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Assisted suicide is a suicide committed by someone with assistance from someone other than themselves, many times a Physician. Assisted suicide is typically delivered by lethal injection. The drugs are setup and provided to the patient and the patient has the choice as to when they deliver them by pressing a button themselves. This is a controversial topic that has both proponents and opponents for various the reasons. The most controversial suicides are those in which the patient does not have the ability to press a button themselves and someone must complete the process for them. It has been argued that this is no longer assisted suicide, but murder. This research will explore the topic of assisted suicide and the many facets of the legal and moral issues.
Assisted suicide differs from euthanasia. In assisted suicide the person assisting only provides the means and drugs necessary. In euthanasia the person's…
Andre, C & Valesquez, M. (2010). Assisted Suicide: Right or Wrong? Santa Clara University. Retrieved August 5, 2012 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n1/suicide.html
Euthanasia.com (2012). History of Assisted Suicide. Retrieved August 5, 2012 from http://www.euthanasia.com/history.html .
Gorsuch, N. (2009)The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Princeton University press.
Healthcare.gov. (2012). Patient's Bill of Rights. Retrieved August 5, 2012 from http://www.healthcare.gov/law/features/rights/bill-of-rights/index.html
Assisted suicide should be a legal right. The grounds for this claim include the fact that modern medicine has made it possible to extend life artificially, allowing for people to survive beyond their body's capacity for wellness. Other grounds for ensuring the rights of citizens to death with dignity include the essentially libertarian underpinnings of American society. Currently, only the states of ashington and Oregon allow physicians to assist patients with a dignified death. The United States cannot dictate laws related to assisted suicide in other countries, but can set a normative precedent that highlights the need for more compassionate and wise approaches to ending a life. The primary arguments against assisted suicide are religious ones, which have no place in determining American law. Scare tactics related to assisted suicide can easily be dismissed. There are several ways that doctors can be trained and supervised so that no assisted suicide…
Andre, Claire and Velasquez, Manuel. "Assisted Suicide: A Right or a Wrong?"Santa Clara University Markkula Center for Ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n1/suicide.html
Humphry, Derek. "Liberty and Death." Assisted Suicide. Retrieved online: http://www.assistedsuicide.org/liberty_and_death_manifesto_right_to_die.html
Topping, Alexandra and Jones, Sam. "Locked-in syndrome sufferer wins high court hearing for his right to die." The Guardian. 12 Mar 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/mar/12/locked-in-syndrome-sufferer-court-hearing
hen we think of assisted suicide, most of us immediately think of Dr. Jack Kevorkian, the retired pathologist who was sentenced to two terms of imprisonment in 1999 for helping a man suffering from a terminal disease to die (Humphrey 2002). Assisted suicide is a very passionate issue of debate in this country. There are numerous ethical and moral considerations aside from the legal aspects of the practice. The topic is as controversial as abortion and capital punishment. Most everyone has a deep-rooted belief one way or the other, they are either for or against, few ride the middle ground. It has been my observation that those in favor of pro-life are more likely to favor capital punishment and oppose assisted suicide, and those in favor of abortion and assisted suicide are more likely to oppose the death penalty. It is indeed a passionate issue and will continue…
Center For Ethics & Professionalism." American College of Physicians. American Society of Internal Medicine. http://www.acponline.org/ethics/ethicman.htm .(accessed07-11-2002).
Death With Dignity." Oregon Death with Dignity Center.
2002. http://www.dwd.org/community/resources.asp .
A accessed 07-11-2002).
Assisted suicide should be legalized. There is no rational argument against it, only cartoonish arguments based on superstition and feigned morality. In the real world, we all must die, and there is no case, either moral or intellectual, that one can make to argue that we should not have the right to control our final moments. Over the course of this essay, I will illustrate in no uncertain terms that the right to die with dignity is a right reserved for the individual alone, and that no amount of interference on the part of external parties -- especially not those who are entirely unaffected by the death in question -- can be justified.
The American Medical Association (2013) frames the issue as one of ethics. It deems the issue as a threat to "the very core of the medical profession's ethical integrity." It argues that physician-assisted suicide is "fundamentally inconsistent"…
AMA. (2013). Physician-assisted suicide. American Medical Association. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/code-medical-ethics/2211b.pdf
Ertelt, S. (2013). Connecticut pro-lifers try to stop bill to ok assisted suicide. LifeNews.com Retrieved May 5, 2013 from http://www.lifenews.com/2013/01/16/connecticut-pro-lifers-try-to-stop-bill-to-ok-assisted-suicide/
NEMJ. (2013). Physician-assisted suicide. New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 368 (2013) 1450-1452.
A postive life is described as being able to keep memories alive as well as have the feeling of being needed. Alieviated suffering pertains to physical well-being, psychological well-being and personal stratigies to relieve pain. Managing life when ill refers to the facility to be in charge of the situation and to be reflective.
If we consider the quality of life enjoyed be Wolf's father at the end of his struggle with cancer a strong case can be made that he had every reason to request that the process of his death be accelerated. Though he was able to function in each of these areas in some capacity, the capacity was severly limited by his illness. At the end he did not even possess the ablity to swallow perscribed lethal medication, and was beyond this method of assissted suicide.
Besides quality of life ther are other factors that must be…
Johansson, C.M., Axelsson, B., & Danielson, E. (2005, October). Living with incurable cancer at the end of life -- patient's perceptions on quality of life. Cancer Nursing, Vol. 29, No. 5, 391-399.
Webster, B. (2009 July 14). Assisted suicide/voluntary euthanasia. International debate education center. Retrieved January 5, 2012, from http://www.idebate.org/debatabase/topic_details.php?topicID=55
Wolf, S.M. (2008 September - October). Confronting physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: my father's death. Hasting center report. In FindArticles. Retrieved January 5, 2012, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go2103/is_5_38/ai_n30913055/
Assisted Suicide, or called Euthanasia, is an issue that has long been debated whether it should be acceptable and made legal, or not. The concern that many delivers as to whether or not Assisted Suicide should be made legal is this question that many poses -- Is it ethical and moral to help someone who suffers from a terminal disease to die earlier?
In medical practice, Assisted Suicide is the process of helping a patient who suffers from a terminal disease to end his sufferings. This is done by terminating any system which supports and sustains the life of the patient. Thus, causing the patient to die. There are two types of Assisted Suicide that is medically considered in countries where the practice is legal. These are voluntary and involuntary suicide.
Involuntary Suicide is practiced to patients where there is no more hope to live due to the physical state…
Earll, Carrie G. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia.
2001. Focus on Social Issues Online. 2004.
B.A. Robinson. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: All Sides
However, research shows that even though suicide risk may be increased in cancer patients, it only accounts for only a small minority of deaths (Storm et. al., 1992). When cancer patients do try to commit suicide or actually commit the act, they have some major psychiatric disorders, particularly depression (Breitbart, 1990) study of 100 men with AIDS, the "interest" in physician-assisted suicide was predicted by high levels of psychological distress and the experience of terminal illness of a friend or relative, as well as a perception of lower levels of social support. No significant association existed between interest in assisted suicide and severity of the disease (Breitbart, 1990). Chochinov et. al analyzed the desire for death with over 100 terminally ill cancer patients and found only 8.5% had a lasting and clinical desire for death, and of these 59% were depressed, compared with 8% of those without a stated desire…
Breitbart, W. (1990) Cancer Pain and Suicide. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy. 16: 399
Hendin, H. (1994) Seduced by Death: Doctors, Patients, and the Dutch Cure. Issues in Law and Medicine 10: 123
Muskin, P.R. (1998). The Request to Die: Role for a Psychodynamic Perspective on Physician-Assisted Suicide, JAMA 279: 323, 327
Moskowitz, E. (2003) the Consensus on Assisted Suicide. Hastings Center Report
Besides, the people who are against assisted suicide disagree that physicians have been conferred immense authority, which can be mistaken or immoral. The competence of taking decisions on issues of life and death must rest where it ultimately belongs -with the Almighty, not physicians. (Should an incurably-ill patient be able to commit physician-assisted suicide?) a case has been made that even though cautious and dependable professional behavior relating to assisted suicide is being given and reasonable safety procedures as well for the patients concerned, likely survivors and community in totality are been taken into account, a lot of cases exist where the anticipated excellence is a distant dream, therefore assistance with suicide becomes very risky. (Diekstra, 1995)
To conclude, the present argument regarding euthanasia and assisted suicide possesses the capability to make out society into a unilateral one, however it can also have an encouraging influence in case it…
Braddock, Clarence H; Tonelli, Mark R. (1998) "Physician-Assisted Suicide" Ethics in Medicine. University of Washington School of Medicine. Retrieved at http://eduserv.hscer.washington.edu/bioethics/topics/pas.html. Accessed on 15 November, 2004
Carr, William H.A. (September-October, 1995) "A Right to Die - Physician-Assisted Suicide - Includes a Discussion of the So-Called Physician's Oath in a 1990's Context" Saturday Evening Post. pp: A4-5
Diekstra, RF. (May, 1995) "Dying in Dignity: The Pros and Cons of Assisted Suicide" Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience. Volume: 49 Supplementary 1; pp: 139-148
Gates, Thomas J. (15 May, 1997) "Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: A Family Practice Perspective" American Family Physician. Volume: 12; No: 1; pp: 58-63
Suicide, assisted or otherwise, is a contentious issue in modern society. While most people would be upset if a loved one killed himself or herself, there is nonetheless widespread recognition that people's right to autonomy might supersede such concerns, especially when the choice is between a dignified death by suicide and a prolonged and painful terminal illness. However, there are still those who disagree and who believe that suicide is always or usually wrong. This ongoing debate is reflected in laws, societal values, and the philosophy of ethics.
Euthanasia, from the Greek words for "good death," is an old concept: in Sir Thomas More's Utopia, written in the time of Henry the Eighth, citizens of Utopia may end their lives with permission from religious and governmental officials (Minois 2001, 67). The concept of medically-assisted suicide is a largely late twentieth century invention (Minois 2001, 328). Proponents argue that -- despite…
Braw, E. (2013). Should a sick child be allowed to choose death? Belgians think so. Newsweek, December 5, 2013. http://www.newsweek.com/should-sick-child-be-allowed-choose-death-belgians-think-so-223851
Buchanan, RT. (2015). Right to die: Belgian doctors rule depressed 24-year-old woman has right to end her life. The Independent, July 2, 2015. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/right-to-die-belgian-doctors-rule-depressed-24-year-old-woman-has-right-to-end-her-life-10361492.html
Gayle, D. (2013). Transsexual, 44, elects to die by euthanasia after botched sex-change operation turned him into a 'monster'. The Daily Mail, October 1, 2013. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2440086/Belgian-transsexual-Nathan-Verhelst-44-elects-die-euthanasia-botched-sex-change-operation.html
Minois, G. (2001). History of suicide: Voluntary death in western culture. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.
Brittany Maynard Case
The case of Brittany Maynard is a fairly textbook one when it comes to the discussions that center on doctor-assisted suicide and euthanasia in general. There are indeed cases where the death of a patient is a certainty. However, the devil is in the details as some people believe that they have to suffer out their final days while others, such as Brittany Maynard, feel that they should have at least some control over their own destiny. These people feel that they should be able to die "with dignity" and on their own terms rather than having to wait for death to come and for suffering to occur as that date approaches. However, there are some medical, legal and ethical considerations that have to be taken seriously when it comes to someone committing suicide and involving one or more other people in the same. While "death with…
Bahan, I. (1997). Physician-assisted suicide. Above all else do no harm. Tennessee Medicine:
Journal of The Tennessee Medical Association, 90(2), 45-46.
Campbell, C. S., & Black, M. A. (2014). Dignity, death, and dilemmas: a study of Washington
hospices and physician-assisted death. Journal Of Pain And Symptom
The ethical and moral issues surrounding assisted suicide are presented in this paper through interviews and research. Assisted suicide has always been a controversial subject and it continues to be controversial although there are people who believe it is moral, ethical, and should be made legal.
My Neighbor and Friend -- Ms. Rogers -- Interviewed February 4, 2015
Ms. Rogers is a 55-year-old Caucasian widow who lives in my neighborhood. She graciously agreed to be asked questions as to her views on assisted suicide, and so an interview was scheduled.
She was asked about her personal moral values and her religious beliefs regarding voluntary assisted suicide, and she said that she is a devout Christian and thus, she said that only God can give life, and only God can take it away. Her views are very much shared by many Christians and people of other faiths, so it…
Ethics: Assisted Suicide
What is Assisted Suicide?
Theories: Is it Ethical?
The Death with Dignity Act (DWDA)
The Deontology Argument
The Velma Howard Case (Assisted Suicide)
Peter Williams Case
Ethics: Assisted Suicide
Physician-assisted suicide, is this really an ethical technique? A lot of people feel strongly on both sides of this concern. However, on April 13, 1999, the most known doctor executed an assisted suicide, Dr. Jack Kevorkian, was given a sentenced of ten to twenty-five years in prison after being charged with second degree murder and three to seven years for using controlled substance (Colbert, 2013). Assisted suicide normally takes place when a person commits suicide but they are getting help from another person. Physician-assisted suicide normally has no pain involved, as many would comment, the most passive way for a person to expire. With that said. Is it ethical? This essay will examine the…
Callahan, D. (2009). Organized obfuscation: Advocacy for physician-assisted suicide. The Hastings Center Report, 23(9), 67-89.
Colbert, J.A. (2013). Physician-assisted suicide -- polling results. The New England Journal of Medicine,, 34(9), 396.
Friend, M.L. (2011). Physician-assisted suicide: Death with dignity? Journal of Nursing Law, 14(3), 34-36.
Groenewoud, J.H.-P. (2009). Clinical problems with the performance of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the netherlands. The New England, 23(9), 123-125.
Ethical Issues of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia
The ethical issues relating to assisted suicide and euthanasia have captured the attention of the public. The topic of Euthanasia is a contentious one and it inescapably incites strong emotional argument and gives rise to tough beliefs that do not straight away lend themselves to consensual harmony. It is improbable that a decision can be reached which will meet with universal support whenever such clashes of values exist, with apparently little middle ground. It is hard for anyone to anticipate accord on this issue in a society with a plurality of extensively varying moral opinions and faiths. There is an urgent need for the issue of active voluntary euthanasia to be addressed in spite of the difficulties in this area. (Otlowski, 1997)
A constant stress of media attention and increasing anxiety about control at life's end has created severe concern of legalizing the…
"About Implementing Humane Euthanasia in NM Animal Shelters" Retrieved from http://www.nmanimalcontrol.com/euthanasia/HEPP/FAQ.html#_edn10
Accessed on 28 July, 2005
"Arguments in favor of euthanasia" Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/euthanasia/euth_rights.shtml
Accessed on 28 July, 2005
Physician-assisted suicide should be legalized in all of America. The issue of physician-assisted suicide, from time to time, makes the rounds of the mainstream media, most recently with the case of Brittany Maynard, the terminal cancer patient who at the age of 29 used physician-assisted suicide. She had moved from California to Oregon in order to be able to do this, as the practice is not yet legal in her home state (The Telegraph, 2014). Her decision was criticized by the Vatican, and religion does often form the philosophical underpinning of the resistance to physician-assisted suicide in Western countries.
There are different arguments in favor of physician-assisted suicide. One, currently being used by civil liberties activists before the Supreme Court of Canada, holds that equality rights are being violated because the sick are unable to end their own lives in the same way that the physical-abled can, and that suicide…
Andorno, N. (2013). Physician-assisted suicide should be permitted. New England Journal of Medicine Vol. 368 (15) 1451-1452
Back, A., Wallace, J., Starks, H., & Pearlman, R. (1996). Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in Washington State. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 275 (12) 919-925.
Boudreau, J. & Somerville, M. (2013). Physician-assisted suicide should not be permitted. New England Journal of Medicine Vol. 368 (15) 1450-1451
Cholbi, M. (2012). Suicide. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
If the act of killing another is imply universally banned, the definition of ethical action is greatly simplified, and all gray areas are decided on the side of caution. The above areas of concern are very real; there is evidence that non-voluntary euthanasia occurs in other countries where assisted suicide is an accepted medical practice (Debate, 2009). Mental health is often in issue with chronic diseases and end-of-life care, and determining when people are capable of making the choice of assisted-suicide is an impossible task -- some would even argue that the request itself is evidence of mental unhealthy, and should be interpreted as a request for better care (APA, 2001; True Compassion, 2009).
John Stuart Mill, who wrote directly and explicitly in opposition to Kant with his Utilitarian ethics, believed that it was only the effects of an action that determined its morality: "the influence of actions on happiness…
APA. (2001). "End-of-life issues and care." Accessed 7 March 2009. http://www.apa.org/pi/eol/arguments.html#2
Braddock, C. & Tonelli, M. (1998). "Physician-assisted suicide." Ethics in medicine. University of Washington school of medicine official website. Accessed 7 March 2009. http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/pas.html
Debate." (2009). Euthanasia.com. Accessed 7 March 2009. http://www.euthanasia.com/debate.html
Mill, J. (1871). Utilitarianism. London: Longman, Greens, Reader, and Dyer.
Legitimate legal concerns arise where the patient is not completely capable of expressing his or her wishes directly, because any situation where surrogates do so on behalf of patients raises the specter of ulterior motivation, abuse, and conflicts of interests. Therefore, strict legislative controls must ensure against such potential for misuse and abuse. Similarly, both legislative oversight and updated modern principles of medical ethics must establish criteria for distinguishing between the desire to end one's life that reflects only the genuine desire to avoid pain and discomfort from any such desire that is a function of transient perspectives. Both acute depressions (such as over the loss of a spouse or other companion or loved one) and clinical depression have the capacity to influence a patient's will to live.
On one hand, principles of patient autonomy must not be contradicted or ignored by ancient medical ethics criteria that…
Ethical Issue of Assisted Suicide
The American Society of egistered Nurses [ASN] ( 2010) defines "physician-assisted suicide" as the facility to a patient by a medical health professional of the means of ending his or her own life. Assisted suicide is an issue of great importance to nurses. This issue echoes their values and beliefs as a commonality. In the same time it calls for a clear and precise response as a profession, and challenges individual nurses to think about their own moral views (Daly et al., 1997). The history of the debate and the compelling moral arguments regarding issues such as patient autonomy, quality of life, acting in the patient's best interest or the right to death attest to the complexity of the issue and also suggest that it will not soon be resolved.
There is much controversy with regard to nurses and the role they play in the…
American Nurses Association. Code of Ethics for Nurses. Washington, DC: American Nurses Publishing; 2001.
American Nurses Association. (1994). Ethics and human rights position statement: assisted suicide. Silver Spring. http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/HealthcareandPolicyIssues/ANAPositionStatements/EthicsandHumanRights.aspx .
American Society of Registered Nurses (2010). Dilemma for Nurses: Physician-Assisted Suicide. Journal of Advanced Practice Nursing
In his second exception, Plato is only making reference to court appointed suicide, again implying an immoral character flaw resulting in an unwanted citizen. Any assistance provided in such a case would need to be represented by the court in order to fall under Plato's exceptions.
The only assisted suicide Plato would find acceptable based on his beliefs of suicide in general and on his beliefs regarding medical assistance, would be an assisted suicide for the terminally ill and disabled. Again, however, Plato's views on this matter suggest the decision to end the life of such a person would not be in the hands of the ill, but in the views of society in terms of the individual's ability to contribute to moral and social standards. Since the modern view of assisted suicide refers to an individual's choice to end life, such an act would be disapproved of by Plato.…
Carrick, Paul. Medical Ethics in Antiquity: Philosophical Perspectives on Abortion and Euthanasia. Philadelphia: Springer, 1985.
Copper, Michael. "Greek Philosophers on Euthanasia and Suicide." Suicide and Euthanasia. Ed. B. Brody. Philadelphia: Springer, 1990.
Plato. "Phaedo." Complete Works. Ed. By John M. Cooper and D. S Hutchinson. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1997.
Plato. The Laws. New York: Penguin Classics, 1970.
Euthanasia, and all its variations including physician-assisted suicide, terminal sedation, and involuntary euthanasia, are among the most challenging issues in bioethics. The Hippocratic Oath, the classic ethical doctrine that guides medical practice, denounces euthanasia. However, the Hippocratic Oath is an anachronistic document that serves more sentimental and symbolic functions than pragmatic, ethical, or legal ones. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are both defined as the “deliberate action taken with the intention of ending a life, in order to relieve persistent suffering,” (Nordqvist, 2017, p. 1). Other factors, such as the patient’s competency (whether the patient is unconscious, conscious, or conscious but mentally or psychologically impaired) need to be taken into consideration when determining individual cases. Likewise, there have been attempts to differentiate between passive and active euthanasia, the former of which refers to the withdrawal of life support systems and the latter to the active administration of some medicine or…
Aristotle. (1931). Nicomachean ethics. (W.D. Ross, Trans.). Oxford, GBR: Clarendon Press. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/8438/pg8438.html
Kant, E. (2017). Groundwork for the Metaphysic of Morals. http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/kant1785.pdf
Mill, J.S. (2017). Utilitarianism. http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/mill1863.pdf
Nordqvist, C. (2017). What are euthanasia and assisted suicide? Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/182951.php
O’Neill, O. (1993). A simplified account of Kant’s ethics. In T. Regan (Ed.) Matters of Life and Death, 411-415.
Singer, P. (2003). Voluntary euthanasia: A utilitarian perspective. Bioethics 17(5-6): 526-541.
The Right to Die
The essay, “Legalized Assisted Suicide Reflects a Biased View of the Disabled” by Samuel R. Bagenstos (Bagenstos, 2009) is chosen for reflection against the article on Death with Dignity National Center’s website, named, “Death with Dignity and People with Disabilities” (Death with Dignity and People with Disabilities, n.d.). The latter supports physician-assisted suicide as a right to die with dignity even for disabled people, while the former refutes the argument heavily for disabled people.
Samuel R. Bagenstos is the Frank G. Millard Professor of Law, who recently has taught several courses, including Disability rights (Bagenstos, Samuel, n.d.). One of his accomplishments includes putting in effect the 2010 Americans with Disabilities Act Regulations (Bagenstos, Samuel, n.d.). He has published several articles in many Law journals and Reviews, while also publishing many books which include Law and the Contradictions of the Disability Rights Movement and Disability Rights Law:…
Ethical, Legal, And Business Considerations in Hospitals
The nursing staff employed at the Cancer Center of a suburban hospital is having a continual deterioration of their morale. Many of their patients, more so as of late than usual, are being diagnosed with terminal cancer. This is causing the nurse's morale to be lowered through their lack of interest in their job, frustration, and dissatisfaction. One patient in particular is frustrating staff member Nancy Nurse. Mrs. Jones, a thirty-year-old single mother has been diagnosed with a terminal cancer that is rapidly decreasing her health. Nancy Nurse states that the next time Mrs. Jones arrives for treatment, she is going to give her more narcotic than usual, risking Mrs. Jones' life. Before Nancy Nurse completes giving Mrs. Jones the narcotic, she should deeply consider the ethical, legal, and business consequences of such decision for herself, Mrs. Jones, and the Cancer Center.
Cancer.org. (2010). Patient's bill of rights. Retrieved November 23, 2010 from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/findingandpayingfortreatment/understandingfinancialandlegalmatters/patients-bill-of-rights .
Javich, Dr. D.G. (2009, June 1). 5 steps to deal with difficult employees. Retrieved November 24,
2010 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/humanresources/employeemanagementcolumnistdavidjavitch/article201950.html
Showalter, J.S. (2004). The law of healthcare administration. Chicago, IL: Health
Physician Assisted Suicide in Patients With Unbearable Suffering or the Terminally Ill
One of the most hotly debated issues today is physician-assisted suicide. ecently, California became the fifth state to legalize physician-assisted suicide, and there is an increasing likelihood that other states will follow suit in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study is to determine if the factors chosen have any bearing on those who choose to end their life with physician assisted suicide. In support of this purpose, the objectives of this study were as follows: (a) to research scholarly articles regarding physician-assisted suicide and gather pertinent information into a comprehensive profile; (b) to research whether unbearable suffering is the dominant motive to request physician-assisted suicide; (c) to research whether the race and level of education of the patient are contributing factors when physician-assisted suicide is requested; and, (d) to research whether the type of terminal illness…
Bauer-Maglin, N. & Perry, D. (2010). Final acts: Death, dying, and the choices we make. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Biller-Adorno, N. (2013, April 11). Physician-assisted suicide should be permitted. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(15), 1451.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Boudreau, J. D. & Somerville, M. A. (2013,April 11). Physician-assisted suicide. The New England Journal of Medicine, 385, 15.
Physician-assisted suicide, or physician-assisted death, refers to “the process that allows terminally ill adults to request from their physician, receive from their pharmacist, and take a lethal dose of medication to end their life,” (Death with Dignity, n.d.). Although seemingly similar to euthanasia, physician-assisted death is different in that it tends to refer to situations where the patient does not act with autonomy. Physician-assisted death is still controversial and is illegal in most states. However, Oregon, Washington, Vermont, California, and Colorado have legalized physician-assisted death, and several other states have pending legislation to do so as of 2018 (Quill & Sussman, 2018). The medical community itself is divided on the practice of physician-assisted death. Arguments for physician-assisted death include the rights of patients to self-determination. Arguments against physician-assisted death include the obligation of the physician to heal, not kill, the potential for ambiguous situations where there is some risk…
physician-assisted suicide. Specifically, it will show why I disagree with physician-assisted suicide. Physician-assisted suicide is too much like playing God. When people die should be up to their bodies and God, not a doctor who is not involved with them or their families.
In many religions, suicide is a sin, and if you commit suicide, you will go to Hell. This refers to any kind of suicide, even physician-assisted suicide. "As unrepentant simmer, suicides were denied burial in consecrated ground and expected to end in Hell" (Van Den Haag 136).
Even if it is not a sin, it is not normal. Normal people do not commit suicide; they have something wrong with them mentally or physically, and cannot deal with it, or deal with the pressures of life. People who commit suicide with the help of a physician because of a terminal disease are no different from anyone else. They…
Is physician-assisted suicide ethical if the patient requests medical assistance in terminating his or her own life?
In the U.S., the Supreme Court ruled in Washington v. Glucksberg (1997) that physician-assisted suicide is not protected by the Constitution. However, in other parts of the world, physician-assisted suicide is accepted socially and legally; and in the U.S., a patient who is terminally ill may engage in assisted-dying procedures, which are legal in six states and are legally differentiated from suicide (Buiting, Dieden et al., 2009). If one sets aside the legalistic parameters differentiating physician-assisted dying from physician-assisted suicide, can one say that the former is more ethical than the latter?
In other words, is physician-assisted suicide ethical if the patient requests medical assistance in terminating his or her own life?
In spite of what is permitted under the auspices of physician-assisted dying procedures, this paper will argue that…
Topic: Is physician assisted suicide morally acceptable when a person is suffering from a painful, incurable, terminal condition?
Physician-assisted dying has become a contentious issue that pits the rights of the patient for autonomy and self-determination against the principles surrounding the practice of medical care. Seven states have passed laws that allow physicians to help terminally ill patients by offering medications that hasten death (Whitcomb, 2018). However, the American Medical Association and other organizations disapprove of physician-assisted dying. This paper will outline the arguments on both sides, focusing on two online articles.
The first article is an opinion piece published by the American Medical Association. While this article is not scholarly and does not even provide a binding or governing tenet for the medical profession, it is nevertheless authored by a credible source. The authors argue that the goal of medical care is to preserve or extend life,…
This has sparked many debates in social and political arenas in regards to personhood, self-determination and human autonomy.
Any time a person wants to intentionally end his or her life, it is considered suicide. Suicide, in itself is now legal (Manning, 1998), but proponents of euthanasia argue that suicide may not be an option for the terminally ill, the hospitalized or physically disabled. These people may not have the strength or the means to end their lives alone, therefore, they cannot exercise the option of suicide and consequently are being discriminated against (Gifford, 1993).
I personally agree with those on the pro-euthanasia side of the camp, who believe that suicide is not an appropriate term for this issue because suicide is often associated with desperate emotion whereas euthanasia is based on a "cogent and deliberate form of relief from a painful and hopeless disease" (Adams, 1992). As opposed to suicide,…
Adams, Robert. "Physician-Assisted Suicide and the Right to Die With Assistance." Harvard Law Review 105:2021-2040, 1992
Gifford, Edward. "Artres Moriendi: Active Euthanasia and the Art of Dying." UCLA Law Review 40:1545-1583, 1993.
Manning, Michael, MD, Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring? Paulist Press, Mahwah, NJ, 1998
Olen, Jeffery & Barry, Vincent. Applying Ethics: A Text With Readings (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1999.
ight to Die
The case of Mildred D: The right to die
The core dilemma of 'the right to die' of Mildred D. revolves around Mildred's alleged statement to her children that she wanted no heroic means to continue her life. There is also the question of whether intravenous feeding is 'heroic' means, since removing the NG will effectively 'starve' her and ending her life before it would naturally terminate were the NG tube not removed. Food is usually not considered 'additional' means of life support, although it is debatable whether food not administered by mouth constitutes heroic means. Mildred had no living will clarifying her wishes and is now not competent to make the decision herself.
Legally, in the U.S. Supreme Court case of Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, "the Court considered whether Missouri could insist on proof by 'clear and convincing evidence' of a…
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dep't of Health, 497 U.S. 261 (1990). Retrieved:
The right to die. (2012). Exploring Constitutional Conflicts. Retrieved:
Assignment 1: Is physician-assisted suicide morally acceptable when a person is suffering from a painful, incurable, terminal condition?
Premise 1: Physician-assisted suicide is not morally acceptable under any circumstances.
According to the American Medical Association (2018), “permitting physicians to engage in assisted suicide would ultimately cause more harm than good,” (p. 1). The reasoning behind the AMA’s position is threefold. First, the AMA (2018) claims that physician-assisted suicide is “incompatible with the physician’s role as healer,” (p. 1). Second, the AMA points out that there are too many ways the process can be abused. As alternatives to physician-assisted suicide, the AMA recommends improving access to pain relief and emotional support to patients with terminal illnesses.
Another reason for opposing physician-assisted suicide is the rapid pace at which medicine advances. If a person has been diagnosed with a terminal illness, there is still a possibility—however slim—that either a cure or an…
Laws and Health Care
The health care industry has undergone massive overhaul in recent times and the impact of the laws and regulations that accompany this change have deep and resounding effects on the way professionals approach their industry. The purpose of this essay is to explain the role of governmental regulatory agencies and their effect on the health care industry.
This essay will first provide two examples of laws and regulations that have empirically demonstrated a noticeable and impactful transformation of the system. The next section of this essay is how these laws have personally affected me and my environment in Samaritan Hospital and how these regulations both serve and detract from our overall objectives of patient quality and healing those who seek our help.
Example 1: Affordable Care Act
Laws and regulations are present at many different levels within the health care industry. Private practices surely have their…
Anderson, A. (2014). The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Health Care Workforce. The Heritage Foundation, 18 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/03/the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-the-health-care-workforce
Emanuel, E.J., Daniels, E.R., Fairclough, D.L., & Clarridge, B.R. (1996). Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: attitudes and experiences of oncology patients, oncologists, and the public. The Lancet, 347(9018), 1805-1810.
McClanahan, C. (2012). Cliffs Notes Version of the ACA. Forbes, 9 July 2012. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/carolynmcclanahan/2012/07/09/cliffs-notes-version-of-the-affordable-care-act/
Pereira, J. (2012). Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and control. Current Oncology, Apr 2011, 18 (2). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3070710/
Over time, those in support of assisted dying or what is more commonly known as physician-assisted suicide and those opposed to the same have presented strong and convincing arguments and counterarguments in support of their positions. In most cases, the term assisted dying is used synonymously with euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Assisted suicide in the opinion of Morrison "refers to when a patient intentionally and willfully ends his or her own life, with the assistance of a third party" (223). Whichever way one looks at it, life is sacred and therefore it should be preserved at all costs. In my opinion, permitting euthanasia would be in total disregard of the sanctity of human life. In the section below, I analyze some of the arguments that have over time been presented in support of assisted dying.
According to Norman et al., one of the arguments that have been presented…
Devettere, Raymond J. Practical Decision Making in Health Care Ethics: Cases and Concepts. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2009. Print.
Morrison, Eileen E. Health Care Ethics: Critical Issues for the 21st Century. 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2009. Print.
Van Norman, Gail A. et al., eds. Clinical Ethics in Anesthesiology: A Case-Based Textbook. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
There is a gradual move in considering that the combination of both these explanations is what should be the actual position to take on the issue of alcoholism and drug addiction. This mode of thinking suggests the acceptance of the gene explanation on one side in that the research does confirm that genes that are inherited goes a long way in explaining the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcoholism and drug addiction, yet at the same time it also suggests that the lifestyle pattern that is adopted by the individual could also be a major factor in the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcohols and drugs. (Frequently Asked Questions)
This means that not only is a hereditary factor only a predisposition but the behavior of the individual in social situations where the consumption occurs and the maintenance of control on these situations. This also…
Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Men" Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/mens/men.cfm?page=110&mtitle=alcoholAccessed on 20 March
Balch, Burke, J; O'Bannon, Randall, K. "Why We Shouldn't Legalize Assisting Suicide"
Retrieved form http://www.nrlc.org/euthanasia/asisuid1.html. Accessed on 20 March 2005
Frequently Asked Questions" National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Suicide and How it Impacts Military Families
Description of the Case or Problem
As the number of suicides amidst the U.S. Armed Service members have constantly increased in the past decade, so has the rate of survivors affected by military suicide, leading to loss of life. Whenever a loved one loses their life as an outcome of suicide, the resulting trauma and shock might compromise the survivors' physical and mental health. This leaves the victims more susceptible to a more agonizing and intricate grief process. Those individuals bereaved by suicide are at an increasing danger of also committing suicide. Peer encouragement, a recognized recuperation method from addictions and sickness, has been clinically monitored to be broadly used by the suicide loss survivors. esearchers have given minimal interest to effective interventions for the victims of suicide loss in the general U.S. population; less is recognized regarding the efficiency of peer support…
AFSP. (2014, August 8). President Obama Announces Executive Actions to Address Veteran and Military Suicide. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: https://www.afsp.org/advocacy-public-policy/policy-news-updates/president-obama-announces-executive-actions-to-address-veteran-and-military-suicide
American Association of Suicidology. (2010). Survivors of suicide fact sheet. Retrieved from American Association of Suicidology: http://www.suicidology.org/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=232&name=D
American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2010). Survivor research: AFSP and NIMH propose research agenda. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: http://www.afsp.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewpage&page_id=2D9DF73E -BB25-0132-3AD7715D74BFF585
Cerel, J., Padgett, J. H., Conwell, Y., & Reed, G. A. (2009). A call for research: The need to better understand the impact of support groups for suicide survivors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 39(3), 269-281.
suicide has been of interest from the beginning of Western civilization. For philosophers, clergy and social scientists, the subject raises myriad of conceptual, theological, moral, and psychological questions, such as What makes a person's behavior suicidal? What motivates such an action? Is suicide morally permissible, or even morally required in some extraordinary circumstances? Is suicidal behavior rational? How does suicide affect those that remain? The fictional books Virgin Suicides and Norwegian Wood address some of these topics, only to find, as in real life, that each situation differs and the ones who are left must find a way to personally resolve their confusion and move on.
The definition of suicide is confusing. People have long looked at suicide in a negative fashion, although someone who dies to save others is more likely to be seen in a better light than someone who has done so to relieve mental or physical…
Amundsen, D."Suicide and Early Christian Values." Suicide and Euthanasia: Historical and Contemporary Themes, Ed. B. Brody. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1989.
Curtin, J. Sean. Suicides in Japan: Part 10-Youth and Rural on Rise. Glocom Platform
14, November 2005. http://www.glocom.org/special_topics/social_trends/20040813_trends_s78/
Fairbairn, G. Contemplating Suicide: The Language and Ethics of Self-Harm, London: Routledge, 1995.
Physician-assisted suicide or death has emerged as a major controversial and medical-ethical issue in the modern health care system. This issue has attracted huge concerns and debates among policymakers, medical practitioners, and the public. These concerns and debates have led to the emergence of arguments and counter-arguments in support and opposition to physician-assisted suicide. In addition, physician-assisted suicide has become a topic of research by various scholars based on these concerns and its benefits and/or disadvantages. An example of a research that focuses on the issue is the study by Timothy E. Quill on why physician-assisted suicide should be allowed. The author argues for the acceptance of physician-assisted suicide based on his experience as a primary care physician and the assistance he provided to many patients to die with their full consent. Quill's research article is helpful in providing justification for the overall legalization and acceptance of physician-assisted suicide.
Messer, T. (2012, October 29). Physician-Assisted Death: In Consideration of the Right to Die.
Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nyam.org/social-work-leadership-institute-v2/geriatric-social-work/hppae/for-students/Physician-Assisted-Death-Paper-Submission-10-29-12-1.pdf
Quill, T.E. (2012). Physicians Should 'Assist in Suicide' When it is Appropriate. Journal of Law,
Medicine & Ethics, 40(1), 57-65.
Importance of Physician Assisted Deaths
My Ethical Position on Physician Assisted Deaths as a Nurse
The Legal isks for Nurses
The Opposing View
Summary of Arguments in Favor of My Position
Importance of Physician-Assisted Deaths
Careful reflection is needed for physician-assisted deaths and euthanasia as they often always involve complex issues related to the family, the physician and the nursing staff. The critical question is about ethics that a nurse needs to follow when a patient asks for physician-assisted death. Also important are issues related to the personal professional values of the nursing staff. Though made legal in Canada, physician-assisted deaths still involve careful evaluation -- both medically and ethically, while deciding to agree to be a part of physician-assisted deaths. While there are several perspectives and often conflicting arguments to physician-assisted deaths, most agree that the issue of ethics is of prime importance while deciding on physician-assisted…
Chochinov, H. (2016). Physician-Assisted Death in Canada. JAMA, 315(3), 253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.17435
Downar, J., Bailey, T., & Kagan, J. (2014). Why physician-assisted death?. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 186(10), 778-779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.114-0048
Landry, J., Foreman, T., & Kekewich, M. (2015). Ethical considerations in the regulation of euthanasia and physician-assisted death in Canada. Health Policy, 119(11), 1490-1498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2015.10.002
Paterson, C. A History of Ideas Concerning Suicide, Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1029229
death: suicide, euthanasia and the death penalty. Looking at certain aspects of each and discussing the issues concerning society. Also providing a sociological out look and economic basis for the arguments.
Death: Three Chances
Suicide is not a new phenomenon it has been around as long as mankind. The causes of suicide have been discussed on many occasions, and different theories have merged regarding the reason for which someone would commit suicide. There have been many studies undertaken in order to understand the phenomena in greater detail. Certain social factors were identified as being causal or contributing to this phenomenon, and suicides was broken down into different types, with different causes.
Henslin just as Durkheim before has looked at suicide, which Durkheim defined as any action which, leads subsequently to the death of the individual, either through positive action, such as hanging oneself or shooting oneself, or by way of…
Conwell Yeates, MD; Caine Eric D., MD 'Rational Suicide and the Right to Die: Reality and Myth' (1991 Oct 10); The New England Journal of Medicine, pp 1100-1103
Callahan J 'The ethics of assisted suicide' (1994 November);Health and Social Work, Vol. 19, PP. 234-244.
Donchin, Anne Autonomy, interdependence, and assisted suicide: Respecting boundaries/crossing lines. Bioethics. 2000 Jul; Vol 14(3): 187-204.
Haralambos and Holborn, (2000), Sociology; Themes and Perspectives, London, Collins.
Assisted Suicide & Euthanasia
The dilemma in the case of John H. is the disagreement between the two specialists handling his case. Because of John's immediate condition (internal bleeding), the doctors disagree as to whether they should obey John's wishes from earlier or whether they should follow his immediate request for assistance. Perhaps the real dilemma is John's lack of specificity regarding his wishes. In the case that his condition continue to deteriorate at the present rate, he wants the do not resuscitate. Yet in the case of a spontaneous and unforeseen complication, he wants the former order suspended for immediate care. Whether or not the doctors decide to take immediate action on John H., it is still quite likely he will die from pancreatic cancer. Whether or not John is fully coherent at the time he makes his request for immediate emergency care is somewhat irrelevant because…
Judgment on Physician Assisted Death
Prosecutions, where the state stands as the main complainant, are held up as criminal prosecution. A State prosecutor is duty bound to prove sufficiently that the action of the accused was inconsistent with the existing laws. In the case of the physician who gave a lethal dose to assist a terminally ill patient in dying it is the duty of the prosecutor to defend the existent law. The prosecutor ought to present to the court sufficient information regarding the law on physician assisted deaths.
Decision Taken and Justification
The legality and legality of physician-assisted death have raised numerous debates some leading to the Abolishment of laws against assisted suicide others upholding the law. The different state has differing justification on assisted suicide with some allowing physician-assisted suicide on grounds of the patient's quality of life and others assessing the palliate care measure explored to determine…
Quill, T. E., & Battin, M. P. (2004). Physician-Assisted Dying: The Case for Palliative Care and Patient Choice. eds., . Baltimore, Maryland U.S.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.
William, B. (2000). Depression, Hopelessness, and Desire for Hastened Death in Terminally Ill Patients with Cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(22), 2907-2911.
Buddhist and Christina Ethic on Suicide and Euthanasia
The ethical issues associated with suicide and euthanasia are often viewed through the secular eyes of our modern world, yet many of the issues that are a part of the reasons why an individual might be for or against suicide and euthanasia are based almost entirely upon religious ethics. In this work a comparison will be drawn between the Christian and Buddhist views of the ethics of suicide and euthanasia. Comparing these two faith's standards and moral guidelines regarding these two issues will demonstrate a greater understanding of the ethics and standards associated with the modern secular moral stand on the issue in a political and personal way. The Christian and Buddhist ethic on suicide and euthanasia demonstrate a historical perspective of a very ancient ethical dilemma and the similarities and differences of the outgrowth of social and cultural responses to it…
Becker, Carl "Buddhist Views of Suicide and Euthanasia," June 14, 2004 http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/cf_eng.htm.
Coward, Harold G. "Memory and Scripture in the Conversion of Augustine." Essays on Augustine. Ed. Meynell, Hugo Anthony. Calgary, Alta.: University of Calgary Press, 1990. 17-27.
Eliade, Mircea ed. Encyclopedia of Religion New York, NY: G.K. Hall and Co.
Euthanasia comes from the Greek phrase meaning "good death," ("Euthanasia" 112). The various practices that fall under the general rubric of providing a person with the means for a "good death" include physician-assisted death, also referred to as physician-assisted suicide. Until recently, all forms of euthanasia were illegal in the United States and in most other developed countries but within the past generation, these laws have been liberalized so that citizens in democratic societies increasingly have access to a "good death." Physician-assisted suicide occurs under the guidance of an experienced and qualified physician, who is not legally obliged to agree to the practice. Therefore, no coercion takes place. The doctor is not permitted legally or ethically to coerce a patient into dying prematurely and the patient is likewise not ethically or legally allowed to persuade their doctor to intervene on their behalf. hat physician-assisted death laws do allow is for…
"Euthanasia." Chapter 10.
Lee, Richard. "Kant's Four Illustrations." Retrieved online: http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/rlee/iethsu06/oh/k-4egs.html
"State-by-State Guide to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Retrieved online: http://euthanasia.procon.org/view .resource.php?resourceID=000132' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Speaking Truth to Health Policy: Helping Veterans eadjust
Every day, at least 20 combat veterans commit suicide in the United States, or one veteran every 65 seconds (Shane & Kime, 2016). This alarming trend is attributable in large part to the symptoms that many people suffer from after experiencing traumatic episodes in their lives. Drawing on the sources of power enumerated by Mason, Gardner, Hopkins Outlaw and O'Grady (2016).This paper provides a current description concerning the health policy adopted by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in response to this nation-wide problem to determine how the situation could benefit from having nurses speak truth to power. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue are presented in the conclusion.
The condition currently known as posttraumatic stress disorder is certainly not a new construct. In World War I, the condition was termed "shell shock" and in World…
Bare, S. (2015, June 2). The truth about 22 veterans suicides a day. Task & Purpose. Retrieved from http://taskandpurpose.com/truth-22-veteran-suicides-day/ .
List of nursing organizations. (2016). Nurse.org. Retrieved from http://nurse.org/orgs.shtml .
Miller, J. (2013, May-June). Veterans on trial: The coming court battles over PTSD. Military Review, 93(3), 92-94.
Shane, L. & Kime, P. (2016, July 7). New VA study finds 20 veterans commit suicide each day. Military Times. Retrieved from http://www.militarytimes.com/story/veterans/2016/07/07/ va-suicide-20-daily-research/86788332/.
Social Media and Suicide
Internet has become a gadget of everyday use for people of 21st century. As it is offering many benefits to the users in terms of information communcaition, interaction, entertainment, socialization and earning livelihhod, there are certain dark factors related to it. The dark factors are as severe as forcing people to commit suicide. It is no exaggeration to mention that Intenet is used as a medium to harass people and get undue benefits from them.
Social media today is playing major role in enabling people and organizations to communicate and share ideas, views and knowledge with other people. The traditional methods of communication have been modified through social media platforms like chat rooms, social networking sites (Facebook, My-Space, Twitter, Google+ etc.), video sites (YouTube), discussion forums, video chat, text messages, blogs etc. (Lexton et al., 2012). The most well-known social networking website Facebook had…
Biddle, L., Donovan, J., Hawton, K., Kapur, N., Gunnell, D., 2008. Suicide and the Internet. British Medical Journal, 336, 800-802.
"Cyberbullying Does Not 'Cause' Teen Suicide," 2012. Retrieved from http://www.science20.com/news_articles/cyberbullying_does_not_cause_teen_suicide-95444
"Facebook Statistics," 2011. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
"Facebook statistics by country," n.d. Retrieved from http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics
That is a perfectly valid reason not to engage in the practice, at least in the case of any person who makes that decision because of his or her religious beliefs and values. However, the very same concept of religious freedom means that no person should ever have his or her rights defined against his or her will by the religious beliefs and values of other people. In this country, the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution expressly prohibits the state from imposing religion on any individual; yet that is exactly the situation to the extent that legislators ever oppose euthanasia on "religious" grounds. Incidentally, the exact same principle applies to abortion to the degree that the issue involves religious beliefs about when human life "begins."
Supporting the right of the individual to choose euthanasia does not mean that there should be no safeguards to protect mentally unstable patients…
Stress and Suicide in Law Enforcement Populations
The paper is an understanding of what stress could have on law enforcement officials. The factors which cause stress for law enforcement officials are varied ranging from personal life issues, the pressures of work, the public response towards police job, the entire criminal law system and the entire rules and procedures involved in the law system. If this stress is not alleviated then the officers start reacting in negative ways. The biggest stress on most police officers is suicide. The numbers of police officers that face death by committing suicide are very high when compared to those who are killed when they are on duty. During 1934 and 1960 the suicide rates of the police officers were nearly half of the general population. But then from 1980 to the current date this situation has changed so drastically that the death rates as to…
Adolescents at isk of Suicide
Today, alarming numbers of young people are contemplating taking their own lives, and many follow through on their suicide ideations to actually kill themselves or to make an attempt. In sum, suicide represents the second-leading cause of death for people aged 15 to 34 years and is the third-leading cause of death among young people aged 10 to 14 years (Suicide facts at a glance, 2015). To gain some additional insights into these issues, this case study provides a description of hypothetical 14-year-old runaway Caucasian adolescent, "Jane," who as referred from a homeless shelter with suicide ideations to determine what screening and testing should be performed, a discussion concerning current recommended treatment protocol, drugs and non-pharmacological interventions, and a description of expected treatment outcomes including a corresponding time frame and follow-up plan. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning adolescents such as…
Horwitz, A. V. & Wakefield, J. C. (2007). The loss of sadness: How psychiatry transformed normal sorrow into depressive disorder. New York: Oxford University Press.
Interventions for suicide risk. (2017). Zero Suicide. Retrieved from http://zerosuicide.sprc.org/ toolkit/treat/interventions-suicide-risk.
King, K. A. & Price, J. H. (2009, April). Preventing adolescent suicide: Do high school counselors know the risk factors? Professional School Counseling, 3(4), 255-257.
Maris, R. W. & Berman, A. L (2000). Comprehensive textbook of suicidology. New York: Guilford Press.
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.
Background and Overview.
The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…
Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.
Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.
Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.
One of the arguments against assisted suicide as outlined in balancedpolitics.org, is that patients may give up on medical procedures too soon, and that there is always hope that a procedure or medicine might come along that can cure the illness (Messerli). Perhaps, then, we should require a doctor to be involved in a patient's decision for assisted suicide as a measure to prevent unnecessary death. In that case, however, a physician should be expected to contribute only a medical prognosis to the decision, allowing the patient to decide upon the time and means of his death.
The New England Journal of Medicine states that "more than one-fifth of doctors would be willing to assist patients' suicides if it were legal to do so" (cnn.com). If a patient is terminally ill, what is the point of draining his financial assets and placing further pressure on his family and loved ones?…
CNN. ww.cnn.com/HEALTH/9804/22/assisted.suicide/index.html. April 22, 1998.
Hess, Amy. Conservative Politics: U.S.. http://usconservatives.about.com/b/a/236307.htm
Mersserli, Joe balancedpolitics.org/assisted_suicide.html
Freedom of choice includes the right to die and the right to choose assisted suicide.
3. An older argument in favor of assisted suicide that has been recently resurfaced with the implementation of a national health care bill could be termed the "economics argument" which states that the costs of keeping people alive who are going to die anyway is exceedingly high, higher than the benefit that the money and energy to maintain life bring. Life prolonged unnecessarily is costly to society and that money and those resources are being wasted and could be used more productively.
4. In essence, the final common argument us used in a number of legal and ethical situations and pretty much states that assisted suicide is already being performed in many hospitals, hospices, and nursing homes by physicians and nurses. It makes sense to formally legalize it so people will not have to sneak…
Block S.D. & Billings J.A. (1994). Patient requests to hasten death. Evaluation and management in terminal care. Archives of Internal Medicine, 154, 2039 -- 2047.
Gomez, C.F. (1991). Regulating death: Euthanasia and the case of the Netherlands. New York: Maxwell McMillan.
Kane, L. (2010). Doctors struggle with tougher-than-ever dilemmas: Other ethical issues. Medscape Today News, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/731485_7 , accessed 5-21- 2011.
Meier, D.E., Emmons, C.A., Wallenstein, S., Quill, T., Morrison, R.S., & Cassel, C.K. (1998). A national survey of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 1193 -- 1201.
philosophical issue ethics, epistemology, religion. You find a topic a debate, order present sides debate. Here, position, relative issue;, , final version paper.
There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of assisted suicide, as while some people believe that it is a perfectly ethical thing, others consider that it is immoral and should be illegalized. In contrast to euthanasia, assisted suicide deals with the individual taking his own life consequent to receiving the tools necessary for him or her to do so. Some people perceive this technique as an act through which doctors and patients are provided with the opportunity to cooperate in order to end the patient's suffering. However, when considering matters from a religious point-of-view, suicide is considered to be one of the worst sins. Many people are inclined to understand assisted suicide wrongly and it is essential for the masses to have a complex…
Balch, Burke J. Obannon, Randal K. "Why We Shouldn't Legalize Assisting Suicide," Retrieved February 5, 2012, from the national right to life Website: http://www.nrlc.org/euthanasia/asisuid3.html
Gorsuch, Neil M. The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006)
"Yes, go ahead," Retrieved February 5, 2012, from the Economist Website: http://www.economist.com/node/105238
Biological Aspects of Aging
I can honestly say that I have been extremely affected by this course in terms of general knowledge related to the death, dying and grieving process. Prior to taking this class, I was largely ignorant of the various processes that all people (who live long enough) go through relating to their interminable procession towards the grave. One of the most salient aspects about this particular course was the ramifications of improvements in science, technology, and medical care that has allowed for an increasingly aging population. With many baby boomers now headed towards their latter stages of life, the relevance of this class, its textbook, and additional course materials has never been greater. In certain ways, I feel as though I am much more cognitively prepared for what is to come in the future. Yet one of the benefits of this class is that it has also…
Ferrini, R.L., Ferrini, A.F. (2008). Health in the Later Years. New York: McGraw-Hill.
No author. (2001). "Types of euthanasia." PregnantPause.org. Retrieved from http://www.pregnantpause.org/euth/types.htm
The ethical principles involved are the autonomy of the individual, beneficence, non-malfeasance, and justice. More specifically, autonomy refers to the right of the individual to make decisions affecting only his life. Beneficence refers to the motivation of legal regulation and would prohibit laws that prevent a person in pain from escaping that pain through suicide if that was his desire. Non-malfeasance would prohibit assisting anybody commit suicide for personal gain or animosity or for any other similar reason. Justice would require balancing all of the issues and concerns for the purpose of doing what is right for the individual and for society (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009).
In my opinion, any competent person has the moral right to end his life, especially to escape pain and discomfort that cannot be assuaged through medical intervention. At the same time, society should provide mental health counseling to prevent suicide among people…
Beauchamp, T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, (6th Edition).
Oxford University Press: New York. 2009.
Dershowitz, a.M. Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Touchstone:
New York. 2002.
young, most of us do not think about making a conscious decision to die. e look forward to years of long and healthy life, and if death ever seems appealing it is as an antidote to depression. It does not often, if ever, occur to us that there will be a time when we look forward to the "good death" promised by euthanasia.
But it is inevitable that for many of us there will come a time in our lives when suicide may indeed seem appealing because we are fighting a losing battle against a certainly fatal disease that fills our remaining days with pain and despair. In such a position many of us may wish to have our doctors help us die by prescribing for us drugs that when we ourselves take them will prove to be fatal. Or we may wish that other people should have this option…
Callahan, Daniel, "Good Strategies and Bad: Opposing physician-assisted suicide," Commonweal, December 3, 1999, sec1. 7+.
Cassel, Christine K. "AMA Guidelines for Caring for Patients in the Last Phase of Life.," CQ Researcher 7 (1997): 774. ( http://www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/amnews/amn_97/edit0721.htm )
Humphrey, Derek. Euthanasia: Essays and Briefings on the Right to Die. Los Angeles: Hemlock Society, 1991. http://deathwithdignity.org/euth_us2htm .
Orric, Sarah. "House Judiciary Committee Rationale." Congressional Digest 77 (1998); 263-264.
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
As the narrow policy discussions regarding Physician-Assisted Suicide continue, we ought to encourage all presently existing and legal methods of reducing the painful sufferings during the last phase of life.
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
Kaplan, Kalman. J; Harrow, Martin; Schneiderhan, Mark. E. (2002, Spring) "Suicide, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in men vs. women around the world: The degree of physician control" Ethics and Medicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp: 14-20.
Quill, Timothy E; Meier, Diane. E; Block, Susan. D; Billings, Andrew. J. (1998, Apr) "The
Debate over Physician-Assisted…
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
He argues that if society were to allow the terminally ill to commit suicide, then it would be a small step to allow other members of society -- like the handicapped -- to do so as well. This is not a completely trivial argument for two reasons: first, it is the point-of-view held by the majority of the Christian right -- a powerful political force in the Untied States; and second, if we accept his principle that life is intrinsically valuable, regardless of individual's rights over their own bodies, then we should be inclined to believe that active euthanasia is always wrong. Yet, Otremba is willing to concede that passive euthanasia may, sometimes, be permissible; this, however, only under the conditions of extreme suffering and impending death.
Fundamentally, it is a precarious moral position to contend that each and every human life demands society's active preservation. Otremba, and many others,…
Callahan, Daniel. (1992). "When Self-Determination Runs Amok." Hastings Center Report, March/April.
Dworkin et al. (2003). "Assisted Suicide: the Philosophers' Brief." Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine: Sixth Edition. London: McGraw-Hill. Pages, 382-393.
Emanuel, Ezekiel J. (1994). "The History of Euthanasia Debates in the United States and Britain." History of Medicine, Vol. 121, Issue 10.
International Anti-Euthanasia Task Force. (2000). "Arguments for Euthanasia are Unconvincing." Euthanasia: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
WESLEY J. SMITH'S
TRUTH BOUT SSISTNCE"
Wesley J. Smith's analysis of euthanasia and assisted suicide is logically flawed in several ways. First, rather than discussing the main arguments supporting the idea in principle, Smith attacks the most extreme scenarios imaginable, and presents unethical and completely unconscionable applications of assisted suicide to which even its staunchest proponents object as strongly as do those opposed to it.
Likewise, his concern that the concept of duly appointed surrogates of patients no longer capable of expressing their wishes will send ethicist down the "slippery slope" leading to euthanizing "lzheimer's patients, mentally retarded people and, perhaps, children" is reminiscent of Tom Swift's " Modest Proposal." The only difference is that Swift's ridiculous proposal was intentionally satirical, whereas
Smith's hysterical concern that "an HMO doctor [might recommend] suicide as the best 'treatment'... [because] the doctor could be fired or lose bonus income for providing...too much care…
Another central element of the flawed reasoning underlying the initial expectation of a correlation between active listening and happy marriages was illustrated by Howard Markman, a psychologist at the University of Denver, and author of Fighting for your Marriage (1994). According to Markman, when active listening does succeed, it is simply because it often works as a method of "help[ing] couples disrupt the negative patterns that predict divorce." On the other hand, it is not technique commonly used by untroubled couples.
In light of the fact that the initial assumption of the value of active listening in marital therapy, in the first place, was based on flawed reasoning, it hardly supports any specific logical conclusion deriving from the failure of that particular hypothesis.
Similarly, the mere fact that a more emotionally involved and communicative husband is predictive of happier marriages (and marriages that are more likely to be salvaged in marital therapy) hardly suggests that the solution to marital problems is simply for husbands to "give in to" their wives and do whatever their wives say.
A person should always have the opportunity to die with dignity and perhaps even "discover the meaning of one's life" as pointed out by Pythia Peay.
At the very least, those that hold contrasting opinions on euthanasia should be able to come to an agreement that medical treatment must never be superseded by moral treatment. Even though the science of medicine is often highly specialized, it must never go against the moral ideals of the terminally-ill patient. Undoubtedly, there are many risks associated with euthanasia, but in the end, it should be the patient who decides. But in cases where the patient cannot respond nor make decisions, a living will appears to be the best solution, for this document clearly states the wants and desires of the person in case their lives turn for the worse and if they end up connected to a machine in order to stay alive,…
Athanaselis, Sotiris. (2002). "Asphyxial Death by Ether Inhalation and Plastic Bag Suffocation Instructed by the Press and the Internet." Internet. Vol. 4. Issue 3. Article e18. Journal of Medical Internet Research. Accessed May 1, 2005. http://www.jmir.org/
Brock, Dan W. (2002). "Physician-Assisted Suicide is Sometimes Morally Justified." Physician-Assisted Suicide. Ed. Gail N. Hawkins. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Euthanasia.com -- Definitions." (2005). Internet. Euthanasia.com. Accessed May 1, 2005. http://www.euthanasia.com/definitions.html .
The act of suicide has historically been considered a tragic act that cannot be forgiven in Abrahamic religions. In other cultures, such as in Japan, suicide has actually had traditional purposes. Samurai, for example, were expected to commit 'seppuku', a process of slowly cutting oneself open in the stomach, in order to save face for their family for their losing a battle. For the purposes of Dr. Kevorkian, however, who operated in the United States, his determination to provide assisted suicides led to many of his patients countering the official doctrine of the state as well as the church, of suicide as a negative thing which should be discouraged and made illegal.
The legend of Dr. Kevorkian began at the University of Michigan medical school, where the young doctor began to think about 'the determination of death', or the ability to choose to die. He published his…
Euthanasia: The Right to Die, the Right to Life -- a Continuing Controversy
The idea of willing terminating an individual's life, even according to his or her consent, remains one of the most controversial "rights" in today's contemporary debate over where the state's ability to intrude upon the individual body begins. As Ronald Dworkin notes in his article, "Sex, Death, and the Courts," it is true that "millions of people think that doctors are murderers if they help patients, even those dying slowly in great pain, to kill themselves." Yet, the American Medical Association confirmed its longstanding opposition to euthanasia, "and most states have made assisting suicide a crime." (Dworkin, 1996) Individuals claim that the state has no right to poke its nose into what they do, behind closed curtains. Yet euthanasia often requires a physician's assistance. Moreover, in legal cases that involve the hospital, the courts are forced the…
Dworkin, Ronald. "Sex, Death and The Courts." The New York Review of Books. August 8, 1996. Retrieved from the Web at http://www.nybooks.com/authors/90
Dworkin, Ronald. "Assisted Suicide: The Philosopher's Brief." The New York Review of Books. March 27, 1997. Retrieved from the Web at