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Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of
Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50658315
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The observing vehicle was the Cassini spacecraft that was sent to look at Saturn and its moons. Specifically, these findings relate to Saturn's moon Titan, the only known body (including planets and moons) known to have standing liquid on its surface. Instead of water, Titan's bodies of water are full of hydrocarbons rich with methane and ethane. The study focused on substances apparently floating on the surface of the bodies of liquid on Titan and the study tried to ascertain what those substances were and what caused them to appear or disappear at any given time. The study used a combination of observations from the Cassini craft and some theorization was thrown in based on the telemetry and other results from the Cassini craft. Prior theories had stated that the bodies did not have floating ice. The Cassini crew has an extended chance to view the phenomena given the rather…

Works Cited

Bhanoo, Sindya. "Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of Mars - NYTimes.com." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., 3 Jan. 2013. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. .

JPL. "Icing on a Lake." Astrobiology Magazine -- the Origin and Evolution of Life in the Universe . N.p., 10 Jan. 2013. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. .

Harlow Shapley Provided Some Useful Information in
Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45391341
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Harlow Shapley provided some useful information in determining some of the greatest mysterious about the cosmos. Shapley essentially believed that sun was not the center point of the galactic frontier. In the first decade of the 29th century not much was known about the Milky Way but Shapley soon hypothesized some useful arguments that suggested that our universe is much larger and diverse than we can possibly imagine.

To support his argument about a non-heliocentric theory of the galactic composition, he used the powerful technology available to measure a type of celestial object known as Cepheid stars. Shapley used the behavior of these stars to determine that sun was not the center of the galaxy. By assuming that these stars were the nearly the same size he figured he could measure the luminosity of these stars and therefore figure out a linear distance to the stars. Using these distances, and…

References

Astronomy Magazine web page (nd). Viewed 22 Nov 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.astronomy.com/

Astrophysical Object Pluto's Demotion From
Words: 2104 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 92220572
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"Once every 248 Earth years, Pluto swings inside the orbit of Neptune. It stays there for twenty years. During those twenty years, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. During this period of time, like the other eight planets, Pluto's atmosphere undergoes a fundamental change in character, briefly developing an atmosphere. As methane and nitrogen frozen at the poles thaw. As it moves toward its farthest point from the Sun, Pluto's atmosphere freezes and falls back to the ground" (Dejoie & Truelove 2008).

These eccentricities further suggested that Pluto was really much more "like a new group of objects found in the outer solar system," called dwarf planets and not worthy of the status of the other eight (Inman, 2008, p.2). Still, many astronomers argued in favor of a more inclusive definition that would still retain Pluto's status as a planet. In fact, one radical proposal: "would have made…

Works Cited

Britt, Robert Roy. "What is a planet>" Space.com. 2 Nov 2000. August 2, 2008.  http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/planet_confusion_001101-2.html 

Britt, Robert Roy. "Scientists decide Pluto's no longer a planet." MSNBC.com. August 24, 2006.

August 2, 2008.  http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14489259/ 

Cain, Fraser. "Why is Pluto not a planet>" Universe Today. April 10, 2008. August 1, 2008.  http://www.universetoday.com/2008/04/10/why-pluto-is-no-longer-a-planet/

Kepler's Supernova Keplers Supernova Before
Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24481491
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As far as the as the level of intricacies in this research is concerned one can surely acknowledge the capacity of work done but being stuck to it completely and researching on it again and again may sound an unreasoning thing to follow. Astronomers being addicted to their work styles, research requirements and updated developments or shooting of newest things in the world of sky have to be in touch with all these researches. Keplar's supernova left astronomers and related researches astonished to understand actually what was the base of this supernova explosion and this exasperated formation in the universe may gave astronomers thought of revolution in the star world and constellations whose time to time developments and formations of newest things was supposed to give a new shape to the universe. Researches stated that Keplar's supernova was far rich in energy and undoubtedly could be compared twice the energetic…

Works Cited

Chandra. "Was Kepler's supernova unusually powerful?" 12-09 2012. Astronomy. 20-09 2012 .

Brown Dwarf With a Satellite Planet Was
Words: 336 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52236409
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brown dwarf with a satellite planet was recently discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope; the implications of the discovery are discussed in a recent NASA-published article entitled "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System," online at < http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/starsgalaxies/spitzer-020705.html>. Also known as "failed stars," brown dwarfs are dim and rarely host solar systems. Because of their relatively small mass they cannot ignite and produce star light. However, brown dwarfs are also known as "super planets" because they often exist alone in space and are larger than most known planets.

The content of the article relates to many interrelated areas of cosmology and astronomy. First, the news clarifies the definition of brown dwarfs, of which relatively little is known because they are rare and dim. Also, if a brown dwarf can host a satellite planet then miniature solar systems could exist throughout space. The discovery also teaches fundamental concepts of astronomy such…

Works Cited

Clavin Whitney. "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System." NASA.gov. 7 Feb 2005. .

Metric System -- One of the Reasons
Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5402218
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Metric ystem -- One of the reasons measurement can be complicated is that there is more than one system in use. Based on the Ancient Roman system, the metric system is based on powers of 10; which is called decimalization. The metric system has been the preferred European and scientific method of measuring sine the 18th century, but is not part of the International ystem of Units, which is also standardized. Because the metric system is based on powers of 10, units are easier to align. cientists use the metric system as a way to have a common measurement between countries and over time. cientists use notation that makes it easier to conceptualize distances much easier, particularly when these distances are large. Mathematical examples include:

If Mike needed a desk that was 5 feet by 4 feet wide, how many inches of trim would he need for the whole desk.…

Source:

Seeds, M., Backman, D. (2012). Horizons: Exploring the Universe, 12th ed. Boston,

Brooks Cole.

Johannes Kepler Was a Key
Words: 2791 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40587666
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Had this false belief not been perpetuated it may very well be Kepler who directly formulated the laws of gravity well before the time of Newton.

Kepler's second law, which is commonly referred to as the law of equal areas describes the speed at which any given planet will move while orbiting the sun. In his understanding and derivation of mathematical models to understand this process, Kepler noted that planets moves fastest when it is closest to the sun and slowest when it is furthest from the sun. Again, this observation viewed through contemporary lenses makes the connection between the "hidden forces" of gravity as the evident driver, but Kepler concluded otherwise. He noted that if a line were drawn from the center of the planet to the center of the sun, such a line would sweep out the same area in equal period of time. His explanation for the…

Sources:

Max Caspar, Kepler, translated by C. Doris Hellman, with notes by Owen Gingerich and Alain Segonds, New York 1993.

North, John. The Fontana History of Astronomy and Cosmology, London 1994, pp. 309-26.

Small Pieces of Glass The
Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15144768
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The Ptolemaic model was accepted by most philosophers of note until it was radically challenged by the Polish astronomer Copernicus in 1530. The Catholic church condemned the Copernican System in 1616 and forbade holding, defending, or even teaching alternatives to the Ptolemaic conception of the universe endorsed by the Church (Fowler 2008:10). But both theories were mere conjecture until the development of the Galilean telescope. Galileo's telescope was a modification of the currently existing lenses used for reading by the long -- and short-sighted. Galileo did not invent corrective lenses or even the telescope, but he did substantially improve them. By making use of both convex and concave lenses, Galileo was able to expand the magnification power and distance vision of ordinary gazers, enabling to look wide into the heavens (Fowler 2008:10).

"Galileo's belief that his discoveries with the telescope strongly favored the Copernican world view meant he was headed…

References

Fowler, Michael. (2008, August 23). Galileo & Einstein. University of Virginia Physics.

Retrieved February 11, 2011 at  http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/lecturelist.html 

Galileo: The telescope and laws of dynamics. (2010). Astronomy 161.

Retrieved February 11, 2011 at  http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/galileo.html

Chemical Properties of the Universe Astronomers Hypothesize
Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63120187
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Chemical Properties of the Universe

Astronomers hypothesize that about 5 million years ago, the Solar System was filled with a plethora of hot gases and dust, swirling around a hot core. They think that once the core approached about 1 million degrees, the physics and chemical properties caused the gases to coalesce, forming the sun. During this time, there were millions and millions of asteroids. As these asteroids collided with one other, some combined and as their mass increased, gravity pulled more and more particles and debris in, and the planetoids became larger and larger until the planets of the solar system were formed. This was a process known as accreation, and over hundreds of millions of years, the solar system formed -- the continual bombarding of asteroids changing the planets, forming the rings of Saturn, and the landscapes of others, including the moons -- which were just smaller planetoids…

REFERENCES

Gagnon, S. "Hydrogen." March 2006. Jefferson Labs. Web. May 2013. .

Hubble Space Telescope Project. "Coposition of the Universe." May 2009. spacetelescop.org. Web. May 2013. .

Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "The Planets and Their Composition." March 2011. Nasa.gov. Web. May 2013. .

Jones, L. Stars and Galaxies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing, 2010. Print.

Scientific Discoveries That Changed the
Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1258167
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This new calculation proved bodies of mass could orbit the sun in an elliptic pattern. Newton also put a name and a definition to gravity. Like Galileo, Newton's discoveries forced man to think beyond what he already knew. His theories opened doors to understanding motion, matter, and space. Many of these theories are still taught today because they "still adequately account for most problems of motion" (Noble 724). People had to once again let go of familiar thought and embrace new ideas.

Newton transformed astronomy because he set "modern physics on its feet by deriving laws showing how objects move on the Earth and in space" (Pasachoff 41). These laws are the groundwork for what eventually led to the law of gravity. Newton was open-minded enough to understand that gravity was not something confined to this earth. It was universal and it applied to all objects in space. The same…

Work Cited

Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.

Craig, Virginia. "Biography: Isaac Newton." The American Mathematical Monthly. 8.8. 1901.

JSTOR Resource Database. Information Retreived January 6, 2010.

Goldsmith, Mike. Galileo Galilei. New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers. 2001.

Jocelyn Bell Burnell Was Born
Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47581532
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It was a discovery that opened our eyes to the vastness of the universe and all that we do not know about it.

According to Steve Ruskin, Bell Burnell's discovery is significant for two reasons. First, "it was an incredible discovery for astronomers. It not only confirmed the existence of the theoretical neutron star, but it also enabled scientists to make advances in astrophysics, particularly in their theories of stellar collapse and the formation of black holes" (Ruskin). Ruskin adds that the discovery is important because pulsars are the "most regular 'clocks' in the universe" (Ruskin). Second, Bell Burnell's discovery "shed light on the important role of women in science" (Ruskin). Ruskin admits, "Perhaps more surprising than the fact that a new type of star was discovered was that a woman had discovered it" (Ruskin). omen in all fields of science owe some gratitude to Bell Burnell for beginning to…

Works Cited

Barbara a. Branca. "Jocelyn Susan Bell Burnell." Notable Scientists: From 1900 to the Present. 2008. GALE Science Resource Center. Site Accessed May 29, 2008.  http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com .

Ruskin, Steve. "The Discovery of Pulsars." Science and Its Times. 2001. GALE Science Resource Center. Site Accessed May 29, 2008.

Hubble Space Telescope
Words: 3457 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30233308
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Hubble Space Telescope

As the world's first Earth-orbiting reflecting telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) represents the culmination of the dreams of many astronomers and the fulfillment of a hope that began in the 1950's when the United States launched instruments into space in order to study the Earth's atmosphere. Our planetary speck in space, namely the Earth, is only one of hundreds of billions of planets that surely orbit other star systems; our Milky Way galaxy, composed of billions of stars and other astronomical bodies, is but one out of billions of other galaxies. Thus, in order to increase our knowledge of the universe, the Hubble Space Telescope serves a vital function, for since its launch in 1990, despite several crucial problems, it has revealed a universe full of mysterious bodies, nebula, star systems and galaxies and has expanded the possibilities that humankind is not alone in the universe.…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

"Eye on the Universe: The Hubble Space Telescope." Internet. HST Update: October 29, 1997. Accessed April 18, 2005.  http://www.thetech.org/exhibits/online/hubble .

"Hubble Space Telescope." Internet. Encyclopedia.com. 2005. Accessed April 18, 2005.

www.encyclopedia.com/html/h/hubbles1p.asp.

Nemiroff, Robert. "Astronomy Picture of the Day." Internet. Accessed April 18, 2005.

Mercantilism This Term Refers to
Words: 1506 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82041233
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In its most basic sense, this treaty abolished the age-old practice of electing a king of the Romans, a reference to the Holy Roman Empire; it gave France the geographical areas of Verdun, Alsace, Metz and a portion of Strasburg; Sweden was given West Pomerania, Stettin, Wismar and Bremen, known as bishoprics but now part of northern Germany; Bavaria retained the Upper Palatinate and all electoral titles, and Saxony retained Lusatia. Also, Spain was forced to fully recognize the United Provinces as a sovereign nation-state. Overall, the Treaty of Westphalia turned Europe into a conglomerate of separate political and economic nation-states that were only partially dependent on each other; the treaty also made it possible for mercantilism to spread throughout Europe, thus creating the foundation for many more years of conflict and war. In addition, this treaty also brought an end to the Eighty Years War between Spain and the…

Planet Venus Venus A Planet
Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 74276766
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hile hard facts, such as Venus' circumference, diameter, and distance from the sun are relatively easy to determine, historical and future implications of the planet and its study are not as simple to calculate. Two of the most important facts that we don't yet know about the planet Venus are the significance of its historical positioning and its implications for earth's atmospheric problems.

According to Ev Cochrane's study into the ancient solar system, the regularity with which the system now moves around the sun is a "recent development." In the ancient world, instead, Cochrane suggests that observers noted a different type of solar system. The discrepancies between the two solar systems has largely to do with the planet Venus. According to Cochrane, Venus' movement into its current orbit was recent, and this movement created solar side effects that may be important to the current development of the solar system. hile…

Works Cited

Cochrane, Ev. "The Many Faces of Venus: The Planet Venus in Ancient Myth and Religion." n.d. Aeon Journal. 12 August 2008. Aeon Journal.  http://www.aeonjournal.com/venus.htm .

Japan Plans 2007 Mission to Venus." 2 May 2001. NASA. 12 August 2008. NASA. http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/news/expandnews.cfm?id=805.

Missions to Venus." 2008. The Planetary Society. 12 August 2008. The Planetary

Society.  http://www.planetary.org/explore/topics/venus/missions.html .

Stellar Evolution and Hydrostatic Equilibrium
Words: 509 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40016470
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A dead star or black dwarf would be converted to interstellar matter spread out in space, and would eventually form a new star. This equilibrium process is made possible through thermonuclear reactions, wherein remaining hydrogen atoms are formed together to create a helium nucleus. Thus, through this process of death and eventual birth of a new star through stellar evolution, equilibrium was conducted and achieved.

Another equilibrium process that stars undergo is through the concept of hydrostatic equilibrium. Hydrostatic equilibrium looks into the relationship of the star's thermal pressure and its weight (mass plus the force of the gravity). This process is characterized as the balance between thermal pressure, which is directed outward, and the weight of the material above pressing downward -- that is, directed inwardly.

Hydrostatic equilibrium illustrates the presence of forces within a star: the thermal force and gravitational force. It also demonstrates how stars exhibit the…

Large Scale Features of This
Words: 1761 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80693916
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The materials that are collected in them are solids from the various gases (which cooled inside these clouds). The gravity from the sun pulled them closer towards each other. This contributed to the formation of the planets and asteroids. ("Summary," 2007) (Williams, 2010)

Once a star is finished developing, is when solar winds will blow rock and debris away from the sun. This forms the Kuiper Belt and Oort Clouds, which is where the smaller debris is collected near the orbit of the outer body planets. These are the remains of the rubble that was used to create the solar system billions of years ago.

However, there is an exception to this pattern. In research that was conducted on distant galaxies, scientists discovered that there are not large outer planets with asteroid belts (i.e. Jupiter). This led to theories that much warmer Jupiter like bodies could exist closer to these…

References

Quick Mars Facts. (2012). NASA. Retrieved from:  http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/allaboutmars/extreme/quickfacts/ 

The Milky Way. (2011). Daily Galaxy. Retrieved from:  http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2011/12/the-milky-ways-two-billion-earthlike-planets-an-update.html 

The Moons of Saturn. (2010). UTK. Retrieved from:  http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/saturn/moons.html 

Saturn Overview. (2012). NASA. Retrieved from:  http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Saturn

Twin Stars
Words: 525 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65726132
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Twin Stars

Twins - Typically a word indicating the production of two offspring from the same source of origin, mostly referred during reproductive results.

Science Express -- A science publication that electronically publishes selected articles prior to the articles' appearance in print.

Matthew Turk and Tom Abel -- Turk was a former astrophysics graduate student of the Kavli Institute, and currently studying at a post-doctoral fellowship at UC San Diego. Abel is an associate professor at KIPAC's physics department, with research interests in cosmological and astrophysical systems.

Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology -- Known usually as KIPAC and is a laboratory independent of Stanford University, funded by Stanford University, the U.S. Department of Energy, and initiated through the grant from the Kavli Foundation.

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory -- SLAC boasts a multipurpose laboratory dedicated to astrophysics, photon science, accelerator and particle physics research, with the longest linear accelerator…

Cosmology the Formation and Evolution of Galaxies
Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11030280
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Cosmology

The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies

One of the greatest and possibly most important questions about our universe is how it originated. Astronomer Sandy Faber of California's Lick Observatory states that, "Galaxies are the building blocks of the universe, and therefore one of the greatest questions of modern astronomy is to understand how they form." (Chaikin)

Galaxy is usually understood as a cluster or aggregate of stars - combined gas and dust - held together by gravity. Galaxies come in three main types: ellipticals, spirals, and irregulars. (The Galaxies) There are a number of theories about the formation of galaxies. Two predominant theories are the ottom-Up and Top-Down theories. The ottom-Up theory states that the Universe started from small particles of mass that came together to form galaxies, which evolved into clusters and then super-clusters. (ibid) The second theory - the Top-Down theory - states that "vast pancaked-shaped clouds…

Bibliography

Britt R. Astronomers Capture Images of Quasar from When the Universe was Young. Space.com. January 9, 2003. Accessed:

 http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/distant_quasar_030109.html 

Chaikin. 5 Great Cosmic Mysteries: The Origin of Galaxies. Space Com. January 22, 2002. Accessed: April 30, 2004. www.space.com/scienceastronomy/astronomy/cosmic_galaxies_020122-1.html

New class of black holes. Nature. September 19, 2002. Accessed: May 1, 2004.  http://www.nature.com/nsu/020916/020916-9.html

30 Meter Telescope Specs
Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7158559
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30m Telescope

The Thirty Meter Telescope is a telescope project that is being built at the TMT Observatory, which is situated at the top of Mauna Kea, on Big Island, Hawaii. There are already several telescopes at the top of Mauna Kea, which at 14,000 feet is often above the clouds, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean with minimal light pollution.

The telescope will be of the itchey-Chretien type, which is a Cassegrain telescope that has a hyperbolic primary mirror and hyperbolic secondary mirror. This is the most common type of telescope used in professional astronomy. The TMT will also feature optical and infrared observing, "with wavelengths of interest ranging from 310 nanometers in the ultraviolet to 28 microns in the infrared. The telescope is comprised of a large number of different systems within the same facility, including mechanical assemblies, control systems and distribution systems. The actual summit enclosure…

References

Beatty, K. (2014). Work begins on thirty meter telescope. Sky & Telescope. Retrieved November 13, 2014 from  http://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/thirty-meter-telescope-groundbreaking-10102014/ 

TMT.org (2014). Website, all pages. Retrieved November 13, 2014 from  http://www.tmt.org/observatory/telescope

Optical Revolutions How the Telescope
Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32027252
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The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:

For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)

However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…

Works Cited

Cohen, I. Bernard. The Birth of a New Physics. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, 1991. Print.

Fermi, Laura, and Gilberto Bernarndini. Galileo and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1961. Print.

Hooke, Robert. Micrographia. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, 2008. Print.

Konnert, Mark. Early Modern Europe: The Age of Religious Warfare, 1559-1715. North York, on: Higher Education University of Toronto Press, 2006. Print.

English System of Measurement Is
Words: 1433 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87138003
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(Source: http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newtongrav.html).

Assignment 2-1 -- a- Radiation may be considered information from space; different types of information from different sources. These are: 1) Light as a wave and particle, 2) Electromagnetism, 3) Cosmic Rays and 4) Ultraviolet radiation.

Part 2-1-B- Light may be measured by telescopes; other space radiation by radio waves; x-ray machines may absorb cosmic and x-ray energy.

Part 2-1-C- Stars and Planets emit electromagnetic; Sun emits UV, Electromagnetic and light; light intensity, etc. Measuring radiation from objects tells us numerous things; age of object, comparative data between object, distance, intensity, level of danger, potential changes within object over time.

Part 2-1-D- Spectrographs, radio frequency detectors, x-ray machines.

Part 2-2-a -- an atom is the smallest unit of matter; ions are types of atoms in which the protons and electrons (parts of the atomic structure) are not equal. Ions can exist independently in solution, while atoms may or…

Advances in Telescopes in Recent
Words: 1271 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 76791307
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Science teachers can utilize this article by updating their curriculum related to the universe. While textbooks currently being used convey the traditional notions of the past, newer developments need to be incorporated immediately. Most current aspects of science seem to change rapidly. Astronomers such as Fabio Governato from the University of Washington have demonstrated how supercomputers can be used to replicate the activities in space, which are invisible to our telescopes. Using the components of the article to make a presentation on the latest developments in the field of space and technology can be a good approach. While most students would consider this just like any other class, it might stand out to some intelligent ones who could build a career in this area. Science teachers can observe this article from a broader point-of-view, search for similar articles and satisfy their personal research interests.

Scientists often focus on a particular…

Surviving 2012 and Planet X
Words: 1770 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38101593
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g. volcanoes, etc.), but not on schedule; 3) Just because something is plausible does not make it true. The events on popular television series like Star Trek or Star Wars are not only plausible, but have scientific merit. That does not make them true, only possible (Kraus, 2007; Cavelos, 2000); 4) Conspiracy theories abound in numerous genres and surrounding numerous events. Examination of Marshalls' prose and "science," while seemingly credible does try to sell a product and only hints and speculates at facts without peer-reviewed data sources (Yowcrooks, 2009). While positive in tone, it also appears that if one believes conspiracy theories, most of us have only 133 weeks to live; or simply turn the calendar to a new page?

EFEENCES

Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.

"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Yowcrooks.blogspot.com. Cited in:

http://yowcrooks.blogspot.com/2008/11/more-dirt-on-marshall-masters-of.html

Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth."…

REFERENCES

Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.

"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Yowcrooks.blogspot.com. Cited in:

 http://yowcrooks.blogspot.com/2008/11/more-dirt-on-marshall-masters-of.html 

Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth." Cited in:  http://www.climatecrisis.net .

Big Bang and the Evolution
Words: 1716 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19169576
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" At almost 4 minutes, the temperature has fallen to the point where sub-atomic particles become naturally attracted to each other and form certain kinds of isotopes. At almost an hour after the Big Bang, all nuclear material has bonded, yet the temperatures is "still too high for protons and electrons to bind together" to form atoms. From this point on to about 700,000 years later, the temperature has dropped sufficiently and allows electrons and protons to bind together to create atoms of hydrogen. Therefore, as free electrons "are bound up in atoms, the primary cross-section leading to the scattering of photons is removed" which allows the universe to alter from being opaque to transparent, thus allowing photons of light to travel freely in this newly-created universe ("The Hot Big Bang" 2007, Internet). At some unknown point in spatial time, the universe begins to cool even further, allowing gases like…

References

La Rocco, Chris and Blair Rothstein. 2007, "The Big Bang," Internet. Retrieved at  http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/bigbang.htm .

Sullivan, William S. The Big Bang and Cosmology. New York: Scribner's, 2004.

The Hot Big Bang." 2007. Internet. Retrieved at  http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162  / lect/cosmology/hotbb.html.

Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster it
Words: 3710 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8488857
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There was one thing or the other to delay the launch of the Challenger, until the D-Day, when the shuttle was launched at 11:38 AM as against the scheduled take off time of 9:38 AM on January 28. About seventy three seconds into the mission, the Challenger exploded in mid air, and all the seven crew members were killed instantaneously. For the hundreds of people, the family and friends and others who had gathered at the site to watch the launching of the Challenger, it was a sight that they would never be able to forget. They were forced to watch helplessly and fearfully, as the fiery flames consumed their loved ones. The entire nation, which was watching events as they unfolded on their television sets, was rendered speechless. (Challenger Disaster, a National Tragedy)

onald eagan, the President of the United States of America at the time, stated, "Today is…

References

Administrator Goldin issues statement on Tenth Anniversary of Challenger Observance.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. January 16, 1996.  http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/administrator.html 

Baura, Gail D. Engineering ethics, an industrial perspective.

Academic Press. 2006.

Physics - Mission to Mars
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Conclusion:

The Mars exploration program announced by President Bush in 2004 relies on first establishing a prolonged human presence on the Moon, in conjunction with completion of the International Space Station by 2015. The President envisions returning to the Moon by 2020 at the latest, for the purpose of being able to launch robotic missions to Mars (Whitehouse, 2004). According to the American Physical Society and many independent scientists, the President's goal overvalues the symbolic significance of landing on Mars at the expense of research that is more immediately beneficial to human society, and a more prudent financial expenditure (APS, 2004). This is a view with which I am inclined to agree.

eferences

Abbate, M. (1992) Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact.

Smithsonian Institution Press: London

American Physical Society. (2004) Panel on Public Affairs, Nov./04

The Moon-Mars Program.

Engelbert, P., Dupuis, D. (1998) the Handy Space Answer Book.…

References

Abbate, M. (1992) Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact.

Smithsonian Institution Press: London

American Physical Society. (2004) Panel on Public Affairs, Nov./04

The Moon-Mars Program.

Pluto Why Is Pluto No
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That question doesn't affect the classification of planets in our Solar System, but will be relevant to some others" ("Pluto no longer a Planet," orld Science Homepage, 2006).

Even some scientists who disliked the definition, however, felt that it was fair to demote Pluto. "According to the new definition, a full-fledged planet is an object that orbits the sun and is large enough to have become round due to the force of its own gravity. In addition, a planet has to dominate the neighborhood around its orbit," and Pluto is not simply small, and Pluto also does not dominate its neighborhood but its moon Charon, is very large in proportion to the former planet, as is about half the size of Pluto, "while all the true planets are far larger than their moons" (Inman, 2006) "In addition, bodies that dominate their neighborhoods, sweep up asteroids, comets, and other debris, clearing…

Works Cited

Britt, Robert Roy. "Scientists decide Pluto's no longer a planet: Planet definition approved, but dissenters plan a counteroffensive." MSNBC. 26 Aug 2006. 11 Mar 2007.  http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14489259/ 

Britt, Robert Roy. "Controversial New Definition." Space.com. 16 Aug 2006. 11 Mar 2007.  http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/060816_planet_definition.html 

Inman, Mason. "Pluto Not a Planet, Astronomers Rule."

National Geographic News.

Evolution and the Big Bang
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725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave ackground radiation (CM) that pervades the observable universe. This is believed to be the remnant that scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for this discovery.

Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" hydrogen and helium found in the observable universe are believed to support the ig ang model of origins (the ig-ang Theory Web site, 2003).

In 2003, Physicist Robert Gentry proposed an alternative to the standard ig ang theory, an alternative that also accounts for the evidences listed above (Eastman and Missler, 1996). Gentry believes that the standard ig ang model is founded upon a faulty paradigm that he claims is inconsistent with the empirical data. Gentry bases his model on Einstein's static-spacetime paradigm that he claims is the "genuine cosmic Rosetta."

Gentry is not alone. Other high-profile dissenters include…

Bibliography

Eastman, Mark. Missler, Chuck. The Creator: Beyond Time and Space, (1996) p. 11.

W. Wayt Gibbs, "Profile: George F.R. Ellis," Scientific American, October 1995, Vol. 273, No.4, p. 55.

Big-Bang-Theory.com. (2002). Big Bang Theory. Retrieved from the Internet at: www. Big-Bang-Theory.com.

Gish, Duane. (June, 1991). The Big Bang Theory Collapses. Institute for Creation Research.

Copernican Revolution
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Copernican revolution has a pivotal role in the establishment of the modern sciences. We are very much familiar with the fact that the human mind had always been fascinated greatly by the changes taking place around him almost constantly. Human observation and sense of argument and ability to be logical has made him the most intelligent and consequently most powerful species on the planet.

It is very comfortable to believe that Earth is located at the centre of the universe and other planets rotate around it because Earth itself does not seem or feel to be moving and there are only sun, moon and other planets appearing and disappearing at their exact timings. It is quite logical and unless and until something really revolutionary come forward to refute this believe, it looks quite reasonable to carry on believing the same idea (Kuhn, pp 187).

Nicholas Copernicus

The most significant change…

References

Brooke, John Hedley. Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, 1991 pp 8-12.

Cesarani, David. Arthur Koestler: the homeless mind. Free Press, 1999 pp 142.

Kuhn, Thomas S. The Copernican revolution: planetary astronomy in the development of Western thought. USA: Harvard University Press, 1957 pp 187.

L'Abate, Luciano. Paradigms in Theory Construction. Springer, 2011 pp 5-8.

Eternal Circle of Time Electrons Circle the
Words: 2850 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5213399
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Eternal Circle of Time

Electrons circle the nucleus of an atom. Untold trillions of atoms collide together and explode. The universe expands. Electrons race down the copper wires of an electric cable. The sun shines. Leaves digest the sunlight, produce nutrients, live, grow, die, and fall to the ground. The wind bears aloft the leaves, scatters them over earth and sea. The tide moves them, pushes them up into rivers where at last they settle into the mud. Salmon swim upstream; lay their eggs on the muddy bottoms of lakes and rivers. A powerful grizzly bear nuzzles the icy water of a mountain brook. His great paw sweeps into the water and catches a darting salmon. Men come; establish a city on the banks of the stream. They drive the bear off. Their boats coast upon the surface of the sparkling water. Nets plumb the frigid depths, resurface filled with…

Bibliography

Bleier, Ronald, Ed. From Thomas Malthus, (1798) "Essay on the Principle of Population." The International Society of Thomas Malthus. http://www.igc.org/desip/malthus/

Pasachoff, Jay M. (2001) Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Russell, Steven. (2001) "The Evolution of Gods." Your Own World USA.  http://www.yowusa.com/index.html 

Schaefer, Dr. Henry III. (Jan. 1994). "Stephen Hawking, The Big Bang, and God." The Real Issue. Leadership University. http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9404/bigbang.html

Computers in Space Science
Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47234107
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computers in space science. Specifically, it will look at the roles computers have in current space technology and how they have effected the lives of everyone in the world. Without computer technology, space science would be confined to the ground, and man's imagination. efore large-scale computing was developed, the technologies necessary to design, build, and maintain a space program simply did not exist. Computers have made it possible to explore the moon, stars, and beyond.

Computers in Space Science

Computers play an integral role in the science of space, and without them most of modern space exploration would not be possible. As the NASA report, "Computers at NASA" states, "Since the 1950's, the computer has been the main tool that has enabled scientists and engineers to visualize the next frontier and then make it a reality" (NASA). NASA employs literally thousands of computers throughout the world to monitor, design, and…

Bibliography

Author not Available. "Computers at NASA." NASA. 1994. 29 Oct. 2003.  http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/news/factsheets/computers.pdf 

Barber, Jennifer Lauren. "Close Encounters on Your Desktop." Bright Magazine. 2001. 29 Oct. 2003. http://journalism.medill.northwestern.edu/journalism/magazine/bright/brightlite/peer4.html.

Dubinski, John. "Cosmology." Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. 26 June 1997. 29 Oct. 2003.  http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/webpages/CITA/annrep96/node20.html 

Editors. "Hubble's Computers and Automation." HubbleSite. 2003. 29 Oct. 2003.  http://hubble.stsci.edu/sci.d.tech/nuts_.and._bolts/spacecraft_systems/#comp

Galactic Center in Infrared
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Galactic Photo

This image is of the galactic center, which is the center of the Milky Way. The photograph is taken using infrared light, which changes the appearance of dust particles so that they do not obscure the image. As Wright (2003) points out, the universe is filled with dust, which tends to block the light being emitted from light-giving objects like stars. The composition of most galactic dust includes carbon, silicon, and oxygen (Wright, 2003). The dust can grow in molecular clouds, and are created in the atmosphere of red-giant stars that are cooling off (Nemiroff & Bonnell, 2006).

Infrared allows the exposure of rays that are beyond what the naked eye can see. These rays are beyond or below the red part of the color spectrum, which is why the technology is called "infrared." Below infrared rays are microwave and radio waves. Although not visible to the human…

References

Cain, F. (2014). What's at the center of our galaxy? Universe Today. Retrieved online:  http://www.universetoday.com/109015/whats-at-the-center-of-our-galaxy/ 

"Discovery of Infrared," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/ir_tutorial/discovery.html 

Nemiroff, R. & Bonnell, J. (2006). The galactic center in infrared. Retrieved online:  http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap060716.html 

Wright, E.L. (2003). Astronomy picture of the day. Retrieved online:  http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030706.html

Johannes Kepler Made Important Contributions
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The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.

Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).

Question Four…

References

Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.

London: Icon Books Ltd.

Glantz, M, H. (2001). Currents of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harvey, F. (1997 February). From holistic geography to GIS. The professional geographer

Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1
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mirages; what they are, how they are seen and how do they affect us.

Before we into depth about mirages, its imperative to understand the concept of what mirages is. So, what exactly is a mirage? First of all, one thing is for sure, mirages are certainly not optical illusions, as many people believe. They are real phenomena of atmospheric optics, formed by strong ray bending in layers with steep thermal gradients. Yes! Mirages can be captured in real photographs because they are real physical phenomena. Optical illusions, as many people regard them to be are more so perceptual idiosyncrasy of human vision, whereby the observer sees what doesn't really exist in reality. What should be understood is that distorted images produced by mirages may produce optical illusions, but what is false is when an observer confuses the observation with the distinctly different classes of these unique phenomena.

A mirage…

Renaissance Italy
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Copernicus challenged the accepted viewpoint of the Christian West that the Earth stood still as the centermost point of the Universe. This tradition stemmed from the Ptolemaic model of a geocentric universe and correlated well with the religious tradition of the Church that the Earth was where God Himself became Man and walked among His children. Thus, the Earth had a special significance and should be thought of as being the center of the Universe in order to support the notion that people were important to God. Aside from this theological tradition were the scientific or observational facts that Ptolemy had used to describe the geocentric model of the universe, accounting for the movements of the stars, sun and moon. However, as Copernicus pointed out, there was an alternate view of the movements of the stars—the heliocentric model, which could also be found among the work of earlier scholars, scientists…

Aztecs the Ancient Mexican Region Not Only
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AZTECS

The ancient Mexican region not only stands out as a mythological haven, but also as a culturally vibrant and technologically advanced civilization. Among the Mesoamerican civilizations, the Aztecs standout for their significant contributions in the fields of astronomy, medicine, and also for their bizarre ritualistic practices.

The Aztecs represent an important group of the Mesoamerican civilizations. They arrived from the north to the 'valley of Mexiaco' or what is currently the city of Mexico, during 1200 AD. Known as the 'Tenochca' or the 'Toltec' tribe, the Aztecs dominated the Mexican valley between the 14th and 15th centuries. Initially, confronted by the Culhuacans the Tenochcas had to flee the mainland and move towards the island. Under the command of Itzacoatl, the Tenochcas gained freedom and undertook the construction of the grand city of Tenochtitlan. As new regions in the valley of Mexico came under the Aztecs they also absorbed the…

Bibliography

1) Glenn Welker, " The Indigenous People," Accessed Oct 17th 2005,

Available at,  http://www.indians.org/welker/aztec.htm 

2) Richard Hooker, "The Mexica / Aztecs," Accessed on 17th Oct 2005,

Available at,  http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/AZTECS.htm

Eudoxus of Cnidus Boyer in
Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78300262
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He invented a planetary system, which consisted of spheres, the earth being still at the center, and twenty-seven concentric spheres rotating around the earth.

Actually, most of his accomplishments are difficult to explain at all to the nonprofessional, since they involve the complicated fields of math and astronomy. ut, for those who work in those areas, Eudoxus accomplishments are extraordinary. However, what his work does is make the work today so much easier. Those who labor in those fields know the practicalities, complexities, and almost impossibility of what Eudoxus did.

Eudoxus made important contributions to the theory of proportion, where he made a definition allowing possibly irrational lengths to be compared in a similar way to the method of cross multiplying used today. A major difficulty had arisen in mathematics by the time of Eudoxus, namely the fact that certain lengths were not comparable. The theory developed by Eudoxus is…

Bibliography

Ancient Greek astronomy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 22, 2008, from University of British

Colombia:  http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~berciu/PHILIP/TEACHING/PHYS340/NOTES/FIL 

ES/(7)Greek-Astronomy.pdf

Encyclopaedia Brittanica. (2008). Eudoxus of Cnidus. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from Encyclopaedia Brittanica:  http://corporate.britannica.com/press/index.html

Q 1 What Is the Accurate
Words: 896 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 75285750
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The collapse increases internal pressure until some of the stars external matter is ejected, eventually stabilizing into a dwarf star of degenerate matter.

A variable star is one whose apparent brightness changes as viewed from earth. Cepheid variables are a certain type of variable star whose apparent brightness changes in regular cycles lasting from 3 to 50 days. Astronomers use them to measure distances in space.

Q: 4 describe and explain the characteristic of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

what is the significant and use of this diagram? how is a black hole formed? what are the properties of black holes? compute the Schwarzschild radius for the sun.

What happens when the star shrinks to the radii? what is the most likely place to find a black hole?

The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a scatter-graph of stars that allows astronomers to plot their absolute luminosity against their specific classifications and temperatures. This technique demonstrated…

Morning Here Information Seventh Unit Term Once
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morning Here information seventh unit term. Once complete, left final paper. Unit 7: Scientific Revolution e've reached end journey. The Scientific Revolution represents development thinking world.

Attitudes during the Scientific Revolution

The scientific revolution and the age of classical science have had a severe impact on society and made it possible for it to experience great progress as a consequence of the fact that technology had advanced significantly. Humanity was especially ignorant up to this point and technology actually made it possible for the masses to look at the world from a different perspective. People learnt that a lot of things they previously believed to be impossible were actually possible and joined the rest of the world in a struggle to achieve progress. The Scientific Revolution basically represents the moment when the social order started to experience massive reform as a result of technological advancements.

One of the first steps…

Works cited:

McClellan, James E. III and Dorn, Harold, "Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction," (JHU Press, Apr 14, 2006)

"The Age of Classical Science," Retrieved August 25, 2012, from the infoplease Website:  http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860978.html 

"The Scientific Revolution," Retrieved August 25, 2012, from the infoplease Website:  http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860977.html

Reentry Student for Most Individuals the Decision
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Reentry Student

For most individuals, the decision whether to attend college is one of their first major decisions in life. In fact, this decision is one of a handful of decisions individuals make in life which arguably significantly impact the rest of their lives, both career wise and personally. The process of obtaining a college education is rather complicated, both on a practical level as well as an emotional level. On a practical level, individuals must devote a large portion of time to taking the SAT, touring college campuses, filling out college applications, writing personal statements, obtaining letters of recommendation, deciding upon a major, etc.

Emotionally, the decision whether to attend college involves a great deal of learning, much of which starts before an individual ever sets foot on a college campus. While most individuals enter college directly out of high school, I chose not to. Instead, I went to…

Inductive and Inventive Science
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ability to measure and track the results from any scientific experiment is extremely important to both the validity and truthfulness of the work. Scientists often have problems in certain sciences due to the scope of their investigation. As a result of these mismatches, indirect avenues of approach become necessary to measure and grasp the items of inquiry.

In physics, the atomic theory is based upon indirect measurements. The neutron, proton and electron are merely ideas that have been modeled due to the technology that is available to scientists. An electron has never been physically produced and only its characteristics have been noticed. This is an important distinction, because too often scientists take many of these long standing practices for granted and have assumed the presence of these particles, when there is compelling evidence there is not. Jessa (2009) reminded us that "This understanding the atom helped to fuel many other…

References

Jessa, T. (2009). John Dalton's Atomic Model. Universe Today, 24 Aug 2009. Retrieved from  http://www.universetoday.com/38169/john-daltons-atomic-model/ 

Keyes, J. (1946). Newton The Man. JOC/EFR 2006. Retrieved from  http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Extras/Keynes_Newton.html 

NASA (nd). What is a Spacesuit? Viewed 27 April 2014. Retrieved from  

15th Century Was an Interesting
Words: 1809 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 46519248
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He died four years before Peurbach's matriculation, leaving the University without an astronomy lecturer. However, his library and instruments were probably accessible to Peurbach.

While it is known that Peurbach travelled throughout Europe between the years 1448 and 1453, there is no record of the precise dates. At the time, he also had an international reputation as an astronomer of note, despite the fact that he had not publications at the time. He did however lecture in Germany, France and Italy.

After lecturing at Bologna and Padua, these universities offered him permanent appointments as lecturer, but Peurbach turned these down. During his travels he also met the leading Italian astronomer of the time, Giovanni Bianchini, in Ferrara. Bianchini also offered Peurbach a post at an Italian university. Peurbach however remained unwilling to be tied to any specific institution of learning and turned down the offer. In 1453, Peurbach returned to…

References

McFarlane, Thomas J. (2004). Nicholas of Cusa and the Infinite.  http://www.integralscience.org/cusa.html 

O'Connor, JJ & Robertson, EF (2006). Georg Peurbach.  http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Peurbach.html 

O'Connor, JJ & Robertson, EF (1996). Nicolas of Cusa.  http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Cusa.html

Teaching Space Science
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teaching space science. There are various complexities that affect the way that astronomy is taught, not the least of which is the enormity of scale that space science involves.

One of the basic requirements for understanding astronomy is coming to terms with the vastness of the universe. For example, a basic unit of astronomical measurement is the light year. Merriam-ebster defines the light year as "a unit of length in astronomy equal to the distance that light travels in one year in a vacuum or about 5.88 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion kilometers" (2011). hile this definition conveys factual data, it does little to make the concept real, that is, accessible to the average student.

Moreover, trying to convey the reality of light traveling at the unimaginably fast speed of 299,792 kilometers per second (186,282 miles per second) is indeed mind-boggling. Even at such amazing speeds, light takes years to…

Works Cited

Bennett, J. (2011). Teaching resources -- strategies for teaching astronomy. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from:  http://www.jeffreybennett.com/astronomy.html 

Discovery Education. (2011). Astronomical scales. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from:  http://www.discoveryeducation.com/teachers/free-lesson-plans/astronomical-scales.cfm 

Koppes, S. (2011). Award-winning teachers find the unexpected. University of Chicago website. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from:  http://www.uchicago.edu/features/20110527_quantrell/olinto.shtml 

Merriam-Webster. (2011). Light-year. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from:  http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/light-year?show=0&t=1313215675

History of Project Management at
Words: 6401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38615055
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Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.

It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…

Carolingian Renaissance Was a Period
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One of the major problems faced by Charlemagne in his efforts to extend the level of education was the fact that there were very few educated persons available to teach others. Years of neglect had left the educational field with few individuals possessing the background necessary to teach others. hat little scholarship that still existed in Europe was concentrated in and around Rome and Charlemagne initiated an aggressive program to attract the leading Italian scholars to his court. By recruiting these scholars to his court, Charlemagne ensured that the full body of available knowledge would be made available to himself and his subjects. From this pool of scholars, Charlemagne built his program of learning and began slowly to establish his own body of Frankish scholars. From this group, the future European learning environment would be built (Einhard) and the future of the European educational system would be ensured.

The curriculum…

Works Cited

Barbero, Alessandro. Charlemagne: Father of the Continent. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

Brown, A.R. "Feudalism." 15 June 2010. Encyclopedia Brittanica Online. 18 July 2011 .

Butzer, P.L. Science in Western and Eastern Civilization in Carolingian Times. Barcelona: Birkhauser Verlag, 1993.

Cantor, N.F. The Civilization of the Middle Ages: a completely revised and expanded edition of Medieval History, the life and death of a civilization. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.

History of the Areas of
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It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.

Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).

The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…

Sine Cosine and Tangent
Words: 1135 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66420312
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Sine, Cosine, And Tangent

When using trigonometric functions, the three sides of a right triangle (opposite, adjacent and hypotenuse) are identified in relation to a chosen angle. The trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, and tangent) are then defined in relation to the three sides of the right triangle.

The word "sine" comes from the Latin word "sinus," which means a bend or gulf, or the bosom of a garment. (Gelfand) The term was used as a translation for the Arabic word "jayb," the word for a sine that also meant the bosom of a garment, and which in turn comes from the Sanskrit word "jiva," which translates to bowstring.

Originally the word "sine" was applied to the line segment CD on a figure, which meant it was half the chord of twice the angle AO. A sine resembles a bowstring in this regard. The ratio of the sine CD to the…

Bibliography

Moyer, Robert. Schaum's Outline of Trigonometry. McGraw-Hill Trade, 1998.

Kay, David. Trigonometry (Cliffs Quick Review). John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Gelfand, Israel. Trigonometry. Springer Verland, 2001.

History of Trigonometry: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Mathematics/Trigonometry/history/History%20.html

Banneker Multiple Intelligences for Many
Words: 1629 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25875624
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Who would you most like to invite?

hat is very difficult, since I just started reading about all the people who are doing wonderful things today around the world. I know I want to meet someone about astronomy and also computers.

hank you for your interview. Do you have any last words?

Only that no one should give up on their interests because they feel lesser of a man from someone else. We all have something special inside us.

PARY for BENJAMIN BANNEKER

he party (8:00-11:00pm) is going to be held at NASA in Florida, of course, with Michael Griffin, administrator, welcoming everyone. he theme is space, so we have piped in all the music that has been written about space -- classical up to modern and movie themes. he decorations all are space related -- big neon planets and stars. We are keeping the room somewhat dark, so they…

The party (8:00-11:00pm) is going to be held at NASA in Florida, of course, with Michael Griffin, administrator, welcoming everyone. The theme is space, so we have piped in all the music that has been written about space -- classical up to modern and movie themes. The decorations all are space related -- big neon planets and stars. We are keeping the room somewhat dark, so they glow, but bright enough so people can talk. In addition to Griffin, Steve Jobs from Apple Computer; Steve Hawking, physicist; Al Gore, global warming; Maya Angelou, African-American author; General Collin Powell; Dave Chappelle, comedian, to add some humor to this serious bunch; Tupac (2Pac) Shakur for some up-to-date music; and Johnny Depp, 2007 "People's Choice" award winner; and Ellen DeGeneres, for TV and comedy (also "People's Choice" award winner).

All invited will have had a chance to learn about Banneker, so they can welcome him in their own way. Each will have ten minutes to do something special for him, that relates to his/her own background. For example, the comedians will roast Banneker and Angelou will read one of her poems.

The food will be an international buffet, so Banneker can get a taste of global treats and learn more about the rest of the world. The night will end with Banneker getting a special award -- a brand new computer-chip driven chiming clock.