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Aristotle and Tragedy
To Aristotle, tragedy had to follow certain characteristics. These included certain rendering of protagonist, the style of the writing, the direction of the plot, the diction, the reflection, the context, and the melody. Each and everything had its own nuances and meaning and the ideal Tragedy would be written in such a way that the reader or spectator would find the protagonist similar to himself and pity him all the more. eeing the protagonist as a naive person whose misfortune came about through error rather than through vice, the reader may identify with himself and see the same situation occurring to him. This purging of fear will cause a catharsis that will balance the emotions and leave the person with a greater emotional well-being than he had before.
It is in this manner, that Aristotle considered Tragedy to be a greater tool than history since it dramatizes…
Aristotle. Poetics. Translated by S.H. Butcher . The Internet Classics Archive.
McManus, BF. CLS 267 Outline of Aristotle's Theory of Tragedy-in the POETICS
Aristotle and a Great Workplace (APA Citation)
Aristotle and a Great Workplace
From the beginning of its evolution, human beings have been searching for the meaning of happiness. While many may seem this to be an inconsequential questions, others have devoted entire lives to the search for happiness. One such person who devoted a great deal of thought to the question of man's happiness was the famous ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle. His views on ethics, virtue, and happiness not only can be applied to the individual life, or the actions of the state, but in the modern world can be also applied to the workplace. Civic relationships and civic friendships can be the basis of the creation of a great workplace where managers maintain personal relationships with their employees, the employees then feel valued and increase their productivity, and the business as a whole can prosper and flourish.
Aristotle. (n.d.) The Nichomachean Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.constitution.org/ari/ethic_00.htm
Buzachero, Vic. (2013). "Transforming into a Great Workplace." Great Place to Work
Institute. Retrieved from http://www.greatplacetowork.com/storage/documents/Publications_Documents/
hile the judges can be considered responsible for hamartia, Socrates himself is also accountable for hamartia when considering that he plays an important role in influencing the judges in wanting to put him to death. He actually has a choice, but he is reluctant to adopt an attitude that would induce feelings related to mercy.
Ethos is also a dominant concept across Socrates' discourse, as he apparently believed that by influencing the audience to think about how they perceive goodness he would open people's eyes and influence them in seeing that he was actually innocent. Socrates basically felt that people needed to think about themselves and on how they understand the difference between right and wrong in order to be able to learn more about his personality. He practically believed that by adopting this attitude he would influence the masses in feeling that it would be extremely wrong for them…
Aristotle, "The Poetics," (Kessinger Publishing, 2004)
Plato, "Apology," (United Holdings Group
It is therefore important to understand first off Aristotle's thoughts on human nature in order to understand his opinions on ethics and virtue. That human beings are social beings is something familiar to us nowadays as it was in Aristotle's time. Consequently, ethics and virtue were part of human nature and so every living being was supposed to live by what is righteous. This is another characteristic separating us from animals.
Thus, humans being sociable persons and living within a society, politics also had to implement rules and regulations that would help people. But it didn't necessarily mean that a man who did right things and lived by the rules was essentially virtuous because he was in fact constraint to do so. Therefore, to Aristotle, someone who did right things because of the wrong reasons was not at all virtuous. The virtuousness only applied if that person acted because of…
Aristotle thought happiness was longer in coming, it was the manner of being actualized and fulfilling one's true potential using their own individual gifts:
Again, if the virtues are concerned with actions and passions, and every passion and every action is accompanied by pleasure and pain, for this reason also virtue will be concerned with pleasures and pains. This is indicated also by the fact that punishment is indicated by these means; for it is a kind of cure, and it is the nature of cures to be effected by contraries (Aristotle, III).
Humans, therefore, also exist in the macro sense as being agents of morality through their individual actions. but, human behavior being what it is, morality is only one of the facets of human's evolution towards happiness.
The wider notion of human agency presumably includes, besides actions and choices, emotional dispositions, non-moral or 'prudential' forms of practical reasons,…
What is a Great Workplace? (2012). Greatplacetowork.com. Retrieved from: http://www.greatplacetowork.com/our-approach/what-is-a-great-workplace
Workplace Flexibility in the 21st Century. (2009). Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved from: http://www.shrm.org/Research/SurveyFindings/Articles/Documents/09-0425%20Workplace%20Flexibility%20Survey%20Report-Executive%20Summary.pdf
Akril, J. (2010). Essays on Plato and Aristotle. New York: Oxford University Press.
Aristotle. (2007). Nicomachean Ethics. New York: NuVision.
Aristotle was one of the philosophers who spent a great deal of their time in defining and explaining ethics since he believed that ethics was a science whose practicality was crucial to mankind. In this paper, we shall discuss the ideas of Aristotle pertaining to the civic relationships including the virtues, happiness, justice, deliberation and friendship. In the second part of the paper, we shall also discuss how these ideas are being applied to the workplaces that are considered to be among the best ones.
Civic Friendship and Justice -- ideas and arguments of Aristotle
The framework of friendship that was drawn out by Aristotle demonstrates a relationship between personal and civic friendship. Aristotle claimed that in order to have a good life, it is not only important for a person to have intimate relationships at the personal level, but it is also important for that person to have civic…
Cooper, J (1977). "Aristotle on the Forms of Friendship." Review of Metaphysics.
Ferguson, John (1972). Aristotle. New York: Twayne Publishers.
Frede, Michael. (1987). Essays in Ancient Philosophy.
Galston, Miriam (1994). "Taking Aristotle Seriously: Republican-Oriented Legal Theory and the Moral Foundation of Deliberative Democracy." California Law Review.
Aristotle and Aquinas
Law and Justice
Aristotle and Aquinas disagreed on law and justice as Aristotle held that justice was inherent to the individual in terms of a sense of reasoning or inner knowing of that, which was right and wrong. Aristotle had the belief that law should be grounded in a natural divine order of some type and that this cosmic order is that which vested law with a binding authority.
Aristotle additionally believed as did Plato that law's function at its core was to provide compensation for the judgment of men, which is at best erratic and differentiated from one man or culture to another man or culture. In one example provided by Aristotle in which he drew upon Plato's 'Socrates' Aristotle noted the passions of people and their randomness which however, can be, by reason, brought together and focused toward a higher purpose. Aristotle's view of political…
Elements of Tragedy
According to Aristotle, tragedy needs to be an imitation of life according to the law of probability or necessity. Tragedy is serious, complete, and has magnitude. It must have a beginning, middle, and end and be spoken in language that is fit for noble characters. Furthermore it must be acted, as opposed to epic poetry, which is narrated. Tragedy shows rather than tells. Finally it must result in the purging of pity and fear, or a catharsis. Tragedy is based in the fundamental order of the universe, it creates a cause-and-effect chain that clearly reveals what may happen at any time or place because that is the way the world operates. Tragedy arouses not only pity but also fear, because the audience can envision themselves within this cause-and-effect chain.
Tragedy as a whole is composed of six elements: plot, character, language, thought, spectacle and melody.…
Euripides. "Medea." The Norton Anthology of World Literature. Vol. A, 2nd edition. Eds. Satah Lawall and Maynard Mack. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 2002. p. 695- 724.
Sophocles. "Antigone." The Norton Anthology of World Literature. Vol. A, 2nd edition. Eds. Satah Lawall and Maynard Mack. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 2002. p. 617-657.
Sophocles. "Oedipus the King." The Norton Anthology of World Literature. Vol. A, 2nd edition. Eds. Satah Lawall and Maynard Mack. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 2002. p. 658-692.
Aristotle is inclined to view human interaction as something which incites one to desire the happiness of his relational partner as the chief end of the relationship. This is a point which is absolutely essential to the conception of goodness which Aristotle holds as most valuable. He identifies a self-love, as it were, as one of the most important elements in forging a meaningful and positive relationship to the world. An individual thus inclined, and prone there to by his own virtue, goodness, self-sufficiency and constancy, will desire no gain for himself from the lot of another man. Defining his own virtues as those by which he may further his own ends, he is then free to pursue life and relationships unencumbered by the vulnerability to develop envy, to harbor resentment or to harvest exploitation. The mutuality of these qualities, rather than an imbalance which can be particularly injurious to…
Alighieri, Dante. (etext, 1997). Dante's Inferno: The Divine Comedy. Gutenberg. Online at http://www.bralyn.net/etext/literature/dante.alighieri/1ddcl10.txt
Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, translated by W.D. Ross. The Internet Classics Archive.
In conclusion, in Aristotle's account, some ends may be worth choosing for their own sakes and for the sake of happiness. Friends, honor, pleasure, and moral virtue may be worth choosing for two reasons: for their intrinsic value and for their contribution to happiness. Aristotle's ethics is eudaimonistic, meaning that every action is ultimately to be justified by reference to the person's own happiness.
For Aristotle, anything that fulfills its essential function is one that performs well. He believes that the nature of a thing is the measure in terms of which we judge whether or not it is functioning well. In Aristotle's opinion, things are good when they achieve their specific ends.
According to Aristotle, there is an end of all of the actions that we perform which we desire for the sake of itself. This is what he refers to as eudaimonia, which is desired for its own…
Johnston, Ian. (November 18, 1997). Lecture on Aristotle's Nicomachaean Ethics. Public Domain.
Lear, Gabriel. (2004). Happy Lives and the Highest Good: An Essay on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Princeton University Press.
Wikipedia. (2005). Eudaimonia. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.wikipedia.com .
oth of these are thus translated through Aristotle's health component in his enumeration of elements that could make a person happy. One's health will be affected if the toilets at work are dirty, as well as if the working conditions do not ensure the physical security of the individual. This means that when applying for a job, the individual will look first of all at these elements before deciding whether the respective position may have some of the other elements Aristotle mentions in order for him to be a happy employee.
Many of the other components of Aristotle's enumeration of what happiness is about belong to the fourth and fifth levels in Maslow's pyramid of needs. Most notably, these are related to the capacity of the respective office or workplace to offer the individual the ability to exercise his intellectual and moral skills and to be recognized by his fellow…
1. Nicomachean Ethics. Translated by W.D. Ross. On the Internet at http://virtuescience.com/nicomachean-ethics.html . Last retrieved on October 5, 2009
According to Aristotle, the basic principle of democracy freedom. Democracy is a political system where in there is an establishment of a partnership amid the demos or the common people which in turn makes out how would the power be distributed and authority be delegated within a city. Thus, democracy, by Aristotle, is a type of freedom. This freedom has two aspects according to Aristotle, the first "being ruled and ruling in turn," while the other aspect involves the freedom of the citizens to live as they please. The first aspect is regarded as "law." Nevertheless, both these aspects of freedom, or the essentiality of democracy are essential for a true democracy to operate and function smoothly ensuring freedom. In this paper, we are going to argue that both these types of freedom or liberties as explained by Aristotle are essential for a true democracy and that without…
Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke
Aristotle, Locke, Hobbes and the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence
It has been said that authors such as Aristotle, Locke and Hobbes greatly influenced the "Founding Fathers" of the United States Constitution. The purpose of this paper is to explore the writings of these authors as well as review the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution and to form an opinion as to whether or not it is believable that the above statement is correct.
Aristotle, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke have long been considered as Political Science writers. Aristotle's works were recorded as being around 350 .C.E., John Locke, in 1619 and Thomas Hobbes in the year of 1689 to 1690. The insight which they show evidence of gives a clear picture that long has man contemplated freedom and written eloquently of liberty.
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was signed July 4,…
The Declaration of Independence (1776) (Retrieved from the Internet 14 Aug 2004: (www.constitutionsociety.org)
Aristotle "Politics" (Book One 350 B.C.E,.(Retrieved from the Internet 14 Aug 2004: (
3. Aristotle's Theory of Change
In his Theory of Change, Aristotle attempts to explore the nature of how ad why things evolve, or change in form from one object or concept to another. One of the greatest wonders of man, which is still even debates today, is he process of how things evolve to be. Well, Aristotle presented his Theory of Change to account for how and why objects develop into varying forms.
This theory then posits the idea that matter is the main fundamental component of change. In many cases, when an object changes, it is the matter that changes, and not the more abstract form hat embodies that matter. In this idea, objects evolve from what was previously non-existent. The objects themselves do not appear from nowhere, but rather that they are morphed in their physical form from another form. For example, a pencil comes non-pencilness, which is…
Aristotle: The Relationship etween Slavery and Political Government and Constitution
Aristotle (384-322 C) was a Greek philosopher as well as a scientist and social thinker. He is considered one of the most influential thinkers of the ancient world and his views on political theory still have influence today.
Central to all his philosophical thinking is the idea of reason and rationality. Aristotle's view that reason was the primary and most important aspect of human nature has important implications for his theory of the political constitution of society, and particularly for his justification of slavery. His thinking was based on the belief that the constitution and ordering of society as a political body should be based on the principle of reason and order that was to be found in nature.
Aristotle conducts his philosophical inquiries based on the presuppositions that the universe is a rational and ordered whole in which each…
Aristotle: Politics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed November 6, 2004. http://www.iep.utm.edu/a/aris-pol.htm#Slavery
Bullen, P. The Epitome of Aristotle's Political Theory. 1997. Accessed November 6, 2004. http://paul.bullen.com/BullenEpitome.html
ClassicNote on Aristotle's Politics. Accessed November 5, 2004. http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/politics/summ1.html
For some it may indeed be the contemplation of how to achieve greater virtue, greater intelligence or more knowledge. For others, however, such happiness lies in things such as money. Indeed, I believe that all the faculties can be engaged in the pursuit of money.
A person in pursuit of money may for example engage his reasoning by contemplating how more money can be accumulated. He may furthermore exercise his sense of virtue or friendship by means of contemplating how he can help others by the profit he has made, or how to teach others to make their own money. Money can also be applied in enhancing all the capacities of the person. In this way, whatever is pursued, according to Aristotle, if it is pursued in a certain way, for its connection to the ultimate goal of happiness, all of the faculties are exercised.
On the other hand, I…
At the very beginning of ook I Chapter XIII, Aristotle states that "happiness is a certain activity of soul in conformity with perfect virtue" (Ethics 1102a). What he means here, quite simply, is that true happiness can only be defined as the state that is achieved in a perfectly virtuous person; it cannot be defined any other way -- not by pleasure, or bestowed honor, or wealth, or any other illusion. This paper will explore the reasoning behind this belief.
The generality of men," Aristotle states, "identify the Good [or Happiness] with pleasure, and accordingly are content with the Life of Enjoyment" (Ethics 1095b). He explains later (particularly in ook X) what is incomplete about the "Life of Enjoyment," but the gist of his argument is quite clear, almost obvious, to us today: Happiness, we feel, is something Human, something that other animals will never achieve because it is…
Aristotle. Nichomachean Ethics. Ed. H. Rackham. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1934.
Perseus Digital Library. Tufts U. 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.perseus.tufts.
And surely there is some horrible person who has committed
countless violent and despicable acts and we need to punish him or her for
doing so. The first model presented her takes this view of capital
punishment. However, if evaluating capital punishment from the second
model, and that is that a living being is killed, there is justification.
In the first model, which is inaccurate in making the assumption that
capital punishment is ethical, false notions are applied to the model.
There are no guarantees that killing equal will prevent further killing.
If considering the causality according to the four forms of teleology the
logic of capital punishment is completely backwards, completely lacking,
and all arguments in favor of capital punishment are based upon notions
that we impose, but that do not actually exist in nature. Rather, capital
punishment must be understood for what it really is, and that is…
"Aristotle (384-322 BCE): General Introduction." Internet Encyclopedia of
Philosophy. 2006. 20 Apr. 2007
Falcon, Andrea. "Aristotle on Causality." Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy. 11 Jan. 2006. 20 Apr. 2007
Aristotle's Politics is a discourse, which attempts to define the purpose and nature of the political state and politics. Thus, it is perhaps one of the world's most ancient texts on political science, as it is a study of the social arrangements necessary to achieve peace and justice within a given society. In fact, Aristotle begins his treatise by stating that the city is essentially a product of politics, as it has developed to fulfill human need for self-sufficiency. Since this entails interdependence, a political partnership is formed, which aims at the common good. Aristotle goes on to explain that achieving the common good involves both the state and the individual citizen working towards living a virtuous life. He believed that this was possible to achieve given the human power of reason and desire for "living well." Thus, having established a framework for his discussion on the ethics of politics,…
Aristotle wrote the Poetics as a work of literary criticism. He reviewed and analyzed many plays written in his time. his essay discusses the features of Greek tragedy in the context of those Poetics and how these features are manifested in Sophocles' Oedipus.
Greek tragedy has all the elements of drama presented by Aristotle in his Poetics. hese elements are reversal, discovery and calamity. Further, according to Aristotle the divisions of tragedy are the prologue, episode, exode, and choral song. (Poetics 1452b). Oedipus, a tragedy written by Sophocles, embodies each of these characteristics and provides a clear example of tragedy, as framed by Aristotle.
Laius, the father of Oedipus, fearing that the words of the oracle would come true, abandons his son to die. Oedipus, saved and raised by another, listens to yet another oracle and discovers the terrible truth of his fate, which is, of course, to kill his…
The Greeks acted out these stories with great emphasis on the emotional. They used huge masks to illustrate their thoughts and feelings. The chorus, a group that sang the tale like a common day narrator, followed the characters as the Gods might. The play was a spectacle of grand proportion and design. Aristotle used this and other plays to illustrate his concepts of tragedy and the parts of the whole that made it so. Aristotle used the play to show how things can happen. One's fortune is reversed by his perception, and his ignorance transformed into knowledge at the tragic end of the tale.
Aristotle the Philosopher. Contributors J.L. Ackrill - author. Publisher: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: Oxford, UK. Publication Year: 1981.
Characteristics of Greek Tragedy as retrieved August 15, 2004 at http://www.classics, upenn.edu/myth/tragedy/theater.php
When reading Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics people typically maintain emphasis on the position of role of habit in conduct. Virtues or habits according to Aristotle are necessary for a ‘good life’ and that mindless routine is a way to achieve happiness. While the interpretation of Aristotle’s texts may denote to many ‘mindless routine’, in reality it could mean ‘actively hold itself’. This mean essentially, that the manifestation of virtue is in action. Therefore, maintaining balance, practicing stable equilibrium of the soul can lead to happiness. This stable equilibrium can be seen as character. Therefore, under this interpretation, I agree with Aristotle that in order to achieve happiness, one must maintain balance and practice temperance. This essay will highlight through real world examples what this balance and temperance is.
Virtue according to Aristotle is a mean. The mean is a way of understanding and judging what is truly painful or pleasant. When…
Aristotle chapter in “Reality.”
The chapter on Aristotle in Westphal and Levenson’s (1994) book, Reality, presents an argument based on Aristotle’s (384- 322 B.C) work. The philosopher is believed, far and wide, to be more empirically minded than Plato, his teacher. Considered “the greatest mind of antiquity,” Aristotle was the most significant intellectual authority when it came to the sciences and philosophy. The chapter attempts at logically ascertaining the answer to the question of what is real, in the end, outlining the defining traits of ultimate reals or substances (p. 45). In this essay, the main arguments put down in the book on Aristotle’s views, and thoughts will be dealt with.
The predicate’s definition, as well as name, should predict the topic. ‘Man,’ for example, predicates individual men, with the species name ‘man’ applied to individuals, as the word ‘man’ is utilized to describe the individual; the word’s definition predicates…
In essence, Aristotle has largely been associated with virtue ethics. To a large extent, this is a character-based approach founded on the assumption that it is through practice that we acquire virtue (Mizzoni, 2009). It therefore follows that one could further reinforce a character that is moral and honorable by, for instance, practicing generosity, justice, as well as honesty. The notion that Aristotle, thus, promotes is that habits that are virtuous ought to be honed. This is what promotes the ability of a person to make good decisions when confronted by an ethical challenge. Mill’s perspective is, however, firmly rooted in the need to advance happiness for the greatest number. Thus the basis of our decisions should be the advancement of happiness for the greatest number of people. This is, according to Boone (2017), is essentially a utilitarian perspective. To a large extent, Mill’s ethical view has a…
Certainly, rhetoric lends itself to the discovery of truth, as truth (Aristotle suggests) always makes more intuitive and intellectual sense compared to falsehood, and so equally talented rhetoricians will be more convincing sharing the truth than sharing falsehood. However, critics have pointed out that there is so "tension between Aristotle's epistemological optimism and his attempt to come to terms with rhetoric as a culturally and contextually specific social institution.... [as Aristotle says] scientific discourse is concerned with instruction, but in the case of [certain audiences] instruction is impossible; our proofs and arguments must rest on generally accepted principles... rhetoric [is] something separate from and inferior to scientific and ethical deliberation." (Haskins, 2004, 13-14)
Aristotle's historical effect on rhetoric and its continued fallout
It may seem self-evident that arguments today would be based as much on logic and the greater good than on past authority and religious dogma. However, such an…
Abizadeh, Arash. (2002) "The passions of the wise: phronesis, rhetoric, and Aristotle's passionate practical deliberation." The Review of Metaphysics, v56 i2 p267(30)
Aristotle. (350 BCE) Rhetoric. Trans. Rhys Roberts. [MIT Classics Archive Database]
Haskins, Ekaterina V. (2004) "Endoxa, Epistemological Optimism, and Aristotle's Rhetorical Project" Philosophy and Rhetoric - Volume 37, Number 1, pp. 1-20. [Muse Project Database]
From this point-of-view, the role of the constitution was to provide equal conditions for everybody. The community was meant to be made of free people. The rules were supposed to follow the principle of justice, punishing those who would try to behave in an unjust manner (Aristotle's Political Theory, 2002)..
In addition, he believed that the constitution was meant to serve the best interest of everybody and not just the rulers. This is an important strong point of the city-state concept since it puts the basis for a democratic approach.
A point which may be on the other hand considered weak refers to the conception according to which people living within the community would be willing to act in manner which would bring mutual benefits. In the philosophers' view, the fact of living within the community acted strongly upon the nature of man (Introduction to Aristotle).Reality has showed that the…
Aristotle, Benjamin Jowett. 2009. Politics by Aristotle. IndoEuropean Publishing.com
Aristotle's Political Theory. 2002. Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 30, 2009 from
As any successful marketing campaign, this needs to have the appropriate communication instruments and the most important of these would be the right channels: your own bosses, other employees (some who have no problem in recognizing the employee's qualities) or friends. Friends would hereby be included in the first category of Aristotle's friendships, the friendship of utility: one develops friendships with fellow colleagues in order to ensure that these friends develop and, more importantly, communicate, a positive image of the individual in the organization.
Part from this, one can also have a friendship of pleasure in the workplace. Team building actions or simple after work meetings for a Happy Hour could be such an example. However, there is a significant problem with both this category of friendship, following Aristotle's scheme, and with that of the friendship of the characters, the most profound form: the relationship with the office is too…
1. Nicomachean Ethics, trans. T.H. Irwin, Introduction. Hackett Publishing Company (Indianapolis: 1999).
2. Ziniewicz, Gordon L. ARISTOTLE: NICOMACHEAN ETHICS. 1996. On the Internet at http://www.americanphilosophy.com/aristot2.html . Last retrieved on October 5, 2009
3. Smith Pangle, Lorraine. Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship. Cambridge University Press 2002.
Nicomachean Ethics, trans. T.H. Irwin, Introduction. Hackett Publishing Company (Indianapolis: 1999).
Aristotle vs. Mill
The Greek philosopher Aristotle and John Stuart Mill agreed that the objective of morality was the pursuit of general happiness and the good life in society and in the individual. ut they deviated in the concept of, and the manner of arriving at, "the right thing to do," especially in reference to friendships. Mill held that actions are right in the proportion that they tend to promote that happiness and wrong, as they tend to promote unhappiness. He advocated the action/rule-based type of morality, which determined the goodness of an act according to the consequences of that act and independently of the doer's virtues or character traits (Fieser). This type directly opposes the virtue-based morality propounded by Aristotle, who believed that happiness as the ultimate end of existence that is sought for itself and not for any other end.
Aristotle contended that friendship is the greatest external…
1. Fieser, James. Moral Philosophy Through the Ages. http://www.utm.edu/~/jfieser/vita/research/moralphil.htm
2. Irwin, Terence, trans. Nicomachean Ethics. Second edition, UK: Hackett Publishing,1998
And reason is achieved when we are able to find the balance between two things, which are often the extreme ends of the spectrum. We can infer that good is something created by men. It is the product of reason. If Aristotle places that much responsibility to the faculty of reason, St. Augustine place that weight in God's hands as he maintained that the only way for men to be good, for men to be happy is through the grace of God. Good, then, cannot come from men but from God's grace.
St. Augustine's denial of the very existence of evil (it cannot be a substance) even dismissing it as simply an illusion of some sort, is a bit of a problem for me. Again, here we can find the utility of Aristotle's pragmatic view on things. If you hurt a person for example, can we not consider…
Ferguson., W. (1993). If God is all powerful and good, where does evil come from? Retrieved from http://www.kheper.net/topics/philosophy/Beyond_the_Problem_of_Evil.html . onKemerling, G. (2001). Aristotle: Ethics and Virtues. Retrieved at http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2s.htm . onMarch 3, 2009
Kraut, R. (2007). Aristotle's Ethics. Retrieved at
The material cause refers to that substance out of which a thing is constructed. The formal cause is the idea of the thing in the mind of the creator who sets about creating that particular thing. The efficient cause is the Agent - or the being that creates the thing. The final cause is the purpose for which the thing has been created.
Mere potentiality does not exist on its own, but enters into the creation of all things - except for the Supreme Cause. Mere potentiality thus stands at one pole of reality, while the Supreme Cause - or God - is at the other. oth of these entities are real. Materia prima contains the most attenuated reality, as it is pure indeterminateness. God, on the other hand, contains the highest, most complete reality, as God is on the highest level of determinateness. One of the central tasks of…
Adler, Mortimer. Aristotle for Everybody: Difficult Thought Made Easy. New York: Touchstone
Aristotle. Metaphysics. 24 March 2008. Retrieved at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0052
Aristotle & Cicero on hetoric
As children we are conditioned to a particular form of discourse that is framed by a significantly complex set of variables including our culture, gender, ethnicity, birth order, political identity and power, religion, and personality. How we employ words, in what context, and with what relative level of effectiveness is determined by all of these factors and more. hetoric is, however effectively argued over, a tool to be used within verbal discourse with the intent to convince others of a particular point-of-view. Political speech is perhaps the most obvious form of rhetoric we experience, but it is also employed in attempts to sell us things, to get others to go on dates, to win jobs and promotions, and to teach our children lessons on how to live life. hetoric's power is in its ability to convince - to win over people to a particular "side,"…
Aristotle. Rhetoric. New York: Courier Dover, 2004.
Erickson, Keith. Aristotle: The Classical Heritage of Rhetoric. New York: Scarecrow Press, 1974.
McKendrick, Paul. The Speeches of Cicero. New York: Duckworth, 1994.
Steel, Catherine. Cicero, Rhetoric and Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
In explaining Aristotle's hetoric, the following paper will first begin with a brief on the definition of hetorician as defined by Aristotle. According to his definition, a rhetorician is an individual with the certain ability to 'see the persuasive element'. (Topics VI.12.149b25). Thus, rhetoric is that ability which sees the possible persuasive element in every given case. (het.1.2,1355b26f)
Aristotle thus terms rhetoric as a neutral tool, which can be used for either of the good or bad purposes by both the virtuous as well as the depraved individuals. Accepting his art of rhetoric's ability to be misused, he even proposes certain factors that can be used to overturn the misuse of rhetoric's, for example rhetoric is true for all goods, except for virtue, that it is better used in convincing the just and the good as compared to the unjust and wrong arguments, and that the…
Herrick, J. The History and Theory of Rhetoric: An Introduction. MA: Allyn & Bacon. 2001
Rhetoric I', by Aristotle translated by W. Rhys Roberts at http://www.textfiles.com/etext/AUTHORS/ARISTOTLE/
Jowett, Benjamin, 'Plato's Phaedrus', accessed on 10.14.02
Specifically, in his condoning the institution of human slavery (Politics, I. 4 - I. 8), and in the obvious assumptions within his definition of "citizenship" rights in connection with his beliefs about the relative authority of female intellect (Politics, I. 13 -- I. 14).
The Concept of State Constitutions
Aristotle argues that the ideal set of values of society as represented in the state constitution are those that are the product of a hybrid between the rule of the few over the many and the rule of many (Politics, I.7). More specifically, Aristotle criticized Oligarchies and strict Democracies as deviant political systems because in his conception, they entailed exclusive rule by the wealthy over the poor or vice-versa, respectively (Politics, III.8 & IV.4). Conversely, Polity provides a just political system whereby a mix of all social classes contributes to the principles of the state constitution (Politics, IV.11).
According to Aristotle,…
We do not seek honor because it is valuable in itself, we seek honor to make us feel good, to achieve happiness. Aristotle believed that a true, ultimate must be sought for its own sake, that the end goal be self-sufficient and final.
For Aristotle, the good life is the "life of contemplation." Contemplation, the activity of the intellect, is loved for its own sake. It is not done in order to achieve something else. Thus, it is a true, ultimate end. Furthermore, contemplation, being an activity of the mind, is self-sufficient, meaning it does not require other people or places for its existence.
Contemplation, the activity of the intellect, is the highest form of activity because it corresponds to the best part of the soul, the rational part. The rational part of the soul is superior to the irrational part. The rational part of the soul
There are two…
Smith, J.A. (2004) The Ethics of Aristotle, translated by J.A. Smith. Pennsylvania State University.
Therefore it is fair to conclude we live in an immoral time. People's good character suffers from an inability to see right from wrong. Instead of the issue being that of black or white; an eye for eye; it has become far too gray. There is too room open for interpretation. This type of thinking makes for immoral acts on both sides of the argument.
This paper examined capital punishment as a moral issue and argue the opinion that it is an immoral practice. In order to do this, this paper employed Aristotle's ethical system and explore his notion of values. This paper carefully identified and explained the premises that lead to this argument,
To do this effectively, one must also look at the flipside of the issue and create a possible counter argument. This counter argument established that capital punishment is indeed a moral practice and acceptable consequence…
Aristotle's Ethics. 10 Oct. 2005 http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/aristotle.html ..
Aristotle v. Plato
Compare and contrast the metaphysical position of Aristotle and Plato. Does Aristotle's work constitute a sharp break with the position laid down by his teacher? Or is the old saying true that he apple does not fall far from the tree?
Although their positions are often elided, the focus of Aristotle and Plato's metaphysical emphases is quite different. Ironically, given that one of his most famous works is called the "Metaphysics," Aristotle is far more interested in the material world than his teacher. Aristotle is much more concerned than Plato with the actual political and social world around him. An additional irony is that Plato is the author of the "Republic," a word used to refer to an actual, political society, not a metaphysical truth about the cosmos. Plato's "Republic," however, is an ideal society, whereby Aristotle attempts to study and critique the real, rather than to…
Aristotle on Incontinence
Incontinence is a term which is used by Philosophers. It stems from the Greek term, which is Akrasia, which means lack of mastery -- or when someone is not able to withhold his or her desires. It describes human passion and desires and giving in to one's pleasures, not considering if an act is the right thing to do, according to Aristotle. However, it is believed by Socrates that such a thing does not exist, because if one were to know what the right thing to do was, he would not go the opposite direction because judgment overrules all desires and pleasures. This term is often used to be seen when a person lacks moderation or any type of self-control -- this is because, it is only human to do so. Aristotle believes that incontinence is something which is not necessarily a bad thing, and…
The best forms of government are those in which the leaders work for the benefit of the whole community. Little governments are actually good, as most act in favor of a specific social class, and not of the entire community. People tend to choose the form of government which benefits them the most, whether it is an oligarchy or a democracy.
Plato could argue that the Aristotelian citizenship politics is completely opposite to his own authority politics that implies the necessity of an authority that rules all the rest thus making the existence of a state possible under the correct laws and ruling imposed by those few who are able to rule due to their superiority.
The problem with the power in the state is that there are always groups that are unsatisfied with their leaders, so the best possible solution is to give the power to the many, as…
Aristotle. Politics. Book Three. (pp. 1-14).
Aristotle and Thrasymachus
Aristotle's theory of moral virtue presents a challenge to the view of Thrasymachus that justice is the advantage of the stronger. Thrasymachus believes that it does not pay to be just, and that justice in and of itself is a flawed concept. When a person behaves justly, that works to the advantage of other people who reap benefits from it, not to the advantage of the person who acts in a just manner. He argues that a person's natural desire is to have more, and that justice goes against that and becomes an unnatural restraint. However, his argument is flawed and can be easily challenged. This is done through many of the statements Aristotle makes in Ethics. For example, Aristotle says that "…the lovers of what is noble find pleasant the things that are by nature pleasant; and virtuous actions are such, so that these are pleasant…
Aristotle's theory of categories provides a fundamental way of explaining the known universe. There are ten different categories, according to Aristotle. These ten categories explain the nature of physical existence. The first category is substance, which is the most fundamental and important category. Substance refers to what a thing is on the elemental level. Aristotle divides this category further into substances such as living vs. nonliving things; and human beings vs. animals. Basically, substance refers to the identity of the object.
The second of the ten categories is quantity, which is a relatively straightforward category based on numbers. Thus, this category refers to anything that is measurable, such as length or number or time. The third category is the quality of the object, which generally refers to its physical qualities and observable features. So far with the three categories, there can be three blue birds (quantity, quality, and…
Aristotle (350 BCE). Categories. Retrieved online: http://classics.mit.edu /Aristotle/categories.html
Aristotle, Mill & Kant on emotion
Ethics and its role on Emotion of Pleasure: Views from Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and J.S. Mill
Analyzing the ethics of emotion, especially feelings of pleasure, is contemplated upon by the great philosophers Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill. Each philosophers have arguments about the ethics of human emotions; however, despite the differences in focus and discussion of this issue, all three philosophers that the path towards achieving happiness or emotion of pleasure is subsistence to individualism and rationalization of society. That is, Kant, Mill, and Aristotle emphasize the vital role that intellectual development plays in the achievement of happiness among individuals.
In Immanuel Kant's discussion of the ethics of emotion, he argues that feelings of pleasure should be generated morally and rationally -- that is, there is a conscious effort in the individual to achieve pleasure that is right not only for him/her…
This framework with different approaches creates the premise for every regime to be characterized according to it.
As such, following this structural determination, Western democracies can be characterized through the constitutional-institutional approach as regimes where the population participates in the governance process through the free, democratic elections, while at the same time limiting the extent of power that the government can have. These regimes promote capitalist and free market economies and promote tolerance in terms of religious beliefs etc.
On the other hand, the new democracies, especially the ones in Eastern Europe, seem to follow through on the pass of Western democracies, according to the three approaches. They are following the road from autocracy to democracy and building the Western-type of democratic infrastructure.
Regimes in East Asia are predominantly characterized via the economic-ideological approach, with the political regime subordinated to economic interest. Finally, military regimes or Islamic regimes have their…
Aristotle also argues that "happiness, above else, is held to be" (Book I, 7). He supports this argument by stating that, for every other virtue, people not only seek to obtain that virtue for its own sake, but also consider whether or not they will be happy in doing so. Thus, Aristotle sees happiness as the greatest because it is the only virtue that is sought simply for its own sake. Aristotle, then sees happiness as not only tightly connected with virtue and right or wrong, as a virtue with an ideal manifestation, and as the highest of all virtues, but Aristotle, therefore, also sees happiness as something that is to be pursued like other virtues, such as goodness, kindness, or charity. In addition, the fact that happiness is "the chief good" is also associated, for Aristotle, with the "function of man" (Aristotle Book I, 7). Thus, Aristotle asks, what…
This, according to Aristotle, may well militate against reason, and Aristotle would therefore find fault with the utilitarian's conclusion.
Aristotle also insists on excellence of character and being of great soul (magnanimous), which is the level deserving of highest praise. A person also has to be just (Bostock, 2000). Utilitarianism can come into difficulties in that it may, paradoxically, be harmful when it focuses on the influence of pleasure or pain to the greatest amount of people sacrificing the pleasure of the minority in the process. History accords us many instances in which the pleasure of a few has been sacrificed in order to accommodate the happiness of a majority. This, to Aristotle may not have been just. In conclusion, even though Aristotle agreed that humans seek happiness and that happiness is our greatest good, it seems to me that utilitarians and Aristotle differ in their disparate ways of defining…
Bostock, D. (2000). Aristotle's Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hare, R.M. (1981). Moral thinking: Its levels, method, and point, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Modern Library classics. Ethics: the essential writings, New York: Modern Library, 2010.
Rosen, F. Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. USA: Routledge, 2003.
But the view of Aristotle is more critical, rather than seeing the philosopher as a great prognosticator. Aristotle is presented as a great patriarch, occasionally overly venerated, as quite often his word was assumed to be 'gospel' during the heyday of the Catholic Church and scholasticism, although the website makes clear he should still be regarded as a worthy creator of the inklings of the modern scientific method.
The agenda of Philosophy Pages might also seem to be obvious, given the site's title, and its copious and helpful links to specific areas of Aristotelian philosophy, including Aristotle's doctrine of the universals, friendship, and other bibliographic sources. Although all of the data presented, however, is relatively accurate, it is extremely superficial and does not contain the copious amount of direct quotes from the philosopher's works -- far less even then the Encyclopedia page devoted to Aristotle. Also, the site is filled…
Aristotle." School of Mathematics and Statistics at St. Andrew's College, Scotland. Last updated 1999. 18 November 2004. http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Aristotle.html
Aristotle." Evolution Homepage of UCMP. 2004. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html
Kemerling, Garth. "Aristotle." Philosophy Pages. Last modified 2002. 18 November 2004. http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/aris.htm
Soll, Ivan. "Aristotle." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 18 Nov. 2004. http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wb/Article?id=ar029880
Aristotle and Happiness
hat is the point of life? Happiness? Virtue? Power? All of these? The ancient Greek philosophers would have pushed us gently in the direction of virtue, although they would also have argued that both happiness and power derive from virtue and so the quest for a fulfilled life does not have to be seen in terms of a trade-off between doing good and doing well. This paper examines the perspective that Aristotle brings to bear on the (for Greeks) twinned concepts of happiness and virtue.
Aristotle's contributions to modern philosophy are substantial: He along with Plato was one of the two greatest intellectuals of ancient Greece, a civilization that produced hundreds of important intellectuals. Perhaps more even than Plato, the other most important Greek philosopher, helped to guide the course of estern philosophy (as well as science) as well as in many ways Islamic thought. Through the…
Aristotle. Poetics. Trans. S.H. Butcher. New York: Hill and Wang, 1989.
Engstrom, Stephen and Jennifer Whiting (eds.). Aristotle, Kant, and the Stoics: Rethinking Happiness and Duty. Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1998.
Lear, Jonathan. Happiness, Death, and the Remainder of Life. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2000.
Aristotle is considered to be the philosopher of philosophers, he virtually wrote about everything, he pioneered most of the disciplines like psychology, biology, meteorology and political science. For almost a thousand years Aristotle's theories were unchallenged such was the impact of his philosophy and thought. The medieval philosophy of Scholastics and early enaissance thinkers borrowed heavily from Aristotle. At the root of Aristotle's philosophy was his doctrine of virtue and natural law. Aristotle believed that everything in life serves a purpose "telos" as he called it and distinguished "efficient" causes from "final" causes. 'Efficient causes are those things or processes that lead to the final cause, they are the means to ends, for example a painter uses paints and brush to create a work of art, the brush and paints are tools, process to make a painting. While the final cause is the end product, the painting. Similarly…
Paresh D. Bhatt Aristole on Happiness and Virtue: http://www.swaminarayan.org/essays/2002/2203.htm
Aristotle on Internet Encyclopedia: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/a/aristotl.htm
Virtue Theory on Internet Encyclopedia: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/v/virtue.htm
What distinguishes man from animals or plants is his capacity to reason. Animals seek pleasure for pleasures sake while human beings have the capacity to reason and, therefore, determine what pleasures to seek that are appropriate. This process of seeking the appropriate pleasures such as heath, wealth, knowledge, etc. allows a human being to enrich his life and lead eventually to a state of happiness. easoning allows one to develop good character. Doing the virtuous thing may not always be easy and require a strong effort but it will, according to Aristotle, result in a happy life.
The essential element of Aristotle's approach was his belief that happiness is the ultimate end of human existence. He did not view happiness as a pleasure, but rather, it is the result of a lifetime of exercising virtue. It takes an entire life of living virtuously to attain happiness and, therefore, it is…
Korsgaard, C.M. (1986). Aristotle on Function and Virtue. History of Philosophy Quartery, 259-279.
McMahon, D.M. (2004). From the happiness of virtue to the virtue of happiness: 400 B.C. - A.D.1780. Daedalus, 5-17.
The inherent benefits to a more functional economy justified a sensible distribution of property and resources, he would contend.
Though Locke's ideals would be essential in the development of western civilization as it exists today, it would really be the perspective of Aristotle here that would offer us a compelling window into the early and obvious objections to the nature of capitalism. Their shared view on property ownership suggests that there may be something innate in the human need to acquire, both in terms of the which it practically enables in terms of survival and in terms of the various esoteric functions served by properties of a non-essential nature. However, Locke's vision proves a more idealistic and somewhat flawed prediction of the impact of free market capitalism, with valuable ideals on the development of the self functioning to obscure pressing questions about the oppression, exploitation and resource scarcity which modern…
Murray, P. (1997). Reflections on Commercial Life: An Anthology of Classic Texts From Plato to Present. Routledge.
It is only in the middle ground between habits of acting and principles of action that the soul can allow right desire and right reason to make their appearance, as the direct and natural response of a free human being to the sight of the beautiful.
Virtue as the Golden Mean
Aristotle describes virtue as a "hexis," a tendency or disposition induced by our habits to have appropriate feelings. Defective states are "hexeis," tendencies to have inappropriate feelings. Every ethical virtue is a condition intermediate between two other states, one involving excess and the other deficiency. The mean is about the proper emotional response to situations, rather than the proper actions. Aristotle believed that virtue came from character. It is the character that makes us do the good deeds that are virtuous, not the deeds themselves. Even if you do manage to find the mean, it's not enough just to…
Kraut, R. (2010, summer). Aristotle's ethics. The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.) Retrieved October 7, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2010/entries/aristotle-ethics/
Murdarasi, K. (2009, June 11). Aristotle's golden mean. [email protected] Suite101. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from http://karenmurdarasi.suite101.com/aristotles-golden-mean-a56759
Sachs, J. (2005, April 11). Aristotle: Ethics. Internet encyclopdia of philosophy. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/aris-eth/
rites Copper, "the Nicomachean Ethics, many hold, is the greatest work ever written on practical philosophy" (p. 126). The greatest portion of this appeal comes from Aristotle's ability to reconcile the cultivation of a pure, inner self with the promotion of the universal good of mankind as a whole (Cooper).
hile Aristotle's conception of virtue can be a valuable practical guide on how to live one's life, his philosophy is not without major flaws. In particular, the idea that humans as a whole have a distinct function is questionable. Notes Sumner, "it is not at all strange to ask what the function is of a bricklayer or a kidney. But no answer comes readily to mind when we ask what the function is of a human being-or, for that matter a giraffe or a lichen" (p. 71). rites Pritchett, "Aristotle's assertion that humans even have a function is optimistic or…
Aristotle. Nicomanchean Ethics. Oxford University Press, 1998.
Broadie, Sarah. Ethics with Aristotle.
Oxford University Press, 1995.
Cooper, David E. World Philosophies: An Historical Introduction. Blackwell Publishers, 2002.
Aristotle and Plato the books are as under:
Aristotle's "The Politics"
And "Nicomachean Ethics"
Plato's "The Republic."
These are the names of the three books, which will be considered and viewed in the paper as a guide and reference to various questions related to Aristotle's and Plato viewpoint on the questions, which are as follows:
What mistake do oligarchs and democrats make in thinking about Justice, according to Aristotle?
To what extent would Plato agree with Aristotle's analysis?
What explains the similarities and/or differences in their approaches?
The paper will analyze and observe the viewpoints of the theorists and their relative opinions regarding these questions. In order to answer these questions the paper will introduce the background regarding these books and their relative themes. The paper will be presented in a compare/contrast format according to which the similarities and differences in the opinions of the theorists will be discussed and…
Comparison between Aristotle and Confucius on Virtue, Good Ethical Character and Conduct
Yu (1998) says that the word 'virtue' is derived from the Latin word 'virtus'. 'Vir' means manhood in literal translation from Latin. Consequently, Latin authors used it to translate 'arete'' from Greek, which referred to the perfect qualities of man. Any human action that completes and undertakes its function flawlessly can be said to be a virtue. Virtue is therefore an important human attribute that is necessary in our daily lives. This paper seeks to explore virtue by comparing how the two philosophers: Confucius and Aristotle viewed virtues and ethics.
Virtue, Good Ethical Character and Conduct
According to Confucius and Aristotle, virtue extends beyond knowledge. Confucius says that humans are good, by nature and that such goodness only requires nurturing to perfect it. On his part, Aristotle thinks that human function is naturally rational. He says that the…
This is why exercise is needed. I believe that practice is fundamental for the solidification of a virtuous character. I still fail to see how people could still be considered possessors of virtue if they do not apply it (the intentionality factor is a key one here).
esides being a manifestation of the good, virtue is also a principle of temperance and moderation. Therefore a person who is courageous for example, demonstrates that he is half way between a reckless behavior and one which could suggest indifference or cowardice. Virtue can be opposed not only to non-virtue, but also to passions. Perhaps it would be more wisely said that it is the passions which are more likely to lead you in the direction on injustice and unjust acts. Moderation prevents the passion from getting the best out of the individual and it is a stimulus in the direction of virtue.…
Aristotle (Ross, W.D. Translator). Nicomachean Ethics. World Library Classics, 2009
Aristotle, happiness and pleasure was moderation and a middle action between two vices. . So, for example, modesty would be a virtue as it comes between two extremes or vices; egotism and low self-esteem. Another example would be working sensibly. The two vices of working would be overworking and laziness. The middle option would be working sensibly. This, according to Aristotle, is the correct choice of action. He said we should act in the right way, at the right time, in the right amount towards the right persons for the correct reasons:"...To experience these emotions [fear, courage, desire, anger, pity, and pleasure] at the right times and on the right occasions and toward the right persons and for the right causes and in the right manner is the mean or the supreme good, which is characteristic of virtue" (Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, II). Happiness, then, comes not at the end of…
Justin Trudeau's election as Canadian Prime Minister represented a generational change in the country's politics. While there was a general belief that he was not ready to be Prime Minister, Trudeau used political skill and craftsmanship during the long election campaigns to defeat experience politicians. His election not only represents a generational change in Canadian politics but also has significant impacts on governance. In a recent phone call, he has indicated that he wants to re-establish the country with a new political system. This is influenced by the talks he has had regarding different kinds of political systems i.e. oligarchy, democracy, and the middle class. For Prime Minister Trudeau to choose the best system to rebuild the Canadian political system, an understanding of each of these systems is important.
One of the people who made significant contributions regarding oligarchy, democracy, and the middle constitution is Aristotle, a Greek…
slavery and citizenship in Aristotle's Politic:
Aristotle believes that most people in the world can be enslaved devoid of injustice as they are born to be slaves. At the same time some are born to be free and dominate as masters. Most modern critics have smeared these concepts of Aristotle. In this paper the writer evaluates the concepts of citizenship and slavery in light of Aristotle's politic to reveal not only Aristotle's thinking but also how his views are inferred by contemporary philosophers.
One is forced to do the disagreeable task of reading Aristotle's account of slavery because of such divergence in the opinions of the expert scholars. If one takes a look onat Aristotle's account of slavery, he/she will notice that on one hand; his opinion about slavery is that the enslavement of someone can't be proved as acceptable merely based on weak arguments and on the other hand;…
Ambler, Wayne. 1987. "Aristotle on Nature and Politics: The Case of Slavery." Political Theory 15:390-410.
Annas, Julia. 1996. "Aristotle on Human Nature and Political Virtue." The Review of Metaphysics 49: 731-53.
Arendt, Hannah. 1958. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Arendt, Hannah. 1961. Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought. New York: Viking.
"(Eliot, 850) She cannot help but comply because she had been humiliated and wounded, and she feels morally guilty. Had Rosamond acted in abidance of Aristotle's Ethics, she would have received Dorothea but she would have done so as a result of her own determination. A person is good if he or she is able to deliberate virtuously, according to the context and the circumstances of a certain situation. Rosamond on the contrary feels compelled to act the way she does, simply because she is in a state of psychological bafflement but she does not actually see the truth of the situation and neither is she able to act virtuously. She merely receives the good Dorothea tensely, endeavoring to guess the reason of her visit.
Catharine's conversion to her own traditional religion is determined by a very different motivation. She determines to become faithful to her own culture because she…
Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics. Trans. David Ross. Rev. By J.L. Ackrill and J.O. Urmson: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Eliot, George. Middlemarch. New York: Penguin, 1984.
McNickle, D'Arcy. The Surrounded. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1965.
A lot of genres throughout history have been tested over time among which 'tragedy' has been the most favorite one. Tragedy reveals a debacle tale of a good or valuable person through misinterpretation and fatal mistakes along with the production of misfortune and awareness on the protagonist's part and arousal of fear and sympathy on the audience's part. Aristotle, an ancient Greek thinker, is considered to have been the key ruling forces of tragedy. 'Poetics,' a masterpiece literature is considered to be the key authority that defines a true misfortune (Aristotle, 1968, pgs 33-35).
A character filled with tragedy must lift the story plot in every tragedy and that hero has to accomplish particular rules to be called a tragic hero. Aristotle presents some rules of a tragic hero which state that the character should not be displayed fleeting through an excellent fortune to a bad one; while…
Altman, J.B. (1987). "Preposterous Conclusions": Eros, Enargeia, and the Composition of Othello. Representations Journal. No. 18, pp. 129-157
Altman, J.B. (2010). The Improbability of "Othello": Rhetorical Anthropology and Shakespearean Selfhood. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Aristotle. (1968). Aristotle on the Art of Fiction: An English Translation of Aristotle's Poetics. CUP Archive Publications, pgs 33-35.
Dominguez-Rue, E and Mrotzekb, M. (2012). Shakespearean tragedies dynamics: identifying a generic structure in Shakespeare's four major tragedies. International Journal of General Systems. Vol. 41, No. 7, 667 -- 681.
This potential is in fact each man's ability to perform a certain task and fulfill a certain role in society. It is very important to note here that this role is determined by man's capacity to reason which is in fact, the key to understanding Aristotle's view on human nature. Regarding political regimes, Aristotle characterizes monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the good type of regimes whereas tyranny, oligarchy and democracy are labeled as 'corrupt'. The basic feature of a good government is that it rules in favor of the common interest while corrupt governments rule according to their own interest.
As far as the rule of law, Aristotle argues that in a good state, i.e. with a good government, there is a rule of law, and not of men, in other words, that man is to judge man according to laws which apply to everyone. In this sense, the rule…
Virtue Ethics and Aristotle
A virtuous person by definition performs virtuous acts -- therefore, if virtuous person A performs acts B, then act B. must be virtuous, and all resulting acts of person A thereof. Hardly true, one might exclaim -- even in theoretical logic as well as practice. Not every action performed by a person labeled virtuous will contain the essence of virtue. Surely, no one is perfect But can one avoid this tautological form of reasoning, and still embrace some of Aristotle's ethical reasoning?
Saying that a virtuous person performs virtuous acts, and therefore all acts performed by the virtuous person are virtuous, and virtuous people perform virtuous acts by definition. Remember that such statements are not the same thing as saying a courageous person performs courageous acts, and that an act performed by a person of courage must be courageous. It is important to remember that Aristotle…