part of the depiction of European Jews prior to World War Two can be viewed as a subtle manifestation of anti-Semitism, ultimately foreshadowing the blatant discrimination and persecution that would come to unfold its wrath upon the world. A certain amount of this depiction can be seen in a never before published article that Churchill wrote, where he asserted that the reason that Jews were persecuted for so long, was not simply because of the wickedness of the persecutors (euters, 2007). In this article, Churchill essentially blames the Jews in part for their own persecution, a notion which highlights the very alive anti-Semitism of even educated people in the pre-Holocaust world. Churchill refers to Jews as "…sober, industrious and law-abiding and praised their readiness to fight and die for the country they lived…… [Read More]
al, 2002). In addition, change occurs quicker when leadership is diverse, as well (Hampton and Lee, 2007). Finally, ethnicity and diversity issues should be included in organizational behavior courses, so that all business and industry has more access to this information (Mamman, 1996). Change must occur in our society, and an end to prejudice must be achieved for our society and our workplaces to be truly free and equal.
Barnes & Noble, & the Anti-Defamation League. (2001). 101 ways to combat prejudice. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League Web site: http://www.adl.org/prejudice/closethebook.pdf.
Ehrlich, H.J. (2002). Understanding hate crimes. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the Prejudice Institute Web site: http://www.prejudiceinstitute.org/understandinghatecrimes.html.
Green, K.A., L pez, M, Wysocki, a., and Kepner K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the University of Florida Web site: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/H022.
Griessman, G. (1993). What is…… [Read More]
Psychology of the Bigot -- the Anti-Semite vs. The Racist
In "Anti-Semite and Jew," the existentialist philosopher John Paul Sartre, a gentile, analyzed the psychology of an anti-Semitic individual who hates Jews. He did so from the perspective of an outsider to the group he was examining over the course of his essay, as well as attempting to plumb the psychology of the 'insider' of this group. In "The Fire Next Time," James Baldwin examined the American racist's perspective from the point-of-view of the object of racial hatred and ostrication, namely his own perspective as a Black man in America. Both, however, attempted to relate the psychology of hatred to larger political concerns, in Sartre's case that of a biased and class-oriented French society, and in Baldwin's case that of the Cold ar, which he suggested caused the fear of tragedy to intensify racial divisions in America.
At the beginning…… [Read More]
Vienna and Paris
in the Decade 1900-1910
Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910
Europe of 1900 -- 1910 saw the rise of several cultural meccas, including Vienna and Paris. Vienna was a center of literary, cultural and artistic advancement in "middle" Europe, enjoying booming population and innovative developments in all those spheres, even as it endured the rising tide of anti-liberal, anti-Semitic Christian Social forces. In keeping with this innovation, Vienna's music enjoyed avant garde developments of Art Nouveau from Paris, notably represented in Vienna by the works of composers Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schonberg. As Vienna became the literary, cultural and artistic center of "middle" Europe, Paris became the literary, cultural and artistic center of the orld. Drawing exceptionally gifted people from the entire globe, Paris boasted the first Olympics to include women and the orld's Fair of 1900. Reveling in its invention of Art Nouveau, Paris also…… [Read More]
Public Relations and Society
Mel Gibson's anti-Semitic remarks
Mel Gibson is well-known for his history of discriminating diverse communities and what is even more concerning is that his record of insults seems to be recurring with a relatively increased frequency. During recent years he was very open with regard to opinions he had about particular races and ethnicities. Even with the fact that he is known to have put across aggressive behavior toward women and that he discriminated African-Americans, his anti-Semitic remarks are probably among his worst behaviors up to this moment. Realizing the position he put himself in as a consequence of expressing his beliefs concerning Jewish people, Gibson performed a wide range of strategies in an attempt to be forgiven.
The Hollywood actor is a very controversial personality and most stories regarding him are owed to the fact that he seems to have a very bad temper. The…… [Read More]
Sowell also ignores the substantial difference between blacks and other ethnic groups. Other ethnic groups migrated willingly to America, and were able to form communities surrounded by people of other ethnic groups. Furthermore, other groups were not subjected to the system of slavery, which set up the racial caste system that exists today. In fact, Sowell himself is guilty of perpetuating the same type of racism that helped develop the caste system of racism. Blacks are not given the same type of ethnic identity as the Irish or Germans, for example. He does not refer to these groups as Europeans or as whites, but acknowledges their different ethnic identities. Likewise, slaves who were brought against their wills to America came from different countries in Africa and were, themselves, composed of different ethnic groups. hen brought here, they were mixed in with members of other groups, many times with traditional enemies.…… [Read More]
John Galliano's anti-Semitic tirade first broke in February of 2011. One of the earliest reports of the incident was published in the UK Guardian, which claimed the Dior fashionista "was said to have hurled racist and anti-Semitic abuse." Of course, the article might have been published before the videos of Galliano went viral and therefore "was said to have" is a safe play on the part of the press. In fact, Galliano did say that he "loves Hitler" and told a woman some disturbing comments about how her ancestors would be dead if Hitler had his way.
The news arc over the course of the year took some predictable turns. Early reports were as bare bones as possible. Reporters covered just the facts, ma'am. Occasionally the reporters sounded slightly opinionated, but only to the extent that they were more willing to censure Galliano for making such obviously hate-filled remarks. For…… [Read More]
In your explanation, compare and contrast domestic and international terrorism. Also, please indicate whether either type of terrorism is subject to defeat. or, in a free society such as ours, must we simply learn to live with the annoyance and tragedies of ideological, political, and/or religiously-motivated violence?)
Domestic terrorism is much more statistically common than foreign terrorism, as those who feel they have cause to be angry enough to act against anything are much more likely to act against something they see as wrong in their own environment, Opportunity and ease of access also plays a role in this observation. Though terrorist acts are exceedingly rare they do occur on a somewhat regular basis if definitions are kept broad and are more likely to be domestic in nature than foreign born. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Domestic and international terrorism are similar in some ways, they both experience the kind of…… [Read More]
Germans and Jews After I
Germans and Jews After orld ar I
In orld ar I, more than 12,000 Jews lost their lives fighting for Germany (Flannery, 43). They were a large part of the culture there, and had intermingled as much as they were able to. However, despite the way they were involved in so much of what was taking place in the country, they were also never really accepted. After I, Germany's official position on Jews changed. Much of that took place because the German leaders did not want to take any blame for the problems that had caused them to lose out in the war. Because they wanted to make sure the people saw them in a good light, and they did not want to admit past mistakes, they looked for scapegoats. One of the main groups for that scapegoating was the Jewish people. Even though many…… [Read More]
There is much to the assertion by Nachman Syrkin that the Jews have persisted in history because the performed a socio-economic function that other peoples did not want to do or could not do. In his 1898 "The Jewish Problem and the Socialist Jewish State, " Syrkin lays out these ideas. Regarding this, Syrkin argued that a classless society and national sovereignty were the only means of solving the Jewish question completely. He felt that this social revolution would be the key to the normalization of the Jewish condition. ith this in mind, he argued that the Jew must therefore join the proletariat as the only way to end class struggle and redistribute power justly. Since the bourgeoisie betrayed the principles of liberalism, then Jews must be the torchbearers of Socialism.
hile Syrkin is many times seen as working on his own, however he had predecessors and contemporaries who had…… [Read More]
During this period, Austria also continued industrial expansion, but at a slower pace than Germany.
With growth came further instability. Investment and founding of new organizations exploded since 1867, with over 400 new corporations being founded (Pulzer 1964) from 1867 to 1872. This was the age of the Gruender, which meant "entrepreneur," but also came to be associated with financially shaky schemes which resulted in the bursting of a speculative bubble in 1873.
The period of the Liberal government spanned from 1867 to 1879, a period during which Austria lost its power and prestige, unemployment and economic insecurity reigned, and newly-vociferous minorities were exerting their rights to equality in language and culture. In the meantime, Germany seemed to be growing from success to success, as its liberalization engendered national unity and a growth in wealth and military power.
Conservative Ascendancy in Austria
The nature of the conservatives in Austria was…… [Read More]
From the standpoint of non-Zionist religious Jews, the Zionist movement went against the teachings of the Talmud. The Neturei Karta noted in their writings that the group was against the creation of the State of Israel, and the uprooting of Arab individuals from their communities by Zionists wishing sovereignty. According to the group, the shedding of Jew and non-Jew blood for this sovereignty was against Judaism not only because of the violence, but because the cause for which the wars occurred was against Judaism. The Neturei Karta believed Eretz Yisrael would be returned to the Jews on the appearance of the Messiah, and that any other method of return was invalid. As such, the Neturei Karta opposed, and still opposes, the creation of a Jewish state, on the basis that the creation of such a state is against the teachings of the Talmud, and against the word of God.
Clearly,…… [Read More]
German-Jews. The history of German-Jewish conflict is widely known but many might wonder why it started in the first place. Why would Germans show such extreme hatred for an ethnic group while the other did not seem to have threatened the latter? This question is certainly strange but answer is worth seeking which also helps us understand the concepts of conformity and social perception that affects global conflicts of such magnitude. The German-Jewish conflict is as much grounded in ugly realities of imperislaims and racism as any other. Arendt discovered two important innovations that were cultivated during the rise of modern imperialism i.e. "race as a principle of the body politic" and "bureaucracy as a principle of foreign domination." (Arendt, p. 185) While racism was seriously grounded in the fear of the white man, bureaucracy emerged as a result of over exaggerated and entirely false sense of protection that white…… [Read More]
In 1918 Iceland became independent but remained under the rule of the Danish king. At the end of the war a plebiscite showed a 75% pro-Danish majority and the North Slesvig was once again reunited with Denmark (Miller 224).
As World War I was coming close and Denmark remained neutral Jews started moving to the country. There are no exact statistics since many of these immigrants were wary of the authorities, but as many as twenty to thirty thousand Eastern European Jews may have entered Denmark during this period and approximately 3,000 stayed permanently, thus doubling the Jewish population (Hammerich in Kisch). More did not stay because the existing assimilated Jewish community wanted to pay their passage out; they believed their position in society was threatened and latent anti-Semitism would spread. The Jewish congregation even actively cooperated with authorities such as the police to expel unemployed or unwanted individuals from…… [Read More]
Jewish Identity in Modern Times: Jonathan Sacks, in an article Love, Hate and Jewish Identity appropriately sums up the dilemma of Jewish self-identity in modern times by stating: "Until the beginning of the 19th century, Jews defined themselves as the people loved by God. Since then most Jews...have defined themselves as the people hated by Gentiles." This is probably because in pre-modern times, the Jewish child felt no significant 'identity conflict' as he grew up into adulthood in isolated, self-contained Jewish communities. This state of relatively secure Jewish 'self-identity' was, however, severely disrupted by the advent of enlightenment in modern times, which forced the Jewish community to interact with the political, cultural, and economic forces outside their limited, self-contained Jewish society.
Jewish self-identity in modern times, however, is not as simplistic as stated by Sacks. According to Michael a. Meyer, apart from enlightenment (which is an ongoing process), the other…… [Read More]
Hitler's Willing Executioners by Daniel oldhagen
In his book, Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary ermans and the Holocaust, Daniel oldhagen attempts to explain why the Holocaust happened. Central to his thesis is the notion that erman citizens were essentially regular human beings, living conventional lives, with complex social relationships and family obligations, who also happened to be staffing police battalions, organizing death marches, working in concentration and slave labor camps and basically facilitating Hitler's overwhelmingly murderous plan.
Daniel oldhagen explores the motives behind the seemingly normalized crimes of mainstream erman society, using as examples thousands of ordinary people who tormented, starved and murdered their former friends and neighbors. The author suggests that the nature of anti-Semitism at the time offered a palpable motive to erman society, and partly explains the perpetrators' actions. Furthermore, oldhagen tracks the history of anti-Semitism in ermany for several centuries and points out that it was a…… [Read More]
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…… [Read More]
Jews Became hite
The Nordic races were viewed as the "real Americans" (53)
Even people from other European countries were not considered "white"
The height of anti-Semitism in the United States was in the 1920s and 1930s; doors were closed to new immigrants.
Anti-Semitism was related to other types of racism including discrimination against Southern Europeans, but also against Asians and any non-Nordic group.
After II, the attitudes of Americans changed so that Europeans were viewed as "model minorities"
Jews saw themselves as successful based on hard work and deferred gratification; and discounted the impact of white privilege
There was a sort of affirmative action program for Euromales, essentially "whitening" certain groups and creating a new model of institutionalized racism.
Immigrants poured into urban centers, which were more than 70% immigrant, leading urban America to "take on a distinctly immigrant flavor" (54)
Red scare is linked to anti-working class…… [Read More]
Jews in "Ivanhoe"
Sir Walter Scott's novel Ivanhoe makes Jews central to the plot, but it is not an anti-Semitic book. Despite the inclusion of some traditional stereotypes which -- given the largely "antiquarian" nature of Scott's interests (to recall the word he uses) in telling this tale -- are aimed above all else at historical accuracy for the time period of the book and are not intended to be offensive, Scott writes as though some tenet of Christian chivalry entails tolerance and open-mindedness towards the Jewish population in England in the Middle Ages. In this paper I will suggest that a thorough examination of the novel's portrayal of twelfth-century Judaism reveals that Scott is really writing from a deep understanding of what life is like at the margins -- perhaps because he is writing as a Scotsman and as a physically disabled person (Scott famously had a club-foot) --…… [Read More]
Most of the Jews who had settled in the Austro-Hungarian Empire were in the hinterlands, and were as poor as their neighbours. In those provinces where Jews could own land, there was a requirement that the Jews live on and work their land -- in order to prevent land speculation. As a result, many Jews in Niederoestereich and around Linz, where von Schnerer and his family resided, were themselves farmers. Natural increases and immigration resulted in large Jewish populations in the Austrian Empire; it has been estimated that over 70% of all the Jews in the world lived in these areas in the late 19th century (Engleman, 1933) One can imagine that the entry of Jewish farmers created tension within the communities of rural Austria, as they competed in the marketplace for customers, and demonstrated their abilities to succeed through education and hard work. This contrasted with the Austrian "auern,"…… [Read More]
ut the rabbi could also serve as the connection between a Jewish ghetto and the surrounding Christian community. This dual raised status of rabbis made their role the most enviable in the community. ut the shifts in French society that occurred in the decades just preceding and following the French Revolution created cracks in the isolation of European Jews.
The French Revolution is generally seen as an overthrow of the monarchy, and of course this is in part what happened. ut the revolution was intended not simply to overthrow the Second Estate -- the nobility and royalty -- but also the First Estate -- the church and the clergy. The revolution unseated the Catholic Church from its position of power perhaps even more surely than had the Reformation, and it helped to free the country from Protestant as well as Catholic influence. ut even more broadly, the revolution allowed people…… [Read More]
The German suffering after the first world war and the humiliation of Germany with other nations gave the Nazis the opportunity to feed hatred of the Jews and at the same time promise that if the People gave in to the Nazi ideology, they would be in the land that would hold them a superior way of life. That the followers of Hitler followed the Ideals as true and that they also created in their own minds the need to eliminate groups of people who disagree like the communists and the Jews was the fundamental cause of the holocaust. Why did it come about? It was argued that while the political climate of the times did not show much promise, Hitler was able to deliver what he promised even if it was based on evil. This gave him ground support. One of the chief supporters of Hitler, and Aman who…… [Read More]
The latter was an important member of this party, and also a staunch anti-Semite. The association with Eckart therefore further solidified Hitler's prejudice against Jews and other non-Aryan races (Fuchs 12)
Like many Germans, Hitler was deeply shocked by Germany's surrender. At the time, he was lying in a military hospital, recovering from a mustard gas attack. Recalling the anti-Semitic and political pamphlets he read as a teenager, Hitler came to believe that Jewish politicians had signed the armistice, thereby surrendering Germany at the point of victory (Schwaab 46).
The German surrender thus served as a catalyst for Hitler's entry into politics
Hitler believed that these Jewish politicians were preparing the way for a communist takeover of the German nation.
Shortly after meeting Eckart, Hitler produced his first anti-Semitic writing, advocating for a solution to the growing German problem. Hitler's solution involved "rational anti-Semitism." He vowed not to use traditional…… [Read More]
The creation of the state of Israel in Palestine lent Jews in America a degree of legitimacy. And Jewish-Americans were now on the cusp of a new reality.
Unit IV: 1946-1976
In the 1950s the Anti-Defamation League sought to have the immigration laws of decades prior repealed. President Truman was sympathetic to the millions of displaced persons, a good portion of which were Eastern Europeans of Jewish descent. Even though America was largely outraged at news of the Holocaust, many Americans reserved the suspicion that Jews were crooked bankers secretly poised for world domination. The immigration laws were not repealed.
The 1950s also saw a debate concerning the census of 1960: should it contain religious questions? Here was an issue that embraced social, political and religious points all at once. The way Jewish-Americans faced the issue had repercussions for the entire nation. The book Protestant-Catholic-Jew had helped establish the idea…… [Read More]
S. Although this concern has remained, nowadays, the agenda of such agencies features a wider range of issues, especially the relationship between the American Jewish community and Israel, as well as that with other Jewish communities all over the world (Chanes: Advocacy Organizations). The Jewish Education Service of North America (JESNA) and the Coalition for the Advancement of Jewish Education (CAJE) are national bodies dealing with Jewish education (Ibid.: Educational and Cultural Organizations).
Social services have always been one of the strengths of the American Jewish community. Central to the Jewish community, the first federation was established in 1895 and functioned thanks to its volunteers who managed to link philanthropic institutions and Jewish social services in a very efficient fund-raising effort. The growth of the community also brought about the development of the federations which have achieved considerable power and influence within the Jewish community. Today, federations around the country…… [Read More]
Europe and Germany had a long anti-Semitic history and Nazism appeared to be the best solution during the 1930s. The masses were vulnerable to being influenced and Hitler was well-acquainted with this concept. Even with the fact that it is difficult to determine his exact interests in wanting to remove Jewish people from Germany and from territories that came to be occupied by Nazis, it is very likely that he was also a victim (at least partly) of anti-Semitic thought that dominated Europe for many centuries before the Holocaust.
Numerous individuals in the contemporary society continue to believe that Jews are responsible for many problems that the world is experiencing. Even with the fact that it would be impossible for another Holocaust to happen, it is worrying to observe how many communities preserved traditional thinking and are reluctant to acknowledge the horrible effect that the Holocaust had on society in…… [Read More]
Thus, in order for the righteous people to save the Jews they had to quicker and far more efficient than the troops who were looking for the Jews. The rescuers and the Jews who they had helped always lived in the constant danger of being caught. Everyone knew that as soon as the rescuers or the Jews were caught they would be persecuted.
Seeing how the media and the government had brainwashed almost everyone, there was always the fear of being reported by a neighbor or any other person. All the persons knew that their best interested would be served and they would be saved only if they helped Hitler in his cause. This made it even harder for any moral person to go on and help the Jews. The people who did decided to rescue and save the Jews had to alter their daily routine to quite an extent.…… [Read More]
Holocaust revisionism continues to be a major problem because of the ill-will between Arabs in Jews in the current Middle East. In fact, as recently as 2006, a major Arab power hosted a conference on the Holocaust. However, the purpose of the conference was not to address lingering effects of the Holocaust, like the pervasive anti-Semitism that plagues much of the world, but to provide support for the position that the Holocaust was a myth. This concept is central to Iran's political position regarding Israel. Iran maintains that Israel is not a legitimate country, and that its political existence has been justified by the myth of the Holocaust, which the estern world used to justify Israel's re-creation after orld ar II. (CNN). In fact, modern Holocaust deniers recast the issue as some type of Jewish conspiracy, and this conceptualization actually serves to increase worldwide anti-Semitism.
Of course, the lessons…… [Read More]
Alfred Dreyfus was born in Alcace in 1959, a period of time tumultuous for both Germany and French. When Germany acquired the Alsace region, Alfred's father moved his family to Paris, feeling allegiance to that country. Alfred was commissioned as an artillery officer in the French Army in 1882 (Adler, 2002).
While Dreyfus was growing up France went through tome dramatic changes. The French thrown was abolished in 1871 and the Third Republic formed. Religious leaders were afraid their power would diminish, and multiple factions lined up against each other. Anti-Prussian sentiment was high because of a humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian war (Adler, 2002), and all these factors led to a huge wave of extreme nationalism. Those opposed to the new Republican government needed a target and found it in the Jews after the collapse of a major bank. The director of the bank named "Jewish capitol…… [Read More]
She has an earnest love for the purity and perfection of the Virgin Mary, but she is overcome by her own immaturity in expressing her love. Finally, the Prioress desperately wants the world to consider her as pious, devout and worthy of respect and dignity. However, she exudes an amount of prejudice and anger not befitting a lady who is devoted to love and mercy. To assess the character of the Prioress is quite difficult indeed; her character, as presented by Chaucer, is much like that of most ordinary humans. The prioress has some admirable and endearing virtues that many wish to emulate and some character defects that prevent her from being of maximum service to god and her fellow men and women.
Ames, Ruth M. God's Plenty: Chaucer's Christian Humanism. Chicago: Loyola
University Press, 1984.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales: The Prioress' Tale. Online Accessed 17
Ocober…… [Read More]
Jewish Revolt of 66 AD can be traced to the death of Nero the Great when relations between the Jews and Rome deteriorated rapidly. Caligula (37-41 AD) who sought to impose exclusive empire-worship was another factor, but Caligula's being assassinated prevented it from occurring in his lifetime.
Jewish apocalyptic fervor was intense and, no doubt another causality to the revolution. In his Annals Tacitus explicitly asserted:
Most Jews were convinced that it was written in the ancient priestly writings that in those times the East would gain in might and those who came forth from Judea should possess the world (Tacitus, 5:13)
Also contributory was the growing Greek anti-emitism. The Hellenized merchants constituted the civil service and predominated as tax collectors. Most of the soldiers in the Roman garrisons were recruited from Greek cities such as Caesarea and amaritan ebaste. These Hellenized Greeks occupying Palestine were notorious for their anti-emitism,…… [Read More]
Millions of moviegoers who saw Mel Gibson's 2004 film Passion of the Christ were inundated with gory images of a man's bloody and beaten body, images that have been handed down through the centuries in Christian iconography and literature. The controversy the film ignited over the implications that the Jews were ruthlessly responsible for the killing of Jesus caused a surge in interest in the subject of Christian history. The award-winning prime-time news magazine show Dateline NBC capitalized on the popularity and contentiousness of the subject matter and produced a special report entitled "The Last Days of Jesus." The full film can be viewed in full online at the Dateline NBC website: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4315203/. Narrated by NBC's Stone Phillips, the five-minute segment squarely and directly addresses the subject of whether or not the Jews killed Jesus. Thus, "The Last Days of Jesus" banks on invoking the kind of political stir that…… [Read More]
aul Hilberg's The Destruction of the European Jews is a classic in its field and a landmark historical text. First published in 1961, The Destruction of the European Jews was, and remains, one of the most comprehensive works of research on the Holocaust. The tome has been re-released in a three-volume set, revealing the level of complexity and comprehensiveness the author originally imparted. The Destruction of the European Jews therefore continues to have relevance today and is a must-have feature of scholarly bookshelves.
What makes The Destruction of the European Jews unique and indispensible is the fact that it focuses more on the German genocide project than on Jewish culture. This permits insight into the sociology, psychology, ethics, and politics of genocide: allowing scholars to apply Hilberg's analysis to other instances of genocide. The account is grim, eerie, and disturbing. For those who have not yet visited Auschwitz or any…… [Read More]
Texaco, Inc. Case
Texaco, Inc. is a multi-billion dollar corporation that produces petroleum, oil, gasoline and asphalt. Founded in 1901, Texaco's growth expanded into the automobile industry in the 20th century, at which time the company focused on international production and marketing.
Ethics, the morals, values and beliefs of person has become a conflict in the workplace because it has been ignored. When those values take a back seat to the betterment of an organization, the lack of respect, greed and stereotypical attitudes present an unhealthy work environment.
In 1996, while in the midst of expanding its conglomerate, Texaco confronted with negative publicity, addressed the issue that shed a negative image on the company. As a result of racist comments and behavior conducted by its employees and management, Texaco became involved in a lawsuit that settled in the amount of $175 million. This is noted as the largest settlement of…… [Read More]
Martin Luther and the Jews
The Jewish people have historically been subjected to persecution and scapegoating for their differences in practice, ideology and culture. Of all the hegemonic influences which have been guilty of engaging in such Anti-Semitism, perhaps those affiliated with the Christian Church are most troubling given the shared origins of Christianity and Judaism. This is why the text by Christian reformer Martin Luther is especially shocking in its virulence and prejudice.
As one of the most important and revered thinkers in the history of the Christian tradition, the views expressed by Luther would be spread far and wide in the Europe of the author's time. The author in question here would, in fact, be a defining force in his time and place. German theologian Martin Luther emerged as a critical figure in world history and in the evolution of the Christian faith for his resistance…… [Read More]
The United States of America has become a symbol of freedom to the rest of the world. People from nations everywhere come to this country in pursuit of the "American Dream," for America grants people opportunities that are hard to find elsewhere. In the past few centuries, our country has become a melting pot for many different ethnicities and cultures; while groups still maintain their diverse identities, many of them adapt to an American way of life. This has been the case for Jewish-Americans. Once a major target of anti-Semitism, American Jews have truly established themselves in this nation and have even earned the respect and acceptance of many. This assimilation of Jews into American society has caused a substantial increase in intermarriage, ironically increasing the possibility of destroying what is left of Jewish identity and unity.
On a positive note, the intermarriage of Jewish-Americans has become a…… [Read More]
Even though the Gypsies in prewar Germany consisted of a very limited per capita population they received massive amounts of attention from the Regime and were left ripe for further marginalization and destruction.
Though they made up less than 0.1% of the German population (between 20,000 and 30,000), Gypsies, like Jews, received disproportionate attention from the authorities as the various agencies of the state sought to transform Germany into a racially pure society. etween 1934 and the outbreak of World War II, a series of laws and regulations created a web of restrictions that set Gypsies apart and severely restricted their ability, individually and collectively, to survive. In July 1934, a decree forbade intermarriage between Germans and Gypsies. 4 the same year, the law permitting the deportation of aliens was extended to foreign Gypsies. 5 in September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws declared the Gypsies "an alien People" 6 and restricted…… [Read More]