Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Asperger Syndrome: Symptoms, Causes and Effects
Symptoms at birth
At Six to Eighteen Months
At Three to Eleven Years
At 12+ Years
Causes of Asperger syndrome
Treatments for Asperger Syndrome
Students with Asperger Syndrome
Adults with Asperger syndrome
Violence in Asperger Syndrome
Hang Asperger, a pediatrician, researched on Asperger syndrome but Lorna Wing, a psychiatrist and physician, was the one who familiarized the world with Asperger syndrome (Lyons, Fitzgerald, & Fitzgerald, 2005). In 1994, Asperger researched on four children who were unable to interact socially due to their lack of nonverbal communication skills. He called this condition "Autistic psychopathy." ut in 1981, Dr. Wing published some case studies of children with similar symptoms. She was the one who called it "Asperger's syndrome." The term was added to world Health Organization's diagnostic manual in 1992, although it was equated with highly functioning autism (National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke,…
A.D.A.M. (2008). Asperger Syndrome. The New York Times.
Dillion, M.R. (2007, June). Creating Supports for College Students with Asperger Syndrome through Collaboration. College Student Journal, 41(2), 499.
Ghaziuddin, M. (2005). Mental Health Aspects of Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
Gibbons, M.M., & Goins, S. (2008). Getting to Know the Child with Asperger Syndrome. Professional School Counseling, 11(5), 347.
Most normal people that are not aware of the condition of one suffering from the Asperger syndrome might regard him or her as being insensitive.
One of the best methods to instruct Asperger syndrome sufferers how to behave from an early age would be the telling of various social stories relating to activities performed by the respective sick persons. (Frank J. Sansosti, Kelly a. Powell-Smith 2006)
Asperger's syndrome sufferers are not necessarily selfish. it's just that they are unable to understand the fact that they are not the only ones involved in the conversation.
Those suffering from Asperger syndrome usually are inflexible, as they are obsessed with routines. In contrast to one suffering from Asperger syndrome, a normal person is actually aware and might be annoyed by his or her obsession with a certain routine. Asperger syndrome sufferers don't believe that it is unnatural to be fanatically preoccupied with a…
1. Barnhill Gena P.. What Is Asperger Syndrome?. Intervention in School & Clinic, Vol. 36, 2001.
2. Barnhill Gena P., Smith Myles Brenda. Attributional Style and Depression in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, Vol. 3, 2001.
3. Gagnon Elisa, Robbins Lisa. Ensure Success for the Child with Asperger Syndrome. Intervention in School & Clinic, Vol. 36, 2001.
4. Safran Stephen P.. Asperger Syndrome: The Emerging Challenge to Special Education. Exceptional Children, Vol. 67, 2001.
Most forms of treatment for as individuals involve explicitly teaching them how to behave specific social situations in ways that others might take for granted. "hile social skills instruction is an important strategy for promoting social success, some critics argue that it merely teaches individuals 'how to' act in specific social situations, but not how to generate any kind of 'social thinking' or problem-solving about how to act in novel or unexpected situations" and merely reinforces the rote behaviors of as (Blacher & Howell 2008). The approach may often develop on the degree of impairment. Role-plays, story-telling and 'what if' situations are common methods of instruction, as well as breaking down social skills into subskills, "such as greeting others, initiating topics, staying on topic, maintaining reciprocity, using nonverbal communication (eye contact, facial expressions, gestures) appropriately, checking in to see if the listener is still interested, and appropriately ending conversations…
Asperger Syndrome; New Asperger syndrome study findings have been published by scientists at University of Colorado. (2009, March). Mental Health Weekly Digest, 96. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1662904251).
Blacher, Jan & Erica Howell. (2008, October). Becoming social: Interventions with youth who have high-functioning autism and Asperger Syndrome. The Exceptional
Parent, 38(10), 56-57. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1586932641).
Sullivan, Amanda & Linda C. Caterino. (2008). Addressing the sexuality and sex education of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Education & Treatment of Children, 31(3), 381-394. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from ProQuest Psychology
Another important defining characteristic of AS is that people who seem to have it are often gifted intellectually,
While only a small percentage of individuals with autism are considered to be high functioning (without mental retardation), all children with AS have average to above average intelligence. In fact, many with AS may be intellectually gifted, which may mask the many difficulties they experience from adults and peers alike (Wing, 1998). The ever-present problems that individuals with AS face in socialization and peer rejection throughout the life span are what truly constitutes it as a PDD, influencing all aspects of their daily lives (Frith & Happe). (Safran, 2001, p. 151)
Because one of the most difficult issues facing those with AS is associated with emotion and socialization, as they often lack skills to recognize normal social cues such as facial and body expressions, the nonverbals that most of us take for…
Hume, K., Bellini, S., & Pratt, C. (2005). The Usage and Perceived Outcomes of Early Intervention and Early Childhood Programs for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 25(4), 195-220.
Henault, I. (2005). Chapter 12 Sexual Relationships. In Asperger's Syndrome: Intervening in Schools, Clinics, and Communities, Baker, L.J. & Welkowitz, L.A. (Eds.) (pp. 243-253). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mccarton, C. (2003). 6 Assessment and Diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorder. In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Hollander, E. (Ed.) (pp. 101-132). New York: Marcel Dekker.
Safran, S.P. (2001). Asperger Syndrome: The Emerging Challenge to Special Education. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 151.
The AS person has often spent an inordinate amount of time fixated on one particular (often peculiar) topic, and when that person is in a social environment, he or she tends to ramble on about the topic and that one-sided rambling is more important to that AS person than any other activity in a social setting, oodbury-Smith writes on page 4. According to oodbury-Smith, as the AS person gets older, the tendency to focus obsessively on one particular topic is increased, "…and they can be debilitating in terms of frequency of engagement as well as degree of distress that they cause the person and their family" (oodbury-Smith, 2009, p. 4).
The "gold standard" as far as a diagnostic approach to determining autism vs. AS is through use of ADI-R (based on autism interviews) and of ADOS ("autism diagnostic observation scale"). The ADI-R amounts to a "semi-structured interview" between a person…
Barnhill. Gena P. (2007). Outcomes in Adults with Asperger Syndrome. Focus on Autism
and other Developmental Disabilities, 22(2), 116-126.
Beaumont, Renae, and Sofronoff, Kate. (2008). A multi-component social skills intervention for children with Asperger syndrome: The Junior Detective Training Program. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(7), 743-753.
Bellando, Jayne, and Pulliam, Elizabeth. (2009). Helping the Student with Asperger's Disorder
It is estimated that as many as 50% of all adults with Asperger Syndrome are never correctly evaluated or diagnosed, thus these non-diagnosed Aspergers are seen as eccentric or 'just different,' or they may even receive other psychiatric diagnoses (Bauer 1996). Bauer claims to have encountered several such individuals who have been able to make use of their other skills to achieve success, both personally and professionally. In fact, many individuals with Asperger Syndrome represent a unique part of society, for their single mindedness and obsessive interest in certain academic areas have often contributed to advancements in areas such as science and math (Bauer 1996).
Asperger Syndrome Fact Sheet. (2007). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved February 10, 1007 at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/asperger/detail_asperger.htm#51093080
Bauer, Stephen. (1996). Asperger Syndrome. The Developmental Unit, the Genesee
Hospital: Rochester, New York. Retrieved February 10, 2007 at http://www.aspennj.org/bauer.html
Gingras, Happy. (2006 January 01).…
Asperger Syndrome Fact Sheet. (2007). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved February 10, 1007 at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/asperger/detail_asperger.htm #51093080' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
ASPERGER SYNDROME) INCLUDING THE ABSTRACT PAGE. PLEASE READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY, ALSO PLEASE USE ONLY THE REFERENCES, I PROVIDED (6).
The Case of Mark
Individuals with Asperger Syndrome are typically unable to integrate society normally and persons that are in more critical situations actually need a lot of assistance in order to go through their daily lives without experiencing significant problems. The present essay discusses with regard to Mark, a four-year-old boy who has been diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome. Mark's parents suspected that something might be wrong with their child around the age of two when they realized that he developed very differently from his older sister or from other children his age.
Mark displays a series of symptoms characteristic to individuals with Asperger Syndrome, some of the most significant being the fact that he is usually reluctant to speak and that he prefers to focus on activities that only…
"Autism Spectrum Disorders"
Brown, H.M., & Klein, P.D. (2011). Writing, asperger syndrome and theory of mind. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(11), 1464-74. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-1168-7
Gill, J., & Liamputtong, P. (2013). Walk a mile in my shoes: Life as a mother of a child with asperger's syndrome. Qualitative Social Work, 12(1), 41-56. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1473325011415565
Helland, W.A., Biringer, E., Helland, T., & Heimann, M. (2012). Exploring language profiles for children with ADHD and children with asperger syndrome. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(1), 34-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1605/01.301-0018296146.2012
Psychiatric and Psychosocial Implications Associated With as/Hfa
What are the psychiatric and psychosocial implications associated with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism?
Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism are two disorders that are overlapping and characterized by the impairment of social-communication and over-focused repetitive behaviors and interests. The two disorders are part of the autism spectrum, and the major difference is believed to be in language development. People with AS will not have suffered any delayed language development when they were young. According to Barbalat, Leboyer, and Zalla (2014) a person suffering from AS/HFA will demonstrate pedantic speech mostly with exaggerated or monotonous vocal intonation, motor clumsiness, and poor nonverbal communication. Though AS and classic autism belong to the same group of ASDs, people with AS mostly demonstrate a distinct pattern of social impairment, which seems milder than in classic autism. It has been hypothesized many times that the differences…
Barbalat, G., Leboyer, M., & Zalla, T. (2014). A specific impairment in cognitive control in individuals with high-functioning autism. J Psychiatr Res, 58, 26-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.07.013
Mattila, M.L., Hurtig, T., Haapsamo, H., Jussila, K., Kuusikko-Gauffin, S., Kielinen, M., . . . Moilanen, I. (2010). Comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism: a community- and clinic-based study. J Autism Dev Disord, 40(9), 1080-1093. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-0958-2
Wilson, C.E., Happe, F., Wheelwright, S.J., Ecker, C., Lombardo, M.V., Johnston, P., . . . Murphy, D.G. (2014). The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome. Autism Res, 7(5), 568-581. doi: 10.1002/aur.1394
Educators and other professionals in related fields have responded to the increasing prevalence of the condition by developing and implementing appropriate strategies and interventions even without sufficient understanding of the disorder. Teachers, counselors, school psychologists and others who render related services are encouraged to be familiar with the DSMIV-TR. They are also advised to acquire a working knowledge of the school-related characteristics of students with as so that they can deal with these students' learning needs. These children or learners exhibit typical social, behavioral or emotional, intellectual or cognitive, academic, sensory and motor characteristics. Many teachers remain incognizant of the special academic needs of as learners because these learners give the false impression that they comprehend the lesson. Their repetitive learning style and high-level of comprehension cover the deficits, which will otherwise reveal the disorder (Myles and Simpson).
These interventions and strategies are social and behavioral supports, academic planning and…
Atwood, T. (2006). Asperger's Syndrome. 12 pages. Tizard Learning Disability Review: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd.
Bower, B. (2006). Outside Looking in: Researchers Open New Windows on Asperger's Syndrome and Related Disorders. 6 pages. Science News: Science Service, Inc.
Frey, R. (2003). Asperger's Syndrome. 2 pages. Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders: Gale Group
Huffman, G.B. (2001). Autism: Detection, Evaluation and Interventions. 2 pages. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians
When a parent, sibling, loved one, a friend, a teacher, a neighbor, or just a casual acquaintance of a person with Asperger's syndrome wants to know more about the specifics of this health problem, one of the most often quoted and referenced authorities to turn to is Dr. Tony Attwood. That's because Attwood is the author of several books on the subject - notably the high respected book, Asperger's Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Professions - and is a practicing clinical psychologist with more than 25 years' experience treating individuals with Asperger's syndrome. Attwood also works with families of persons with Asperger's (also called Asperger) syndrome, and, importantly, also presents strategies for dealing with the problem and its manifestations.
What is Asperger's Syndrome (AS)?
Hans Asperger of Austria began to recognize this disability in 1944, but it did not become an item of medical interest in the…
Asperger Syndrome Coalition of the U.S. (2003). Asperger Syndrome: Some Common
Attwood, Tony (1998). Asperger's Syndrome: a Guide for Parents and Professionals.
London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
2006). The article introduces an innovative research strategy; doctors are observing - in magnified format - key movement patterns in infants who may be showing early signs of as. To open the door to a "more accurate way of distinguishing autism from as," Teitelbaum explains, researchers are employing the "Eshkol-achman" movement notation (EMN), which was originally developed for dance and choreography. The EMN, in short, allows the most delicate deficits in infant movement to be detected.
Because the EMN system was designed to allow choreographers to write movement down on paper "that dancers could later reconstruct in its entirety," the EMN is proved to be "very detailed in analyzing a person's movement." Thus, the research team from the University of Florida asserted, when 16 videotapes from parents whose children had been diagnosed with as were analyzed using the EMN, this system of research was borne out as valid. The EMN…
AZ Psychiatry. (2005). Asperger's Syndrome: Epidemiology. Retrieved 7 Dec. 2008 at http://www.azpsychiatry.info/cap/asperger/epidemiology.htm .
Hutcheson, Julian; & Rausch, Jeffrey L. (2006). Janssen Asperger's Risperidone Study.
Medical College of Georgia. Clinical Trials NIH. Retrieved 7 Dec. 2008 from http://clinicaltrials.gov .
Kohn, Arlene; Zaphiriou, Marianna; & McDougle, Christopher J. (2005). A Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Asperger's and Pervasive Development
Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Training on the Social Interaction Skills of Four Students with Asperger Syndrome by Marjorie Bock
The study focuses on three interrelated questions. 1. Can children with Asperger Syndrome learn the SODA (Stop, Observe, Deliberate, and Act) strategy to guide information processing during non-guided social interactions? 2. If children with Asperger Syndrome can learn the SODA strategy, will they use it during non-guided social interactions? 3. If children with Asperger Syndrome use SODA in non-guided social interactions will its use help them with problem solving during these interactions?
One of the theoretical underpinnings of what is known about Asperger Syndrome is that children with Asperger Syndrome face difficulties in social interactions, largely due to a perceived inability to understand age-appropriate social customs. This failure is not believed to be due to a lack of desire to interact in socially appropriate ways, but due to an inability…
Bock, M. (2007). The impact of social-behavioral learning strategy training on the social interaction skills of four students with Asperger Syndrome, Focus on Autism and other Behavioral Disabilities, 22(2), 88-95.
Toth & King (2008) explain that within the past two decades, a growing body of research has attempted to address the diagnostic and phenotypic ambiguity between AS and high-functioning autism. Some authors believe that the neuropsychological and behavioral profiles of AS and high-functioning autism differ, while others have argued that there is little empirical evidence for a distinction between these two disorders. esearchers conducted a comprehensive study that examined differences based on external criteria (cognitive / intellectual profiles, executive function, language, current symptoms, early history, and course of illness) as opposed to criteria involving the definition of the two syndromes. They found few group differences in current symptom presentation and cognitive function but many differences in early history. Individuals with AS outperformed those with high-functioning autism on the comprehension subtest of the WISC-III and in expressive language ability, but there were no differences on measures of executive function…
Henderson, L. (2001). Asperger's Syndrome in Gifted Individuals. Gifted Child Today, 24(3), 28. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.
Toth, K. & King, B. (n.d). Asperger's Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(8), 958. Retrieved from ProQuest: ProQuest Research Library Core database.
hile Dr. Asperger called the condition "autistic psychopathy" and described it as a personality disorder primarily marked by social isolation, today Asperger's Syndrome is identified as a brain, communication, or neurological disorder like autism, not a personality disorder like, for example, antisocial personality disorder ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS).
Like autism, Asperger's Syndrome is characterized by repetitive routines, rituals, and movements, poor social skills, and odd ways of communicating that do not take into consideration the other person's feelings and needs. The distinguishing feature of Asperger's, in contrast to classical autism, is that the individuals all have normal IQ but show "limited interests or an unusual preoccupation with a particular subject to the exclusion of other activities" ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS). Unlike autistic individuals who show little interest in others, Asperger children may seek out companionship, but may drive other people away because of their refusal to…
Autism." (11 Apr 2008). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
NINDS). Retrieved 10 Apr 2008 at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm
Autism spectrum disorders (Pervasive developmental disorders)." (3 Apr 2008).
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Retrieved 10 Apr 2008 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/autism/complete-publication.shtml
Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are oftentimes considered the same thing (or at least indistinguishable from each other) and the differences between the two are relatively minute. According to WEB MD (Autism, 2015) the revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) which was published in 2013, now lists Asperger's and autistic disorder as only one condition for diagnostic purposes, whereas previously they were listed separately. The new condition is now known as autism spectrum disorder. Some experts believe that the two should still be classified separately and Moran (2014) calls Aspergers disorder a close relative of autism that can be distinguished by limited social interaction that does not coincide with a significant delay in acquiring language skills as is normally found with autism. Moran further describes Aspergers as distinctive from autism with restrictive and highly idiosyncratic patient interests.
One patient in the Moran study could be…
Autism (2015) Web MD, accessed on April 20, 2015 at http://www.emedicinehealth.com/autism/page8_em.html
Ban, E.; Souverein, P.; Meijer, W.; Engeland, H.; Swaab, H.; Egberts, T. & Heerdink, E.; (2014) Association between ADHD drug use and injuries among children and a dolescents, European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(2) p. 95-102
Beresford, T.P.; (2014) Clinical assessment of psychological adaptive mechanisms in medical settings, Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 70, Issue 5, pp. 466 -- 477
Fonseca, V.R.; (2009) The autistic dialogic style: a case of Asperger's syndrome, Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 35(3) p. 250-261
Interview With a Child
Bill is a 12-year-old child, Caucasian, ethnicity unknown. He is the only son of Sandra and Dave, who are divorced. They separated when Bill was 9. He currently lives with Sandra in their home. Dave moved to a different city and is rarely seen by Bill.
Sandra is very protective of Bill. She homeschooled him for two years after she and Dave separated, but now she feels that Bill may need some sort of outside stimulation. He is often withdrawn and uncommunicative and she fears he may be depressed or suffering from autism.
Bill has always been sensitive to sounds and to touch. He did not begin speaking until he was almost 3 years old and then he had to take speech lessons. When he was 10, he told his psychiatrist that he hated his parents because they fought all the time and that they hated…
Beck, J. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. NY: Guilford Press.
McKay, D. et al. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-
compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 225(3): 236-246.
Rogers, C. (2012). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy. NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders
There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior…
Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6
Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536
Campbell et-al. (2010). Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder J. Neurodevelop Disord 101-112
Higashida H., Kikuchi M., Yokoyama S., Munesue T. (2012). CD38 and its role in Oxytocin secretion and social behavior Hormones and behavior journal homepage 351-358
Equivalence, availability, and participation are taken for granted by people without special needs. People with special needs understand that working methods and utility help create vibrant participation in community life. Visual impairments and blindness create the need to interact with the world in completely different ways from sighted people. Likewise, a person with a developmental disorder like Asperger's also requires nuanced methods of interacting. These two conditions are prime examples of how environments and people can be adapted to suit all residents of a community, in order to foster social justice and equality.
Blindness can be congenital, meaning the individual has been blind since birth. Others lose their sight over time or suddenly as the result of an injury, illness, accident, or disease. Either way, visual impairment impacts the ability of the person to accommodate daily reality. A person who has been blind since birth has learned how…
"Blindness," (2013). Kidshealth. Retrieved online: http://kidshealth.org/kid/health_problems/sight/visual_impaired.html
Mayo Clinic Staff (2013). Asperger's Syndrome. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/aspergers-syndrome/DS00551
MedLine Plus (2013). Blindness and vision loss. Retrieved online: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003040.htm
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2013). Asperger's Syndrome Fact Sheet. Retrieved online: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/asperger/detail_asperger.htm
Interviews with his parents reveal a disturbing trend. His parents do not seem to want to challenge Christopher in any meaningful way and instead enable his lack of progress. Perhaps out of fear for his tantrums, Christopher's mother makes excuses for her son's behavior. The experiment of homeschooling Christopher has therefore been unproductive because he is not challenged, and therefore is not learning as much as he could be. His social skills have also been hampered by his homeschooling environment, and by the attitudes of his parents. Christopher does not understand certain social conventions. For instance, he will pass gas while talking to people or make a wolf whistle at a female.
Christopher has no real friends his own age. He seems to prefer being around adults due to the extra compassion and attention they show him. Christopher throws temper tantrums when he feels anxious or put on the spot,…
"Asperger's Syndrome." WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/tc/aspergers-syndrome-symptoms
"Cleft Lip and Palate," (2011). Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002046/
Lisa was a sophomore and while in the Alternative school, as was the case in the regular high school, she had been a student who had been in trouble frequently for talking back to and swearing at teachers, skipping class, not doing homework, hanging out after school and violating many of the community rules that were established by the group including smoking on school grounds, lying, being late for classes, and doing drugs. She hung out with what teachers called "the wrong crowd" after school: kids from a nearby community that were not as well off, and were part of a street gang. Lisa was white, but many of her friends were black, and the kids in this gang were vocally resistant to the inequalities that they saw in wealthy Scarsdale that were not in their poor community. Some of her afterschool friends were dropping out, and others were fighting…
Lapsley, D. Moral Stage Theory. In Killen, M. & Smetana, J. (Ed). Handbook of Moral Development.
Moral Development and Moral Education: An Overview http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overview.html
Week 9: (October 22): Self development and Social Contexts
Autism Spectrum Disorders
esearch shows that in today's society, the awareness of Autism has went from something that people were ashamed of, all the way to the forefront of education. It is also noted that research is increasing due to the rising amount of people and children that are suffering from Autism Spectrum disorders. However, this disorder is gaining attention all over the world. With that said, this paper will challenge and explore the mystery of this condition, and expectations for the future, concerning this disorder in an ever developing and expanding society.
What is Autism?
Autism came on the scene in 1943. At first, the condition is was believed to be some kind of a mental retardation condition. Some even categorized this condition as someone that is insane. However, Leo Kanner recognized that these children did not fall into the category of emotionally disturbed children. Instead, he recorded patterns…
Andrea L Roberts, K. L.-E. (2016). Maternal exposure to intimate partner abuse before birth is associated with autism spectrum disorder in offspring. Autism, 26-36.
Attwood, T. (2003). Attwood, T. (2003). Why does Chris do that?: Some suggestions regarding the cause and management of the unusual behavior of children and adults with autism and Asperger syndrome. Shawnee Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, Inc.
Debbaudt, D. (2012). Debbaudt, D. (2002). Autism, advocates, and law enforcement professionals: Recognizing and reducing risk situations for people with autism spectrum disorders. . Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Frymiare, M. A. (2012). Does the Autistic Brain Lack Core. Journal of Developmental and Learning, 9, 3-16.
With its effects, it is hard to foretell what other people can do, hard to translate various facial expressions, understand how their actions influence other people, difficult to understand social limits and hard to show openly what they feel emotionally. It then leads to selfishness and lack of interest in what other people do or feel. It manifests differently to people who have ASD and those without as well as at different stages in development. Therefore, mind blindness is a reality and understanding it better will help manage the condition within the society.
Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). Mind blindness: An essay on autism and theory of the mind.
Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press.
Biklen, D., & Attfield, (2005). Autism and the myth of the person alone. New York, USA: NYU
Birkbeck College. (2009, July 18). Mindblind eyes: An absence of spontaneous theory of mind in asperger syndrome. Medical news today.…
Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). Mind blindness: An essay on autism and theory of the mind.
Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press.
Biklen, D., & Attfield, (2005). Autism and the myth of the person alone. New York, USA: NYU
Mary Law entitled: "Autism Spectrum Disorders and Occupational Therapy' states of the autistic child that this child "may be the child who is standing in the middle of the field at recess spinning around in circles, or she may be the child who can't stand the way a certain fabric feels on her body or the way a certain texture of food feels in her mouth, or it may be the child who is throwing a severe temper tantrum because they just can't communicate their needs." (Law, 2006) According to Law, Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by four main categories:
1) Impairment in social interaction;
2) Impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication;
3) Restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests and activities; and 4) Delays in development. (2006)
Law states that occupational therapy focuses on assisting individuals to "participate in daily occupations, including taking care of oneself, contributing to society…
Bellini, Scott and Pratt, Cathy (2006) Early Intervention for Young Children on the Autism Spectrum: Parent's Perspective. IRCA Articles 2006. Online available at http://www.iidc.indiana.edu/irca/education/EarlyIntervention.html
Law, Mary (2006) Autism Spectrum Disorders and Occupational Therapy. Briefing to the Senate Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology. Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists. 9 Nov 2006. Online available at http://egfl.net/Teaching/Issues/startingpoints/ASD%20docs/11%20tchng%20Social%20Skills.doc
Benson, Bernadette and Dewey, Deborah (2008) Parental Stress and Needs in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation Volume 7, No. 1. Online available at http://www.ijdcr.ca/VOL07_01_CAN/articles/benson.shtml
Stahmer, Aubyn C. (2007) the Basic Structure of Community Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autism: Provider Descriptions. Journal of Autism Development Disorder. 2007. August 37(7). Online available at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2084486
" Haddon's novel illustrates this characteristic of autistic families more clearly than any other of his themes and it is this that makes his work significant.
Library and Information Resource Net. "Autism and Brain's Immune System Linked." AORN Journal, Feb 2005 v81 i2 p341 (1).
Ozonoff, Sally and Geraldine Dawson. A Parent's Guide to Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism. New York: Guilford Press, 2002. (p27-28).
Haddon, Mark. The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time. New York: Doubleday, 2003. (p14-15).
See above, no. iii. (p44).
Herrey, a. And Lisa M. Capps. "Understanding Teasing: Lessons from Children ith Autism." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Feb 2005 v33 i1 p55 (14).
See above, no. iii. (p46).
See above, no. iii. (p140).
Bashe, Patricia Romanowski and Barbara L. Kirby. The Oasis Guide to Asperger Syndrome. New York: Crown, 2001. (p43).
Bashe, Patricia Romanowski and Barbara L. Kirby. The Oasis Guide…
Bashe, Patricia Romanowski and Barbara L. Kirby. The Oasis Guide to Asperger Syndrome. New York: Crown, 2001.
Haddon, Mark. The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time. New York: Doubleday, 2003.
Herrey, a. And Lisa M. Capps. "Understanding Teasing: Lessons from Children With Autism." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Feb 2005 v33 i1 p55 (14).
Library and Information Resource Net. "Autism and Brain's Immune System Linked." AORN Journal, Feb 2005 v81 i2 p341 (1).
Student Philosophy of Behavior
It is necessary for instructors to meet the individual needs of their students, particularly when these students have special needs such as learning differences or other potential disabilities. The pedagogue must discuss any concerns regarding a student's behavior with his or her family, and then attempt to provide an environment in which these concerns are anticipated daily and steps are taken to ensure that disadvantageous behavior is minimized. It is necessary to do so in order to not interrupt the learning process of others.
Jackson - Student Description
Jackson is a four-year-old boy who is highly autonomous, opinionated, and somewhat circumscribed in his social interactions with others. He is fairly astute and generally cognizant of what is expected of him and is able to understand and communicate with others excellently -- when he so desires. However, he can be extremely loud, rude and even violent when…
Borremans, E., Rintala, P., Kielinen, M. (2009). Effectiveness of an exercise training program on youth with Asperger Syndrome. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity. 2(2), 14-25.
Santhana, S.P. (2014). Social communication intervention for an adult with Asperger Syndrome: experiences, perspectives and challenges. Perspectives on Language Learning & Education. 21(1), 29-37.
Page 1 of 4
Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.
Learning Theory and Its Importance
A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://moodle2.cs.huji.ac.il/nu14/pluginfile.php/179670/mod_resource/content/1/Bandura_2001.pdf
Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1506936575?accountid=12085
Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203654515?accountid=12085
Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205061045?accountid=12085
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…
references, and favorites)
Child and Family Assets
(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)
Functional and Meaningful Interactions
(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
Mental Health Disorder
The following is a close examination of the psychosocial status of mental health disorder. There is going to be an examination of the symptoms along with a comprehensive diagnosis of the case.
Mental Health Disorder- Background
Childhood mental health disorder refers to all mental health conditions that affect a person in childhood. The disorder in children is described as critical changes that affect the way a child behaves, learns or even handles emotional situations. Some of the known childhood mental health disorders include (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d):
Hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html)
Disorders related to behavior
Anxiety and mood disorders
Substance use disorders
Mental health is essential in life. Mental health disorders can persist throughout a person's life (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d). The problem needs to be diagnosed early. Otherwise, children continue…
(n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health - NCBDDD. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/mentalhealth.html
Klauck, S. (2006). Genetics of autism spectrum disorder. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 714-720. Retrieved February 6, 2016 from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v14/n6/full/5201610a.html
(n.d.). Medicine Net. Mental Health: Get the Facts on Common Disorders. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/mental_health_psychology/article.htm
(n.d.). MU School of Health Professions. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Case Study. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://shp.missouri.edu/vhct/case4108/case_study.htm
In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition,…
Allan, J. (1999). Actively seeking inclusion: Pupils with special needs in mainstream schools. London: Falmer Press.
Balfanz, R., Jordan, W., Legters, N., & McPartland, J. (1998). Improving climate and achievement in a troubled urban high school through the talent development model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 3(4), 348.
Banks, J. (1994). All of us together: The story of inclusion at the Kinzie School. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Bullard, H.R. (2004). Ensure the successful inclusion of a child with Asperger syndrome in the general education classroom. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 176.
PECEPTION OF SELF & OTHES
While worrying about what people think about one's self and what is thought about others in return is a very complex exchange. It is an exchange where many to most of the people involved are feeling, reacting and jostling based on perceptions and thoughts that are entirely unfounded. This does not automatically mean that the thoughts or perceptions or wrong. However, it can absolutely mean that the thoughts are less than true. With that in mind, people should be careful how they react because of this lack of knowledge. Eye contact and other reactions can, and sometimes should, guide actions and reactions. This can hold true even if the underlying assumptions are wrong. Indeed, safety is sometimes a concern. However, it is entirely too easy to take things too far or to start off on the wrong foot in the first place and this report…
Brody, E. (2016). Accountability, Effectiveness, and Public Perceptions. The Aspen Institute. Retrieved 25 May 2016, from http://www.aspeninstitute.org/policy-work/nonprofit-philanthropy/archives/nonprofit-philanthropy-5
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) - Traffic Stops. (2016). bjs.gov. Retrieved 25 May 2016, from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=702
Fields, J. (2015). Nonverbal Cues In Communication -- Lifesize Video Conferencing. Lifesize.com. Retrieved 25 May 2016, from http://www.lifesize.com/video-conferencing-blog/speaking-without-words/
Henry, C. (2016). Should More Blacks Consider Voting Republican in the 2016 Election?. Ebony. Retrieved 25 May 2016, from http://www.ebony.com/news-views/should-more-blacks-consider-voting-republican-in-the-2016-election-333#axzz49gfCmUZG
Blum-Dimaya, a., Reeve, S.A., Reeve, K.F. & Hoch, H. (2010).
Teaching childen with autism to play a video game using activity schedules and game-embedded simultaneous video modeling. Education & Teatment of Childen,
The topic of this study was to identify age- and skill-appopiate activities fo childen with autism using a video game platfom and the popula video game, "Guita Heo II" to impove social skills and quality of life.
The authos emphasize that age-appopiate skills ae an impotant fo childen with developmental disabilities such as autism because these skills satisfy habilitative equiements that have been shown to impove quality of life. Theefoe, childen with autism who ae capable of playing games with thei pees enjoy additional chances to inteact and acquie the social skills they need as well as oppotunities to impove thei hand-eye coodination and othe moto skills. Despite the poven efficacy of teaching age-appopiate skills to…
reference lists from eligible studies were also reviewed to identify suitable studies. Finally, although the literature review was mainly focused on peer-reviewed journal articles, the author reports that she also included books and chapters of books that held specific significance for the purposes of her analysis.
Results: Based on the studies identified as described above, the author developed a useful historical background of autism and the responses by the medical community over time. A similar historical analysis that spans 5 decades is presented concerning the use of music therapy for various disorders concluding with its use for autism disorder interventions. Given the exceptional musical abilities of some autistic children it is not surprising that music therapists were interested its applicability for treating autistic children by the 1950s.
Although the author is quick to point out that music therapy has not been universally acknowledged as an effective intervention for children with autism, its use became increasingly popular during the 1960s and following a 40-year period of trial-and-error, a great deal has been learned that can help guide the use of music therapy for treating children with autism today. During the past 10-year period, Reschke-Hernandez also reports that music therapists have sought to develop evidence-based music therapy approaches that can be used for treating children with autism to help improve the method's credibility among and use by the medical community.
Conclusions: The author concludes her study with a summary of the research, important findings concerning the historical evolution of music therapy and its use as a clinical intervention for children with autism. Following her recommendations for further study, the author adds that the results of this study should serve as a useful snapshot of current thinking about music therapy and its usefulness in treating children with autism.
Teaching Children with Autism to Play a Video Game Using Activity Schedules and Game-Embedded Simultaneous Video Modeling.
This study investigates the effect of birth order in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common neuro-behavioral disorder of childhood. The study describes birth order of 598 children aged 6 to 18 years diagnosed due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The cohort contains relatively large size families because 47.1% of the participants were born in families of more than 4 children. The results show no statistically significant differences in birth order of children among all families. We conclude that the chances of first, middle, or later born children, as well as single children, to suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are almost equal. This study provides evidence that birth order has no effect in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Birth order is considered one of the most influential environmental factors in child development, affecting cognitive abilities and behavioral traits. This study investigates the effect of birth…
human resources management Conduct a series specific case studies companies, countries, approach issue human resource management development. Specific comparative analysis made practices U.S. countries.
Human resource management -- the case of McDonald's and Wal-Mart's HM practices in Europe, Asia and the United States of America
The role of human resources management has changed dramatically throughout the past recent decades. Once the people operating the machineries and blindly implementing the decisions made by the managers, the employees have gradually metamorphosed into the most valuable organizational assets. They are the ones who put together their knowledge to create intellectual capital and support the employers in attaining their objectives.
The modern day staff members create value for the organization and represent it in all aspects of the business dimensions and the interactions with other categories of stakeholders -- customers, business partners, the general public, governmental and non-governmental institutions and so on. And this…
Aras, G., Crowther, D., 2010, A handbook of corporate governance and social responsibility, Gower Publishing Ltd.
Berrone, P., Global compensation. Foundations and perspectives, IESE Business School, http://iese.academia.edu/berrone/Books/101418/Global_compensation._Foundations_and_perspectives last accessed on November 24, 2011
Dessler, G., Expanding into China? What foreign employers should know about human resource management in China today, All Business, http://www.allbusiness.com/management/3967622-1.html last accessed on November 24, 2011
Hawkins, G., 2004, How to find work that works for people with Asperger syndrome: the ultimate guide for getting people with Asperger syndrome into the workplace (and keeping them there!), Jessica Kingsley Publishers
Students can be matched to a job based on information provided by the assessments (e.g., aptitude, strengths). Consideration must also be given to the logistics of a student's employment, including location, work hours, transportation, wages and benefits.
Training and preparation for the job ideally take place both in school and on the job. There are more supports in the school setting with teachers and other personnel trained to work with students with disabilities. The experience may be a new one for an employer, so the support system must extend from school to the workplace as everyone learns what is expected and to deal with challenges as they inevitably arise. TIN recommends the school work with the employer to determine employee's response to the demands of the job and identify strategies to capitalize on the employee's strengths and minimize limitations. The school can assist the employer in providing accommodations…
Coulter, J. (2011). Helping students with Asperger Syndrome prepare for the workplace.
Pathfinders for Autism. Retrieved from http://www.pathfindersforautism.org
Gathers, L.B. (2011). Specialized vocational planning for people with autism. National Career Development Association. Retrieved from http://associationdatabase.com
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…
Atwood, K.C. (2003). Naturopathy: a critical appraisal. 5 (4) Medscape General
Medicine. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/465994
Bastian, H. (2010). Can a diet avoiding gluten and milk proteins reduce autism?
Medicine News Today: MediLexicon International Ltd. Retrieved on June 23,
Bullying can be a difficult topic to tackle. That is why this bullying essay will help offer an idea of what will comprise a good paper and what potential areas of research to cover within this controversial and popular subject. From developing a good thesis, carrying it throughout body paragraphs, and closing with a brief and concise conclusion, this essay will show what to do to obtain a high grade. The first step before the thesis, the body, and the conclusion, is a unique and informative introduction. This will help lead to an idea of where to start the paper and when all is finished, an abstract can be created, thus putting a successful end to any writing project.
Understanding a Bully
What Makes Others Bully?
Bullying: The Need to Control
Identifying the Four Common Types of Bullying
Controversies in Neuroscience: Autism
Controversies in Clinical Neuroscience: Autism Spectrum Disorders
Controversies in Clinical Neuroscience: Autism Spectrum Disorders
Although the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2014a) and numerous medical organizations universally debunk the notion that vaccines contribute to the prevalence of autism, some sectors of the public refuse to let go of this belief and have even employed tactics designed to shut down opposing views ("Silencing debate," 2007). The emotionally-laced rhetoric infesting the debate over autism etiology, however, is a sign of the level of concern parents are increasingly expressing. This anxiety seems to be justified in part by recent data showing that 1 in 68 children, 8-years of age, suffer from autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (CDC, 2014b, p. 6). This means that close to 60,000 of the nearly 4 million children born each year within the United States (CDC, 2014c) will be diagnosed with…
Benvenuto, A., Battan, B., Profirio, M.C., & Curatolo, P. (2013). Pharmacotherapy of autism spectrum disorders. Brain Development, 35(2), 119-27.
Campos-Outcalt, D. (2011). Should all children be screened for autism spectrum disorders? No: Screening is not ready for prime time. American Family Physician, 84(4), 377-8.
CDC. (2014a). Vaccine safety. Retrieved 24 Apr. 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Concerns/Autism/Index.html .
CDC. (2014b). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years: Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63(2), 1-21.
Children with autism can be hard to assess. Many children who fall under the criteria needed to determine autism, may be in fact be socially awkward, shy, among other things. As the CDC websites explains: "Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain" (CDC, 2014). Some have even identified a gene that could play a role in the development of autism. This however does not speak for the majority of children diagnoses with autism so therefore other assessment tools as well identification methods must be used to determine whether a child has autism.
"A diagnosis of ASD now includes several conditions that used to be diagnosed separately: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome. These conditions are now all called autism spectrum disorder" (CDC, 2014). Along with the new guidelines for proper diagnosis comes a set of identification methods…
CDC. (2014, March 20). Signs and Symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html (tags: none | edit tags)
Meisels, S. (n.d.). Performance Assessment. Performance Assessment. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/assessment/perfassess.htm
Psychometric Assessment Autism
Background of Autism
What is autism? Autism is a disease, which poses tons of questions, while providing least of answers. This being said, autism is one of the five diseases coming under Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). It shows in early years of a human and effects the brain's functioning. An autism website states that, 'it's a result of a neurological disorder, which hampers the proper operations of a brain, hindering the social interactions and communications' (Autism Society of America website). Autism asks us millions questions, its origins, its solutions, its causes and symptoms; none of which are answered. The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2013), states that, autism is basically pervasive developmental disorder otherwise called Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It is described as a condition where the person faces severe problem in social communication, interactions, perception and communication. APA (2013) shows…
Alpern, G.D. (2007). Developmental Profile 3. Lutz, FL: Western Psychological Services.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/index.html
Cohen, D., Pichard, N., Tordjman, S., Baumann, C., Burglen, L., & Excoffier, E. (2005). Specific genetic disorders and autism: Clinical contribution towards their identification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 103 -- 116.
The moral of the article's story is that teachers of autistic children with limited spoken languages may indeed need more training to get the most out of their students.
Still on the subject of therapy for autistic children, another article in the journal Autism (Vismara, et al. 2009) reports that professionally led training sessions with the parents of autistic children were helpful in getting the children to respond and communicate. The study was a 12-week research investigation, one hour per week; and what took place was the parents of eight "toddlers" (who had been diagnosed with autism) were brought together with their children and therapists. These parents were taught how to implement "naturalistic therapeutic techniques" based on the "Early Start Denver Model" (ESDM) (Vismara 93). The ESDM model focuses on "creating an affectively warm and rich environment to foster positive relationships between children and adults" (Vismara 99). The training with…
Chiang, Hus-Min. (2009). Naturalistic observations of elicited expressive communication
Of children with autism. Autism, 13(2), 165-178.
Donovan, Susan. Entrepreneur Thorkil Sonne on what you can learn from employees
With autism. Harvard Business Review, 86(9), 32-32.
educationists and teachers in the classroom today is identifying and dealing with children who have a speech, language or communication impairment, which negatively impacts on learning.. Many children find it difficult to understand how conversation works or don't make use of language at all. There are different terms used to describe specific speech and language difficulties, including "phonological difficulties, articulation difficulties, verbal dyspraxia, dysarthria, semantic pragmatic disorder, Asperger Syndrome and selective mutism." (Speech Impairments)
These specific speech and language difficulties can impact severely on the development and natural psychological and social growth of the child. Furthermore, it can also lead to further and more complicated problems - as will be discussed in this paper. "Children with a variety of speech and language impediments are increasing at risk as their language abilities fall behind those of their peers." (Children and Mental Health)
Emphasis must also be placed on recognizing the speech…
Bradford, J. Using multisensory teaching methods. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Dyslexia magazine Com. Web site: http://www.dyslexia-parent.com/mag30.html
Bredenkamp, S. (1990) Protecting Children from Inappropriate Practices. ERIC Digest. Retrieved December 21, 2000 from ERIC Digest. Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9218/children.htm
Children and Mental Health. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General Web Site: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter3/sec1.html
DeBord, K. (1997) Developmentally appropriate 4-h experiences for the 5- to 8-year-old. Retrieved December 20, 2004, from NC State University. Web site: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/human/pubs/develop_appropriate.html
Cognitive restructuring theory describes the various applied approaches aiming at reframing behaviors. The theory uses cognitive therapy to apply the behavioral technique. The theory involves learning how to think differently to change negative thinking and replace it with positive thinking. In addition, cognitive restructuring aims at helping people to deal with problems of anxiety and depression. In so doing, people can change their manner of thought and live their daily lives with energy and hope.
Cognitive theory is practical and can help Tom control and effectively manage his anger. As such, tom would not change significantly because the action had already taken place. For Tom, it would be better to focus his energy on how to avoid such a thing from happening and avoid future irritation. In this case, Tom would take one of the techniques offered in the cognitive therapy. Aggression replacement may help teach him some behavioral techniques…
Kate, S., Tony, A., Sharon, H., Irina, L. (2007). A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive
Behavioral Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger
Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37.7, 1203-1214.
From: Burns, D.D. (1989). The Feeling Good Handbook: 4 Steps in Cognitive Restructuring.
esponse to Intervention
esponse to Intervention (TI)
Over the past decade, rapid changes have occurred in general educational practice to increase the focus on early identification of and intervention for students considered at risk. The aptly named response-to-intervention (TI) model of service delivery is generally described as a multi-tiered model whereby students receive interventions of increasing intensity, with movement from one level to another based on demonstrated performance and rate of progress (Gresham, 2007). This sizable paradigm shift has been influenced in part by recent special education legislation, which allows the practice of TI as an alternative to the traditional "IQ- achievement discrepancy" model of learning disability identification and allows 15% of federal special education funding to be allocated toward early intervening services (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 2004). Moreover, TI has gained favor in light of mounting evidence suggesting that intensive intervention during the primary grades is…
Aikens, N.L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 235 -- 251.
Barnett, D.W.,VanDerHeyden, A.M.,&Witt, J.C. (2007).Achieving science-based practice through response to intervention: What it might look like in preschools. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 17, 31 -- 54.
Berkeley, S., Bender, W.N., Peaster, L.G., & Saunders, L. (2009). Implementation of response to intervention: A snapshot of progress. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 85 -- 95.
Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Doolittle, J. (2005). Response to intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 485 -- 486.
Bullying: Legal and Ethical Application
Bullying is a common social evil that requires the intervention of all school stakeholders. This study shows that bullying students should not be reprimanded negatively because it may accelerate the bullying trait. This can be achieved if a manager develops social goals based on reconciliation. This report attempts to balance the legal and ethical responses in bullying. The report will use Johnny and Tommy case study on bullying to reflect on the management actions based on reconciliation and integrity. The balance between legal and ethical ramifications in responding to bullying incidences is addressed. The concepts learned will be important in handling cases similar to the case study presented.
A case study (Management situation in a first grade classroom)
Johnny is well built and slightly bigger than most of his peers in class. As a result, he has been using his muscular advantages to exercising bullying…
Drew, N. (2010). No Kidding about Bullying: 125 Ready-to-use Activities to Help Kids
Manage Anger, Resolve Conflicts, Build Empathy, and Get Along, Grades 3-6. Free
Lavesque, R. (2003). Sexuality Education: What Adolescents' Rights Require. Nova Publishers
Social Interaction Skills in Clients ith Autism
Social interaction is very important for every human being. It is important for maintaining our physical and mental health. For instance, social interaction helps safeguard people against the detrimental effects of stress by aiding them cope with life. Good social interaction based on friendships and family is important for leading a happy and fulfilled life. Autism often impairs non-verbal and verbal communication as well as social interaction. Social interaction among autistic people is complicated by physiological problems of shifting attention. Autistic people often require more time than non-autistic people do to shift their attention between visual and auditory stimuli. As such, they find it hard to follow fast changing and intricate social interactions (Bauminger et al., 489). People suffering from autism find social situations very nasty as they face various challenges when interacting with other people. Therefore, it is important to develop social…
Bauminger, N., Shulman, C., & Agam, G. Peer interaction and loneliness in high-
functioning children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33 (5): 489-507. 2003
Grandin, Temple. "Social Problems: Understanding Emotions and Developing Talent. Retrieved on March 18, 2014 from http://www.iidc.indiana.edu/index.php?pageId=600#sthash.mHvErcB6.dpuf ."
His reaction is honest and real, and shows that he has emotions and feelings as well as logical reactions to his life. He also decides he cannot live with his father when he discovers his father is the one who killed Wellington. These are all emotional reactions to problems, and so he is very capable of love and other strong emotions. His reactions might not be what another person's reactions are, but they are certainly real and important.
In addition, Christopher becomes aware of a terrible hurt inside him because of his father's confession. Haddon writes, "But this hurt was inside my head. And it made me sad to think that I could never become an astronaut" (Haddon 132). That kind of hurt comes from love, and Christopher now knows the pain of loving someone and losing them. This feeling forces him to do things he would never do before,…
Haddon, Mark. The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time. New York: Vintage Books, 2003.
I asked them what is done for obby at school, and they said that inclusion has been very beneficial for him (Nelson, 2001). With a paraprofessional he has been able to stay in his home school, and importantly, continue to attend the school his friend attends. They said that the school had to work hard to learn about almost all aspects of obby's needs: they didn't know much about Asperger's, or working with a paraprofessional, but they feel that for the most part the school staff understand his unique needs. They have seen huge improvement, and so can see that they should continue to cooperate with the accommodations obby needs.
The one area they expressed lingering frustration with was with obby's earlier education. They said that preschools really didn't know how to deal with children who had special needs (ricker, 2000). They would try to talk him out of being…
Bricker, Diane. 2000. "Inclusion: How the scene has changed." Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, April.
Diamond, Karen E. 1999. "Parents who have a child with a disability." Childhood Education, March 22.
DiPipi-Hoy, Caroline, and Jitendra, Asha. 2004. "A Parent-Delivered Intervention to Teach Purchasing Skills to Young Adults with Disabilities." Journal of Special Education 38:3, p. 144, October.
Graham, Steve. 2003. "Self-determination for students with disabilities: views of parents and teachers." Exceptional Children, Sept. 22.
The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive medication to treat psychosis. The specific medication does not matter and therefore will not be specified. The dose will be the same for each patient and therefore will be monitored to determine whether dosage is sufficient.
Therefore, the measurements will track each participant and determine which treatment is most effective given the parameters of the study. The placebo group is expected to see no difference, other than perhaps unrelated psychological improvement which will be tracked and recorded as standard error or standard margin of the error estimate. The second group will undergo a physical treatment of chakra adjustment to maximize the flow of energy throughout the body and remedy the physiological response. The treatment will be administered once per day over…
Hall, J., Whalley, H.C., Marwick, K., McKirdy, J., Sussmann, J., Romaniuk, L., (2010). Hippocampal function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychological Medicine, 40(5), 761-761-70. doi:10.1017/S0033291709991000
Kinsella, Caroline and Kinsella, Connor Introducing Mental Health: A Practical Guide (London: Jessica Kingsley, (2006)
Kutscher M., Attwood M.L., Wolff R.R. Kids in the Syndrome Mix of ADHD, LD, Asperger's, Tourette's, Bipolar, and More!: The one stop guide for parents, teachers, and other professionals. Philadelphia Kingsley Publishing (2005)
Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., Torrent, C., Reinares, M., Goikolea, J.M., . . . . (2005). Do cognitive complaints in euthymic bipolar patients reflect objective cognitive impairment? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74(5), 295-295-302. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/235461846?accountid=13044
Children with autism tend to get 'stuck' -- either in the repetition of certain phrases, or 'stuck' on a particular idea in the case of children with Asperger's Syndrome. Teachers can attempt to use these words as a springboard to real communication, circumventing the repetition through responding and attempting to engage the child in dialogue. Specifically, with Asperger's Syndrome, teachers can try to use children's mechanical interests in facts and figures to ask them questions about, for example, how the animals or cars that the child is obsessed with might feel, which also encourages the children to engage in emotional responses. Or they can ask the children to engage in more spontaneous 'pretend' play to circumvent repetitive behavior (like pretending to be an animal or a car).
This chapter affirms the idea that there is no essential correlation between intelligence and the ability to speak. Many otherwise normal…
teacher has in helping students develop their writing. Traditional methods of grading and scoring children's writing are being replaced in the modern educational system with feedback and constructive criticism of the work, rather than a trophy grade or labeling score. This study reviews literature previously compiled on the subject of feedback in the development of children's writing, as well as conducting original research with a small group of students and teachers that helps evaluate the role of feedback in writing, as well as determining what types of feedback are the most effective.
Overview & Evaluation of the Project
According to a seasoned author of the ritish Educational Research Journal, "Education without educational research can be governed by dogma, superstition, tradition and other forms of prejudice about what will work well and be 'good for' those involved in the educational process." (Murphy 1996) Education is an ongoing process, and even the…
Brindley, S. (1995) Teaching English. New York: Routledge.
Bush, L.L. & Santi, S. (2004, August) Designing & Assessing Effective Writing Assignments. Center for Learning and Teaching Excellence. http://clte.asu.edu/writing/
Donaldson, M. (1989) Children's Minds. London: Fontana Press.
ERIC. (2001) Grading Students' Classroom Writing: Issues and Strategies. Counseling and Student Services Clearinghouse. U.S. Department of Education. CAPS Publication.
Ethnicity in Stafford, Virginia
Living in the commonwealth of Virginia in the year 2012 is a mostly enjoyable existence for myself and the fellow members of my community. Stafford, Virginia is a relatively small place. e have about 100,000 people living here. This is a community steeped in heritage. One of the landmarks of our community is the boyhood farm of First President of the United States, George ashington. Ferry Farm is the central tourist attraction in Stafford and many of our local events center around our Founding Father. During the Civil ar, President Abraham Lincoln visited Chatham, a private home in the region. The land was used as a station for the Union army during that war. America's history is part of our daily lives. This is evidenced by the fact that the phrase "here history meets the promise of tomorrow" is emblazoned on the town's website (Stafford 2012).…
Callandar, Alane (2008). "Race Remains Complex Issue in South." The Stafford County Sun.
Cohan, Stacey (2010). "Autistic Teen Jailed for Officer Assault." Fox DC: Washington, D.C.
Freehling, Bill (2011). "Stafford Moving on Up on U.S. Wealth List." The Free Lance Star.
Curious Case of Gary McKinnon
There is much controversy with regard to information in the digital age and Gary Mckinnon's case is especially intriguing when considering this discussion. The Scottish hacker is charged of having hacked into a U.S. database containing information stored on around one hundred computers owned by the U.S. military and by NASA. Mckinnon committed these activities between 2001 and 2002 and faced over ten years of judicial battles against extradition until 2013. In addition to the problematic implications of his crime, the case was even more difficult to address because of the U.K.'s reluctance to extradite the hacker.
hen discussing this case, it is essential to consider the gravity of the situation, taking into account that McKinnon willingly acted against the U.S. military and NASA at the time when he accessed and stole files from the two institutions. Such an act is a direct affront to…
Bassiouni, M.C. (2014). "International Extradition: United States Law and Practice." Oxford University Press.
Curtis, G. (2011). "The Law of Cybercrimes and Their Investigations." CRC Press.
Slack, J., & Semark, M. "Spotlight falls on Starmer: Will Director of Public Prosecutions now order Gary McKinnon to face UK court on hacking charge?." Retrieved January 30, 2014, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2218872/Gary-McKinnon-extradition-U.S.-outrage-hacker-wont-American-authorities.html
Wall, D. (2007). "Cybercrime: The Transformation of Crime in the Information Age." Polity.
Mockingbird by Kathryn Erskine
The young adult novel Mockingbird by Kathryn Erskine details the narrator's coming-of-age after suffering several traumatic experiences. The first experience is the death of Caitlin's brother Devon during a school shooting. As a young woman with Asperger's syndrome, Caitlin has few natural coping mechanisms to deal with emotional trauma. Her only refuge is the special gift of her art and the help of her counselor at school. Rather than feeling 'lucky' to have so many relatives and friends to comfort her (as she is told) Caitlin feels over-stimulated by the emotional response and the noise and the change in her routine. She cannot understand why her father won't order pizza on Thursday nights, as they used to when Devon was alive. Catlin has trouble interpreting even simply emotions such as smiles and frowns, much less complex emotions such as her father's response to grief.
Erskine, Kathryn. Mockingbird. Philomel, 2010.
Adopting Speial Needs Children
When it omes to adoption, parenting styles for speial needs hildren is really no different. There are hundreds and thousands of hildren that are urrently living in the foster are system that are put into the group of "Speial Needs" waiting for a household to support and love them. The word speial need promptly brings to mind the idea of a hild with inability, in adoption terms the word inludes a larger sense. The word speial needs relating to adoption basially is saying that a hild that is hard to plae by the state adoption agenies or adoption unit. Most of these hildren do not have muh health or temperament issues; they are just measured "hard to position" by a lot of adoption organizations. The hoies of ages for hildren that are in this group are from babies all the way up to the age of…
cited in Gray, 2003) on the subject of parents with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome shows how parents cope with their child's disability. The mother and the father each draws from different resources to cope with how they react toward their child. Furthermore, the research has shown that coping strategies varies for women and men.
Vaughn et al. (2003) report that the identification of LD students has increased upwards of 200% since 1977, with explanations ranging from a likely outcome of the growing knowledge field, to LD as a field serving as a sink for the failures of general education to meet the needs of students of varying abilities. The study investigators find that not only is the heterogeneity of the identified students quite wide, they also find that many students are overrepresented (misidentified) or underrepresented (unidentified). One large problem is the use of IQ tests to identify those students as learning disabled. Using standardized tests fails to accurately identify those students who either have reading difficulties or those students whose first language is not English. More emphasis is needed on response to instruction type models of assessment and intervention to replace ineffective normalized standards for identifying students at risk and properly placing students for…
Aaron, P. (1997). The Impending Demise of the Discrepancy Formula. Review of Educational Research, 461-502.
Abedi, J. (2008). Psychometric Issues in the ELL Assessment and Special Education Eligibility. Teachers College Record, 2282-2303.
Ang, S., Van Dynne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K., Templar, K., Tay, C., et al. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 335-371.
August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 50-57.
Language and children with autism:
Sources of cognitive deficits
Deficits in language development are one of the most commonly-noted, early signs a child may be autistic. Autistic children often fail to meet appropriate developmental milestones in language. High-functioning autistics or individuals with Asperger's Syndrome usually do not show developmental delays in using language, but may communicate in an inappropriate manner. "Autism is diagnosed on the basis of three primary areas of impairment: social functioning, language and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests or activities...esearch on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the social and communication impairments are unique and specific deficits, that define the autism phenotype" (Tager-Flusberg 2006).
The extent to which social and communicative impairments in autism are interlinked remains hotly debated. It is generally agreed upon and noted by researchers and parents alike that there is a wide spectrum of difference in…
ABA therapy. (2011). Bright Tots. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://brighttots.com/aba_therapy.html
Engaging with the self. (2011). Bio Portfolio. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/86890/Engaging-With-The-Self-Mirror-Behaviour-In-Autism-Down-Syndrome-And-Typical.html
Schoenstadt, Arthur. (2011). Language development in autistic children emedtv.
Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://autism.emedtv.com/autism/language-development-in-autistic-children.html
In fact, PBS is an inclusive approach since it becomes increasingly applicable to different segments of society such as multicultural youth and urban youth (Utley, Kozleski, Smith, & Draper, 2002). Perhaps, the reason this form of support applies so universally because it uses a collaborative team of people whom know and care about the troubled teenager. hese individuals such as family members, teachers, counselors, and administrators come together and determine functionally the processes which this individual performs and which ones he/she has trouble with or, in other words, together -- with the assistance of the student too -- they put together a functional behavioral assessment and then determine the specific, individualized needs of the student (Carr, 2002). Based upon that particular student's needs, the team derives approaches to help reduce the problem behavior and replace it with appropriate behavior. he reason that this process is said to have lasting effects…
Twenty-second Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disability Act. Washington, D.C.: Author.
Utley, C.A., Kozleski, E., Smith, A., & Draper, I.L. (2002). Positive Behavior Support: A Proactive Strategy for Minimizing Behavior Problems in Urban Multicultural Youth. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(4), 196+. doi:10.1177/10983007020040040301
doi:10.1177/10983007030050020301Warren, J.S., Edmonson, H.M., Griggs, P., Lassen, S.R., Mccart, A., Turnbull, A., et al. (2003). Urban Applications of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Critical Issues and Lessons Learned. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 80+.
As human beings we have an "idea" or concept of who we are and what we really should be, hence we create an Ideal Self that we constantly strive for, often in vain. If the perceived self, our own self-image, is not aligned with the actual self, how we really are, there will always be personality problems and dysfunction as one relates to one's self and the rest of the world. (Kail & Wicks 1993) In Carl's case this is certainly exacerbated by his TBI.
In some sense if a human being grows in a very healthy and psychological and socially secure and protected environment, congruence should naturally be achieved. If he or she has felt the unconditional positive reinforcement that ogers advocates, than congruence should be an outcome of certainty. (Vander Zanden 2003) However, even with the best of growth comes change and the self you are today may…
Demorest, Amy. 2005. Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped Professional Ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kail, RV, & Wicks-Nelson, R. 1993. Developmental Psychology. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Vander Zanden, James W. 2003. Human Development. Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell & Thomas L., Eds.. New York: McGraw Hill.
Thus, it is easy to see why the use of medication to treat ADHD is controversial, especially in students who have the disorder in only mild amounts (Boyd and Bee, 2009). However, an option other than medication is available in the form of parent training programs. Boyd and Bee (2009) note that parent training programs intend to help parents who are having trouble controlling their ADHD affected child. According to the authors, "By the time their children are diagnosed with ADHD, usually upon entering school, many parents have lost confidence in their ability to control them" (Boyd and Bee, 2009, pg. 269). Because of this, it is easy for parents to take their parenting in two extreme directions -- either allowing their children to be undisciplined or by disciplining them to the point of abuse. Through parent training, teachers and parents can communicate regarding the child's success in school, and…
Boyd, D. And Bee, H. (2009). Lifespan Development, Fifth Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
LeFever, G.B., Dawson, K.V., and Morrow, A.L. (1999). The Extent of Drug Therapy
for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children in Public Schools. American Journal of Public Health. 89(9): 1359-1364.
Kewley, G. (1998). Personal Paper: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder us underdiagnosed and undertreated in Britain. British Medical Journal. 316 (7144): 1594-1596. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articlerender.cgi?artid=421427
In addition to the highly qualified mandates of NCLB there are also requirements to use research-based education practices over effective-based education practices.
The different levels of ability combined with the various qualifiers of special education students present a difficulty in determining the best course of research-based learning. In addition the ability to track and report such learning becomes difficult at best, impossible at worst.
Given the wide spectrum of students that qualify for special education services there is a demonstrable difference in the services they are provided.
The students in special education today, receive a combination of education instruction. When they are able to appropriately benefit and learn in a mainstream environment the federal government dictates that they do. If their particular disability provides the need for accommodations to that mainstream education, such as oral testing, or un-timed lessons the school has provided that as well through…
____(2005) Special Education Teachers Up in Arms Over NCLB Certification Requirements Atlanta Journal
Chambless, D.L., & Hollon, S.D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7-18.
Cobb, P., Confrey, J., diSessa, a., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2003). Design experiments in educational research. Educational Researchers, 32(1), 9-13.
Davies, P. (1999). What is evidence-based education? British Journal of Educational Studies, 47, 108-121