348+ documents containing “astronomy”.
The Terrestrial planets are defined as rocky planets or telluric planets, and they are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. These planets have a lot of similarities that allow them to be grouped together, especially in contrast to the Jovian or gas planets. The telluric planet is one given type of planet, defined as one that is primarily composed of rocks and heavy metals. Thus, the composition of these planets is similar to each other, which makes for a proper comparison between them (Cessna, 2010).
With respect to composition, telluric planets contain a core, which is made up of molten iron. The core traps energy from the formation of the planet, and this molten core is then surrounded by silicate rock, a layer known as the mantle. There are surface layers of rock as well, and then usually a telluric planet will have an atmosphere. However, the atmosphere of some, like Mercury,….
Amos, J. (2013). Hope still for dead comet Ison. BBC. Retrieved December 15, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25143861
Cessna, A. (2009). Jovian planets. Universe Today. Retrieved December 15, 2013 from http://www.universetoday.com/33061/jovian-planets/
Cessna, A. (2010). Terrestrial planets. Universe Today. Retrieved December 15, 2013 from http://www.universetoday.com/50287/
Choi, C. (2013). Asteroids: Formation, discovery and exploration. Space.com. Retrieved December 15, 2013 from http://www.space.com/51-asteroids-formation-discovery-and-exploration.html
Of those 1,235, 68 are estimated to be Earth-size; 288 are super Earth-size; 662 are Neptune-size; 165 are the size of Jupiter, and 19 are larger than Jupiter (Science Daily).
Of the 54 planet candidates that have been found in the habitable zone, five are near Earth-size. The other 49 left in the habitable zone range from super-Earth-size (up to twice the size of the Earth) -- to larger than Jupiter (Science Daily). All of these findings came from observations between May 12 to September 17, 2009 of more than 156,000 stars in Kepler's view (approximately 1/400 of the sky) (Science Daily).
This research has shown that the fact that so many candidates for planets have been found in such a tiny fraction of the sky (1/400) suggests that there are more planets orbiting sun-like stars in our galaxy -- many more than we can imagine (Science Daily). illiam Borucki of….
They appear as dark circles on the sun's surface.
Ex. 6: The lifecycle of a star is determined by its mass. A typical star will follow the main sequence, become a yellow star like the Sun, and die as a Red Giant and then settle as a White Dwarf. A black hole is an area that has had gravity pull in on itself due to a supermassive explosion. Black holes need large stars to form. The Milky Way was formed in the aftermath of the Big Bang, and is around at the super dense core. There are billions of Galaxies spread out through the universe.
Ex. 7: The Big Bang Theory is a theory that states that the universe began with a super massive and dense collection of matter that contracted into itself, and then, in a matter of moments, exploded in an endless expansion into space. All matter, as we….
The first telescope is a 10 m telescope that is planned to be located at the L2 Lagrangian point 1.5 million kilometers past the orbit of the Earth. The second telescope is a 2 m telescope that is planned to be placed on the far side of the moon (average distance to the moon is 380,000 km from the Earth).
(a). Which telescope will have the greater light gathering power (10 m or 2 m)?
The 2m telescope will have greater light gathering power.
(b). Explain your answer to part (a).
The L2 Langrangian point by definition would be in line with the Earth and the Sun, with the Earth always between the Sun and the telescope, limiting the amount of light that reaches the telescope and thus its ability to collect light.
If the 10m telescope were placed on the Earth on top of Mauna Kea in Hawaii at 14000 feet instead of at….
Explain how the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is constructed of the four main groupings of stars. Identify characteristics of the four main groupings of stars on the diagram. How are the axes of graph labeled?
The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is much like a common graph used in mathematical subjects like algebra and other mathematical domains. Like any graph, there is an X axis and a Y axis with each axis representing different majors traits of stars. The axes of the graph are temperature/spectral type (the x-axis) and luminosity/absolute magnitude. The main sequence of stars is a range of starts that are high luminosity and hot down to stars that are low luminosity and cool. The stars on the lower left end of the diagram (near the X/Y intercept) are the white dwarfs. As one moves from left to right on the Hertzstrung-Russell graph, the effective temperature in question gets lower Just as one example,….
It is also recommended that the interiors of the dome be chilled during the day to control temperature variations that could deform the mirrors and the steel of the telescope.
Each keck mirror segment has a thin aluminum layer coating which allows outstanding light reflection from ultraviolet wavelengths, via the visible spectrum into the infrared. Unlike the automotive mirrors that are coated on the rear surface, telescope mirrors are coated on the front surface. Due to the nature of aluminum to degrade after sometime, it is essential to strip off the old coating and freshly reapply.
Some of the research projects that keck is involved in include: discovery of galaxies at the edge of the universe using gravitational lenses, looking for atomic gases in the gap between galaxies, determining the rate of expansion of the universe and the study of earth-mass objects. ecently, a team of astronomers from Caltech have discovered….
W.M. Keck Observatory, (2012).The Observatory. Retrieved February 26, 2012 from http://keckobservatory.org/about/the_observatory
European southern observatory, (2012). Telescopes and Instrumentation. Retrieved February 26, 2012 from http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr.html
Uranus was the first planet discovered in contemporary times. It was discovered in 1781 by William Herschel while he was searching the sky with his telescope. It had actually been seen many times before but ignored as simply being another star. "In the beginning Herschel named it "the Georgium Sidus" (the Georgian Planet) in honor King George III of England. Others called it "Herschel." The name "Uranus" was first proposed by Bode in conformity with the other planetary names from classical mythology but didn't come into common use until 1850" (Uranus, 2011).
The only spacecraft to ever visit Uranus was Voyager 2 in 1986. Uranus is different in that most of the planets spin on an axis almost perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic but Uranus' axis is almost parallel to the ecliptic. At the time of Voyager 2's passage, Uranus' South Pole was pointed almost directly towards the Sun.….
the moon will look 50 x as large as it did before.
Kirchoff's laws describe three types of spectra: a) a "hot solid, liquid or gas," that is under high pressure, is known to give off "continuous spectrum"; b) a hot gas that is under low pressure produces a "bright-line or emission line spectrum"; and c) a dark line or "absorption line spectrum" is visible when a "source of a continuous spectrum is viewed behind a cool gas under pressure" (Cornell.edu).
Reflector telescopes don't go through chromatic aberration because the wavelengths reflect off the mirror in the same exact way; reflector telescopes cost less and just one side of the reflector telescope's objective must be perfect.
FOUR: Special relativity is a theory that looks into how matter is able to move through space and time.
FIVE: hich region of the electromagnetic spectrum has: a) the longest wavelength (radio waves); b) the highest photon energy….
Cornell University. (2008). Kirchhoff's Laws. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://astro.cornell.edu .
Stern, David P. (2007). Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion: An Overview for Science
Teachers. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov.
Measuring the Diameter of the Earth
Eratosthenes made a calculation of the Earth's diameter, based on one assumption and two measurements. The assumption was that the Earth was a sphere. This assumption is required since the method relies on accepting that the Earth's diameter is a total of 360o. The two measurements made are the degree of the Earth's shadow at noon at two points and the distance between those points.
Eratosthanes used the city of Syene in Egypt as the first point. This point was selected because it was known that on noon on the first day of summer the sun was directly overhead. This was known because people observed that at this time, the buildings cast no shadows (York University). Therefore, the degree of the shadow at Syene was 0o.
Eratosthanes then needed to know the degree of the shadow at another point either directly north or directly south, at….
HEASARC: High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center. "The Earth." 2001. NASA. Retrieved March 30, 2003. URL:
York University. "An Historical Perspective." 2003. YesICan!Science. Retrieved March 30, 2003. URL: http://resources.yesican.yorku.ca/eratosthenes/history.html
He backed up the theory with empirical observation and was the first person to prove that the earth was indeed round. He observed a lunar eclipse (when the Earth casts its shadow on the moon) and noticed that the shadow of the earth on the moon was curved. As only a round object could cast a curved shadow, it could be inferred that the earth was round. (Fowler)
Aristotle theorized that not only was the earth the center of the universe, it was stationary in contrast to other planets. He "proved" this theory by stating that if the earth was moving, an observer on it would see the fixed stars as moving, just as he can see the planets moving. Since this is not the case, Aristotle deducted that the earth must be at rest. This theory about the earth being stationary and the center of the universe remained an….
Aristotle." Article in Microsoft Encyclopedia Encarta. Online Version. 2004. October 10, 2004. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557129/Aristotle.html
Aristotle." From Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia. 2004. October 10, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle
Fowler, Thomas. "Aristotle's Astronomy." Paper Written for a Greek Science Course at Tuft University, Spring 1995. October 10, 2004. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/GreekScience/Students/Tom/AristotleAstro.html
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Greek Astronomy." University of St. Andrews Website. April 1996. October 10, 2004. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Greek_astronomy.html
The author further explains that the gravity coming from this type of star has to be spherically symmetric. This means that the star should only depend on the distance from the star (Hawley and Holcomb 1998). As a result of this fact, it was not possible to disregard the angular terms (Hawley and Holcomb 1998). Lastly, the star along with its gravitational field do not change with time, this means that the metric terms are independent of time, but only when the time coordinate is chosen correctly (Hawley and Holcomb 1998). The time coordinate Schwarzschild used was a rational one because it can be correlated to the time calculated by an observer who was a significant distance away from the central mass, where gravity's effects ebb down to zero (Hawley and Holcomb 1998).
The authors point out that Schwarzschild radius is the identical to the radius used for the Newtonian dark….
Bunn, T. (1995). Black Hole FAQs. University of California and Berkley. http://cosmology.berkeley.edu/Education/BHfaq.html
Hawkins Michael. (1998) Hunting Down the Universe: The Missing Mass, Primordial Black Holes, and Other Dark Matters. Perseus Books (Current Publisher: Perseus Publishing): Reading, MA.
Hawley J.F., Holcomb K.A. (1998) Foundations of Modern Cosmology. Oxford University Press: New York.
Teachers can also utilize creative means to reinforce positive feedback, such as visual applications including charts and graphs of progress.
It is important to help students to vicariously experience positive test-taking by modeling the reading and thought process for answering questions, in which teachers and commendable students go through this process out loud.
There are additional ways of easing students into the standardized test process, including the use of easy and abbreviated materials that can help prepare them for actual exam concepts and situations.
Positivism is a fairly critical component that is routinely discussed within the world of professional management. In many ways, this particular article functions as a means of incorporating positivity into the test preparation experience for students who may have anxiety regarding taking examinations. As an educator, this article helps me to see that there are a lot of creative ways to ease students into the notion of taking important….
The observing vehicle was the Cassini spacecraft that was sent to look at Saturn and its moons. Specifically, these findings relate to Saturn's moon Titan, the only known body (including planets and moons) known to have standing liquid on its surface. Instead of water, Titan's bodies of water are full of hydrocarbons rich with methane and ethane. The study focused on substances apparently floating on the surface of the bodies of liquid on Titan and the study tried to ascertain what those substances were and what caused them to appear or disappear at any given time. The study used a combination of observations from the Cassini craft and some theorization was thrown in based on the telemetry and other results from the Cassini craft. Prior theories had stated that the bodies did not have floating ice. The Cassini crew has an extended chance to view the phenomena given the….
Bhanoo, Sindya. "Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of Mars - NYTimes.com." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., 3 Jan. 2013. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. .
JPL. "Icing on a Lake." Astrobiology Magazine -- the Origin and Evolution of Life in the Universe . N.p., 10 Jan. 2013. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. .
Harlow Shapley provided some useful information in determining some of the greatest mysterious about the cosmos. Shapley essentially believed that sun was not the center point of the galactic frontier. In the first decade of the 29th century not much was known about the Milky Way but Shapley soon hypothesized some useful arguments that suggested that our universe is much larger and diverse than we can possibly imagine.
To support his argument about a non-heliocentric theory of the galactic composition, he used the powerful technology available to measure a type of celestial object known as Cepheid stars. Shapley used the behavior of these stars to determine that sun was not the center of the galaxy. By assuming that these stars were the nearly the same size he figured he could measure the luminosity of these stars and therefore figure out a linear distance to the stars. Using these distances, and some….
"Once every 248 Earth years, Pluto swings inside the orbit of Neptune. It stays there for twenty years. During those twenty years, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. During this period of time, like the other eight planets, Pluto's atmosphere undergoes a fundamental change in character, briefly developing an atmosphere. As methane and nitrogen frozen at the poles thaw. As it moves toward its farthest point from the Sun, Pluto's atmosphere freezes and falls back to the ground" (Dejoie & Truelove 2008).
These eccentricities further suggested that Pluto was really much more "like a new group of objects found in the outer solar system," called dwarf planets and not worthy of the status of the other eight (Inman, 2008, p.2). Still, many astronomers argued in favor of a more inclusive definition that would still retain Pluto's status as a planet. In fact, one radical proposal: "would have made….
Britt, Robert Roy. "What is a planet>" Space.com. 2 Nov 2000. August 2, 2008. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/planet_confusion_001101-2.html
Britt, Robert Roy. "Scientists decide Pluto's no longer a planet." MSNBC.com. August 24, 2006.
August 2, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14489259/
Cain, Fraser. "Why is Pluto not a planet>" Universe Today. April 10, 2008. August 1, 2008. http://www.universetoday.com/2008/04/10/why-pluto-is-no-longer-a-planet/
Astronomy The Terrestrial planets are defined as rocky planets or telluric planets, and they are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. These planets have a lot of similarities that allow them…Read Full Paper ❯
Of those 1,235, 68 are estimated to be Earth-size; 288 are super Earth-size; 662 are Neptune-size; 165 are the size of Jupiter, and 19 are larger than Jupiter…Read Full Paper ❯
They appear as dark circles on the sun's surface. Ex. 6: The lifecycle of a star is determined by its mass. A typical star will follow the main sequence,…Read Full Paper ❯
The first telescope is a 10 m telescope that is planned to be located at the L2 Lagrangian point 1.5 million kilometers past the orbit of the Earth. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Astronomy Explain how the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is constructed of the four main groupings of stars. Identify characteristics of the four main groupings of stars on the diagram. How are the…Read Full Paper ❯
It is also recommended that the interiors of the dome be chilled during the day to control temperature variations that could deform the mirrors and the steel of…Read Full Paper ❯
Astronomy Uranus Uranus was the first planet discovered in contemporary times. It was discovered in 1781 by William Herschel while he was searching the sky with his telescope. It had actually…Read Full Paper ❯
Astronomy the moon will look 50 x as large as it did before. Kirchoff's laws describe three types of spectra: a) a "hot solid, liquid or gas," that is under high…Read Full Paper ❯
Astronomy Measuring the Diameter of the Earth Eratosthenes' Method Eratosthenes made a calculation of the Earth's diameter, based on one assumption and two measurements. The assumption was that the Earth was a…Read Full Paper ❯
He backed up the theory with empirical observation and was the first person to prove that the earth was indeed round. He observed a lunar eclipse (when the…Read Full Paper ❯
The author further explains that the gravity coming from this type of star has to be spherically symmetric. This means that the star should only depend on the distance…Read Full Paper ❯
Teachers can also utilize creative means to reinforce positive feedback, such as visual applications including charts and graphs of progress. It is important to help students to vicariously experience positive…Read Full Paper ❯
The observing vehicle was the Cassini spacecraft that was sent to look at Saturn and its moons. Specifically, these findings relate to Saturn's moon Titan, the only known…Read Full Paper ❯
Harlow Shapley provided some useful information in determining some of the greatest mysterious about the cosmos. Shapley essentially believed that sun was not the center point of the galactic…Read Full Paper ❯
"Once every 248 Earth years, Pluto swings inside the orbit of Neptune. It stays there for twenty years. During those twenty years, Pluto is closer to the Sun…Read Full Paper ❯