The Terrestrial planets are defined as rocky planets or telluric planets, and they are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. These planets have a lot of similarities that allow them to be grouped together, especially in contrast to the Jovian or gas planets. The telluric planet is one given type of planet, defined as one that is primarily composed of rocks and heavy metals. Thus, the composition of these planets is similar to each other, which makes for a proper comparison between them (Cessna, 2010).
With respect to composition, telluric planets contain a core, which is made up of molten iron. The core traps energy from the formation of the planet, and this molten core is then surrounded by silicate rock, a layer known as the mantle. There are surface layers of rock as well, and then usually a telluric planet will have an atmosphere. However, the atmosphere of some,…… [Read More]
Of those 1,235, 68 are estimated to be Earth-size; 288 are super Earth-size; 662 are Neptune-size; 165 are the size of Jupiter, and 19 are larger than Jupiter (Science Daily).
Of the 54 planet candidates that have been found in the habitable zone, five are near Earth-size. The other 49 left in the habitable zone range from super-Earth-size (up to twice the size of the Earth) -- to larger than Jupiter (Science Daily). All of these findings came from observations between May 12 to September 17, 2009 of more than 156,000 stars in Kepler's view (approximately 1/400 of the sky) (Science Daily).
This research has shown that the fact that so many candidates for planets have been found in such a tiny fraction of the sky (1/400) suggests that there are more planets orbiting sun-like stars in our galaxy -- many more than we can imagine (Science Daily). illiam Borucki…… [Read More]
They appear as dark circles on the sun's surface.
Ex. 6: The lifecycle of a star is determined by its mass. A typical star will follow the main sequence, become a yellow star like the Sun, and die as a Red Giant and then settle as a White Dwarf. A black hole is an area that has had gravity pull in on itself due to a supermassive explosion. Black holes need large stars to form. The Milky Way was formed in the aftermath of the Big Bang, and is around at the super dense core. There are billions of Galaxies spread out through the universe.
Ex. 7: The Big Bang Theory is a theory that states that the universe began with a super massive and dense collection of matter that contracted into itself, and then, in a matter of moments, exploded in an endless expansion into space. All matter, as…… [Read More]
The first telescope is a 10 m telescope that is planned to be located at the L2 Lagrangian point 1.5 million kilometers past the orbit of the Earth. The second telescope is a 2 m telescope that is planned to be placed on the far side of the moon (average distance to the moon is 380,000 km from the Earth).
(a). Which telescope will have the greater light gathering power (10 m or 2 m)?
The 2m telescope will have greater light gathering power.
(b). Explain your answer to part (a).
The L2 Langrangian point by definition would be in line with the Earth and the Sun, with the Earth always between the Sun and the telescope, limiting the amount of light that reaches the telescope and thus its ability to collect light.
If the 10m telescope were placed on the Earth on top of Mauna Kea in Hawaii at…… [Read More]
Explain how the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is constructed of the four main groupings of stars. Identify characteristics of the four main groupings of stars on the diagram. How are the axes of graph labeled?
The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is much like a common graph used in mathematical subjects like algebra and other mathematical domains. Like any graph, there is an X axis and a Y axis with each axis representing different majors traits of stars. The axes of the graph are temperature/spectral type (the x-axis) and luminosity/absolute magnitude. The main sequence of stars is a range of starts that are high luminosity and hot down to stars that are low luminosity and cool. The stars on the lower left end of the diagram (near the X/Y intercept) are the white dwarfs. As one moves from left to right on the Hertzstrung-Russell graph, the effective temperature in question gets lower Just as…… [Read More]
It is also recommended that the interiors of the dome be chilled during the day to control temperature variations that could deform the mirrors and the steel of the telescope.
Each keck mirror segment has a thin aluminum layer coating which allows outstanding light reflection from ultraviolet wavelengths, via the visible spectrum into the infrared. Unlike the automotive mirrors that are coated on the rear surface, telescope mirrors are coated on the front surface. Due to the nature of aluminum to degrade after sometime, it is essential to strip off the old coating and freshly reapply.
Some of the research projects that keck is involved in include: discovery of galaxies at the edge of the universe using gravitational lenses, looking for atomic gases in the gap between galaxies, determining the rate of expansion of the universe and the study of earth-mass objects. ecently, a team of astronomers from Caltech have…… [Read More]
Uranus was the first planet discovered in contemporary times. It was discovered in 1781 by William Herschel while he was searching the sky with his telescope. It had actually been seen many times before but ignored as simply being another star. "In the beginning Herschel named it "the Georgium Sidus" (the Georgian Planet) in honor King George III of England. Others called it "Herschel." The name "Uranus" was first proposed by Bode in conformity with the other planetary names from classical mythology but didn't come into common use until 1850" (Uranus, 2011).
The only spacecraft to ever visit Uranus was Voyager 2 in 1986. Uranus is different in that most of the planets spin on an axis almost perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic but Uranus' axis is almost parallel to the ecliptic. At the time of Voyager 2's passage, Uranus' South Pole was pointed almost directly…… [Read More]
the moon will look 50 x as large as it did before.
Kirchoff's laws describe three types of spectra: a) a "hot solid, liquid or gas," that is under high pressure, is known to give off "continuous spectrum"; b) a hot gas that is under low pressure produces a "bright-line or emission line spectrum"; and c) a dark line or "absorption line spectrum" is visible when a "source of a continuous spectrum is viewed behind a cool gas under pressure" (Cornell.edu).
Reflector telescopes don't go through chromatic aberration because the wavelengths reflect off the mirror in the same exact way; reflector telescopes cost less and just one side of the reflector telescope's objective must be perfect.
FOUR: Special relativity is a theory that looks into how matter is able to move through space and time.
FIVE: hich region of the electromagnetic spectrum has: a) the longest wavelength (radio waves);…… [Read More]
Measuring the Diameter of the Earth
Eratosthenes made a calculation of the Earth's diameter, based on one assumption and two measurements. The assumption was that the Earth was a sphere. This assumption is required since the method relies on accepting that the Earth's diameter is a total of 360o. The two measurements made are the degree of the Earth's shadow at noon at two points and the distance between those points.
Eratosthanes used the city of Syene in Egypt as the first point. This point was selected because it was known that on noon on the first day of summer the sun was directly overhead. This was known because people observed that at this time, the buildings cast no shadows (York University). Therefore, the degree of the shadow at Syene was 0o.
Eratosthanes then needed to know the degree of the shadow at another point either directly…… [Read More]
He backed up the theory with empirical observation and was the first person to prove that the earth was indeed round. He observed a lunar eclipse (when the Earth casts its shadow on the moon) and noticed that the shadow of the earth on the moon was curved. As only a round object could cast a curved shadow, it could be inferred that the earth was round. (Fowler)
Aristotle theorized that not only was the earth the center of the universe, it was stationary in contrast to other planets. He "proved" this theory by stating that if the earth was moving, an observer on it would see the fixed stars as moving, just as he can see the planets moving. Since this is not the case, Aristotle deducted that the earth must be at rest. This theory about the earth being stationary and the center of the universe remained an…… [Read More]
The author further explains that the gravity coming from this type of star has to be spherically symmetric. This means that the star should only depend on the distance from the star (Hawley and Holcomb 1998). As a result of this fact, it was not possible to disregard the angular terms (Hawley and Holcomb 1998). Lastly, the star along with its gravitational field do not change with time, this means that the metric terms are independent of time, but only when the time coordinate is chosen correctly (Hawley and Holcomb 1998). The time coordinate Schwarzschild used was a rational one because it can be correlated to the time calculated by an observer who was a significant distance away from the central mass, where gravity's effects ebb down to zero (Hawley and Holcomb 1998).
The authors point out that Schwarzschild radius is the identical to the radius used for the Newtonian…… [Read More]
Teachers can also utilize creative means to reinforce positive feedback, such as visual applications including charts and graphs of progress.
It is important to help students to vicariously experience positive test-taking by modeling the reading and thought process for answering questions, in which teachers and commendable students go through this process out loud.
There are additional ways of easing students into the standardized test process, including the use of easy and abbreviated materials that can help prepare them for actual exam concepts and situations.
Positivism is a fairly critical component that is routinely discussed within the world of professional management. In many ways, this particular article functions as a means of incorporating positivity into the test preparation experience for students who may have anxiety regarding taking examinations. As an educator, this article helps me to see that there are a lot of creative ways to ease students into the…… [Read More]
The observing vehicle was the Cassini spacecraft that was sent to look at Saturn and its moons. Specifically, these findings relate to Saturn's moon Titan, the only known body (including planets and moons) known to have standing liquid on its surface. Instead of water, Titan's bodies of water are full of hydrocarbons rich with methane and ethane. The study focused on substances apparently floating on the surface of the bodies of liquid on Titan and the study tried to ascertain what those substances were and what caused them to appear or disappear at any given time. The study used a combination of observations from the Cassini craft and some theorization was thrown in based on the telemetry and other results from the Cassini craft. Prior theories had stated that the bodies did not have floating ice. The Cassini crew has an extended chance to view the phenomena given the rather…… [Read More]
Harlow Shapley provided some useful information in determining some of the greatest mysterious about the cosmos. Shapley essentially believed that sun was not the center point of the galactic frontier. In the first decade of the 29th century not much was known about the Milky Way but Shapley soon hypothesized some useful arguments that suggested that our universe is much larger and diverse than we can possibly imagine.
To support his argument about a non-heliocentric theory of the galactic composition, he used the powerful technology available to measure a type of celestial object known as Cepheid stars. Shapley used the behavior of these stars to determine that sun was not the center of the galaxy. By assuming that these stars were the nearly the same size he figured he could measure the luminosity of these stars and therefore figure out a linear distance to the stars. Using these distances, and…… [Read More]
"Once every 248 Earth years, Pluto swings inside the orbit of Neptune. It stays there for twenty years. During those twenty years, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. During this period of time, like the other eight planets, Pluto's atmosphere undergoes a fundamental change in character, briefly developing an atmosphere. As methane and nitrogen frozen at the poles thaw. As it moves toward its farthest point from the Sun, Pluto's atmosphere freezes and falls back to the ground" (Dejoie & Truelove 2008).
These eccentricities further suggested that Pluto was really much more "like a new group of objects found in the outer solar system," called dwarf planets and not worthy of the status of the other eight (Inman, 2008, p.2). Still, many astronomers argued in favor of a more inclusive definition that would still retain Pluto's status as a planet. In fact, one radical proposal: "would have made…… [Read More]
As far as the as the level of intricacies in this research is concerned one can surely acknowledge the capacity of work done but being stuck to it completely and researching on it again and again may sound an unreasoning thing to follow. Astronomers being addicted to their work styles, research requirements and updated developments or shooting of newest things in the world of sky have to be in touch with all these researches. Keplar's supernova left astronomers and related researches astonished to understand actually what was the base of this supernova explosion and this exasperated formation in the universe may gave astronomers thought of revolution in the star world and constellations whose time to time developments and formations of newest things was supposed to give a new shape to the universe. Researches stated that Keplar's supernova was far rich in energy and undoubtedly could be compared twice the energetic…… [Read More]
brown dwarf with a satellite planet was recently discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope; the implications of the discovery are discussed in a recent NASA-published article entitled "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System," online at < http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/starsgalaxies/spitzer-020705.html>. Also known as "failed stars," brown dwarfs are dim and rarely host solar systems. Because of their relatively small mass they cannot ignite and produce star light. However, brown dwarfs are also known as "super planets" because they often exist alone in space and are larger than most known planets.
The content of the article relates to many interrelated areas of cosmology and astronomy. First, the news clarifies the definition of brown dwarfs, of which relatively little is known because they are rare and dim. Also, if a brown dwarf can host a satellite planet then miniature solar systems could exist throughout space. The discovery also teaches fundamental concepts of astronomy such…… [Read More]
Metric ystem -- One of the reasons measurement can be complicated is that there is more than one system in use. Based on the Ancient Roman system, the metric system is based on powers of 10; which is called decimalization. The metric system has been the preferred European and scientific method of measuring sine the 18th century, but is not part of the International ystem of Units, which is also standardized. Because the metric system is based on powers of 10, units are easier to align. cientists use the metric system as a way to have a common measurement between countries and over time. cientists use notation that makes it easier to conceptualize distances much easier, particularly when these distances are large. Mathematical examples include:
If Mike needed a desk that was 5 feet by 4 feet wide, how many inches of trim would he need for the whole desk.…… [Read More]
Had this false belief not been perpetuated it may very well be Kepler who directly formulated the laws of gravity well before the time of Newton.
Kepler's second law, which is commonly referred to as the law of equal areas describes the speed at which any given planet will move while orbiting the sun. In his understanding and derivation of mathematical models to understand this process, Kepler noted that planets moves fastest when it is closest to the sun and slowest when it is furthest from the sun. Again, this observation viewed through contemporary lenses makes the connection between the "hidden forces" of gravity as the evident driver, but Kepler concluded otherwise. He noted that if a line were drawn from the center of the planet to the center of the sun, such a line would sweep out the same area in equal period of time. His explanation for the…… [Read More]
The Ptolemaic model was accepted by most philosophers of note until it was radically challenged by the Polish astronomer Copernicus in 1530. The Catholic church condemned the Copernican System in 1616 and forbade holding, defending, or even teaching alternatives to the Ptolemaic conception of the universe endorsed by the Church (Fowler 2008:10). But both theories were mere conjecture until the development of the Galilean telescope. Galileo's telescope was a modification of the currently existing lenses used for reading by the long -- and short-sighted. Galileo did not invent corrective lenses or even the telescope, but he did substantially improve them. By making use of both convex and concave lenses, Galileo was able to expand the magnification power and distance vision of ordinary gazers, enabling to look wide into the heavens (Fowler 2008:10).
"Galileo's belief that his discoveries with the telescope strongly favored the Copernican world view meant he was headed…… [Read More]
Chemical Properties of the Universe
Astronomers hypothesize that about 5 million years ago, the Solar System was filled with a plethora of hot gases and dust, swirling around a hot core. They think that once the core approached about 1 million degrees, the physics and chemical properties caused the gases to coalesce, forming the sun. During this time, there were millions and millions of asteroids. As these asteroids collided with one other, some combined and as their mass increased, gravity pulled more and more particles and debris in, and the planetoids became larger and larger until the planets of the solar system were formed. This was a process known as accreation, and over hundreds of millions of years, the solar system formed -- the continual bombarding of asteroids changing the planets, forming the rings of Saturn, and the landscapes of others, including the moons -- which were just smaller planetoids…… [Read More]
This new calculation proved bodies of mass could orbit the sun in an elliptic pattern. Newton also put a name and a definition to gravity. Like Galileo, Newton's discoveries forced man to think beyond what he already knew. His theories opened doors to understanding motion, matter, and space. Many of these theories are still taught today because they "still adequately account for most problems of motion" (Noble 724). People had to once again let go of familiar thought and embrace new ideas.
Newton transformed astronomy because he set "modern physics on its feet by deriving laws showing how objects move on the Earth and in space" (Pasachoff 41). These laws are the groundwork for what eventually led to the law of gravity. Newton was open-minded enough to understand that gravity was not something confined to this earth. It was universal and it applied to all objects in space. The same…… [Read More]
It was a discovery that opened our eyes to the vastness of the universe and all that we do not know about it.
According to Steve Ruskin, Bell Burnell's discovery is significant for two reasons. First, "it was an incredible discovery for astronomers. It not only confirmed the existence of the theoretical neutron star, but it also enabled scientists to make advances in astrophysics, particularly in their theories of stellar collapse and the formation of black holes" (Ruskin). Ruskin adds that the discovery is important because pulsars are the "most regular 'clocks' in the universe" (Ruskin). Second, Bell Burnell's discovery "shed light on the important role of women in science" (Ruskin). Ruskin admits, "Perhaps more surprising than the fact that a new type of star was discovered was that a woman had discovered it" (Ruskin). omen in all fields of science owe some gratitude to Bell Burnell for beginning to…… [Read More]
Hubble Space Telescope
As the world's first Earth-orbiting reflecting telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) represents the culmination of the dreams of many astronomers and the fulfillment of a hope that began in the 1950's when the United States launched instruments into space in order to study the Earth's atmosphere. Our planetary speck in space, namely the Earth, is only one of hundreds of billions of planets that surely orbit other star systems; our Milky Way galaxy, composed of billions of stars and other astronomical bodies, is but one out of billions of other galaxies. Thus, in order to increase our knowledge of the universe, the Hubble Space Telescope serves a vital function, for since its launch in 1990, despite several crucial problems, it has revealed a universe full of mysterious bodies, nebula, star systems and galaxies and has expanded the possibilities that humankind is not alone in the universe.…… [Read More]
In its most basic sense, this treaty abolished the age-old practice of electing a king of the Romans, a reference to the Holy Roman Empire; it gave France the geographical areas of Verdun, Alsace, Metz and a portion of Strasburg; Sweden was given West Pomerania, Stettin, Wismar and Bremen, known as bishoprics but now part of northern Germany; Bavaria retained the Upper Palatinate and all electoral titles, and Saxony retained Lusatia. Also, Spain was forced to fully recognize the United Provinces as a sovereign nation-state. Overall, the Treaty of Westphalia turned Europe into a conglomerate of separate political and economic nation-states that were only partially dependent on each other; the treaty also made it possible for mercantilism to spread throughout Europe, thus creating the foundation for many more years of conflict and war. In addition, this treaty also brought an end to the Eighty Years War between Spain and the…… [Read More]
hile hard facts, such as Venus' circumference, diameter, and distance from the sun are relatively easy to determine, historical and future implications of the planet and its study are not as simple to calculate. Two of the most important facts that we don't yet know about the planet Venus are the significance of its historical positioning and its implications for earth's atmospheric problems.
According to Ev Cochrane's study into the ancient solar system, the regularity with which the system now moves around the sun is a "recent development." In the ancient world, instead, Cochrane suggests that observers noted a different type of solar system. The discrepancies between the two solar systems has largely to do with the planet Venus. According to Cochrane, Venus' movement into its current orbit was recent, and this movement created solar side effects that may be important to the current development of the solar system. hile…… [Read More]
Big Bang Theory
It is commonly believed among the field of astronomy that the universe began with a "Big Bang (Dominey, 2011)." This big bang was a powerful explosion of space and time that sent matter and energy outward into what was then a vast state of nothingness. This position as to the Big Bang is based upon Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity and the later discovery in the 1960s of cosmic microwaves but for most lay persons understanding the details of the Big Bang Theory is nearly impossible.
The theory claims that when the big bang occurred, matter, energy, space and time were all formed, and that the universe at that time was extremely hot and incredibly dense. Presently all the best minds in science have no idea what came before the Big Bang Theory. They have no answer.
Part of the Big Bang Theory is…… [Read More]
A dead star or black dwarf would be converted to interstellar matter spread out in space, and would eventually form a new star. This equilibrium process is made possible through thermonuclear reactions, wherein remaining hydrogen atoms are formed together to create a helium nucleus. Thus, through this process of death and eventual birth of a new star through stellar evolution, equilibrium was conducted and achieved.
Another equilibrium process that stars undergo is through the concept of hydrostatic equilibrium. Hydrostatic equilibrium looks into the relationship of the star's thermal pressure and its weight (mass plus the force of the gravity). This process is characterized as the balance between thermal pressure, which is directed outward, and the weight of the material above pressing downward -- that is, directed inwardly.
Hydrostatic equilibrium illustrates the presence of forces within a star: the thermal force and gravitational force. It also demonstrates how stars exhibit the…… [Read More]
The materials that are collected in them are solids from the various gases (which cooled inside these clouds). The gravity from the sun pulled them closer towards each other. This contributed to the formation of the planets and asteroids. ("Summary," 2007) (Williams, 2010)
Once a star is finished developing, is when solar winds will blow rock and debris away from the sun. This forms the Kuiper Belt and Oort Clouds, which is where the smaller debris is collected near the orbit of the outer body planets. These are the remains of the rubble that was used to create the solar system billions of years ago.
However, there is an exception to this pattern. In research that was conducted on distant galaxies, scientists discovered that there are not large outer planets with asteroid belts (i.e. Jupiter). This led to theories that much warmer Jupiter like bodies could exist closer to these…… [Read More]
Twins - Typically a word indicating the production of two offspring from the same source of origin, mostly referred during reproductive results.
Science Express -- A science publication that electronically publishes selected articles prior to the articles' appearance in print.
Matthew Turk and Tom Abel -- Turk was a former astrophysics graduate student of the Kavli Institute, and currently studying at a post-doctoral fellowship at UC San Diego. Abel is an associate professor at KIPAC's physics department, with research interests in cosmological and astrophysical systems.
Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology -- Known usually as KIPAC and is a laboratory independent of Stanford University, funded by Stanford University, the U.S. Department of Energy, and initiated through the grant from the Kavli Foundation.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory -- SLAC boasts a multipurpose laboratory dedicated to astrophysics, photon science, accelerator and particle physics research, with the longest linear accelerator…… [Read More]
The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies
One of the greatest and possibly most important questions about our universe is how it originated. Astronomer Sandy Faber of California's Lick Observatory states that, "Galaxies are the building blocks of the universe, and therefore one of the greatest questions of modern astronomy is to understand how they form." (Chaikin)
Galaxy is usually understood as a cluster or aggregate of stars - combined gas and dust - held together by gravity. Galaxies come in three main types: ellipticals, spirals, and irregulars. (The Galaxies) There are a number of theories about the formation of galaxies. Two predominant theories are the ottom-Up and Top-Down theories. The ottom-Up theory states that the Universe started from small particles of mass that came together to form galaxies, which evolved into clusters and then super-clusters. (ibid) The second theory - the Top-Down theory - states that "vast pancaked-shaped clouds…… [Read More]
The Thirty Meter Telescope is a telescope project that is being built at the TMT Observatory, which is situated at the top of Mauna Kea, on Big Island, Hawaii. There are already several telescopes at the top of Mauna Kea, which at 14,000 feet is often above the clouds, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean with minimal light pollution.
The telescope will be of the itchey-Chretien type, which is a Cassegrain telescope that has a hyperbolic primary mirror and hyperbolic secondary mirror. This is the most common type of telescope used in professional astronomy. The TMT will also feature optical and infrared observing, "with wavelengths of interest ranging from 310 nanometers in the ultraviolet to 28 microns in the infrared. The telescope is comprised of a large number of different systems within the same facility, including mechanical assemblies, control systems and distribution systems. The actual summit enclosure…… [Read More]
The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:
For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)
However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…… [Read More]
Assignment 2-1 -- a- Radiation may be considered information from space; different types of information from different sources. These are: 1) Light as a wave and particle, 2) Electromagnetism, 3) Cosmic Rays and 4) Ultraviolet radiation.
Part 2-1-B- Light may be measured by telescopes; other space radiation by radio waves; x-ray machines may absorb cosmic and x-ray energy.
Part 2-1-C- Stars and Planets emit electromagnetic; Sun emits UV, Electromagnetic and light; light intensity, etc. Measuring radiation from objects tells us numerous things; age of object, comparative data between object, distance, intensity, level of danger, potential changes within object over time.
Part 2-1-D- Spectrographs, radio frequency detectors, x-ray machines.
Part 2-2-a -- an atom is the smallest unit of matter; ions are types of atoms in which the protons and electrons (parts of the atomic structure) are not equal. Ions can exist independently in solution, while atoms may or…… [Read More]
Science teachers can utilize this article by updating their curriculum related to the universe. While textbooks currently being used convey the traditional notions of the past, newer developments need to be incorporated immediately. Most current aspects of science seem to change rapidly. Astronomers such as Fabio Governato from the University of Washington have demonstrated how supercomputers can be used to replicate the activities in space, which are invisible to our telescopes. Using the components of the article to make a presentation on the latest developments in the field of space and technology can be a good approach. While most students would consider this just like any other class, it might stand out to some intelligent ones who could build a career in this area. Science teachers can observe this article from a broader point-of-view, search for similar articles and satisfy their personal research interests.
Scientists often focus on a particular…… [Read More]
g. volcanoes, etc.), but not on schedule; 3) Just because something is plausible does not make it true. The events on popular television series like Star Trek or Star Wars are not only plausible, but have scientific merit. That does not make them true, only possible (Kraus, 2007; Cavelos, 2000); 4) Conspiracy theories abound in numerous genres and surrounding numerous events. Examination of Marshalls' prose and "science," while seemingly credible does try to sell a product and only hints and speculates at facts without peer-reviewed data sources (Yowcrooks, 2009). While positive in tone, it also appears that if one believes conspiracy theories, most of us have only 133 weeks to live; or simply turn the calendar to a new page?
Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.
"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Yowcrooks.blogspot.com. Cited in:
Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth."…… [Read More]
" At almost 4 minutes, the temperature has fallen to the point where sub-atomic particles become naturally attracted to each other and form certain kinds of isotopes. At almost an hour after the Big Bang, all nuclear material has bonded, yet the temperatures is "still too high for protons and electrons to bind together" to form atoms. From this point on to about 700,000 years later, the temperature has dropped sufficiently and allows electrons and protons to bind together to create atoms of hydrogen. Therefore, as free electrons "are bound up in atoms, the primary cross-section leading to the scattering of photons is removed" which allows the universe to alter from being opaque to transparent, thus allowing photons of light to travel freely in this newly-created universe ("The Hot Big Bang" 2007, Internet). At some unknown point in spatial time, the universe begins to cool even further, allowing gases like…… [Read More]
There was one thing or the other to delay the launch of the Challenger, until the D-Day, when the shuttle was launched at 11:38 AM as against the scheduled take off time of 9:38 AM on January 28. About seventy three seconds into the mission, the Challenger exploded in mid air, and all the seven crew members were killed instantaneously. For the hundreds of people, the family and friends and others who had gathered at the site to watch the launching of the Challenger, it was a sight that they would never be able to forget. They were forced to watch helplessly and fearfully, as the fiery flames consumed their loved ones. The entire nation, which was watching events as they unfolded on their television sets, was rendered speechless. (Challenger Disaster, a National Tragedy)
onald eagan, the President of the United States of America at the time, stated, "Today is…… [Read More]
The Mars exploration program announced by President Bush in 2004 relies on first establishing a prolonged human presence on the Moon, in conjunction with completion of the International Space Station by 2015. The President envisions returning to the Moon by 2020 at the latest, for the purpose of being able to launch robotic missions to Mars (Whitehouse, 2004). According to the American Physical Society and many independent scientists, the President's goal overvalues the symbolic significance of landing on Mars at the expense of research that is more immediately beneficial to human society, and a more prudent financial expenditure (APS, 2004). This is a view with which I am inclined to agree.
Abbate, M. (1992) Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact.
Smithsonian Institution Press: London
American Physical Society. (2004) Panel on Public Affairs, Nov./04
The Moon-Mars Program.
Engelbert, P., Dupuis, D. (1998) the Handy Space Answer Book.…… [Read More]
That question doesn't affect the classification of planets in our Solar System, but will be relevant to some others" ("Pluto no longer a Planet," orld Science Homepage, 2006).
Even some scientists who disliked the definition, however, felt that it was fair to demote Pluto. "According to the new definition, a full-fledged planet is an object that orbits the sun and is large enough to have become round due to the force of its own gravity. In addition, a planet has to dominate the neighborhood around its orbit," and Pluto is not simply small, and Pluto also does not dominate its neighborhood but its moon Charon, is very large in proportion to the former planet, as is about half the size of Pluto, "while all the true planets are far larger than their moons" (Inman, 2006) "In addition, bodies that dominate their neighborhoods, sweep up asteroids, comets, and other debris, clearing…… [Read More]
725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave ackground radiation (CM) that pervades the observable universe. This is believed to be the remnant that scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for this discovery.
Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" hydrogen and helium found in the observable universe are believed to support the ig ang model of origins (the ig-ang Theory Web site, 2003).
In 2003, Physicist Robert Gentry proposed an alternative to the standard ig ang theory, an alternative that also accounts for the evidences listed above (Eastman and Missler, 1996). Gentry believes that the standard ig ang model is founded upon a faulty paradigm that he claims is inconsistent with the empirical data. Gentry bases his model on Einstein's static-spacetime paradigm that he claims is the "genuine cosmic Rosetta."
Gentry is not alone. Other high-profile dissenters include…… [Read More]
The singularity at the beginning of the Big Bang did not begin in space; it was the origin of space.
hile singularities are difficult to define and to prove, black holes are not. Black holes are areas with such extreme gravitational pull that the velocity an object would need to escape them is greater than the speed of light, and, thus, unattainable. Bl.ack holes are observable and have been proven to exist. They may be created when a star collapses, though this is also a theory.
Because the gravitational pull of a black hole is immense, objects cannot escape from it. Moreover, as the objects approach the event horizon of the black hole, the gravity becomes more and more intense, so that, eventually objects are unable to escape. This means that the black hole continues to engulf matter. Furthermore, the intense gravity that exists in a…… [Read More]
Copernican revolution has a pivotal role in the establishment of the modern sciences. We are very much familiar with the fact that the human mind had always been fascinated greatly by the changes taking place around him almost constantly. Human observation and sense of argument and ability to be logical has made him the most intelligent and consequently most powerful species on the planet.
It is very comfortable to believe that Earth is located at the centre of the universe and other planets rotate around it because Earth itself does not seem or feel to be moving and there are only sun, moon and other planets appearing and disappearing at their exact timings. It is quite logical and unless and until something really revolutionary come forward to refute this believe, it looks quite reasonable to carry on believing the same idea (Kuhn, pp 187).
The most significant change…… [Read More]
Eternal Circle of Time
Electrons circle the nucleus of an atom. Untold trillions of atoms collide together and explode. The universe expands. Electrons race down the copper wires of an electric cable. The sun shines. Leaves digest the sunlight, produce nutrients, live, grow, die, and fall to the ground. The wind bears aloft the leaves, scatters them over earth and sea. The tide moves them, pushes them up into rivers where at last they settle into the mud. Salmon swim upstream; lay their eggs on the muddy bottoms of lakes and rivers. A powerful grizzly bear nuzzles the icy water of a mountain brook. His great paw sweeps into the water and catches a darting salmon. Men come; establish a city on the banks of the stream. They drive the bear off. Their boats coast upon the surface of the sparkling water. Nets plumb the frigid depths, resurface filled with…… [Read More]
computers in space science. Specifically, it will look at the roles computers have in current space technology and how they have effected the lives of everyone in the world. Without computer technology, space science would be confined to the ground, and man's imagination. efore large-scale computing was developed, the technologies necessary to design, build, and maintain a space program simply did not exist. Computers have made it possible to explore the moon, stars, and beyond.
Computers in Space Science
Computers play an integral role in the science of space, and without them most of modern space exploration would not be possible. As the NASA report, "Computers at NASA" states, "Since the 1950's, the computer has been the main tool that has enabled scientists and engineers to visualize the next frontier and then make it a reality" (NASA). NASA employs literally thousands of computers throughout the world to monitor, design, and…… [Read More]
This image is of the galactic center, which is the center of the Milky Way. The photograph is taken using infrared light, which changes the appearance of dust particles so that they do not obscure the image. As Wright (2003) points out, the universe is filled with dust, which tends to block the light being emitted from light-giving objects like stars. The composition of most galactic dust includes carbon, silicon, and oxygen (Wright, 2003). The dust can grow in molecular clouds, and are created in the atmosphere of red-giant stars that are cooling off (Nemiroff & Bonnell, 2006).
Infrared allows the exposure of rays that are beyond what the naked eye can see. These rays are beyond or below the red part of the color spectrum, which is why the technology is called "infrared." Below infrared rays are microwave and radio waves. Although not visible to the human…… [Read More]
The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.
Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).
Question Four…… [Read More]
mirages; what they are, how they are seen and how do they affect us.
Before we into depth about mirages, its imperative to understand the concept of what mirages is. So, what exactly is a mirage? First of all, one thing is for sure, mirages are certainly not optical illusions, as many people believe. They are real phenomena of atmospheric optics, formed by strong ray bending in layers with steep thermal gradients. Yes! Mirages can be captured in real photographs because they are real physical phenomena. Optical illusions, as many people regard them to be are more so perceptual idiosyncrasy of human vision, whereby the observer sees what doesn't really exist in reality. What should be understood is that distorted images produced by mirages may produce optical illusions, but what is false is when an observer confuses the observation with the distinctly different classes of these unique phenomena.
A mirage…… [Read More]
Copernicus challenged the accepted viewpoint of the Christian West that the Earth stood still as the centermost point of the Universe. This tradition stemmed from the Ptolemaic model of a geocentric universe and correlated well with the religious tradition of the Church that the Earth was where God Himself became Man and walked among His children. Thus, the Earth had a special significance and should be thought of as being the center of the Universe in order to support the notion that people were important to God. Aside from this theological tradition were the scientific or observational facts that Ptolemy had used to describe the geocentric model of the universe, accounting for the movements of the stars, sun and moon. However, as Copernicus pointed out, there was an alternate view of the movements of the stars—the heliocentric model, which could also be found among the work of earlier scholars, scientists…… [Read More]
The ancient Mexican region not only stands out as a mythological haven, but also as a culturally vibrant and technologically advanced civilization. Among the Mesoamerican civilizations, the Aztecs standout for their significant contributions in the fields of astronomy, medicine, and also for their bizarre ritualistic practices.
The Aztecs represent an important group of the Mesoamerican civilizations. They arrived from the north to the 'valley of Mexiaco' or what is currently the city of Mexico, during 1200 AD. Known as the 'Tenochca' or the 'Toltec' tribe, the Aztecs dominated the Mexican valley between the 14th and 15th centuries. Initially, confronted by the Culhuacans the Tenochcas had to flee the mainland and move towards the island. Under the command of Itzacoatl, the Tenochcas gained freedom and undertook the construction of the grand city of Tenochtitlan. As new regions in the valley of Mexico came under the Aztecs they also absorbed the…… [Read More]
He invented a planetary system, which consisted of spheres, the earth being still at the center, and twenty-seven concentric spheres rotating around the earth.
Actually, most of his accomplishments are difficult to explain at all to the nonprofessional, since they involve the complicated fields of math and astronomy. ut, for those who work in those areas, Eudoxus accomplishments are extraordinary. However, what his work does is make the work today so much easier. Those who labor in those fields know the practicalities, complexities, and almost impossibility of what Eudoxus did.
Eudoxus made important contributions to the theory of proportion, where he made a definition allowing possibly irrational lengths to be compared in a similar way to the method of cross multiplying used today. A major difficulty had arisen in mathematics by the time of Eudoxus, namely the fact that certain lengths were not comparable. The theory developed by Eudoxus is…… [Read More]
The collapse increases internal pressure until some of the stars external matter is ejected, eventually stabilizing into a dwarf star of degenerate matter.
A variable star is one whose apparent brightness changes as viewed from earth. Cepheid variables are a certain type of variable star whose apparent brightness changes in regular cycles lasting from 3 to 50 days. Astronomers use them to measure distances in space.
Q: 4 describe and explain the characteristic of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
what is the significant and use of this diagram? how is a black hole formed? what are the properties of black holes? compute the Schwarzschild radius for the sun.
What happens when the star shrinks to the radii? what is the most likely place to find a black hole?
The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a scatter-graph of stars that allows astronomers to plot their absolute luminosity against their specific classifications and temperatures. This technique demonstrated…… [Read More]
morning Here information seventh unit term. Once complete, left final paper. Unit 7: Scientific Revolution e've reached end journey. The Scientific Revolution represents development thinking world.
Attitudes during the Scientific Revolution
The scientific revolution and the age of classical science have had a severe impact on society and made it possible for it to experience great progress as a consequence of the fact that technology had advanced significantly. Humanity was especially ignorant up to this point and technology actually made it possible for the masses to look at the world from a different perspective. People learnt that a lot of things they previously believed to be impossible were actually possible and joined the rest of the world in a struggle to achieve progress. The Scientific Revolution basically represents the moment when the social order started to experience massive reform as a result of technological advancements.
One of the first steps…… [Read More]
For most individuals, the decision whether to attend college is one of their first major decisions in life. In fact, this decision is one of a handful of decisions individuals make in life which arguably significantly impact the rest of their lives, both career wise and personally. The process of obtaining a college education is rather complicated, both on a practical level as well as an emotional level. On a practical level, individuals must devote a large portion of time to taking the SAT, touring college campuses, filling out college applications, writing personal statements, obtaining letters of recommendation, deciding upon a major, etc.
Emotionally, the decision whether to attend college involves a great deal of learning, much of which starts before an individual ever sets foot on a college campus. While most individuals enter college directly out of high school, I chose not to. Instead, I went to…… [Read More]
ability to measure and track the results from any scientific experiment is extremely important to both the validity and truthfulness of the work. Scientists often have problems in certain sciences due to the scope of their investigation. As a result of these mismatches, indirect avenues of approach become necessary to measure and grasp the items of inquiry.
In physics, the atomic theory is based upon indirect measurements. The neutron, proton and electron are merely ideas that have been modeled due to the technology that is available to scientists. An electron has never been physically produced and only its characteristics have been noticed. This is an important distinction, because too often scientists take many of these long standing practices for granted and have assumed the presence of these particles, when there is compelling evidence there is not. Jessa (2009) reminded us that "This understanding the atom helped to fuel many other…… [Read More]
He died four years before Peurbach's matriculation, leaving the University without an astronomy lecturer. However, his library and instruments were probably accessible to Peurbach.
While it is known that Peurbach travelled throughout Europe between the years 1448 and 1453, there is no record of the precise dates. At the time, he also had an international reputation as an astronomer of note, despite the fact that he had not publications at the time. He did however lecture in Germany, France and Italy.
After lecturing at Bologna and Padua, these universities offered him permanent appointments as lecturer, but Peurbach turned these down. During his travels he also met the leading Italian astronomer of the time, Giovanni Bianchini, in Ferrara. Bianchini also offered Peurbach a post at an Italian university. Peurbach however remained unwilling to be tied to any specific institution of learning and turned down the offer. In 1453, Peurbach returned to…… [Read More]
teaching space science. There are various complexities that affect the way that astronomy is taught, not the least of which is the enormity of scale that space science involves.
One of the basic requirements for understanding astronomy is coming to terms with the vastness of the universe. For example, a basic unit of astronomical measurement is the light year. Merriam-ebster defines the light year as "a unit of length in astronomy equal to the distance that light travels in one year in a vacuum or about 5.88 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion kilometers" (2011). hile this definition conveys factual data, it does little to make the concept real, that is, accessible to the average student.
Moreover, trying to convey the reality of light traveling at the unimaginably fast speed of 299,792 kilometers per second (186,282 miles per second) is indeed mind-boggling. Even at such amazing speeds, light takes years to…… [Read More]
Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.
It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…… [Read More]
One of the major problems faced by Charlemagne in his efforts to extend the level of education was the fact that there were very few educated persons available to teach others. Years of neglect had left the educational field with few individuals possessing the background necessary to teach others. hat little scholarship that still existed in Europe was concentrated in and around Rome and Charlemagne initiated an aggressive program to attract the leading Italian scholars to his court. By recruiting these scholars to his court, Charlemagne ensured that the full body of available knowledge would be made available to himself and his subjects. From this pool of scholars, Charlemagne built his program of learning and began slowly to establish his own body of Frankish scholars. From this group, the future European learning environment would be built (Einhard) and the future of the European educational system would be ensured.
The curriculum…… [Read More]
It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.
Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).
The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…… [Read More]