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.. Its organic unity is its value." (McCain 151) while interesting in theory the concept in practical use is a little vague. McCain goes on to state that, "On this view, then, objects of art may have intrinsic value (as they successfully realize a novel diversity-in-unity), cultural value (as symbols of some cultural unity), and economic value (in that some individual is willing to pay for them)." (153) It seems to be a recurring motif that it comes down to the concept of value as related to the popular expression in the culture. Similar to the real estate market in different areas, the exact same hoe can go for various prices dependent on the location. And then there is provenance.
The origin or source of artistic material does changes the value of the material itself. The author uses the example of creating an exact replica, molecule by molecule, of a…
Arts, Music, Lit
Edward Henry Potthast
Introduction and Biography
Edward Henry Potthast has been remembered mostly for the beach scenes and the atmosphere of carefree ideals that he created.
He was an American, born in 1857 (Bio, 2005). He passed away in 1927, but not before leaving his mark on the artistic world (Bio, 2005). He was generally considered to be one of the most significant American artists within the 19th-century and he came from Cincinnati which was growing as an arts center very rapidly at the time of Potthast's birth (Bio, 2005). Cincinnati was often also judged to be a good refuge for immigrants from Germany, and this included the Potthast family.
He began his study at the McMicken School of Design and also at the Cincinnati Academy (Bio, 2005). After that he went briefly to Europe and then became an illustrator and lithographer back in Cincinnati. He moved…
Artists by Movement: Impressionism. 2005. Artcyclopedia. http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/impressionism.html
Bio: Edward Henry Potthast (American, 1857-1927). 2005. From the Archives of AskART. http://www.sai.msu.su/cjackson/potthast_bio.him
Cox, R. 2005. Edward Henry Potthast 1857-1927. Afternoon Fun. http://www.butlerart.com / pc_book/pages/edward_henry_potthast_1857.htm
Roughton Galleries, Inc. 2004. Biography Edward Henry Potthast. http://www.roughtongalleries.com/potthast.html
Arts and Humanities in Rosseau's Second Discourse And Other Pieces Of ork
Arts and Humanities in Rousseau's Second Discourse and other Pieces of ork
In the second discourse, Rousseau changes progress and decries imprisoning in men, in a fabricated logic of civilization. Rousseau uses striking language, "the sciences, letters and arts….." However, he believes that the new arts and sciences portray the appearance but not the reality of virtue, which he believes is core to civilization. In addition, he asserts that humanity in the state of nature was ethical and good because, in their primitive simplicity, human beings could not deceive each other (Gourevitch 23-59). However, the sciences undermine morality and threaten the well-being of human beings. Therefore, civilization based on these sciences is a mode of concealing the vices of humanity. To make strong his point, Rousseau gives an example of the Spartans whom he describes as virtuous. He…
Moran, Francis. "Between Primates and Primitives: Natural Man as the Missing Link in Rousseau's Second Discourse." Journal of the History of Ideas 54.1 (1993): 37-58. Print
Gourevitch, Victor. "Rousseau's Pure State of Nature." Interpretation 16, no. 1 (1988): 23-59.
Richard, Holmes. "The Age of Wonder." New York Times, 8 July. 2009. Web 20 August 2013.
Rodriguez Roque, O. "The Oxbow by Thomas Cole: Iconography of an American Landscape."
g. By teaching the child to sing with other people, the latent function of the exercise would be the child learning to adjust to other people and adopt to different and changing circumstances.
For the rather higher levels of Graders 9-12, in their theater classes, they are expected to learn scriptwriting, to communicate and sustain different characters, learn to interpret dramatic texts, and analyze, critique, and scrutinize the different art forms (Education World Website, 2008). At this point, one is expected to learn to have a more solid understanding of art to be able to discriminate and evaluate one art form from another. More than learning the basics of theater production, one can interpret the achievement standards as cultivating critical knowledge in the minds of students. The value of critical minds is deemed important especially when they grow old, when different options shall be laid before them, when competing motives…
Education World Website. (2008). National Standards. Retrieved at http://www.education-world.com/standards/national/arts/theatre/9_12.shtml. onFebruary 28, 2009.
The Kennedy Center Website (n.d.), the National Standards for Art Education. Retrieved at http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards/overview.cfmonFebruary 28, 2009.
Arts Education in California public schools have become a permanent feature in advancing their extra curriculum. It seems to benefit majority of the students, as such a subject is helpful in exercising a kids' mind while concentrating on other area. Though the governor of California needs to allocate monies for such programs so that in the upcoming years more students can benefit by participating in these areas.
Arts education is taking a wild turnover, introducing new methods, variety of opportunities in schools and colleges, hence elaborating it into a vast subject.
While we contemplate about its roots, we must extract its importance in our daily lives and the role it plays in a person's daily developments. Most schools offer their students arts, music and theatre as an extracurricular activity, in order to expand and exercise their mental capability. Achieving outstanding grades in subjects, such as Maths, Latin, English,…
California Alliance for Arts Education: Available at http://www.artsed411.org/
Applying for a scholarship to any educational institution is a daunting experience and one that should not be taken lightly. In this application I look to display the characteristics and desire necessary to garner a scholarship as a manner for achieving great tasks and accomplishments in my educational and art endeavors. The facility to which I am applying provides me with opportunities to further my desires to excel in the art community, to complete projects and experience tutelage that might otherwise be missing from my endeavors.
Some of the endeavors in which I am seeking assistance include a new art project that seeks to present the art community with 'windows' into the new city of Tehran. By focusing on both temporal and spiritual windows I hope to portray the hope that is resilient in all humans, but especially in the citizens of Tehran as they cope and recover…
Arts and healing: A group process
The group summary
The group I chose to observe is one that focused on Arts, spirituality, and healing, called Personal Mythology. This was a weekend workshop to engage people in the theories and experiences that are presented by Feinstein & Krippner (1997) in The Mythic Path: Discovering the Guiding Stories of your past -- Creating a Vision for your Future. The workshop was designed to serve 2 purposes as follows: (1) An intensive exposure to the work of personal mythology; (2) An intensive process of the work of personal mythology. People came together not only to engage with the intensive experience and begin the work of personal mythology but also in hopes of understanding how to make it an ongoing life process and help others in their spheres of influence to do the same.
In the Invitation of their book, Feinstein and Krippner (1997)…
Feinstein, David & Krippner, Stanley. (1997). The mythic path: Discovering the guiding stories of your past -- Creating a vision for your future. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Ward, D. (2009). "Groupwork" in R. Adams, L, Dominelli, & M. Payne (eds), Critical practice in social work, 2nd edition, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, chapter 10, pp. 115-124.
There is a relationship between form and aesthetic sports since aesthetic is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature of art and criteria of artistic judgment while form sports encompasses other forms of creative activities such as dance of which dance is an art form that refers to movement of the body for example, gymnastics.
I consider sports as an art since sports have many affinities with art .For example, drum corps, dance sports and artistic gymnastics. I also consider sports as an art because there are some activities which have elements of sports and art such as free running, wrestling, body building and performance arts such as dance and drama.
I also consider sports as an art because in both of them one must be dedicated and committed to achieve .If an athlete views himself as an artist he can transform sports to art by…
Dr Masucci, (2008). Sports, Art & The Aesthetic. Retrieved September 21, 2008 from http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/masucci/Sport,%20Art,%20&%20the%20Aesthetic.pdf
Best David (1980). Sports is not Art. Journal of the philosophy of sport. (Vol xii). Pp25-45)
Seymour Kleinman,(1980). Arts, Sports and Intention. Ohio State University. pp 218-222.
Both of his eyes have white in them as if to signify a glimmer of hope. He is serious, but there is also a warmth about his expression. On his right lapel there is a circle -- the upper part of the circle is blue and the lower part is red and white stripes as if to depict the American flag. He wears a white shirt, red tie and a dark blue suit jacket. On the bottom of the image, H-O-P-E is written in light blue all capital letters.
His face is probably the most interesting aspect of the piece as well as the focal point. The different colors on his face seem to represent all the different colors of Americans. It could also be a depiction of the fact that Obama had a white mother and a black father. Either way, we see in his face a lot of…
Nurses can help in this process however, if they understand their roles, as outlined in this paper, which include self-empowerment, quality patient care and collaboration (ANA, 2007).
This topic is important because literature confirms that self-care management of graduate nurses and other providers may "significantly improve medical outcomes" especially among patients with "complicated" diseases or those that rely on frequent doctor or RN check-ups (Taylor et al., 1058).
The author proposes more attention be given to education, specifically orientation training for new graduate nurses that focuses on the self-care management model role so new graduates know what their role is in empowering patients to recovery, but also keep in mind how important it is to care for their own health and wellness.
The graduate nurse must be aware of the many elements that may impact their performance, including self-care or management. This paper introduces the concept of self-care…
ANA (2003) "Nursing Facts," American Nurses Association, Retrieved November 13, 2007: http://www.ana.org/
Apesoa-Varano, E.C., Varano, C.S. (2004), Nurses and labor activisms in the United
States: The role of class, gender, and ideology. Social Justice, 31(3): 77
Ford, L.A., & Ellis, B.H., (1998), a preliminary analysis of memorable support and non- support messages received by nurses in acute care settings. Health Communications, 10(1): 37
arts bring to education?" The author begins with a history of education and testing. Standardised tests are critical to admission into universities and colleges. These tests to do not accurately assess a student's depth of knowledge nor do the tests test a spectrum of skills -- only a few skills are necessary to be successful on such tests. The author argues that art classes develop skills and habits of thinking benefitting every student. Practicing art develops practical skills that are key to success in life as well as success in the academic and professional realms. Some skills the author pays particular attention to are those of self-reflection, self-criticism, understanding and making choices, and what the author calls "mucking about until something happens." The author contends that traditional perspectives toward art and art education must be modified in order to perceive and exploit the potential of art for the development of…
Gooding-Brown, Jane 2010, 'What do the arts bring to education?', Online Opinion,. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/view.asp?article=11265&page=0 . 2012 March 13.
conceived by educational and cognition psychologist Howard Gardner
According the most current incarnation of the website devoted to the project and philosophy of Arts Propel, "Arts Propel is a five-year, collaborative effort involving Harvard Project Zero, the Educational Testing Service (ETS), and the teachers and administrators of the Pittsburgh Public Schools." (Arts Propel, 2003, retrieved at (http://www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/PROPEL.htm) It is a program designed to better integrate arts education into the often-confining educational framework of the American public school system. In other words, rather than teach art like reading or mathematics, in an Arts Propel classroom, "students approach the art form along three crisscrossing pathways that give Arts PROPEL its name."
These "crossings" include, but are not limited to production, where "students are inspired to learn the basic skills and principles of the art form by putting their ideas into music, words, or visual form," then perception, "where students study works of…
Arts Propel. Website of Arts Propel Project. Constructed 2003. Retrieved on November 16, 2003 at http://www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/PROPEL.htm/
Gardener, Howard. "Zero-Based Arts Education: An Introduction to ARTS PROPEL." Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research. 30 (2): 71-83.
Gardener, Howard. http://www.pz.harvard.edu/PIs/HG_nexos.pdf" The Tipping Point between Success and Failure: A Psychologist's View," by Howard Gardner for Nexos. 2003.
Gardener, Howard. Mu ltiple Intelligences after Twenty Years." Invited Address, American Educational Research Association. April 2003.
Students are complex creatures, volatile, complicated and paradoxical. No two students learn alike, and no two students are the product of the same biological and cognitive processing mechanisms. In modern society, educators have taken the standpoint that students should be taught utilizing one method, a verbal learning approach. In the traditional sense, this warrants one teacher standing in front of a large classroom of students, lecturing about a particular subject matter.
This method of teaching defies reason. Students are not simply verbal learning mechanisms. Many students learn visually. In fact, in a society as visually programmed as that in which we live today, the most logical method of instruction should revolve around visual learning methods, not simply verbal. In a traditional classroom setting, students are not provided an arena to experience a democratic way of learning. The use of arts and visually oriented learning methodologies to pass on knowledge has…
Cattell, R.B. (1987). Intelligence: Its structure, growth, and action. New York: Elsevier.
Evoy, A. (Ed).(1981). Contemporary authors: New revision series (Vol.2). Detroit: Gale Research Company.
Stills, D.L. (Ed.).(1989). International encyclopedia of the social sciences: Biographical supplement (Vol. 18). New York: Macmillan.
Murray, B. (1999). "Can You Measure a Liberal Arts Education?" Monitor Online, Volume 30, Number 4. April 30, 1999, Retrieved March 14, 2003, http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr99/uni.html
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…
"REVIEW & OUTLOOK (Editorial, b) -- Asides: Tilting with the Arc." Wall Street Journal: 1. Sep 04, 1987. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Doss, Erika. "Public Art Controversy: Cultural Expression and Civic Debate," Americans for the Arts, October 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Drescher, Timothy. "The Harsh Reality: Billboard Subversion and Graffiti," Wall Power, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Fleming, Ronald Lee. "Public Art for the Public." Public Interest.159 (2005): 55-76. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Art During Renaissance
The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance
The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe (rotton 2006, p. 6). This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations…
Acidini, Luchinat Cristina. The Medici, Michelangelo, & the Art of Late Renaissance Florence. New Haven: Yale UP in Association with the Detroit Institute of Arts, 2002. Print.
Adams, Laurie. Italian Renaissance Art. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001. Print.
Barter, James. Artists of the Renaissance. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 1999. Print.
Bartlett, Kenneth. The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance. Toronto D.C.
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm
"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html
"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…
Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Introduction in Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon
Paz, Octavio. Metropolitan Museum of Art: Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Los Angeles: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pierce, Donna, Gomar, Rogelio R. And Bargellini, Clara. Painting a New World: Mexican Art
Art can come in many shapes, sizes, and mediums, yet one thing that all art has in common is its ability to connect to individuals and enable them to experience catharsis, that is illicit an emotional response. Some of the most awe-inspiring works of art are architectural such as the Lincoln Memorial, which bookmarks the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln Memorial is impressive and its sheer magnitude and size was unexpected. Walking up to the memorial, I realized that it was much larger than I had anticipated and that much like a temple, the actual memorial is located at the top of a series of steps. It was nothing like looking at the back of a penny or a five-dollar bill. The Lincoln Memorial successfully combining the concepts of form and function through its structure (Pearson Publication, Inc., 2009, p. 164). The memorial itself was designed by Henry…
National Parks Service. (2012). Lincoln Memorial design individuals. Accessed 21 August 2012,
from http://www.nps.gov/linc/historyculture/lincoln-memorial-design-individuals.htm .
Pearson Publications Inc. (2009). Chapter 5: Art. The Art of Being Human: The Humanities As A
Technique For Living, pp. 114-169.
Along with Georges Braque, Fernand Leger and Pablo Picasso were firmly at the forefront of the cubist movement in modern art. Cubism sprouted from Picasso's experimentations with collage, along with Braque, but later morphed into an interpretive and expressive style of painting that heralded many related movements in abstract modern art including futurism. As Fitz puts it, Picasso used the cubist style to express the things he could not see, but which he knew were there; the things that everybody is "certain of seeing," but which are not depicted on a traditional canvas (228). As a result, Picasso reinvented painting, and reinterpreted what the function of painting was. Leger deserves credit also, for he too pursued the " quest for a means by which to accurately describe three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional canvas," (Spector). Leger and Picasso developed totally unique and distinct brands of cubism, even if their formative…
Dickerman, Leah. Inventing Abstraction. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2013.
Fitz, L.T. "Gertrude Stein and Picasso: The Language of Surfaces." American Literature. Vol. 45, No. 2. May 1973.
Lanchner, Carolyn, Leger, Fernand, Hauptman, Jody, Afron, Matthew, and Erikson, Kristen. Fernand Leger. New York: The Museum of Modern Art. 1998.
Spector, Nancy. "Fernand Leger." Guggenheim. Retrieved online: http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/show-full/piece/?search=Nude%20Model%20in%20the%20Studio&page=&f=Title&object=49.1193
Art Analysis: Art21
After reviewing the artists from Art21, the artists chosen are Pierre Huyghe and AI Weiwei as the subjects of this paper. The pieces the paper will be "This is not a time for dreaming" by Huyghe and "Forever" by Weiwei. Both pieces are installation pieces although the artists are not classified under the same grouping on the Art21 website. Weiwei is listed as "Featured in Change" and Huyghe is listed as "Featured in omance." Though they are not featured or classified in the same group, their respective groups are related. There are several different kinds of people in the world for whom change is romantic. Weiwei is a renowned activist as well as renowned artists. Artists typically have a deep passion within that they express via their art. Therefore, Weiwei could see the connection between romance and change. For the native Parisian Huyghe, romance may very well…
Art21, Inc. (2012) Explore Artists. Available from: http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists . 2012 July 10.
European Graduate School. (2012) Pierre Huyghe -- Biography. Available from: http://www.egs.edu/faculty/pierre-huyghe/biography/ . 2012 July 11.
Wines, Michael. (2009) Ai Weiwei, China's Impolitic Artist. The New York Times, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/28/world/asia/28weiwei.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 July 12.
Pierre Huyghe, "This is not a time for dreaming," 2004.
ART CRITICISM AND THEORY: Question: How constraints practices artists/designers/architects influence make? Make reference TO response: - Site - Views art critics historians - Historical precedents - Materials technologies - Time - Audience expectations.
Post-modern art and theory
Artists in the post-modern era realized that they dealt with a lot of pressure coming from the public and that it was important for them to employ attitudes that would reflect positively on their works. Even with this, people need to understand that artists have always been constrained and that being limited actually had a constructive effect on most individuals. Chaos is difficult to discuss when regarding things from an artistic point-of-view, as while some people consider it to be an important asset, others believe that it is better for an artist to work with a limited amount of tools because this makes it possible for him or her to actually demonstrate that…
Gehry, Frank, "Fred & Ginger Building," 1996
Gehry, Frank, "Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao," 1997
Dir. Bill Viola. Ocean without a shore. 2007
Dir. Bill Viola. Silent Mountain. 2001.
(Mulcahy and yszomirski 139)
However, this is not art for art's sake; it is art for our children's sake. If one has to put on the back burner that Picasso was a cubist for the sake of challenging a child to look at a painting and just experience it, than so be it. The very act of simply experiencing the art of an artist can have profound effects on the thought process of children as well as adults. They may think it is profound or they may think it is a piece of trash, but at least they are thinking.
Art outreach programs have become the sole window into the art world for some schools. Since funding for school programs has been so drastically reduced, these outreach programs have become absolute necessities for many communities. These programs also introduce not only children to art, but adults are benefiting from these…
Art Program Promotes Self-Esteem, Self-Expression." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 24
Feb. 2006: 1.
The Importance of Art to Education. Arkansas River Valley Arts Education (2007)
People not only make art, but also choose which objects should be called art" (Art Pp).
Art critics refer to the work of Bulgarian-born Christo and American Robert Smithson as land art and earthworks (Art Pp). In February 2005, Christo and his wife, Jeanne-Claude, fulfilled a twenty-six-year-old dream art project when 7,500 saffron colored drapes hanging from 16-foot-high steel frames were unfurled as they wound their way through twenty-three miles of footpaths through Central Park (Sanders Pp). During a recent visit to New York City, reporter Bob Ray Sanders made a special stop to the park to witness "The Gates" for himself (Sanders Pp). His describes the contrast of the bright orange colors with the "grayness of stark barren trees and shrubbery did give the appearance of what the artists called a 'visual golden river' with many tributaries meandering through the park' (Sanders Pp). Sanders said that the bursts of…
Sanders, Bob Ray. "Sometimes, perceptions about art separated by very wide gulf." Fort Worth Star-Telegram; 2/17/2005; Pp.
Kogan, Nathan. "On aesthetics and its origins: some psychobiological and evolutionary considerations." Social Research; 3/22/1994; Pp
Chang, Rodney. 'Ideas on Art Psychology."1980
Splashes of color like red and several shades of blue are added to the collage in a "dragonfly, wing-like" formation. A cutout photograph of a boy is pasted on the "wing" of a lighter shade of blue, perhaps to note a sense of calm to his surroundings.
The Hawkins' exhibit will consist of 80 objects, a retrospective of his nearly a quarter of a century career. The work is described as "at its core, about the pleasure of intense looking." Third mind is described as referring to another piece of Hawkins' work, "ichard Hawkins: Of two minds simultaneously," which means to be undecided, uncertain or unsure, the description states. Hawkins is aware of the duplicity that this body of work creates, which is stated to be intentional.
The Art Institute of Chicago was founded in 1879 as a school and museum. The museum holds art from African-American artists to silk…
1. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010 the Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
2. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010. The Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
3. George Eastman House. "Current Exhibitions • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
4. George Eastman House. "Photographs by Jessica Lange • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
It would have been as ridiculous for a working class man or woman to make art as it would have for that same person to become an accountant. Still, artists throughout time have snuck in their personal values in their paintings. Hieronymous Bosch is one of the artists I believe to have inserted personal values into Church-commissioned art.
Even in the modern era, art is still entwined with money. The artist needs to live, sure. But that is not the only connection between art and money. Art galleries exist because art has become big money. Art symbolizes wealth. No ordinary person can afford "real" art. Ordinary people purchase prints and reproductions, not original pieces by known or up-and-coming artists.
Art is like any other commodity now, for better or for worse. Artists have a greater chance than ever of making a viable living, given the plethora of opportunities in graphic…
Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, arhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy arhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).
In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the…
Andy Warhol." PBS: American Masters. 20 Sept 2006. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/database/warhol_a.html
Teaching Art Since 1950." National Gallery of Art. 199. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.nga.gov/education/classroom/pdf/artsince1950.pdf
Un Chien Andalou." Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1929.
Varendoe, Kirk. Online NewsHour: Jackson Pollock. 11 Jan 1999. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/jan-june99/pollock_1-11.html
Art Practice in the Past and Present
A skill or mastery that stimulates the process of thought, amusement, and emotions is called an art. It is also defined as a special quality used by many people to express their feelings, approach and position. Dating back to 50,000 years ago, art has various forms that ground itself from sculptures, rock paintings, wall craving to modern paintings. Countries like Egypt, Persia, India, Europe and America have great foundations of ancient civilizations that developed their own way of expressing their work and teaching it to their future generations. These teachings started with simple body signs for expressing there need to using brushes, knifes and other tools to explain there work. As a result of these teachings, the art present today expresses an urbanized form of historic art.
Similarities and difference of past and present art
Artists today are very similar in…
Bolin, Paul E (2009). Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research in Art Education, 50(2): 110-123.
Comunian, Roberta (2009). Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society, 39(3): 200-220.
Gaiger, Jason (2011). Art Bulletin, 93(2): 178-194, 17p.
Keizer, Joost (2011). Art Bulletin, 93(3): 304-324, 21p.
Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "
Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)
However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in…
Edgerton, S. ( 2006). Picturing the Mind's Eye. Tampa University. Journal of Art History,
1. Retrieved from http://journal.utarts.com/articles.php?id=4&type=paper
Op Art History Part I: A History of Perspective in Art. Retrieved from http://www.op-
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…
Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.
Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992
Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.
Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
Both Duccio di Buoninsegna and Fra Filippo Lippi paint the Christian Madonna and child scene. Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels" is rendered on wood with tempera and gold leaf. It is rounded at the top, and was the center part of a triptych that was completed in about the year 1440.[footnoteRef:1] Also in tempera and gold leaf on wood is di Buoninsegna's "Madonna and Child." Candle damage at the bottom of the wood panel suggests that the painting was "used for private devotion."[footnoteRef:2] Buoninsegna's painting was completed in the year 1300, almost one hundred and fifty years prior to Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels." The two depictions of mother Mary and baby Jesus share similar themes, and in both the mother is holding the child. However, the composition of the two paintings is strikingly different and symbolizes their respective religious histories. [1: "Fra…
"Duccio di Buoninsegna: Madonna and Child (2004.442)." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- . http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/2004.442 (September 2010)
"Fra Filippo Lippi: Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels (49.7.9)." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- . http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/49.7.9 (August 2007)
Paoletti, John T. And Radke, Gary M. Art in Renaissance Italy. Laurence King Publishing, 2005.
Tinagli, Paola. Women in Italian Renaissance Art: Gender, Representation, Identity. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997
Art Museum: Case Study
This case study involves a campus art museum that for many years had a competent director, but a relatively staid presence on campus. The last director had a far more populist orientation. He tried to bring schoolchildren into the museum on a regular basis, and bring in traveling art exhibitions that were of interest to the larger public. But he seemed more interested in advancing a radical political agenda than truly supporting art. Because the art museum is seen as connected to the graduate school, there is a great deal of anger amongst faculty members, who believe that the museum should serve the interests of the school, specifically the graduate students studying for PhDs. In the future, the evaluation committee must have a more systematic process for evaluating candidates. The mission of the art museum must be clearly defined. And the past qualifications, necessary skills, and…
Roy Lichtenstein -- Stepping Out is a painting done in oil and magna on canvas by Roy Lichtenstein. (Magna is a plastic painting product made of permanent pigment ground in acrylic resen with solvents and plasticizer. This material mixes with turpentine and mineral spirits and dries rapidly with a mat finish) (www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html).Painted in 1978, this work is 85 inches in heighth and 70 inches in width, 218.4 cm by 177.8 cm. This work of art, accession number 1980,420, is located at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (5th Avenue and 82nd Street). It was purchased in 1980 as a Lila Acheson Wallace Gift with additional funding through the Arthur Hoppock Hearn Fund, the Arthur Lejwa Fund, in honor of Jean Arp; the ernhill Fund, the Joseph H. Hazen Foundation Inc., the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation Inc., and gifts fromWalter areiss, Marie annon McHenry, Louise Smith, and…
Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being. 2nd Edition. New York:Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 2000.
A www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lichtenstein_roy.html www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html www.nga.gov/cgi-bin/pbio?224210 www.metmuseum.org/collections
Of course, I am incidentally exposed to non-commercial art throughout my day, as well. My home is decorated with original paintings by unknown artists, so I see art as I glance around my home. My work is also decorated with artwork, though the works there are reproductions of the works of famous artists. I also hear music during my commute to work, and my office plays jazz music in the background.
Examining my experience with art in my daily life, it becomes clear to me that art is an essential part of a civilized life. Though I have not formally studied any of the fine arts, I believe that they have been very helpful to me. I believe that art serves as a reminder to me and to my fellow human beings that we are elevated above other animals. In addition, I believe that the tone and nature of a…
The Narrative Tradition in Art: Evidence and Examples from the Neolithic and the Hellenistic Periods
Artists have existed since long before the dawn of civilization and the beginnings of recorded history, and the subject matter chosen for depiction in paintings has at once been highly varied and remarkably similar as civilization progressed and societies same and went. Wildly disparate styles have led some to emphasize color and the abstract while others attempted to paint exactly what was seen, and buildings dominate some paintings while landscapes dominate others; at the same time, there have been similarities in that paintings always represent the world as seen by the civilization producing the art, and thus people and certain other elements are almost always well represented. Art is a way of mirroring life, and of displaying features of importance to a given people, and representations of men and women and the objects…
Cartldge, P. & Millett, P. (1998). Kosmos: Essays in Order, Conflict and Community in Classical Athens. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hamblin, W. (2006). Warfare in the ancient near east. New York: Routledge.
Kleiner, F. (2010). Gardner's art through the ages. Mason, OH: Cengage.
Snodgrass, A. (2000). The dark ages of Greece. New York: Routledge.
The process whereby the truth of a certain matter or problem is investigated is in and of itself an art form. Though the manner in which certain problems are investigated are very similar, they are also very different depending on the person conducting the experiment. Each scientists works in a unique manner as does each artists working to uncover beauty. Thus one may suggest that the quest for uncovering truth is much like the quest for discovering beauty. In fact, one may simply define beauty as the pursuit or discovery of the certain truth about something or someone.
As alike as these two concepts may be they are also irreconcilably different. In the process of finding the truth one must seek out concrete realities. Typically these realities have to be something that can be proved or disproved, based on reasoning and logic rather than subjective experience. Science often involves experimentation…
The "self-portraits" might perhaps be viewed in terms of the artist's own past illnesses: At 37, Taylor-Woods, having already survived both colon cancer and breast cancer, likely understands, on personal level, the state of "suspense" between sickness and health, life and death. he may, then, have been "bound" to breast cancer (the invisible ropes may symbolize the disease), cured of it, and her body "released to freedom." In my opinion, however, an artistic weakness of these pictures is that their esthetics and size make them look less like serious art than fashion advertisements for bras and panties! For me, "elf-Portrait uspended" is the least effective of the three exhibition subjects. The tension in the subject's body also appears to be that of someone hanging from ropes (which she in fact was); the tautness of her body kept me from "suspending my disbelief" (so to speak) that she was hanging in…
Sam Taylor-Wood: New Work: 29 October - 4 December 2004. Retrieved January 5, 2005 from http:www.artshole.co.uk/exhibitions/Oct%2005/Sam%TaylorWood htm>.
Sam Taylor-Wood: 'New Work' Art Exhibition at White Cube." Ballet-Dance
Magazine. Retrieved January 4, 2005 from http://www.ballet-dance.com/200412/articles/TaylorWood20041100.html
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…
Bartley, Paula. (2003). "Emmeline Pankhurst: Paula Bartley Reappraises the Role of the Leader of the Suffragettes." History Review, 41.
Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880-1910. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Harris-Frankfort, Enriqueta. "Velazquez, Diego." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 31 May 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222892 .
Mallory, Nina Ayala. El Greco to Murillo: Spanish Painting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
Art movement DADA
The phenomenon Dada is notoriously difficult to describe; some critics hesitate even to use the term "movement." Focusing on Dadaists' reflections about the phenomenon itself, we will try to delineate a general image of the Dada in the context of the European avant-gardes of the 20-th century. e will also try to analyze the historical and political context inside which the dada phenomenon occurred. Our main focus will be on two main tenets of Dadaism: the "self-critical" feature of Dada's self-image as it emerges during the main phases of its history, especially during its early phase, and the political commitment of Dada during its last phases of development.
Dada "artworks" were usually conceived as all-in-one theatrical performances, art happenings, counting music, dance, poems, theory, costumes, as well as paintings. Jangling keys, gymnastic exercises called noir cacadou, and screaming presentations of sound poetry or other texts accompanied these…
Benjamin, Walter. The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproductibility and Other Writings on Media. Eds. M. Jennings, B. Doherty, T.Y. Levin. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008: pp.34-45
Caws, Mary Ann. The Poetry of Dada and Surrealism: Aragon, Breton, Tzara, Eluard and Desnos. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000: pp.12-34.
Dachy, Marc. The Dada Movement, 1915 -- 1923. New York: Rizzoli, 1990: pp.56-78
Hugnet, Georges. Dada. In: The Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art. vol. 4, no. 2/3, 2006: pp. 3-18.
Art and Architecture
Architecture and Art
In a recent visit to Chicago, I observed the Chicago Picasso which was a gift to the city by the famed artist Pablo Picasso. Located in the downtown Chicago loop, the monument stands 58 feet tall, weighs 162 tons and is constructed of Cor-Ten (corrosive tensile) steel. Pablo Picasso gave this massive work of art to the city of Chicago, even though he'd never been to the city, and never went during his lifetime. The unpaid work was based on a 42-inch-tall version Pablo crafted. It was later executed by U.S. Steel Corporation ("Chicago Sculptures," 2011).
It is reported that Pablo Picasso never named his creation nor gave an explanation as to what it represents. The 3-D piece of art looks different from every angle. People have stated that it resembles a baboon; mainly because of the close-set eyes and flaring nostrils. Also, the…
Chicago Sculptures. (2011). Professional Safety, 56(4), 64.
Cunningham, B. (2011, June 5). City in Bloom. New York Times. p. 4.
The Warhol Bubble. (2012). Wilson Quarterly, 36(1), 72-73.
Windy City Windfall. (1966). Time, 88(13), 83.
Art as Political tatement
It is almost impossible to completely separate art from the social and political context in which it originates. When considering art works from a variety of contexts and situations, it is clear that artist as often as not ignored and embraced politics as either inspiration for their work, or indeed treated it as a force to be shunned for its destruction of the creative spirit. Both acceptance and defiance of the political arena, it will be shown below, constitute a form of political statement in terms of art.
Expressionism began its evolution during the early part of the 20th century. This movement contrasted with impressionism in that it did not aim to reproduce, but rather to impose its views of objects in the world. When taken from a political context then, the political agenda is not always clear, as the artist is attempting to represent…
Andre Derain." 2004. http://psych.fullerton.edu/psych466/psantiago/derbio.html
Hughes, Robert. "Henri Matisse." 2004. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/M/matisse.html
Pioch, Nicolas. "Expressionism." 2002. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/glo/expressionism/
Pioch, Nicolas. "Henri Matisse." 2004.
He finds an especially poignant example of this in the collection of American Aboriginal art. While the collection of art and artifacts from these cultures is important, it is not nearly as important for Hill as the discourse that can be brought about in society as a result of these collections. The most valuable attribute of a collection, and the most valuable service of a museum, is the ability to "cause productive trouble" in the form of human conversation and reflection (195). In the case of Aboriginal art, the collection should, if offered sensitively and intelligently, instigate public discourse on the inequities between the honor and respect heaped upon the artifacts of Aboriginal cultures and the neglect and disrespect offered to the cultures themselves.
While Clifford offered a highly analytical examination of the interconnectedness of art and culture, and the value of the art-culture system in understanding collections themselves as…
Clifford, James. "On Collecting Art and Culture." In The Cultural Studies Reader, Simon During, ed. New York: Routledge, 1993. 49-73.
Hill, Richard William. "Getting Unpinned: Collecting Aboriginal Art and the Potential for Hybrid Public Discourse in Art Museums." In Obsession, Compulsion, Collection, Anthony Kiendl, ed. Banff: Banff Centre Press, 2004. 193-206.
In essence, this painting "mixes a toothpaste smile with the grimace of a death's head" and symbolizes the true work of an American "action" painter (de la Croix & Tansey, 774).
Another great example of an American abstract expressionist master is Mark Rothko (1903 to 1973), who emigrated to the United States in 1914 from Latvia with his family to escape Czarist Russia and its strict policies towards Jews. Although Rothko was a friend and contemporary of Pollack, Kline and de Kooning, his paintings exhibit none of the aggressive attack or slashing brushwork one finds in the works of these artists. Rothko's Four Darks on Red does not exhibit the usual traits of "action" painting, for it shows a calm and contemplative mood with soft color variations, yet it also shows "a mysterious effect of forms and images occupying an ambiguously-defined space," much like Kline and Pollack (de la Croix…
Paul, Stella. "Abstract Expressionism." Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/TOAH/hd/abex/hd_abex.htm .
De la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey, eds. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. 10th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 2003.
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder, as the old trope goes, and that phrase holds true even when encountering some of the world's "great" art, as I saw in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. The Museum itself is massive. It holds more than 450,000 works of art and a recent expansion added 28% more space with an expansion of 133,000 square feet (Dwyer). ithin its walls there are naturally pieces of art that fall outside of specific people's taste. For me, there were three works of art in the museum that struck a chord -- two that I loved and one that I disliked intensely.
Unfortunately, the piece of art I liked the least in the museum is also one of the most prominent. The sculpture is a massive green glass sculpture by Dale Chihuly that sits in the entrance of the Boston MFA. The…
Barlow, Deborah. "Chihuly at the MFA." Slow Muse. 10 April, 2011. 8 June, 2011.
Benfrey, Christopher. "A Certain Slant of Light" Slate 13 November 1997. 8 June 2011.
"Dance at Bougival." 8 June, 2011.
Delmar, John D."Oskar Kokoschka: Early Portraits from Vienna and Berlin 1909-1914." The City Review. 2002. 8 June, 2011.
The basis of collage with is associated with humor and entertainment forms its captivating content, an element for passing its information. Materials that are used for collage are normally readily available old objects that have been disregarded. Use of new materials in the art is not restricted but again not considered to add value to the collage work. It is thus a considerably less expensive process as compared to other artistic communications avenues such as painting that requires newly acquired materials that consequently calls for extensive financial commitment. Its relative affordability together with its captivating elements makes collage a good avenue for communication especially in social campaigns. This becomes specifically effective if the entire society is integrated in the collage representation (Learning, 10).
Other collage artists
There are a number of collage artists that have also been significantly felt because of their contribution in collage. Apart from Michael Anderson, Oliver…
Anderson Michael. (2006). Monthly statements; Retrieved from: http://www.accumulationproject.org/anderson/index.html
Bemstein Mark. (2003). Collage, composite, construction; Retrieved from: http://www.ht03.org/papers/pdfs/18.pdf
Endtorture. (2010). Well-known collage artists. Retrieved from:
A good example of this can be seen with Sistine Chapel in the Last Supper. In this piece, he is using color and his imagination to understand what is happening. The use of bright and dark colors added to the sense of realism by giving the appearance as if these events were happening at the moment. In the future, this technique would be utilized by artists to create a sense of appreciation and underscore the emotions of the work itself.
Furthermore, the article that was written by Oremaland (1980), is discussing how pieta has often been used throughout many different building projects in the world (with the original at St. Peter's Cathedral). Since that time, various churches have used this dome like structure to create designs that mirror those of Michael Angelo. These different elements are important, because they are showing how this technique was continually embraced by various contractors…
Eknoyan, Garabed. "Michael Angelo," Kidney International, no. 57 (2000): 1190 -- 1201.
Lavoy, Michael. "The Digital Michael Angelo Project," Modern Art, no. 10 (1999): 2 -11.
Oremaland, Jerome. "Mourning and its Effect on Michael Angelo," Annual of Psychoanalysis, no. 8 (1980): 317 -- 351.
Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/
Art Museum Visit
This particular piece of art is a limestone statue, which in all likelihood, originally was a painted piece. Limestone was a precious mineral, and would have most likely been honed and by prepared by a servant or slave for the artisan to work with. This statue is considered to be sculpture in the round as there are no additional supports required (Barnet 113). A great deal of detail is carved into the headdress, and because of the realism qualities, the statue is of a woman. A number of these statues were designed in small decorative forms; however, many were crafted in life size and even larger forms. The proportions seem to be to scale. The Egyptian use of proportions is a method that depicts the human figure in a consistent way, using measurements derived from the observation of real bodies and related to Egyptian metrology (Baines 9).…
Barnet, Sylvan. A Short Guide to Writing About Art, 9th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008), 113-114.
Baines, C. Egyptian Figures, Personification, and the Iconology of a Genre. Warminster. 1985.
Baines, J. "Theories and Universals of Representation: Heinrick Schafer and Egyptian Art, Art History 8, 1 (1985): 1-25.
Davies, W. Egyptian Hieroglyphics. 1988.
Impressionism in art developed in the 19th century. Impressionist paintings were characterized by visible brush strokes, and subject was drawn from ordinary life and outdoors, rather than being confined to still life, or portraits and landscapes drawn in studios. Emphasis was laid on the effect of light changing its qualities as well as movement. These characteristics of impression can be well observed in the works of art by Gustave Caillebotte, Edgar Degas and Edouard Manet in their paintings Paris: A ainy Day, The Absinthe Drinker and The Bar at the Folies Bergere respectively.
Paris: A ainy Day is an oil painting drawn in 1877 encompasses the Impressionist use of landscape scene. The curator of the Art Institute of Chicago was quoted describing the painting by Hedy Weiss in the Chicago Sun-Times (December 12, 1995) as "the great picture of urban life in the late 19th century." The masterpiece gives…
1. Gaustave Caillebotte, Paris Street: A Rainy Day, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://sites.google.com/site/beautyandterror/Home/bourgeoisie-and-proletariat
2. L' Absinthe-Degas, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://labsinthedegas.blogspot.com/
3. Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://sites.google.com/site/beautyandterror/Home/capitalism-and-the-death
Brunelleschi has been one of the early fathers of the Renaissance, and, the first architect to build a building with reference to classical antiquity. The architect succeeded in proving his value through various building which came in disagreement with the laws that architects had had until the time.
One of the greatest sculptors of all times, Michelangelo, became famous at the time that the public reviewed his first works of art. Despite of the fact that he had been certain that he was best fit for being a sculptor, Michelangelo accepted to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Even with his hesitation, the painting on the ceiling still stands as one of his greatest works and one of the greatest master pieces that the Renaissance period has given birth to.
The Marriage of the Virgin is a painting appreciated worldwide for its perception of depth and for its great…
1. Prager, Frank D. Scaglia, Gustina. (2004). "Brunelleschi." Courier Dover Publications. (2005).
2. "Niccolo Machiavelli." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/machiavelli/
3. "MICHELANGELO Buonarroti." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Web Gallery of Art Web site: http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/bio/m/michelan/biograph.html
4. "Renaissance: (1400-1600)." Retrieved July 7, 2009, from the World Wide Arts Resources Web site: http://wwar.com/masters/movements/renaissance.html .
Art can be defined as anything that is created to be visually appealing or significant in some way. Art is also something that has meaning and purpose, whether it be to represent feelings, a situation or just to create something beautiful.
The first criteria for art is that it be visually appealing or significant in some way. Art is sometimes created just to copy the beauty of the world and paint it exactly as it exists, such as with a landscape. The same can also be said of portraits, they can be created just to create a copy of a person. Paintings, however, do not need to be visually appealing, they only must be significant.
They may be unappealing but this may be why they are significant, they may be capturing an emotion instead of an object. And this is one of the other reasons why a painting becomes art,…
The figures of people, carriages, etc. are "washed-out," they are as small as ants are. The method of reflecting motion and dynamics of routine life by "washed-out effect" was borrowed "from a new invention of photography" (Schapiro 81). Photographic cameras of that epoch were not sensitive for picturing motion, so all objects in motion were "washed-out."
Some impressionists, for example Edgar Degas (1834-1917), were influenced by ethnic painting techniques such as Chinese and Japanese graphics, characterized by striking representation of shape and figures. Degas continued Monet's experiments with light and reflection of motion. Many of his paintings were influenced by other methods similar to photography: uncommon visual angles and asymmetric perspectives, which can be observed in such paintings as a Carriage at the aces (1872), Ballet ehearsal (1876) characterized by unusual visual solution and geometric interpretation.
Auguste enoir (1841-19191), father of Impressionism, became famous for his mass portraits. enoir's Impressionism…
Sayre, Henry M.A world of art Prentice Hall; 4 thedition 2004
Schapiro, M. 1997.Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. George Braziller
The Impressionists, Article from web resource: http://www.biography.com/impressionists/artists_morisot.html
Pool, Phoebe Complete Paintings of Monet. New York: Abrams,1967
According to Sayre (2009), the four roles of the artist are keeping a historical record, giving form to intangibles, revealing the hidden, and showing the world in a new way. In "Mother of Pearl and Silver: The Andalucian," James McNeill Whistler fulfills the role of historical record keeper. The depiction of the Andalucian captures the style, attitude, and culture of the subject. In this sense, "Mother of Pearl and Silver: The Andalucian" is a historical reference. Although the fashion is not quintessentially Spanish, the subject in the painting does capture the mood of the late nineteenth century, when Whistler painted. Whistler depicts the fashion and attitudes of the era in this painting, which also show how globalization was becoming a reality for many Americans and Europeans. An American painter depicts an American model wearing Continental clothes and a Spanish hairstyle.
In "A Burial at Ornans," Gustave Courbet also paints…
"Gustave Courbet (1819-1877): A Biography." Musee d'Orsay. Retrieved online: http://www.musee-orsay.fr/en/collections/courbet-dossier/biography.html
"James McNeill Whistler (artist)." (n.d.). National Gallery of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.nga.gov/fcgi-bin/tinfo_f?object=12197
"Reading Art: Understanding Iconography." Retrieved online: http://corptrain.phoenix.edu/sites/art101r4/index.html
Sayre, H.M. (2009). World of Art. Prentice Hall.
Please take a close look at two paintings of storms: Watteau's the Storm
Watteau's the Storm and Delacroix's the Sea of Galilee
The two paintings in question refer to different time periods in art history and more importantly, to different views about art and life. These views are also reflected in the style and the technique of the two paintings. Art is often a reflection of the times in which it is created. The social values and perceptions as well as the dominant religious and philosophical ideas of the time tend to be represented in art during a certain period. The following two paintings will be compared and contrasted in terms of their unique qualities, as well as in terms of the way they reflect the era and the dominant ethos of the time period in which they were created.
Comparison of Two Paintings
The development in…
Introduction to the Romantic Era in English Poetry. Retrieved from http://records.viu.ca/~johnstoi/introser/romantic.htm
Neoclassicism. Retrieved from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/neoc_1/hd_neoc_1.htm
Romanticism in Art. Retrieved from http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-
Futurism brashly and boldly embraced new technology, celebrating even the bellicose. In Marinetti's "Manifesto of Futurism," he states, "We will glorify war -- the world's only hygiene -- militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for women," (p. 148). This peculiar statement reveals the nature of futurism as it was manifest at early twentieth century. Futurism was all embracing, rejecting nothing based on immorality because futurism shunned morality. For this reason, Futurism emerged as a staunchly progressive and open-minded genre in the visual arts. The movement not just embraced new technology but celebrated it. Even the uglier side of technology, such as heavy industries and the pollution they create, was something futurists admired and incorporated into their visual art schema. Within the futurist framework, it is certainly possible to imagine works of art that represent something genuinely new.
One reason it is…
Boccioni, Umberto. "Futurist Painting: Technical Manifesto."
Marinette, Filippo Tommaso. "The Foundation and Manifesto of Futurism."
The medium with which the artist works is also unique in that they are outfits that can and should be worn. The sound suits are designed to be wearable, imparting a grounded character to the exhibit. Instead of taking the suits too seriously, the viewer can imagine them as costumes in which the serious self is left behind in favor of the inner child. Like a mascot at a team game or a Disney character, the sound suits can also be conceived as disguises that obscure the mundane human being inside. No one things of Big Bird as a person in a bird suit, because to do so would ruin the spell. In the same way, one of Nick Cave's sound suits is to be seen and experienced at face value.
Because the costumes are disguises and masks, the viewer is also asked to contemplate the role of such objects…
On the other hand there is another side to the vision of human life. There is the experience of human joy and happiness that also has to be taken into account. We find this side in works that resonate with color, joy conviviality and friendship. In this exhibition works by Renoir and Picasso have been selected to show this side of the human condition. In this context the famous painting by Renoir entitled, the Luncheon of the Boating Party portrays a very different sense of the human condition compared to that of Bacon. We also this sense of the gentleness and beauty of human life in Picasso's the Bathers.
Another artist who has much to say about the human condition is Giacometti. This famous sculptor portrays human being in terms existential searching and mystery. His sculptures refuse to comment directly on the human condition but leave us with a sense…
6. Picasso; "The bathers" ( 1918). Oil on canvas.
7. Giacometti: Standing Woman, bronze, 1959.
For example, his work "Icy Night" looks deceptively simple at first glance. It is simply a cold night, with a new layer of snow blanketing the ground and tree trunks. However, the trees fade off into the shadows like ghosts, and the streets are eerily empty and quiet. Stieglitz captures the mood of an "Icy Night" perfectly, and it is works like this that prove his theory that photography is indeed art, in fact, it may be one of the most creative forms of art, because no two photographers will see or capture the very same image, even if they are in the exact same spot at the exact same time. Stieglitz's work illustrates his premise, and he is most known for his body of work and how it represents art and culture, while illustrating everyday American objects and times.
Editors. "American Masters: Alfred Stieglitz." PBS.org. 2006. 22 Sept.…
Editors. "American Masters: Alfred Stieglitz." PBS.org. 2006. 22 Sept. 2007. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/database/stieglitz_a.html
Editors. "Profile: Alfred Stieglitz." Masters of Photography.com. 2007. 22 Sept. 2007. http://www.masters-of-photography.com/S/stieglitz/stieglitz_articles2.html
Palmer C. Hayden and Laura Wheeler Waring were two of the painters of the Harlem Renaissance, and they focused on painting stylized portraits of prominent African-Americans and scenes of black life from a variety of perspectives.
The dynamism of the machine age is exhibited not only in the engineered workings of inventions like automobiles and early airplanes, but also in the Futuristic paintings of the period. There is a blend of very strong geometry and straight lines that combine to create larger images of fluidity and movement that almost seems impossible when the smaller constituent elements of the painting are focused on. It is as though magic and passion are meeting science and cool logic, which is a way of describing things like the combustion engine as well. This period was a time when the world seemed to be moving in two directions, at once looking forward to the…
La Berceuse (Woman Rocking
Pellicot Roulin, 1851-1930), 1889.
incent van Gogh
Dutch, 1853-1890). Oil on canvas. The Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg Collection,
Partial Gift of Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg, 1996
The world of art is diverse and rich coming together for appreciation overcoming all cultural barriers. The story of an Gogh and his astounding genius while creating canvases has captivated the interest and attention of millions around the world. Even when people cannot afford art they appreciated the creativity and charm that each of his pictures brings forth. Each of his strokes has a life of its own and the lifelike creation gives an illusion of perfection that is hard to imitate.
The Metropolitan Museum boasts one of his best creative efforts done late in his artistic life. ery near the time of his breakdown at Arles.
La Berceuse or a Woman Rocking a Cradle…
Van Gogh, V. 1958. The complete letters of Vincent van Gogh. Vol.
3. London: Thames and Hudson.
Fry, R. 1998. Cezanne. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
The perspective might seem extreme. In this sense, it is important to understand that Van Gogh was trying to break free from the limitations of the perspective frame which imposed realistic perspectives and proportions. Moreover, towards the end of his life, at the peak of his artistic maturity, he rebelled against the muted colors that Dutch painters were using at the time.
tylistically, the task of understanding Van Gogh's paintings cannot be undertaken without a proper look at what Post-Impressionism meant. Post-Impressionism took Impressionism to another level. However, Post-Impressionists continued to use vivid colors and real-life subject matter, as well as thick layering of paint. In addition, nonetheless, Post-Impressionists rejected the confines of Impressionism which upheld natural colors and traditional forms. From this point-of-view, Van Gogh along with other Post-Impressionists such as Cezanne, Gaugain and Bonnard, blurred the limitations of conventional form, and distorted it in order to increase the…
Neo-Impressionism." Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.impressionniste.net/neo-impressionism.htm
Paul Signac Biography." Paul Signac Online. Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.paul-signac.com/
Post-Impressionism." Art Movements. Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.artmovements.co.uk/postimpressionism.htm
Vincent Van Gogh Paintings." Vincent Van Gogh Gallery. Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.vangoghgallery.com/
One can easily recognize this by the line
that runs down the back of the object which represents the spine. This
idealized subject is also stretching his "muscles", for one can see where
the "muscles" bulge in the middle section of the back, the shoulders, and
Since this object meets all of the above-mentioned traits, being
form, space, mass and volume, proportion and scale, it is indeed a work of
art. Personally, I find this object very appealing, due to its abstract
nature and the way that the light is reflected from its curvaceous surface.
My overall reaction is based on the object's aesthetic value, being one of
beauty and great eye appeal. Although it is not as aesthetically pleasing
as Rodin's The Kiss, it nevertheless serves as a great example of modern