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Examination of Compiled Birth and Death Date Data
By averaging the ages of death for all of the seventeen (17) males in the data set, as well as the eighteen (18) females, it was possible to calculate the average age of death for each gender. For the thirty-five (35) subjects studied in this section of Oak Grove Cemetery, males were deceased at an average age of 63.65 years, while females were deceased at an average age of just 59 years. If one presupposes an average lifespan for this historical era of 60 years, the average difference of 4.65 years of lengthened life afforded to males represents an additional 7 per cent of lifespan simply on the basis of gender. While there may exist certain physiological tendencies which lead to males living for a longer time than females, the variety of socioeconomic disadvantages imposed on females during this historical era would…
One other area of the world which is currently experiencing some major problems related to archeological excavations in public places is the Middle East, particularly Israel and within its capital city of Jerusalem. In this case study by Yigal Bronner and Neve Gordon, the main area of dispute lies with "the way archeology is being used in Silwan, a Palestinian neighborhood in the oldest part" of Jerusalem, where excavations, under the guidance and support of the Israeli government, are currently being carried out. However, as Yonathan Mizrachi, an Israeli archeologist, sees it, these excavations are part of "a concerted campaign to expel Palestinians from their ancestral home" by using archeology as a leveraging tool. Mizrachi's evidence for this alleged campaign has deep connections to Elad, an Israeli settlement organization which through a variety of legal means has managed to "evict East Jerusalem Palestinians from their homes and replace them with…
Bronner, Yigal and Neve Gordon. (2008). Digging for trouble. [Internet], Counterpunch.org. Available at http://www.counterpunch.org/bronner04112008.html [Accessed 30 December 2008].
Bruce-Mitford, Robert. (2004) the sutton hoo ship burial. Vol. 1. London, the British Museum.
Jameson, John H. (1997) Presenting archeology to the public: digging for the truth. Los Angeles, Alta Mira Press.
McGimsey, Charles R. (2002) Public archeology. New York, Seminar Press.
Artistic Analysis of "The Weeping Woman": A Plan to Develop a New Work
The meaning of artistic work continues to evolve to mold into new forms and shapes. The current sociological and economic developments are significantly influencing the artistic creations. Women have the power in the society, and, therefore, they have the freedom to do jobs, own businesses, and at a personal level, they now possess the option of sexual orientation. The modern era remained quite merciful towards women who had a role of sexual slaves in the past. The omans along with the Greeks considered the females as toys that had a function of providing comfort to warriors. Females were responsible for taking care of domestic chores, and they had no right of receiving payments against their services. However, males identified and treated them as trophies, and they collected them according to their level of bravery in the battlefield.…
Barnes, M., Davis, A., & Rogers, H. (2006). Women's voices, Women's choices: Experiences and creativity in consulting women users of mental health services. Journal of Mental Health 15 (3), 329-341.
Gonzalez-Ruibal, A. (2007). Making things public: Archaeologies of the Spanish Civil War. Public Archaeology Vol 6 (4), 203-226 .
Picasso, P (1937).The Weeping Woman . Tate. Tate Modern, London.
THE ROLE OF CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE EVOLUTION OF HUMANITY
Undestanding the evolution of humanity has been one of the most citical quests fo most individuals in the cuent society. The intesection between envionmental influences and cultue ceates an aea of social inteest with a focus on human evolution. Empiical eseach shows that the society plays a significant ole in shaping the evolution of human beings as evidenced by psychological analysis of human evolution. The extaodinay coopeative natue of human beings aises moe questions on the peceived changes of human behavio and inteaction ove time (Hawkes, Paine, & School, 2006). Among the factos that dive human beings to stive to undestand thei evolution, include paleoanthopology esults that povide unique infomation that povides significant evidence to the aspects of human evolution postulated to have occued millions of yeas ago. Results fom fossil studies such as inceasing bain size and…
references: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(01), 1 -- 14.
Croll, E., & Parkin, D. (2002). Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment, and Development. Routledge.
Darlington, P.J. (1978). Altruism: Its characteristics and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 75(1), 385 -- 389.
Eagly, A.H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions vs. social roles. American Psychologist, 54(6), 408 -- 423.
Foley, R. (1995). The adaptive legacy of human evolution: A search for the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 4(6), 194 -- 203
Stopping Looting of Classic Greek and Roman Underwater Antiquities Sites
Cultural artifacts that both describe how a group of people lived and demonstrates the art they contrived is precious to the people who consider themselves present members of that culture or, at the very least, are residents of the nation from which the culture originated. Unfortunately, the removal and sale of these artifacts has a long history, and the trade is only recently being regulated and stopped. There are many problems with the methods used to stop the trade however and no one nation or regulatory body has been able to devise a solid means by which these treasures can be returned to the people who claim them as heritage. The heritage argument and the ability to return the artifacts becomes even more clouded when the items in question are found underwater. Although there has been a concerted…
AFP. "A Rich Greek Archeology Frontier Lying Underwater." Khaleej Times (2005, June 24).
Aiken, Jonathan. "Antiquities Diplomacy." The American Spectator 42.1 (2009): 58-60.
Akal, Tuncay. "Surveillance and Protection of Underwater Archaeological Sites: Sea Guard." (accessed November 2, 2012) http://www.acoustics.org/press/155th/akal.htm
Carver, Martin. "Editorial." Antiquity 82.315 (2008): 7-9.
Archaeological Sites in the U.S.
This paper examines underwater archaeology in the U.S. The paper discusses excavation techniques, tools and technology and also explores the Clovis theory. The paper also reviews findings at several submerged North American prehistoric archeological sites.
Underwater survey and excavation are typically more expensive and logistically more complex than comparable terrestrial projects. Underwater conditions involve more variability from site to site, and even from hour to hour at the same site. All survey and excavation work is constrained by safety factors; in general the deeper the site, the less time that a scuba diver can remain at that depth. Other factors that are frequently less than ideal include water currents, temperature, and visibility (Merwin, Lynch, and Robinson, 42).
Nonetheless, the potential to recover significant archaeological data outweighs the disadvantages of working underwater. In fact, underwater sites may allow for the preservation of organic materials…
Anderson, David G. And Faught, Michael K. "The Paleoindian Period (ca. 13,000 B.C. To 7,900 B.C.)." National Park Service. n.d. Web. 6 May 2012. .
Faught, Michael K. "Submerged Paleoindian and Archaic Sites of the Big Bend, Florida." Journal of Field Archaeology 29, 3-4, (2004): 273-290.
"Florida's First People" Florida State University 2004. Web. 6 May 2012. .
Merwin, Daria E., Lynch, Daniel P., and Robinson, David, S. "Submerged Prehistoric Sites in Southern New England: Past Research and Future Directions" Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut 65 (2003): 41-56.
William F. Albright
A Study of W.F. Albright and How iblical Archeology Helped Shape His
William Foxwell Albright was first and foremost a believer in the religion of Christianity, a fact that greatly influenced his role as a iblical archeologist, or "historian of religion," according to critical scholars like J. Edward Wright and David Noel Freedman.
Yet Albright himself never claimed to be anything more than dedicated to interpreting "the unfolding scroll of history," in which he saw the Revelation of Christianity -- the fulfillment of the prophets of the Old Testament.
Or, more appropriately, as Albright himself wrote in 1940, the purpose of his work was "to show how man's idea of God developed from prehistoric antiquity to the time of Christ, and to place this development in its historical context."
In other words, Albright sought to illustrate in a real, contextual way the truth of the Christian…
Albright, William F. From the Stone Age to Christianity: Monotheism and the Historical Process. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1940.
Albright, William F. From the Stone Age to Christianity, 3rd edn. NY: Doubleday,
Albright, William F. "How Well Can We Know the Ancient Near East?" Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 56, no. 2 (June, 1936), 121-144.
This occurred in 330 BC, and Zoroaster's date would then be 588 BC, and this date we may take to refer to the initial success of his prophetic mission which consisted in the conversion of King Visht-spa when Zoroaster was forty years old. Since he is traditionally said to have lived seventy-seven years, we will not be far wrong in dating him at 628-551 BC. It seems also to be generally agreed that the Prophet's sphere of operation in which his message was proclaimed was ancient Chorasmia -- an area comprising, perhaps, what is now Persian Khorasan, estern Afghanistan, and the Turkmen Republic of the U.S.S.R. (Zaehner, R.C., 1961, 33)."
Ayala's science takes the mitochondrial Eve back even before what we know about Zoroastrianism, but we really have no accurate date of the monotheistic tradition as it arises out of Zoroastrianism, because there are no written artifacts that support its…
Blackwell, Richard J. 1999. Science, Religion and Authority: Lessons from the Galileo Affair. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29306390.Internet . Accessed 3 November 2008.
Dembski, William and Charles Colson. 2004. The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions about Intelligent Design. Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, Il.
Dembski, William and McDowell, Sean. 2008. Understanding Intelligent Design: Everything You Need to Know in Plain Langauge. Harvest House Publishers. Eugene, Oregon. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103534752
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…
Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.
Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.
Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .
Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
The potter has complete control over the shape the pot takes by the pressure, how fast he spins the potting wheel, and the moisture and pressure he applies from inside and outside the pot. He can keep the pot short and stout by slowing the wheel decreasing the outside pressure, or by spinning it faster and pulling upward he can grow the pot taller.
The bearing has to be maintained and kept lubricated, and the potter used animal fat to lubricate it.
The bearing was made of stone, and could be replaced to keep the wheel in the best working condition.
Other ways to create pots, even after the potter's wheel, was to coil the pot and shape it entirely by hand, smoothing out the coils and shaping it with just the artist's skills of hand control. Obviously, the wheel was an invention that much improved the process. Although there…
Grave, Peter, (Andrew S. Fairbairn, Sue O'Connor and Ben Marwick, Eds.) Melting Moments: Modelling archeological high temperature ceramic data, New Directions in Archeological Science (2009), Archeology and Palaeonthropology (University of New England, Armidale, Australia), Chapter 15, 215-232.
Memmi, Isabella Turbani, Pottery production and distribution: the contribution of mineralogical and petrographical methodologies in Italy, Periodico di Mineralogia, 73 (2004), 239-257.
Staubach, Suzanne, Clay: The History and Evolution of Humankind's Relationship with Earth's Most Primal Element (2005). Berkley: Berkley Hardcover Press.
Zaimeche, PhD Salah, Malagwa, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (2005), June, 8.
This interpretation would therefore tend to suggest a view of the art that shows cultural and social disparities between classes and social groups in the society.
In the final analysis what is clear that Mithen's approach holds a great deal of potential for an understanding of past cultures and societies from an archeological perspective. This interpretive stance is valuable in that it takes into account a wide ranging and inclusive understanding of the concept of ecology. Mithen's view is both logical and consistent with contemporary approaches in other disciplines in its emphasis on holistic and integrative views and interpretations of reality. Another benefit of this stance is that it brings to bear a host of different disciplines and perspectives that can help to unravel the mysteries encapsulated in the artifacts of the past.
However, while holistic thinking and integration are useful conceptual tools for research one should not…
Hodder, I., & Hutson, S., 2003, Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology (3rd ed.), Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Faris, J., 1983, 'From Form to Content in the Structural Study of Aesthetic Systems', in D. Washburn (ed.), Structure and Cognition in Art, Cambridge University Press, London.
Flannery, K. V, and Marcus, J., 1976, 'Formative Oaxaca and the Zapotec Cosmos',
American Scientist, volume 64, pp.374-83.
Most significantly, too, the library runs a free service and a book mobile to reach those who are unable for various reasons (such as being handicapped, ill, or elderly) to use the library. The book mobile has its own selection of books, toys, and a teacher who is available to instruct those who desire instruction and those who need help with their homework.
The library's vision statement is that it seeks to help people pursue lifelong leaning and discovery, as well as enjoyment of popular culture and the arts. It also seeks to help residents become well informed, to engage each other in dialogue and respectful discourse, and to actively participate in the life of the community. All of this makes it an organization that disseminates learning in the fullest sense of the word.
In a practical way -- and as per its mission statement -- it does this by…
Brown, J.S. & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Towards a unified view of working, learning and innovation. Organization Science. 2(1): 40-57.
Cohen, W.M. & Levinthal, D.A. (2000). Absorptive Capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. In R. Cross and S. Israelit (eds) Strategic learning in the knowledge economy. (pp. 39-68) Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.
Comley, L., Arandez, L., Holden, S & Kuriata, E. (2000). Are TAFE organisations learning organisations? Do they 'walk the talk'? The Centre for Curriculum Innovation and Development. Melbourne: Victoria University
Cross, R. And Israelit, S. (2000) Strategic learning in the knowledge economy. Boston: Heinemann.
Dignity of orkers
Dignity of ork and the Rights of orkers
There is a set of photographs taken by Sebastiao Salgado that explains the viewer both who Salgado is and why he covers the worker's plight throughout the world. The images are set in a gold mine in Brazil called Serra Pelada which is a vast pit where people toil daily to dig gold from the mud. The people dig the mud from the pit using the meanest of tools (pick, shovels) which they then put into wicker baskets. The baskets, weighing between "30 and 60 kilograms" (Stallabrass), or 65 to 130 pounds, are then carried up wooden ladders. The ladders are approximately 50 feet tall (and can be more), and the workers make as many as 60 trips per day with their baskets (Stallabrass). For each trip, the worker is paid the equivalent of 20 United States cents on…
Arceyut-Frixione, Helen Adilia. "Picturing and consuming Images of Misery and Injustice." Concordia University, 2008. Web.
Bakre, Shilpa. "AMOA Presents: "Workers: Photographs of by Sebastiao Salgado." AMOA News, 2009. Web.
Crow, Thomas. "The Practice of Art History in America." Daedalus 135.2 (2006): 70-84. Print.
Salgado, Sebastiao. Workers: An Archeology of the Industrial Age. London: Phaidon, 2002. Print.
Glimpse into Neanderthal Culture
hen one thinks of the Humanoid genus Homo Sapiens neanderthalensis (HSN) they picture a very primitive creature, simplistic in nature with few social complexities. However, upon close examination of several Neanderthan archeological sites, one will find the Neanderthal man had all of the necessary elements for the beginning of the formation of modern society. It was once thought that these elements were only present after Neanderthan culture after contact with Home Sapiens (HSS). However, evidence now exists that suggests that Neanderthals were already well on their way to developing a formal, but rudimentary, culture well before contact with HSS. This research will examine these findings using evidence gathered from the Petralona, Larga Velhol, St. Cesaire, Shanidar, and Arago sites. This research will support the thesis that Neanderthals had the beginnings of an advanced society prior to contact with Home Sapiens and that the disappearance of the…
Bednarik, R.G. (1992). Palaeoart and archaeological myths. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2(1): 27-43.
Chase, P. And Dibble, H (1987). Middle Paleolithic symbolism: a review of current evidence and interpretations. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 6:263-296.
A d'Errico, F. et al. (1998) "Neanderthal Acculturation in Western Europe? Current Anthropology, Supplement, 39:1-44, p. 3 in Morton, G. (1998) Neanderthan Culture. Internet Discussion. September 7, 1998. http://www.asa3.org/archive/evolution/199809/0121.html Accessed July, 2003.
Fagan, B. (1990) The Journey From Eden, (London: Thames and Hudson) in Morton, G. (1998) Neanderthan Culture. Internet Discussion. September 7, 1998.
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…
Ancient Corinth, located in Greece, is located in the northeast area of the Peloponnese at the front of the Gulf of Corinth was one of the largest cities of the ancient world and perfect for trade and commerce since it was strategically located between the Corinthian gulf and the aronic gulf, and possessed two harbors. Imports and exports from and to Asia used the harbor leading to Cenchrea, on the aronic Gulf, whilst ships travelling to and from Europe arrived at Lechaeum, on the Corinthian gulf ([footnoteRef:1]). [1: Excavations in Ancient Corinthhttp://www.ascsa.edu.gr/index.php/excavationcorinth/about-the-corinth-excavations/]
Corinth contained a quarter of a million people and became notorious for its standards of high-living and immorality. One ancient writer, in fact, used the term 'to Corinthianize', as synonymous for engaging in immorality. Its existence as a center of trade also made it a prosperous city.
Excavations of ancient Corinth were initiated in 1896 by the American…
Excavations in Ancient Corinth
Facing the challenge, "The synagogue in Corinth visited by Paul in Acts chapter 18" http://www.facingthechallenge.org/corinth.php
Facing the challenge, "The Judgment seat in Corinth."
One of the bloodiest and most prolonged strikes in U.S. labor history occurred at Ludlow, Colorado in 1913-14, in which 10-12,000 miners employed by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company (CFIC) demanded a 10% pay raise, the right to trade outside of company stores and recognition of the United Mine Workers Union. These mines were also among the most dangerous in the country, with a death rate over double the national average, but relatives of those killed in the mines almost never received compensation from the local courts. Indeed, the judges, sheriffs and county officials were all under the control of the company, while over 60% of the workers were immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe.[footnoteRef:1] CCFI, which was owned by the Rockefeller family, fired the miners immediately, evicted them from the company towns and brought in strikebreakers protected by the aldwin-Felts Detective Agency. This organization began a…
Ammons, Elias M. "The Colorado Strike." North American Review, Vol. 200, No. 704, July 1914, pp. 35-44.
Wallace, Mark. "The Ludlow Massacre: Class, Warfare, and Historical Memory in Southern Colorado." Historical Archeology, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2003, pp.66-80.
Mummies of Urumchi by Elizabeth Wayland arber. Specifically, it will contain a book report on the book, including the author's thesis, evidence she uses to prove her thesis, and how convincing a case she makes. Did ancient civilizations of Asia and Europe expand from common places of origin? Where did these Caucasians come from? Elizabeth Wayland arber, an archaeologist at Occidental College, asks herself those questions and begins a fascinating journey along the silk-road into prehistoric time. Is there strong circumstantial evidence to prove there was expansion from common places of origin for these mummies? arber was well prepared to piece together all of the diverse and overwhelming textiles, linguistic, and anatomical clues that makes up this amazing case.
The Mummies of Urumchi
arber's book chronicles the mummies found in and around the Urumchi area of Eurasia. The mummies are quite interesting for several reasons, including the vivid and beautiful…
Barber, Elizabeth W. The Mummies of Urumchi. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.
St. Philip, Elizabeth. "The Mummies of Urumchi." Discovery Canada. 17 July 1999. 1 Nov. 2003.
Culture in Anthropology:
Culture is basically defined as values, attitudes, and behaviors that are shared by a group of individuals. However, this definition of this has been a complex and relatively difficult task for anthropologists since the commencement of discipline in the late 19th Century. Culture originates from interactions and behaviors of people who eventually develop common attitudes, values, and behaviors. In essence, as people live and interact with one another, their learning skills and attitudes are in turn transmitted as knowledge and beliefs that are shared among them, which results in cultural beliefs and practices.
Despite the simple, basic definition of culture, anthropologists have struggled to describe and specify the concept since the discipline was established in the late 19th Century. There are various anthropologists who have attempted to define and specify the culture including Edward Tylor whose definition incorporates various significant features that are currently included in most…
Bonvillain, Nancy. "Chapter 2 -- The Nature of Culture" Cultural Anthropology. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006. 19-42. Print.
The major topic I have decided to research is the topic of the progression of the ancient people from the Clovis Period to the Late Archaic Period as represented by the artifacts and art that have survived them. Specifically, the paper will use the spear points of the Clovis Period found in Iowa from 11,000 BC and the White Shaman Mural found in West Texas from 2000 BC to describe the evolution of the ancient world—an evolution that begin with the people’s need simply to survive by hunting and using the spear points as a tool; after the progression of thousands of years and the migration of peoples to a region where they had new tools—rock walls—to tell stories and communicate ideas about where life came from, the people were able to address higher needs, such as the establishment of authority in the community and a myth about…
Audience views can also be discussed at this time.
The students have written their first draft. The teacher tells them that after the peer review, they will take the suggested comments and rewrite the paper. This step is another step in the writing process. As the students are learning the process, it is natural with less stress. At the same time, the instructor can continue exposing the students to the masters but in another way. As mentioned above, the teacher is there to answer questions from the students about possible errors in the writing. During the time, the students can spend a portion of their time in examining sentence build from different styles of writing. From this writing, they can have assignments where they clarify their knowledge of the rudiments of grammar, such as subject, predicate, noun, and verb, etc. This can be done using the writings to which they…
1. Beulah, J. "Contemporary Composition: The Major Pedagogical Theories." Cross Talk in Composition Theory: A Reader (1st ed). Ed. Victor Villanueva. Urbana, IL. 1997. 265-280.
2. Hiemstra, R. Uses and Benefits of Journal Writing. New Directions for Adults and Continuing Education. 2001. n. 90. p. 19-26.
3. Murray, M. "Teaching Writing as a Process, Not Product." Cross Talk in Composition Theory: A Reader (1st ed). Ed. Victor Villanueva. Urbana, IL. 1997. 21-24.
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…
"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .
Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
To resolve this conflict in the situation where demographic and experiential differences are found qualitative researchers, such as those studying different cultures, might employ guides, interpreters and/or other "native" individuals to introduce and help them assimilate into the culture, in order to observe it or in some cases they use time as their tool, immersing for longer periods of time with limited or no interruption to eliminate any bias that might occur in research results because of his or her presence. Even among researchers this is not seen as a perfect set up but it can help resolve some of the intrusion challenges associated with diversity.
One of the major problems, as qualitative researchers see it in historical research is the fact that the researcher has often been seen and thought of as holding a position of authority over the subjects being studied. This idea of "social capital" is pervasive,…
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field/. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Finkleman, J.M. (2007) Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation: The Dysfunctional Side of Diversity. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59 (4) 254 -- 260
Pugh, S.D. Dietz, J. Brief, a.P. & Wiley, J.W. (2008) Looking Inside and Out: The Impact of Employee and Community Demographic Composition on Organizational Diversity Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (6) 1422 -- 1428.
Merchant, B.M. & Willis, a.I. (Eds.). (2001). Multiple and Intersecting Identities in Qualitative Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
According to Fitzpatrick & Keegan (2010), "This use of historical ecology to study "the complex, historical interactions between human populations and the ecosystems they have inhabited" (Kirch 1997a, p.2; see also Crumley (ed.) 1994), has been applied in other parts of the world to observe anthropogenic changes through time. Archaeologists, influenced by a wide array of scientific fields, have taken a keen interest in understanding how humans adapted, influenced, modified, and impacted their environment. This is a difficult endeavor, however, because "environments change and the magnitude of change are never constant" (O'Brien 2001, pp. 29-30). (Fitzpatrick, Keegan, pg. 30, 2007)
Fitzpatrick & Keegan point to the uses of historical ecology to investigate the interrelationships between humans and the biosphere. The importance of noting environmental changes as separate from human involvement may be erroneous. Environmental changes are hinted by proponents of historical ecology to have been initiated by humans through their…
Anderson, a. 2009, Epilogue: Changing Archaeological Perspectives upon Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands1, University Press of Hawaii.
Balee W. (1998), Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates -- Chapter 1.
Bird DW., Richardson JL., Veth PM., Barham AJ. (2002) Explaining Shellfish Variability in Middens on the Meriam Islands, Torres Strait, Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 457-469
Erlandson, Rick (2010) Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems.
"The body of a bloodied Christ is divinely displaced from its sepulcher" and transferred to the est, where it must regain its rightful place, symbolically making Christianity's ownership of Jerusalem rightful and just."
Allen, Charlotte. "The real grail tale," Belief Net, December 16, 2009.
Hughes, Linda K. "Reinventing King Arthur: The Arthurian Legends in Victorian
Culture." Victorian Studies, 48. 3 (April 1, 2006): 559-560. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed December 16, 2009).
Miesel, Sandra. "The real Holy Grail," Crisis Magazine, 2004. Accessed December 16, 2009
from Inside Catholic at http://insidecatholic.com/Joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6747&Itemid=48
hitman, J. "Transfers of Empire, Movements of Mind: Holy Sepulchre and Holy Grail." MLN,
123. 4 (September 1, 2008): 895-923,978. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed
December 16, 2009).
Charlotte Allen, "The real grail tale," Belief Net, December 16, 2009, p.2. http://www.beliefnet.com/Entertainment/Movies/The-Da-Vinci-Code/The-Real-Grail-Tale.aspx
Sandra Miesel, "The real Holy Grail," Crisis Magazine, 2004, Accessed December 16, 2009 from Inside Catholic at http://insidecatholic.com/Joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6747&Itemid=48
Allen, Charlotte. "The real grail tale," Belief Net, December 16, 2009.
Hughes, Linda K. "Reinventing King Arthur: The Arthurian Legends in Victorian
Culture." Victorian Studies, 48. 3 (April 1, 2006): 559-560. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed December 16, 2009).
To him, these teachers never really crossed the barrier but are merely bridges that connect the two territories, speaking both the language of the rich and of the poor. Because of this, the only ones that the narrator ever trusts aside from the poor people are his teachers. This paved the way for the narrator to make them an exception from the "stupid rich bastards" that do not understand the poor. For him his teachers are the only noble people outside the territory of the poor, standing between the "stupid rich bastards" and them. The narrator's vision of a good life is greatly influenced by these teachers. He even considered being like them someday.
But the narrator was not fully convinced that being a teacher would help him give his family a comfortable life. He judged that being a teacher would not help him in his pursuit of his dreams…
Anderson, R., I. Carter and G. Lowe. (1999). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Social Systems Approach. NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Even though the movement has experienced having more success in the better developed parts of the globe, it is also present in third-world countries in domains such as art and philosophy.
The modern era lasted until approximately the end of the first half of the twentieth century, as the 1940s still had people subjecting themselves to the typical behavior of the time. ith the new movement into place, people learnt that they had the chance to change their lives without anyone prohibiting them to do so.
Even though technology has begun to flourish decades before, the technology brought by Postmodernism was completely different from what it had been until the time.
Considering a team of Archeologists that would excavate a site where technology flourished during the beginning or the twenty first century and a site where it prospered during the 1940s, the findings that they would make is that the…
1. Hodder, Ian. (1995). "Interpreting archaeology: finding meaning in the past." Routledge.
2. McKenzie, Janet. (2001). "Changing education: a sociology of education since 1944." Pearson Education.
Hodder, Ian. (1995). "Interpreting archaeology: finding meaning in the past." Routledge.
McKenzie, Janet. (2001). "Changing education: a sociology of education since 1944." Pearson Education.
The gatehouse at Harlech contained spacious chambers or halls, with fireplaces and latrines. There is little doubt that the guardhouse was home to the constable of the castle. Master James of St. George, the Harlech's builder, was himself appointed constable of his creation (Williams 2007, p. 7). The gatehouse was also occupied, in this period, by Sir John de Bonvillars, Deputy Justiciar of North Wales. The larger rooms on each level were fitted with tall windows. The most favored rooms faced the courtyard, the chimneys of their fireplaces making an additional architectural arrangement on the roof of the gatehouse (Williams 2007, p. 21). The view from Harlech is particularly impressive. The sea and the mountains of Snowdonia provide a majestic backdrop to the royal castle. It has even been suggested at oscommon that the castle's original location beside a lake and in the middle of an expansive field may have…
Barry, T.B., 1988, the Archaeology of Medieval Ireland, London: Routledge.
Brown, Allen, 1970, English Castles, Chancellor Press, 59 Grosvenor St., London.
Curtis, E., 2002,. A History of Ireland: From Earliest Times to 1922, London: Routledge.
Davies, R.R., 1997, the Revolt of Owain Glyn Dwr, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
For example, in the United States, the Civil War occurred less than 150 years ago, and yet different historians provide conflicting perspectives about the causes of the war, why it was lost, and the consequences of the war for America's history. Moreover, it was only after the Civil War and the end of slavery that one began to see widespread, reliable publication about various slave rebellions that had occurred in the antebellum South. This is interesting, because it makes one wonder if that information would be available or suppressed had the war ended differently. Moreover, the vast majority of Americans are unaware that some northern states were slaveholding states. Furthermore, when one looks at the number of Holocaust deniers, despite the overwhelming physical evidence and documentation regarding the Holocaust, one can see how intentional misrepresentation can play a role in history; there are entire countries that believe it is a…
Cornell, T.J. 2005. "The Value of the Literary Tradition Concerning Archaic Rome," in K.A. Raaflaub (ed) Social Struggles in Archaic Rome. New Perspectives on the Conflict of the Orders, 47-74. 2nd ed, Malden, MA.
Forsythe, G. 2005. A Critical History of Early Rome. From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London. 1-5; 59-77.
Livy, Books 1-10 (trans. de Selincourt, a. 1960. Livy. The Early History of Rome. London and New York). [Scott reserve DG 207 L5 D35 1960 or online at http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/ ]
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities (trans. Cary, E. 1937-50. The Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 7 vols. Cambridge, MA. [Scott PA 3611 L63 D562 or online at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Dionysius_of_Halicarnassus/home.html ]
These principles were those of reciprocity, reallocation and house holding, and they were embedded in the way the civil and politic societies interacted. The end of the century however brought by the first signs of disembeddment and they revolved around the transformation of land and labor force into commodities. For the European countries for instance, a disembedded economy referred also to the territorial expansion of the companies. In this understanding then, the developed European countries had expanded their operations and moved to wider markets, where they increased their access to customers and also their revenues. And not only that they began to sell their products to larger audiences, but they also began to acquire cheaper commodities from the foreign regions; they employed cheaper workforce in the region; and operations of international transfer of capital begun to emerge.
Ultimately then, an embedded economy is generally an enclosed and protectionist one, and…
Cumberpatch, C.G., Some Observations on the Concept of 'Embedded' and 'Disembedded' Economies in Archaeological Discourse, Assemblage Journal of Archeology, 2001
Halperin, S., War and Social Change in Modern Europe: The Great Transformation Revised, Cambridge University Press, 2004
Aristotle's View on Wealth Acquisition, Philosophy 101, http://www.philosophy-101.com/2007/06/29/aristotles-view-on-wealth-acquisition/last accessed on February 4, 2009
Basic Characteristics of Capitalism, Business Book Mall, http://www.businessbookmall.com/Economics_3_Basic_Characteristics_of_Capitalism.html. Ast accessed on February 4, 2009
Many of the other characters of the legend, such as Guinevere and Merlin are present in this film, as is the Sword in the Stone legend of Excalibur, Arthur's weapon (it was his father who removed it from the stone.
Ultimately, Arthur denounces his oman citizenship when he is disillusioned by the oman leaders and their activities, especially Bishop Germanius, and he joins the Woads to fight the Saxon Army that is attempting to gain control of Britain. In the end, many of his knights are killed in a ferocious battle, including Lancelot, and when the battle is over; Arthur has won and is declared king, with Guinevere by his side.
This film is so different from the traditional Arthur legend that is seems quite unlikely, but legends are often wrong, and so, the film could actually be based on historical fact, since new evidence comes out all the time…
King Arthur. Dir. Antoine Fuqua. Perf. Clive Owen, Keira Knightley. Touchstone Pictures, 2004.
Spartacus. Dir. Stanley Kubrick. Perf. Kirk Douglas, Jean Simmons, Tony Curtis. Universal Pictures, 1960.
Examples of the mention of the use of the 'crannog' in Lough Laoghaire is stated by Brady and O'Conor to be referenced directly in the Annals of Ulster in 1436. These annals are "contemporary Gaelic records of the high profile events that occurred in Ireland, and such mention carries with it an automatic association of status and dramatic event." (Brady and O'Conor, nd)
III. O'SULLIVAN (1998)
Aidan O'Sullivan writes in the work entitled: "The Archaeology of Lake Settlement in Ireland" (1998) that in the Late Middle Ages...the Gaelic Irish experienced a revival in military power, giving rise to what is commonly known as the 'Gaelic esurgence'" which was a time when raids increased on the English settlements which were richer and there was a "state of endemic warfare across the country." (O'Sullivan, 1998) Cultural and military renewal among the Gaelic Irish were drivers of the 'esurgence' as well as…
References in historical literature further give indications that "crannogs and islands were used as permanent settlements and as temporary fortifications by the Gaelic Irish in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries." (O'Sullivan, 1998) the military tactics of the Gaelic Irish were such that natural defensive features were used such as those of "lakes, islands, woodlands and bogs." (O'Sullivan, 1998) O'Sullivan states that there is sound archaeological as well as historical evidence that crannogs were occupied as dwellings during the medieval and late medieval periods.
O'Sullivan, just as did Brady and O'Conor, states that historically, the use of crannogs has been ignored by research and has "tended to greatly reduce the attention paid to this later material." (O'Sullivan, 1998) Stated to be the best evidence of archeology for the occupation of crannogs during the thirteenth and sixteenth century were findings of medieval 'everted-rim war and crannog ware..." discovered on several crannogs in the north..." (O'Sullivan, 1998) This type of pottery was hand-made and used for cooking and is stated to be easily distinguished due to its "dark, unglazed appearance and heavy gritty inclusions and texture." (O'Sullivan, 1998)
O'Sullivan states that it is simply obvious that the Gaelic Irish used crannogs and that the Anglo-Normans even used the crannogs at times as defensive military settlements. Twice mentioned in history is the crannog on Lough Oughter which was occupied by the O'Reilleys and which was taken in an attack in 1247 by Milid Mac Gosdelb and also is referred to as the site "from which Toirrdelbach mac Aeda Ua Conchobari escaped in 1246..." (1998)
O'Sullivan additionally states that the work of Giraldus Cambrensis entitled: "Topographia Hiberniae" a twelfth century account of Ireland that the Irish lakes "contain islands rising to some height and very beautiful. The lords of the land usually appropriate them as places of safety and refuge, as well as of habitation. They are inaccessible except by boats." (O'Sullivan, 1998)
O'Conor writes in the work entitled: "Later Medieval Settlement in North Roscommon" that evidence presently available indicates that "despite close contacts with the Anglo-Normans since the 12th century" that it took over two centuries for "Gaelic lords to regularly build defended structures that can be classified as castles." (nd) O'Conor reiterates in this work that a great amount of "documentary, pictorial, radiocarbon, dencrochronological and excavated evidence" is in existence to indicate that the crannogs "were widely occupied and used by Gaelic lords throughout the whole later medieval period." (nd)
Around the year of 1200 B.C. all off the three important Mediterranean civilizations had stopped from their remarkable advance and collapsed with no actual information regarding to the reason for their ending. Archeological findings show that all three nations had been preparing for war during the period and that an enemy that is unknown to this day had defeated all Mediterranean empires.
Consequent to the collapse of some of the greatest empires in the world, the Greek empire had been surfacing as a nation of great potential and wisdom which gave birth to several of the world's philosophers.
The Roman Empire had appeared differently from the previous empires that surrounded the Mediterranean Sea. Rome had not began their society independently, but it had managed to defeat their superiors, the Etruscans, after more than two centuries in which the Etruscans ruled over Rome and other communities from within the Latin League.…
Sinopoli, Carla. "The Archeology of Empires." 159-180.
Smiley, Francis. "The Rise of Mediterranean Empires in the First Millennium B.C." 1-9.
Vats, Madho Sarup. The Gupta Temple at Deogarh. New Delhi, India:
of India, 2000. 56 pgs.
In this heavily researched work, Madho Sarup Vats, one of modern
India's best scholars on Indian archeology, discusses in great depth the
Vishnu Temple at Deogarh and includes chapters on its history,
construction, design and cultural significance to the people of the Gupta
Period. Vats also includes several archeological diagrams which shows the
Vishnu Temple from numerous perspectives and what the current Indian
government is doing to preserve this temple form the ravages of time.
Vidula, Jayaswal. Royal Temples of the Gupta Period. New Delhi, India:
International, 2001. 213 pgs.
Much like Vat's The Gupta Temple at Deogarh, this elaborately
illustrated book discusses a number of Hindu temples designed and
constructed during the Gupta Period, such as the rock-cut temple at
Mahabalipuram of the 7th century A.D., the Muktesvar Temple…
The author points out that there were more commoners than nobles but the commoners were often at the mercy of nobles and were expected to serve them. Although this was the case, it was also true that commoners had a great deal of control over their lives and in most cases they had enough to meet their basic needs and the needs of their family.
One of the most interesting aspects of Aztec civilization is Aztec religious practices. According to an article found in the Journal of the Southwest, the Aztec religious system dominated the way of life for the Aztec people. The research indicates that the religious system of the Aztec people was very much associated with the Aztec Calendar. This calendar was based on the yearly agricultural cycle.
For instance when the winter solstice occurred the Aztec people would participate in fire festivals. The purpose of such…
Ancient Aztec Government. 16 April, 2008 http://www.aztec-history.com/ancient-aztec-government.html
Aztec Society Family. 16 April, 2008 http://www.aztec-history.com/aztec-society-family.html
Hassig Ross. Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control-Book by. University of Oklahoma Press; 1988
James, Susan E. "Some Aspects of the Aztec Religion in the Hopi Kachina Cult." Journal of the Southwest 42.4 (2000): 897.
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…
New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.
Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp .
Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.
New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
The geneticist must first identify the wild crop, to be utilized as a comparative, (99) stressing that such information to be considered accurate in time and space must be gleaned from archaeological record and only based on the genetic process determined from the modern research in plant and/or even animal genetics.
In regards to the animal domesticate the issues become much more complicated, sometimes offering a richer picture of the effects of domestication upon animals but more often offering a more laborious process with more missing pieces of information. The difference between the plant and animal studies is largely do to the complicated nature of the animal as compared to the plant. The variables associated with animal selection are far greater in number and far less predictable than with those of plants as within the genetic record of an animal far more variations occur and surprises are historically evident in…
Emshwiller, E. 2006 Genetic data and plant domestication. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.99-122. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Smith, Bruce D. 206 Documenting domesticated plants in the archaeological record. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.15-24
Bradley, D.G 2006 Documenting domistication: reading Animal genetic texts. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.273-278 University of California Press, Berkeley.
Zeder, M.A. 2006 Archaeological approaches to documenting animal domestication.In, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.171-180 University of California Press, Berkeley.
, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.
When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.
Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.
Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…
Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4
Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4
Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
A Greek man's male friends served this purpose.
Ancient Rome followed the patterns in male-female roles as set by the Greeks for most of their history. Like the Greeks, love was generally not an element of most male/female relationships and prostitution was a major industry. For the Romans, the natural order of things was that men were better suited to labor outside the home while women were considered better equipped for handling matters within the home. Unlike Greek women, however, who were relegated to operating in the background even with the home, Roman women were afforded a much larger role in the home but were still not allowed to participate in affairs that occurred in public. In both Greek society and Roman society it must be remembered that they were societies in which under-population was a concern and not over-population as it is today. As a result, the primary function…
Kevin Reilly, "Men and Women: Hunters and Gatherers" in The West and the World: a history of civilization from the ancient world to 1700. Kevin Reilly (New York: Harper & Row, 1989).
Kevin Reilly, "Men and Women: Hunters and Gatherers" in The West and the World: a history of civilization from the ancient world to 1700. Kevin Reilly (New York: Harper & Row, 1989), 12.
established methods of control and the current departmental and organizational cultures.
Organization culture is an element that must exist in every organization. The description of the term 'organization culture' has proven to be too elusive. This is attributed to the fact that the term is defined in terms of both causes and effects. Organizational culture has been defined differently by scholars. Kroeber and Kluckholn (1952) for instance defined organizational culture as consisting of patterns that are both implicit and explicit of the behaviors that is acquired as well as transmitted by various symbols that constitute the rather distinctive nature of achievements of various human groups. The main element of culture is tradition. According to Hofstede (1980), culture is the collective programming of an individual's mind which effectively distinguishes the group members from each other. Symington (1983) on the other hand defined culture as the complex whole that is made up…
Carley, Kathleen. (1998). Organizational Adaptation. Annals of Operations Research, 75: 25-47.
Hofstede, G.H. (1980), Culture Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values, Sage Publications, London.
Kroeber, A.L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Harvard University Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology Papers 47.
Kreitner, R., and Kinicki, A. (2004). Organizational Behavior (6th ed., 710 pages)
Jaguars and Were-Jaguars:
Conceptions and Misconceptions in Olmec Culture
There is not a question that jaguars were important to Mesoamerican religion and culture. The Olmecs were no exception to this rule. However, it seems that previous interpretations of Olmec art and architecture have erroneously placed more emphasis on the jaguar than is actually due. While a significant part of Mesoamerican culture, the jaguar did not play quite the all-encompassing role that many archaeologists have attributed to it. Specifically, the so-called "were-jaguar" motif might be representative of something other than a jaguar, or at least, contain elements of other animals in addition to the feline. Among others, it has been suggested that the "were-jaguar" babies were, instead, crocodilians, toads, deformed human children, snakes, or iguanas. This essay will look at the most convincing of these arguments, in particular, the possibility of the "were-jaguar" actually representing congenitally deformed babies, were-crocodilians,…
1969 Olmec Society. In The Olmec World, pp.86-106. University of California Press, Berkeley.
2002 Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs. Thames and Hudson, New York.
" (This statement appears to fly in the face of his detailed emphasis on trying to be terribly thorough at other times throughout the book; and his seeming editorial neurosis creates doubts in the minds of the reader as to precisely how consistent and valid his values are vis-a-vis what he believes to be true.)
Those biblical students probably read his book and had a sense that he was in a classroom, behind a podium, lecturing to them, when, on pages 18-20, he discusses pre-history (Stone Age) and Neolithic Jericho. His bias towards places and people who are in some way connected to Scripture comes across numerous times in obviously favored passages.
To wit: one can almost hear his voice as he describes the relative distance in time to make his point about the advent of the Israel we know today. "Difficult as it is for us to realize, it…
Bright, John. (1959). A History of Israel. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.
Noll, K.L. (1999). Looking on the Bright Side of Israel's History: Is There Pedagogical Value in Theological Presentation of History? Biblical Interpretation: A Journal of Contemporary
Approaches, 7, 1-27.
extra lines paragraphs. Use footnotes endnotes ( author, title book, page number needed).
The contemporary society largely owes its advancements to ancient peoples such as the Egyptians, considering the technological progress experienced in Egypt in times when the rest of the world was struggling to survive given the harsh conditions available. hile Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome were diverse civilizations and spread over several territories, Ancient Egypt concentrated on a particular geographical area. Even with this, the complex nature of this particular civilization makes it difficult for one to describe it similar to how he or she would describe the other two.
In order to have a better understanding of Ancient Egypt one would first have to consider its location. Most people associate it with the African continent as a whole while others are inclined to associate it with the northern part of the territory, considering that these people generally…
Donadoni, Sergio, "The Egyptians," (University of Chicago Press, 1997)
Loken, Israel P. "The Old Testament Historical Books:
An Introduction," (Xulon Press, 30.05.2008)
Modrzejewski, Joseph, "The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian," (Princeton University Press, 27.10.1997)
American Religious History
Defining fundamentalism and liberalism in Christianity is hardly an exact science, especially because prior to about 1920 there was not even a term for fundamentalism as it exists today. hile present-day fundamentalists often claim descent from the Puritans and Calvinists of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Puritans were not really fundamentalists in the modern sense. They were not in conflict with 20th Century-style liberals and supporters of evolution and Higher Criticism because those did not yet exist. As George McKenna put it "if there were no liberalism there would be no fundamentalism" to react against it (McKenna 231). Today, about one-third of Americans define themselves as evangelical Protestants, and all Republican Party politicians have to make appeals to the Christian Right (Hankins 1). In 1976 there were at least fifty million 'born again' evangelical Protestants in the United States, and today their numbers may be as high…
Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford University Press, 1997.
Gilkey, Langdon. On Niebuhr: A Theological Study. University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Hankins, Barry. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008.
Longfield, Bradley J. The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists and Modernity. Oxford University Press, 1991.
It is for this reason that one could reasonably argue that Precious' entire life, and particularly the trials and tribulations she must endure, including her violent family life, her poverty, and her illiteracy, all ultimately stem from her racial and ethnic background, because the pervasive, institutional racial inequalities that still exist in America served to structure her entire life. Even before she began she was already disadvantaged by being born a black woman in the United States, because the United States maintains a system of social, economic, and political inequality that disproportionately impoverishes the black population. Thus, in broad strokes, one can say that all of the major events in Precious' life are a result of her ethnic background and the meaning American society places on that category of difference.
Perhaps more than any of the novels discussed here, Push manages to make the idea of difference as a form…
Chattalas, Michael, and Holly Harper. "Navigating a Hybrid Cultural Identity: Hispanic
Teenagers' Fashion Consumption Influences." The Journal of Consumer Marketing 24.6
Chodorow, Nancy. Feminism and psychoanalytic theory. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University
The Paleolithic arts and culture assumes its significance from more studies conducted on the issue. Shea, John (441-450) argued that recently found stone artifacts of Middle Paleolithic occupations of Kebara Cave (Mount Carmel, Israel) depict that the Middle Paleolithic populations used technology-assisted hunting as the artifacts had clear representation and meanings regarding the use of tools and this use of tools was not limited to hominids. This suggests that the paintings, artifacts, and the cultural significance of carvings is more than usually thought by some researchers. The way of life that was prevalent in that era clearly impacted the artifacts. Further the cognitive development of human is also represented in the artifacts as these were drawn, carved, and developed by using same tools and technology materials used by those people.
The Paleolithic era people have produced many artifacts that have provoked an archeological controversy in the academic and research-based…
Halverson, John, et al. "Art for Art's Sake in the Paleolithic [and Comments and Reply]." Current Anthropology 28.1 (1987): 63-89.
Leroi-Gourhan, Andre. "The evolution of Paleolithic art." Scientific American 218 (1968): 58-70.
Lewis-Williams, J. David, et al. "The Signs of All Times: Entoptic Phenomena in Upper Paleolithic Art [and Comments and Reply]." Current Anthropology 29.2 (1988): 201-245.
Pfeiffer, J.E. (1985). The emergence of humankind (p. 38). New York: Harper & Row.
"Like numerous Neolithic settlements located in valleys with access to water and the prerequisites for agriculture, Gobekli Tepe dominates the landscape" and has continued to astonish modern archeologists today (History Underfoot, 2011). The Stone Temple erected at Urfa signaled the arrival of a new way of life in the Mesolithic era and a new set of behaviors. The site, in southeastern Turkey, is now considered one of the older religious sites known to man, which was erected during the Mesolithic era. It represents a new way of life, where man begins to harness his own power to create lasting objects on the natural landscape, where mankind changes the landscape in honor of religious practices.
Essentially, this massive effort on the behalf of these ancient people signified a new way of life. The site is "the oldest human-made place of worship" (Axelrod, 2010). According to the research, "massive carved…
Axelrod, Lauren. (2010). Rock architecture: When it first appeared, why it was built, and what history can it tell us. Ancient Digger. Web. http://www.ancientdigger.com/2010/08/monday-ground-up-rock-architecture-when.html
Curry, Andrew. (2008). Gobelki Tepe: The world's first temple? Smithsonian. Web. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/gobekli-tepe.html
History Underfoot. (2011). Gobekli Tepe's oldest temple in the world: An archeological stone age site in Anatolia. Electrum Magazine. Web. http://www.electrummagazine.com/2011/10/gobekli-tepes-oldest-temple-in-the-world-an-archaeological-stone-age-site-in-anatolia/
Scham, Sandra. (2008). The world's first temple. Archeology, 61(6). Web. http://archive.archaeology.org/0811/abstracts/turkey.html
worry bout audience Analysis ord Count: 1000-1250 words (This word count refers ONLY essay . It include audience analysis orks Cited page. If essay falls short minimum word count, I automatically deduct riting Informative Essay (Corresponding chapter The Little Seagull Handbook: -7) General Information An informative essay organized primary functions: report a unfamiliar topic; analyze meaning, pattern connections; explain works; explore questions answers.
Informative essay: The impact of the economic crisis upon young people
Although the consensus amongst economists is that the United States has extricated itself from the worst of the recession of 2008, the impact of the economic crisis is still palpable amongst many demographics within the United States. Recent college graduates are amongst the hardest-hit. Given the sluggish labor market, many new college graduates are struggling for work, while the previous generation was able to find jobs with much greater ease. These workers are burdened by high…
Goudreau, Nicole. "The 10 worst college majors." Forbes. 11 Oct 2012. 25 Jan 2013.
"Help Wanted: Millions of Cloud-Skilled IT Workers Needed." Microsoft Press Release.
19 Dec 2012. 25 Jan 2013. http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/news/features/2012/dec12/12-19CloudWorkersWanted.aspx
Dead Sea Scrolls and the Identity of Jesus in the Isaiah Scrolls
The Dead Sea scrolls reference the ancient scrolls found in the Qumran caves by a shepherd named Mohammad adh-Dhib (Baigent 247). At the time of the discovery of the scrolls, and because of the way in which they had been handled after their discovery (for profit), there were many questions raised as to the authenticity, origin, and date of the scrolls (Shanks 9-10). The Isaiah scrolls were amongst those found in Cave 1, and the first scroll of the two Isaiah scrolls was in the best condition (Shanks 14). Because of its completeness, the first Isaiah is often referred to as "Isaiah A (Shanks 14)." Shanks says that the importance of the scrolls is not that they tell us something we didn't know, but they tell us much about what we did not know about the period during…
Abegg, Martin G., Flint, Peter, and Ulrich, Eugene. The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Bible Translated for the First Time into English. HarperOne, New York, 1999. Print.
Baigent, Michael. The Jesus Papers: Exposing the Greatest Cover-Up in History. 2007.
Knohl, Israel and Maisel, David. The Messiah before Jesus: The Suffering Servant of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Berkley and Los Angeles, CA: 2002. Print.
Motyer, J.A. The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction and Commentary. 1998. Print.
evaluator, researcher or observer watches what takes place and then attempts to analyze the data gathered during that observation to present the findings. n experimental study attempts to provide a scenario that can be answered by conducting experiments, while a study using surveys to determine results is a survey study. Each of the methods can use quantitative, qualitative, mixed and action research methods to gather data, and each of the three basic methods will also go through a step-by-step process as it attempts to come to a conclusion.
The step-by-step process for conducting basic research encompasses a number of steps. The initiation of a research project begins with a curiosity factor. Human beings are naturally curious and questioning how and why certain things are the way they are oftentimes leads to an attempt to discern those how's and why's. Those attempts are the first step in research. n individual wishes…
Investopedia (2010) Null hypothesis, accessed on December 8, 2007 at: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/null_hypothesis.asp
Kiofas, J.M. & Cutshall, C.R.; (1985) The social archeology of a juvenile facility: Unobtrusive methods in the study of institutional cultures, Qualitative Sociology, Vol. 8, Issue 4, p. 368
Recap" of class work so far, which two or three areas/fields of study would you like to pursue if you were in France? What interests you about these areas or fields of study?
In France, I would like to take a history of art class, focusing on modern art. I would also like to take some sociology classes, of special interest to me are classes focused on migration, the history of migration in France as well as migration patterns in this country today and its challenges for the French society, compared to similar issues in the U.S., for example. Since we are living in a globalized world and people are more mobile than ever, I am interested to study the problems related to migration in order to be able to offer solutions.
By means of the study of art history I would love to get a better grasp of art…
GENESIS HISTORY OR MYTH?
Genesis is the first book of the Bible. It contains incredible stories of the creation of the universe, man's fall from grace, the story of Noah and the great flood, and the stories of the first generations of man. This book is perhaps one of the most controversial as well. The contents of the book are not as source of dispute. However, the interpretation of the content is a source of great scholarly debate for many reasons.
The first source of debate is exactly what type of work Genesis constitutes. Conservative Christians consider Genesis to be a history. Using this interpretation, events in Genesis happened exactly as written. Other more liberal interpretations consider Genesis to be something other than a historical account. There are many liberal viewpoints on how to categorize Genesis. Some believe that Genesis is an allegory, others a myth, and still others compare…
Boice, James Montgomery. Genesis. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1998.
Dolphin, Lambert. Introduction to Genesis. May 24, 2000. http://ldolphin.org/Accessed September, 2002.
England, Donald. A Christian View of Origins. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Bppks, 1972.
Howe, George. Creation Research Society Annual. Ann Arbor, MI: Creation Research Society,
Korean History: The Climate and Culture of Foreign Business
The challenge of any cultural history undertaken to determine the foreign business fitness of a location is to make sure that there is due respect afforded the society with regard to issues that might not be seen as directly affecting the bottom line. So much of the time in the business world we are collectively focused on the ideas that surround the continued development of the global world economy, without regard for the existence of prior national issues. An easily made mistake for a researcher addressing issues of Korea from the United States would be to distill Korean history into a form that only include the interests of this country after the Korean-American ar.
This account will attempt to address those issues by addressing the culture through its earliest history to its present state through modern demographics, religion, education, housing, leisure…
North Korean crisis starts to hurt South Korea economically." February 11, 2003. American
City Business Journals Inc. February, 11 2003 ( http://tampabay.bizjournals.com ).
South Korea gross national income soars." February 9, 2003. American City Business Journals
Inc. February 11, 2003. (
Dead Sea Scrolls
Hershell Hanks begins his book "The Mystery and Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls," (Shanks, 1998) with a startling revelation. Despite numerous treatises, articles and books on the subject, it is still unclear who found The Dead Sea Scrolls. An Arab shepherd boy or maybe two shepherd boys searching for their lost sheep close to the banks of the Dead Sea discovered the 'Scrolls' in 1947 in a cave in Qumran -- though the date varies depending on the source. In an effort to look for the lost sheep, the edouin shepherd began throwing stones into nearby caves. An unexpected cracking sound of earthenware inside the cave encouraged him to explore further. Muhammad Ahmad el-Hamed of the Ta'amireh tribe is assumed to be the shepherd who found the scrolls. This fact has however been constantly debated and interviewing and identifying the right individual who found the scroll…
Shanks, H. (1998) The mystery and meaning of the Dead Sea scrolls, Random House, New York.
The world is filled with chaos, war and strife. In Africa, innumerable numbers of individuals suffer and die from AIDS, poverty and hunger. Genocide and mass murder of groups with varying cultures continues. Regularly, soldiers and civilians die in Iraq. Terrorism scare tactics threaten throughout the world and the Middle East remains a hotbed for horror. China moves forward with its "Big Brother" actions and North Korea downplays its nuclear capacity. In such a world, how can I believe in God? Because it is more important to believe now than it ever was before, especially with such uncertain world. As Voltaire once said: "To believe in God is impossible. Not to believe in Him is absurd."
One of the main reasons I believe in God is that it makes me feel more secure amidst this growing instability. Because we live in such an insecure world, it is impossible to…
Holy Bible King James Version Study Bible. New York: Thomas Nelson, 1997.
Voltaire Foundation. Website visited October 9, 2003. http://www.voltaire.ox.ac.uk/voltaire_english.html .
The Mohave and the Chemehuevi
The objective of this paper is to explore the history, social organization, and customs of two California tribes: The Mohave and the Chemehuevi. The scope of the paper includes a review of the current status of the two tribes.
The Mohave and The Chemehuevi
The American Indian tribes are the original immigrants of the continent of America. In fact, the people of these tribes are of old Eastern origin, believed to be descendants of the Mongloid race in Asia. Over a period of thousands of years, these tribes gradually populated the unoccupied Western Hemisphere, from the Bering Strait to the southern most tip of South America, and from coast to coast. These first settlers were not savages and, in fact, possessed ancient knowledge about the laws of the universe and nature. They developed varying types of social organization and mechanisms, which satisfied their…
Driver, Harold E. And William C. Massey. 1957. Comparative Studies of North American Indians. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
Dutton, Bertha P. 1983. American Indians of the Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Griffin-Pierce, Trudy. 2000. Native Peoples of the Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Hallowell, Irving A. And Frederica De Laguna. 1960. Selected Papers from the American Anthropologist. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
Transitional Form Archaeopteryx won't fly"
Using the information from the article, "As a Transitional Form Archaeopteryx on't Fly," by Duane Gish, I want you to critically evaluate Dr. Gish's argument.
The article by Duane T. Gish, "As a Transitional Form Archaeopteryx won't Fly," provides a provocative insight into the world of creationist science that makes a genuine stab at being a scientific form of inquiry, rather than merely reasserting the truths of the Bible. Gish states specifically that the notion of the Archaeopteryx as a transitional form of a between the evolving birds and reptile species groups during the early evolution of the planet earth is in doubt. He argues that recent fossil discoveries and recent research on Archaeopteryx argue strongly against the idea that Archaeopteryx ever had reptilian features.
Do you agree, or disagree with Dr. Gish? You must support you answer with any factual evidence you can find.…
Gish, Duane T. (2004) "As a Transitional Form Archaeopteryx won't fly." IMPACT No. 195. September 1989, 2004. Institute for Creation Research. http://www.icr.org/pubs/imp/imp-195.htm
How to be anti-Darwin." (December 21, 1998) ( http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-transitional/part1a.html )
"The Evolution of Tetrapods and the Closing of Romer's Gap." (2004) ( http://members.aol.com/darwinpage/tetrapods.htm#Tetrapods )
Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East
Lawrence never received formal military training, but he achieved the rank of Colonel in the British Army. Discuss how he achieved the rank and compare his training to yours.
Lawrence initially studied archeology and architecture at Oxford; these pursuits first drew him to the Middle East. The knowledge he gained was instrumental in his securing a military position in the Middle East. Thanks to his knowledge of the Arab world and the Ottoman Empire, "he was sent to nurture the Arab revolt against Turkish rule, started by Sherif Hussein of Mecca with the aim of creating a single Arab state stretching from Syria to Yemen"(MacIntyre 2010). In contrast to my own training, the knowledge Lawrence obtained was largely experiential -- he did not study military theory in-depth or go through basic training and was iconoclastic…
Anderson, S. (2013). Lawrence in Arabia: War, deceit, imperial folly, and the making of the modern Middle East. New York: Doubleday.
MacIntyre, B. (2010). Arabian knight. The New York Times. Retrieved from:
Componens of a Qualiy Curriculum
An Annoaed Bibliography
The research indicaes ha a qualiy school curriculum is refleced by he curricula of is mahemaics and science componens, driven by is exbooks and eachers, and may improve if a variey of domains are included (e.g., music and he ars). Bu mah and science curricula appear useful predicors of he overall qualiy of a school curriculum. In addiion, sudens exposed o beer learning experiences a an early age will do beer laer on and a curriculum ha includes pracical and applicable maerial will also produce informed and skilled aduls.
Componens of a Qualiy Curriculum:
An Annoaed Bibliography
Developing a Qualiy Mah Curriculum
Hook, Bishop, and Hook (2007) invesigaed a new mah curriculum on he curriculums of he six leading counries in mah performance as deermined by The Inernaional Mah & Science Sudy (TIMSS) of 1995. These op six counries had…
the impact of structural standards. Early Years, 29(1), 19-31.
Zhu, Y., & Fan, L. (2006). Focus on the representation of problem types in intended curriculum:
A comparison of selected mathematics textbooks from Mainland China and the United States. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 4(4), 609-626
Stereotyping Indian Cities
The architecture of India that dates back to the 16th and 17th Century often amazes those who visit the country in the present time. There are several cities, towns and even villages that have and preserve mega structures whose wonder not only lie in their size but also in the architectural works and the history that lies behind the walls. Indeed, while recording his expedition into studying The Taj Mahal, Ebba Koch (2005:Pp129) indicates that he was overwhelmed by its perfection, splendor and sheer size, and further notes that he was not in this as a scholar, but several other scholars in archeology had the same reaction as his to that building and most of these buildings around India.
This paper will take a general approach to the buildings within India and expound on the Indo-Islamic architecture that is evident on these buildings around India and the…
Ebba Koch, (2005). The Taj Mahal: Architecture, Symbolism, and Urban Significance, Muqarnas, vol. 22.
Eckhart Ehlers and Thomas Krafft, (2003). Shahjahanabad/Old Delhi: Tradition and Colonial Change, New Delhi: Manohar Publishers.
K.K. Trivedi, (1994). The Emergence of Agra as a Capital and a City: A note on Its Spatial and Historical background during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries," Journal of the Economic and Social History, Vol.37 No. 2.