Astronomy Essays Examples

Filter results by:


View Full Essay

Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of

Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50658315

The observing vehicle was the Cassini spacecraft that was sent to look at Saturn and its moons. Specifically, these findings relate to Saturn's moon Titan, the only known body (including planets and moons) known to have standing liquid on its surface. Instead of water, Titan's bodies of water are full of hydrocarbons rich with methane and ethane. The study focused on substances apparently floating on the surface of the bodies of liquid on Titan and the study tried to ascertain what those substances were and what caused them to appear or disappear at any given time. The study used a combination of observations from the Cassini craft and some theorization was thrown in based on the telemetry and other results from the Cassini craft. Prior theories had stated that the bodies did not have floating ice. The Cassini crew has an extended chance to view the phenomena given the rather long amount of time that the Cassini craft will be/was in the proper vicinity to assess the bodies of liquid. Any results found will be used to prepare accordingly if any landing is ever made on Titan (JPL).

The Cassini craft found that blocks of hydrocarbon ice might be floating…… [Read More]

Bhanoo, Sindya. "Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of Mars -" The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., 3 Jan. 2013. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. .

JPL. "Icing on a Lake." Astrobiology Magazine -- the Origin and Evolution of Life in the Universe . N.p., 10 Jan. 2013. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. .
View Full Essay

Sun Moon and Stars Data

Words: 1988 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 756126

M. Calculated number of visible stars 20

Location of observation (2): Washington Grove, MD Date November 1, 2012 time 10 p.m. Calculated number of visible stars 18

Location of observation (3): Montgomery Village, MD Date November 2, 2012 time 10:12 P.M. Calculated number of visible stars 24

In which of your three locations were you able to see the most stars? Montgomery Village Explain (in some detail) why you were able to see the most stars there

I believe that the amount of light pollution impacted the number of stars that I could see in the sky more than any other factor, although I think that weather conditions could also impact the stars that I could see. There are about 5 very bright stars that I believe would be visible almost anywhere, but some of the stars were more difficult to discern and I had to look carefully to determine if they were stars or other forms of night sky light, like an airplane.

2. Exoplanets, or extrasolar planets, are planets that orbit stars other than the sun. Do a web search on exoplanets. How many of these planets are thought to have been detected? 843 as of November 2,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Cain, F. (2012, March 11). Characteristics of the sun. Retrieved November 5,

2012 from Universe Today website: 
View Full Essay

Harlow Shapley Provided Some Useful Information in

Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45391341

Harlow Shapley provided some useful information in determining some of the greatest mysterious about the cosmos. Shapley essentially believed that sun was not the center point of the galactic frontier. In the first decade of the 29th century not much was known about the Milky Way but Shapley soon hypothesized some useful arguments that suggested that our universe is much larger and diverse than we can possibly imagine.

To support his argument about a non-heliocentric theory of the galactic composition, he used the powerful technology available to measure a type of celestial object known as Cepheid stars. Shapley used the behavior of these stars to determine that sun was not the center of the galaxy. By assuming that these stars were the nearly the same size he figured he could measure the luminosity of these stars and therefore figure out a linear distance to the stars. Using these distances, and some rather absurd assumptions about the limitations of the cosmos, he guessed that the our solar system was not at the center of the Milky Way.

Question 2

The idea of a cluster is simple: a grouping of objects. In astronomy groups forms for what we assume for real and…… [Read More]

Astronomy Magazine web page (nd). Viewed 22 Nov 2013. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Discovery Characteristics and Orbit of Neptune

Words: 1762 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51725089


An Overview of Neptune

Discovery of Neptune

First Discovery



Additional Sightings

Second and Official Discovery


Adams, Le Verrier, & Galle

The Planet

Atmospheric Conditions


Neptune's Orbit

Comparison to Earth

Neptune is the eighth, and furthest, planet from the sun. This blue gas giant has been named in the tradition of other planets, with a name taken from mythology; Neptune is the Roman god of the sea. The planet has an interesting history, and characteristics which clearly differentiate it from other planetary bodies. The aim of this paper is to examine the planet, looking at its discovery as well as its' characteristics and the way it compares to earth.


Discovery of Neptune

The official discovery of Neptune occurred in 1846, but the history of discovery can be traced back much further, with the apparent identification of the planet more than two centuries before it official recognition. Hindsight indicates that the planet had been recorded by a number of observers beginning more than two centuries before.


First Discovery



The first discovery only occurred after the development of Tesco's. Although five planets of the solar system may be observed easily with the naked eye,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Astrophysical Object Pluto's Demotion From

Words: 2104 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92220572

"Once every 248 Earth years, Pluto swings inside the orbit of Neptune. It stays there for twenty years. During those twenty years, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. During this period of time, like the other eight planets, Pluto's atmosphere undergoes a fundamental change in character, briefly developing an atmosphere. As methane and nitrogen frozen at the poles thaw. As it moves toward its farthest point from the Sun, Pluto's atmosphere freezes and falls back to the ground" (Dejoie & Truelove 2008).

These eccentricities further suggested that Pluto was really much more "like a new group of objects found in the outer solar system," called dwarf planets and not worthy of the status of the other eight (Inman, 2008, p.2). Still, many astronomers argued in favor of a more inclusive definition that would still retain Pluto's status as a planet. In fact, one radical proposal: "would have made full-fledged planets of 50 or more additional objects" (Inman 2008, p.2). One scientist said the language of the resolution is flawed because while it requires that a planet cleared the neighborhood around its orbit." "Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Neptune all have asteroids as neighbors...It's patently clear that Earth's zone is…… [Read More]

Britt, Robert Roy. "What is a planet>" 2 Nov 2000. August 2, 2008.

Britt, Robert Roy. "Scientists decide Pluto's no longer a planet." August 24, 2006.
View Full Essay

Kepler's Supernova Keplers Supernova Before

Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24481491

As far as the as the level of intricacies in this research is concerned one can surely acknowledge the capacity of work done but being stuck to it completely and researching on it again and again may sound an unreasoning thing to follow. Astronomers being addicted to their work styles, research requirements and updated developments or shooting of newest things in the world of sky have to be in touch with all these researches. Keplar's supernova left astronomers and related researches astonished to understand actually what was the base of this supernova explosion and this exasperated formation in the universe may gave astronomers thought of revolution in the star world and constellations whose time to time developments and formations of newest things was supposed to give a new shape to the universe. Researches stated that Keplar's supernova was far rich in energy and undoubtedly could be compared twice the energetic emissions of Sun. Therefore, these powerful emissions did not let the researches of this supernova to be restricted among astronomers only. Either those scientists who are totally betrothed in using universal energies those of radiations or of solar ones also engaged their work points in this explosion. For example if…… [Read More]

Chandra. "Was Kepler's supernova unusually powerful?" 12-09 2012. Astronomy. 20-09 2012 < >.
View Full Essay

Brown Dwarf With a Satellite Planet Was

Words: 336 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52236409

brown dwarf with a satellite planet was recently discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope; the implications of the discovery are discussed in a recent NASA-published article entitled "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System," online at <>. Also known as "failed stars," brown dwarfs are dim and rarely host solar systems. Because of their relatively small mass they cannot ignite and produce star light. However, brown dwarfs are also known as "super planets" because they often exist alone in space and are larger than most known planets.

The content of the article relates to many interrelated areas of cosmology and astronomy. First, the news clarifies the definition of brown dwarfs, of which relatively little is known because they are rare and dim. Also, if a brown dwarf can host a satellite planet then miniature solar systems could exist throughout space. The discovery also teaches fundamental concepts of astronomy such as basic definitions of stars, planets, solar systems, and moons.

For scientists, the article also illustrates…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Clavin Whitney. "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System." 7 Feb 2005. < >.
View Full Essay

Metric System -- One of the Reasons

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5402218

Metric System -- One of the reasons measurement can be complicated is that there is more than one system in use. Based on the Ancient Roman system, the metric system is based on powers of 10; which is called decimalization. The metric system has been the preferred European and scientific method of measuring sine the 18th century, but is not part of the International System of Units, which is also standardized. Because the metric system is based on powers of 10, units are easier to align. Scientists use the metric system as a way to have a common measurement between countries and over time. Scientists use notation that makes it easier to conceptualize distances much easier, particularly when these distances are large. Mathematical examples include:

If Mike needed a desk that was 5 feet by 4 feet wide, how many inches of trim would he need for the whole desk. If trim is measured in metric units, not inches or feet, additional calculations would need to be made. So the math would be 5 X 4 = 20-foot perimeter for the trim, and there are 12 inches per foot, so 20 X 12 = 240 inches, then converted to metric,…… [Read More]


Seeds, M., Backman, D. (2012). Horizons: Exploring the Universe, 12th ed. Boston,

Brooks Cole.
View Full Essay

Johannes Kepler Was a Key

Words: 2791 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40587666

Had this false belief not been perpetuated it may very well be Kepler who directly formulated the laws of gravity well before the time of Newton.

Kepler's second law, which is commonly referred to as the law of equal areas describes the speed at which any given planet will move while orbiting the sun. In his understanding and derivation of mathematical models to understand this process, Kepler noted that planets moves fastest when it is closest to the sun and slowest when it is furthest from the sun. Again, this observation viewed through contemporary lenses makes the connection between the "hidden forces" of gravity as the evident driver, but Kepler concluded otherwise. He noted that if a line were drawn from the center of the planet to the center of the sun, such a line would sweep out the same area in equal period of time. His explanation for the consistency of area as a derivation of speed again relies on his understanding of magnetism. He argues that the forces at play between planets are different in accordance to the distance they deviate from each other. As a result, while area covered by the movement of planets may be the…… [Read More]

Max Caspar, Kepler, translated by C. Doris Hellman, with notes by Owen Gingerich and Alain Segonds, New York 1993.

North, John. The Fontana History of Astronomy and Cosmology, London 1994, pp. 309-26.
View Full Essay

Libguide Planets

Words: 1711 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49769820

Libguide to Planets: A Concise Look at the Solar System and Its Constituent Elements

This libguide provides a comprehensive listing of peer-reviewed, scholarly and non-reference material including fiction, non-fiction, poetry, folklore, audio, video, and other teacher resources.


The intended audience for this libguide is educators, but parents and older students will find the content useful as well.


The scope of this libguide is limited to the known solar system.


Peer-Reviewed and Scholarly References

Bennett, J. (2011). Beyond UFOs: The search for extraterrestrial life and its astonishing implications for our future. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

This book contains a useful description of the inner and outer planets and how they are believed to have been formed. An entertaining discussion concerning life on Earth and the potential for life elsewhere in the solar system is followed by a discussion of potential learning opportunities concerning the search for life. Several outside resources for the study of the planets are also provided.

Burgasser, A. (2011, December). A brown dwarf as cool as Earth. The Science Teacher,

78(9), 18.

The author is an associate professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Pennsylvania State University who emphasizes the…… [Read More]

Bennett, J. (2011). Beyond UFOs: The search for extraterrestrial life and its astonishing implications for our future. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

This book contains a useful description of the inner and outer planets and how they are believed to have been formed. An entertaining discussion concerning life on Earth and the potential for life elsewhere in the solar system is followed by a discussion of potential learning opportunities concerning the search for life. Several outside resources for the study of the planets are also provided.
View Full Essay

Small Pieces of Glass The

Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15144768

The Ptolemaic model was accepted by most philosophers of note until it was radically challenged by the Polish astronomer Copernicus in 1530. The Catholic church condemned the Copernican System in 1616 and forbade holding, defending, or even teaching alternatives to the Ptolemaic conception of the universe endorsed by the Church (Fowler 2008:10). But both theories were mere conjecture until the development of the Galilean telescope. Galileo's telescope was a modification of the currently existing lenses used for reading by the long -- and short-sighted. Galileo did not invent corrective lenses or even the telescope, but he did substantially improve them. By making use of both convex and concave lenses, Galileo was able to expand the magnification power and distance vision of ordinary gazers, enabling to look wide into the heavens (Fowler 2008:10).

"Galileo's belief that his discoveries with the telescope strongly favored the Copernican world view meant he was headed for trouble with the Church" (Fowler 2008:10). As illustrated in Two Pieces of Glass, a critical aspect of Galilean theory was the presence of sunspots, or dark patches on the surface of the sun. "He observed," through the use of his telescope, "motion of the sunspots indicating that the Sun…… [Read More]

Fowler, Michael. (2008, August 23). Galileo & Einstein. University of Virginia Physics.

Retrieved February 11, 2011 at
View Full Essay

Scientific Discoveries That Changed the

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1258167

This new calculation proved bodies of mass could orbit the sun in an elliptic pattern. Newton also put a name and a definition to gravity. Like Galileo, Newton's discoveries forced man to think beyond what he already knew. His theories opened doors to understanding motion, matter, and space. Many of these theories are still taught today because they "still adequately account for most problems of motion" (Noble 724). People had to once again let go of familiar thought and embrace new ideas.

Newton transformed astronomy because he set "modern physics on its feet by deriving laws showing how objects move on the Earth and in space" (Pasachoff 41). These laws are the groundwork for what eventually led to the law of gravity. Newton was open-minded enough to understand that gravity was not something confined to this earth. It was universal and it applied to all objects in space. The same force pulling objects to the ground on earth was the very same force pulling on objects in the whole universe. These laws and how Newton came up with them are mathematical miracles. He did not see objects falling as much as he saw objects reacting to gravity. He posited that…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.

Craig, Virginia. "Biography: Isaac Newton." The American Mathematical Monthly. 8.8. 1901.
View Full Essay

Jocelyn Bell Burnell Was Born

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47581532

It was a discovery that opened our eyes to the vastness of the universe and all that we do not know about it.

According to Steve Ruskin, Bell Burnell's discovery is significant for two reasons. First, "it was an incredible discovery for astronomers. It not only confirmed the existence of the theoretical neutron star, but it also enabled scientists to make advances in astrophysics, particularly in their theories of stellar collapse and the formation of black holes" (Ruskin). Ruskin adds that the discovery is important because pulsars are the "most regular 'clocks' in the universe" (Ruskin). Second, Bell Burnell's discovery "shed light on the important role of women in science" (Ruskin). Ruskin admits, "Perhaps more surprising than the fact that a new type of star was discovered was that a woman had discovered it" (Ruskin). Women in all fields of science owe some gratitude to Bell Burnell for beginning to break down barriers that existed between genders. Bell Burnell is still an inspiration to women and all astronomers. In 1991, she became a physics professor in Great Britain and, according to Ruskin, after her appointment, after her appointment, the number of women physics professors in the United Kingdom doubled" (Ruskin).…… [Read More]

Barbara a. Branca. "Jocelyn Susan Bell Burnell." Notable Scientists: From 1900 to the Present. 2008. GALE Science Resource Center. Site Accessed May 29, 2008.

Ruskin, Steve. "The Discovery of Pulsars." Science and Its Times. 2001. GALE Science Resource Center. Site Accessed May 29, 2008.
View Full Essay

Galileo Was Certainly One of

Words: 3484 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82564691

Indeed, we can see here his own initial wonderment and the very simple excitement that he felt upon making a series of discoveries that, aside from being exciting, were clearly of exceptional and lasting scientific significance and would certainly earn Galileo a reputation as one of the most important astronomical observers of his time if not in all of history. However, we can also see how this initial awe quickly turned into logical questioning after Galileo underwent the observation of a great deal of further data culminating in the observed retrograde motion of the moons, which lead him to a state of extreme and earnest puzzlement about the state of the solar system.

Indeed, this state of puzzlement was understandably not long-lived, however, and Galileo again quite understandably brought to bear the not inconsiderable powers of his mind to the task of parsing the confusing string of data that his astronomical observations had yielded with regard to the retrograde motion of these new "planets" that his telescope had enabled him to discover. After a series of intriguing thoughts, reflections, and considerations, Galileo eventually came to the conclusion that the provenance of this strange retrograde motion was attributable not to some…… [Read More]

Baalke, Ron. "Discovery of the Galilean Satellites." NASA Web Site. Retrieved Galileo's Abjuration." Medieval Sourcebook Web Site. Retrieved November 26, 2003, at

Indictment of 1633." Medieval Sourcebook Web Site. Retrieved November 26, 2003 at
View Full Essay

Hubble Space Telescope

Words: 3457 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30233308

Hubble Space Telescope

As the world's first Earth-orbiting reflecting telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) represents the culmination of the dreams of many astronomers and the fulfillment of a hope that began in the 1950's when the United States launched instruments into space in order to study the Earth's atmosphere. Our planetary speck in space, namely the Earth, is only one of hundreds of billions of planets that surely orbit other star systems; our Milky Way galaxy, composed of billions of stars and other astronomical bodies, is but one out of billions of other galaxies. Thus, in order to increase our knowledge of the universe, the Hubble Space Telescope serves a vital function, for since its launch in 1990, despite several crucial problems, it has revealed a universe full of mysterious bodies, nebula, star systems and galaxies and has expanded the possibilities that humankind is not alone in the universe.

The first scientific idea for a telescope such as the HST came about in 1946 when Lyman Spitzer issued a proposal for a space telescope with a primary mirror between sixteen and fifty feet in diameter. Throughout the 1960's and 1970's, with the ultraviolet observatories OAO-2, OAO 3 and the…… [Read More]

Stathopoulos, Vic. "Hubble Space Telescope History." Internet. April 18, 2005. Accessed April 18, 2005.

"The Hubble Space Telescope." Internet. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. January 21, 2005. Accessed April 18, 2005. http://hubble.

View Full Essay

Mercantilism This Term Refers to

Words: 1506 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82041233

In its most basic sense, this treaty abolished the age-old practice of electing a king of the Romans, a reference to the Holy Roman Empire; it gave France the geographical areas of Verdun, Alsace, Metz and a portion of Strasburg; Sweden was given West Pomerania, Stettin, Wismar and Bremen, known as bishoprics but now part of northern Germany; Bavaria retained the Upper Palatinate and all electoral titles, and Saxony retained Lusatia. Also, Spain was forced to fully recognize the United Provinces as a sovereign nation-state. Overall, the Treaty of Westphalia turned Europe into a conglomerate of separate political and economic nation-states that were only partially dependent on each other; the treaty also made it possible for mercantilism to spread throughout Europe, thus creating the foundation for many more years of conflict and war. In addition, this treaty also brought an end to the Eighty Years War between Spain and the Netherlands and is now viewed as one of the first treaties to be based on diplomacy and to allow a nation to be governed by a sovereign entity, thus creating some of the first true sovereign nations in Europe. This treaty also brought to a close…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Planet Venus Venus A Planet

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74276766

While hard facts, such as Venus' circumference, diameter, and distance from the sun are relatively easy to determine, historical and future implications of the planet and its study are not as simple to calculate. Two of the most important facts that we don't yet know about the planet Venus are the significance of its historical positioning and its implications for earth's atmospheric problems.

According to Ev Cochrane's study into the ancient solar system, the regularity with which the system now moves around the sun is a "recent development." In the ancient world, instead, Cochrane suggests that observers noted a different type of solar system. The discrepancies between the two solar systems has largely to do with the planet Venus. According to Cochrane, Venus' movement into its current orbit was recent, and this movement created solar side effects that may be important to the current development of the solar system. While Cochrane's theory may be incorrect, one of the most important facts that we don't know about Venus and much of the solar system are the facts about its evolution. In order to learn more about Venus and its role in the solar system, astronomers should carefully compare its placement in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Cochrane, Ev. "The Many Faces of Venus: The Planet Venus in Ancient Myth and Religion." n.d. Aeon Journal. 12 August 2008. Aeon Journal. .

Japan Plans 2007 Mission to Venus." 2 May 2001. NASA. 12 August 2008. NASA.
View Full Essay

Big Bang Theory

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95287444

Big Bang Theory

Blake Williams

It is commonly believed among the field of astronomy that the universe began with a "Big Bang (Dominey, 2011)." This big bang was a powerful explosion of space and time that sent matter and energy outward into what was then a vast state of nothingness. This position as to the Big Bang is based upon Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity and the later discovery in the 1960s of cosmic microwaves but for most lay persons understanding the details of the Big Bang Theory is nearly impossible.

The theory claims that when the big bang occurred, matter, energy, space and time were all formed, and that the universe at that time was extremely hot and incredibly dense. Presently all the best minds in science have no idea what came before the Big Bang Theory. They have no answer.

Part of the Big Bang Theory is the belief that the universe immediately began to expand following the big bang and that as it expanded the cooling process began. The cooling resulted in matter being condensed. This matter developed almost instantly into the basic building blocks that were needed for the formation of life: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,…… [Read More]

Cowen, R. (2009). The solar system's Big Bang. Science News, 26-29.

Dominey, B. (2011). What Triggered the Big Bang. Astronomy, 24-29.
View Full Essay

Stellar Evolution and Hydrostatic Equilibrium

Words: 509 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40016470

A dead star or black dwarf would be converted to interstellar matter spread out in space, and would eventually form a new star. This equilibrium process is made possible through thermonuclear reactions, wherein remaining hydrogen atoms are formed together to create a helium nucleus. Thus, through this process of death and eventual birth of a new star through stellar evolution, equilibrium was conducted and achieved.

Another equilibrium process that stars undergo is through the concept of hydrostatic equilibrium. Hydrostatic equilibrium looks into the relationship of the star's thermal pressure and its weight (mass plus the force of the gravity). This process is characterized as the balance between thermal pressure, which is directed outward, and the weight of the material above pressing downward -- that is, directed inwardly.

Hydrostatic equilibrium illustrates the presence of forces within a star: the thermal force and gravitational force. It also demonstrates how stars exhibit the third law of Newton's Laws of Motion: for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The presence of an outward force is correspondingly compensated by an equal inward and downward force. In effect, the stellar evolution and hydrostatic equilibrium are the processes of equilibrium extant among stars. Its…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Large Scale Features of This

Words: 1761 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80693916

The materials that are collected in them are solids from the various gases (which cooled inside these clouds). The gravity from the sun pulled them closer towards each other. This contributed to the formation of the planets and asteroids. ("Summary," 2007) (Williams, 2010)

Once a star is finished developing, is when solar winds will blow rock and debris away from the sun. This forms the Kuiper Belt and Oort Clouds, which is where the smaller debris is collected near the orbit of the outer body planets. These are the remains of the rubble that was used to create the solar system billions of years ago.

However, there is an exception to this pattern. In research that was conducted on distant galaxies, scientists discovered that there are not large outer planets with asteroid belts (i.e. Jupiter). This led to theories that much warmer Jupiter like bodies could exist closer to these stars. ("Summary," 2007) (Williams, 2010)


Quick Mars Facts. (2012). NASA. Retrieved from:

The Milky Way. (2011). Daily Galaxy. Retrieved from:

The Moons of Saturn. (2010). UTK. Retrieved from:

Saturn Overview. (2012). NASA. Retrieved from:

Summary. (2007). NJU. Retrieved from:

Brymer, J. (2010). Odds of…… [Read More]

Quick Mars Facts. (2012). NASA. Retrieved from: 

The Milky Way. (2011). Daily Galaxy. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

General Education the Moon Is the Natural

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23072565

General Education

The moon is the natural satellite of the earth. The moon's rotational period around the earth is the same with its revolution period causing one side of the moon to always turn towards the earth while the other side turns away from the sun. Thus, this paper will explain the reasons why the same side of the moon is always seen as well as why the moon fails to rise at the same time each night.

Reasons why the same side of the moon is always seen

What makes us see the same side of the moon is the tidal locking that causes a synchronous rotational. The rotation of the moon takes place very slow making at most one turn on its axis at the same time it revolving around the earth. Most people have been making references concerning the dark side of the moon. It is true that only one face of the moon is visible to us and the other invisible side is permanently rotated away from us. People usually see the same side of the moon because the moon rotates on its axis as it goes around the earth. Both the moon and the earth…… [Read More]

David, R. (2001). Curious About Astronomy: Why is the moon in a different place every night? Curious About Astronomy? Ask an Astronomer.

Stevenson, R.L., & Pearson, T.C. (2006). The moon. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
View Full Essay

Milky Way Galaxy Is of Particular Interest

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13927151

Milky Way Galaxy is of particular interest to the planet Earth, and the people that reside there, because the planet is one of, possibly, billions contained within it. The term galaxy is used when a large group of stars, generally a billion or more, have clustered together due to a similar attraction to some gravitational attraction. The Milky Way Galaxy is actually a conglomeration of others such as the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy and the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy whose masses have been consumed by the Milky Way (Wethington, 2009). This collection of "solar masses" (Wethington, 2009) is joined by an even larger group of planets (much like the solar system in which the Earth is a resident), dust clouds, gas, comets/meteors and other debris.

The Galaxy got its name from the fact that people in more ancient history than ours could see the impression of a milky, or cloud-like line in the night sky. The people thought they were seeing something like a gas cloud or something that was only visible at night (Wethington, 2009). This impression was changed in the 1600's when Galileo aimed his fledgling telescope at the night sky and determined that the assumed gas cloud was…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Soylent Communications. (2012). William Hershel. Retrieved from 

Wethington, N. (2009). Facts about the Milky Way. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Twin Stars

Words: 525 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65726132

Twin Stars

Twins - Typically a word indicating the production of two offspring from the same source of origin, mostly referred during reproductive results.

Science Express -- A science publication that electronically publishes selected articles prior to the articles' appearance in print.

Matthew Turk and Tom Abel -- Turk was a former astrophysics graduate student of the Kavli Institute, and currently studying at a post-doctoral fellowship at UC San Diego. Abel is an associate professor at KIPAC's physics department, with research interests in cosmological and astrophysical systems.

Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology -- Known usually as KIPAC and is a laboratory independent of Stanford University, funded by Stanford University, the U.S. Department of Energy, and initiated through the grant from the Kavli Foundation.

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory -- SLAC boasts a multipurpose laboratory dedicated to astrophysics, photon science, accelerator and particle physics research, with the longest linear accelerator in the world.

6. Brian O'Shea -- O'Shea is an assistant professor at Michigan State University in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. His research includes galaxy clusters, Population III stars, and galactic chemical evolution, and their cosmological structure formation.

7. primordial gas -- A ring of gas believed to…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Cosmology the Formation and Evolution of Galaxies

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11030280


The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies

One of the greatest and possibly most important questions about our universe is how it originated. Astronomer Sandy Faber of California's Lick Observatory states that, "Galaxies are the building blocks of the universe, and therefore one of the greatest questions of modern astronomy is to understand how they form." (Chaikin)

Galaxy is usually understood as a cluster or aggregate of stars - combined gas and dust - held together by gravity. Galaxies come in three main types: ellipticals, spirals, and irregulars. (The Galaxies) There are a number of theories about the formation of galaxies. Two predominant theories are the Bottom-Up and Top-Down theories. The Bottom-Up theory states that the Universe started from small particles of mass that came together to form galaxies, which evolved into clusters and then super-clusters. (ibid) The second theory - the Top-Down theory - states that "vast pancaked-shaped clouds of matter provided the seeds for the formation of galaxies." (ibid) This theory is supported by the fact that,

In December 1991, radio astronomers in New Mexico reported the detection of a huge mass of primordial hydrogen gas near the edge of the observable universe that has the structure of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

30 Meter Telescope Specs

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7158559

30m Telescope

The Thirty Meter Telescope is a telescope project that is being built at the TMT Observatory, which is situated at the top of Mauna Kea, on Big Island, Hawaii. There are already several telescopes at the top of Mauna Kea, which at 14,000 feet is often above the clouds, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean with minimal light pollution.

The telescope will be of the Ritchey-Chretien type, which is a Cassegrain telescope that has a hyperbolic primary mirror and hyperbolic secondary mirror. This is the most common type of telescope used in professional astronomy. The TMT will also feature optical and infrared observing, "with wavelengths of interest ranging from 310 nanometers in the ultraviolet to 28 microns in the infrared. The telescope is comprised of a large number of different systems within the same facility, including mechanical assemblies, control systems and distribution systems. The actual summit enclosure is not considered to be part of the telescope (TMT, org, 2014).

The telescope is a joint venture between a number of different bodies, including the California Institute of Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Japan's National Institute of Natural Sciences and National Astronomical Observatory and the University of California, with…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Optical Revolutions How the Telescope

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32027252

The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:

For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)

However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the microscopic universe, far from engendering a revolution in the intellectual community, was often characterized as a deeply conservative support for the old divinely centered cosmos, with the existence of microbes arguing for the infinite creative power of God.

As English microscopic pioneer Henry Power put it, the microscope provides evidence…… [Read More]

Cohen, I. Bernard. The Birth of a New Physics. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, 1991. Print.

Fermi, Laura, and Gilberto Bernarndini. Galileo and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1961. Print.
View Full Essay

Space Exploration Necessary More Than

Words: 2266 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44670974

All these life saving technologies are indeed very useful today and it's not easy to imagine them resulting from the NASA research. The eye tracker technology is one of the marvelous technologies which have made the world of the disabled people to be open up in particular those having impairment in speech and movement. The view's precise gaze point is distinguished at the computer screen through the tracking of movements of the eye and this allows for environmental control and communication using several interface tools array. The eye's movement is used in the communication by people using the Eyegaze System. The individual's communication is thus no longer inhibited. The funding of life science and research and technology for NASA has resulted to these and many other benefits (Griffin).

Another argument against space exploration is the dangers that manned space travel portends. There are many perils which can affect a launch of the space craft and this includes poor weather, explosive fuel, human errors, malfunctioning equipment and even birds. The meteoroids, floating debris and electromagnetic radiation can affect the spacecraft once in flight. There are also dangers during the re-entering of the atmosphere of the earth as was evident in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Dobbs, Locke. " Revisiting the final frontier." Caribbean Business 32.18 (2004): 24-24.

Dubner, Stephen J. Is Space Exploration Worth the Cost? A Freakonomics Quorum 11 Jan.
View Full Essay

English System of Measurement Is

Words: 1433 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87138003


Assignment 2-1 -- a- Radiation may be considered information from space; different types of information from different sources. These are: 1) Light as a wave and particle, 2) Electromagnetism, 3) Cosmic Rays and 4) Ultraviolet radiation.

Part 2-1-B- Light may be measured by telescopes; other space radiation by radio waves; x-ray machines may absorb cosmic and x-ray energy.

Part 2-1-C- Stars and Planets emit electromagnetic; Sun emits UV, Electromagnetic and light; light intensity, etc. Measuring radiation from objects tells us numerous things; age of object, comparative data between object, distance, intensity, level of danger, potential changes within object over time.

Part 2-1-D- Spectrographs, radio frequency detectors, x-ray machines.

Part 2-2-a -- an atom is the smallest unit of matter; ions are types of atoms in which the protons and electrons (parts of the atomic structure) are not equal. Ions can exist independently in solution, while atoms may or may not be able to -- even though atoms are the smallest particle of an element that can have a chemical reaction. The ion makes up the electric charge (positive or negative) of an atom.

Part 2-2-B -- an atom may be excited if it hits (collides) with another atom…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Advances in Telescopes in Recent

Words: 1271 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76791307

Science teachers can utilize this article by updating their curriculum related to the universe. While textbooks currently being used convey the traditional notions of the past, newer developments need to be incorporated immediately. Most current aspects of science seem to change rapidly. Astronomers such as Fabio Governato from the University of Washington have demonstrated how supercomputers can be used to replicate the activities in space, which are invisible to our telescopes. Using the components of the article to make a presentation on the latest developments in the field of space and technology can be a good approach. While most students would consider this just like any other class, it might stand out to some intelligent ones who could build a career in this area. Science teachers can observe this article from a broader point-of-view, search for similar articles and satisfy their personal research interests.

Scientists often focus on a particular problem while exploring their range of interests. There can be several reasons associated with this. Science is a vast subject and one can easily get distracted from their goal. Every topic can be segregated into multiple divisions with their own problems. The job of a scientist is to restrict themselves…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Surviving 2012 and Planet X

Words: 1770 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38101593

g. volcanoes, etc.), but not on schedule; 3) Just because something is plausible does not make it true. The events on popular television series like Star Trek or Star Wars are not only plausible, but have scientific merit. That does not make them true, only possible (Kraus, 2007; Cavelos, 2000); 4) Conspiracy theories abound in numerous genres and surrounding numerous events. Examination of Marshalls' prose and "science," while seemingly credible does try to sell a product and only hints and speculates at facts without peer-reviewed data sources (Yowcrooks, 2009). While positive in tone, it also appears that if one believes conspiracy theories, most of us have only 133 weeks to live; or simply turn the calendar to a new page?


Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.

"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Cited in:

Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth." Cited in:

Heiser, M. (2004). "The Myth of a Sumerian 12th Planet: "Nibiru." University of Wisconsin

Madison. Cited in:

Krauss, L. (2007). The Physics of Star Trek. New York: Basic Books.

MacDonald, G. (March 27, 2007). "Does Maya Calendar Predict 2012 Apocalypse?" USA

Today. Cited in:

Miller,…… [Read More]

Rao, J. (2005). "Finding Pluto: Tough Task, Even 75. Years Later." Space.Com. Cited in:

Standage, J. (2000). The Neptune File. New York: Penguin.
View Full Essay

Against Deep-Space Exploration in April

Words: 1880 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81454072

Any information about the possible existence of life in the remote regions of the universe would also have to be acquired remotely rather than through manned exploration. In principle, astronomers already understand how the Big Bang unfolded and when it occurred (Hawking, 2002); they only piece of information still missing is exactly why it occurred at all and why there is a universe at all. Ultimately, that information is unknowable whether or not there is a continuation of the space program for reasons having to do with the fundamental incompatibility of quantum mechanics and gravity (Feynman, 2001; Goldsmith, 2003; Hawking, 2002; Sagan, 1997).


Human Space exploration served a valuable purpose in the 1960s. In addition to yielding many important scientific breakthroughs with beneficial applications on Earth, it also played an important role in the ability of the U.S. To win the Cold War (Roberts, 2000). Today, all of the legitimate benefits of the space program could be continued at an appropriate cost by continuing only near-Earth space exploration. Meanwhile, there is virtually no legitimate justification for the much greater expense of continuing the manned exploration of deep space. Those legitimate goals should be pursued but the money saved by…… [Read More]

Dubner, Stephen J. Is Space Exploration Worth the Cost? The New York Times (January

11, 2008) Accessed 17 Apr 2010 from:
View Full Essay

Big Bang and the Evolution

Words: 1716 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19169576

" At almost 4 minutes, the temperature has fallen to the point where sub-atomic particles become naturally attracted to each other and form certain kinds of isotopes. At almost an hour after the Big Bang, all nuclear material has bonded, yet the temperatures is "still too high for protons and electrons to bind together" to form atoms. From this point on to about 700,000 years later, the temperature has dropped sufficiently and allows electrons and protons to bind together to create atoms of hydrogen. Therefore, as free electrons "are bound up in atoms, the primary cross-section leading to the scattering of photons is removed" which allows the universe to alter from being opaque to transparent, thus allowing photons of light to travel freely in this newly-created universe ("The Hot Big Bang" 2007, Internet). At some unknown point in spatial time, the universe begins to cool even further, allowing gases like hydrogen, helium, oxygen and nitrogen to produce stars, galaxies and planets, a process which continues unabated and whose final destiny remains a very open question.


La Rocco, Chris and Blair Rothstein. 2007, "The Big Bang," Internet. Retrieved at

Sullivan, William S. The Big Bang and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
La Rocco, Chris and Blair Rothstein. 2007, "The Big Bang," Internet. Retrieved at .

Sullivan, William S. The Big Bang and Cosmology. New York: Scribner's, 2004.
View Full Essay

Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster it

Words: 3710 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8488857

There was one thing or the other to delay the launch of the Challenger, until the D-Day, when the shuttle was launched at 11:38 AM as against the scheduled take off time of 9:38 AM on January 28. About seventy three seconds into the mission, the Challenger exploded in mid air, and all the seven crew members were killed instantaneously. For the hundreds of people, the family and friends and others who had gathered at the site to watch the launching of the Challenger, it was a sight that they would never be able to forget. They were forced to watch helplessly and fearfully, as the fiery flames consumed their loved ones. The entire nation, which was watching events as they unfolded on their television sets, was rendered speechless. (Challenger Disaster, a National Tragedy)

Ronald Reagan, the President of the United States of America at the time, stated, "Today is a day for mourning and remembering. Nancy and I are pained to the core over the tragedy of the shuttle Challenger. We know we share this pain with all of the people of our country. This is truly a national loss. Nineteen years ago, almost to the day, we lost…… [Read More]

Administrator Goldin issues statement on Tenth Anniversary of Challenger Observance.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. January 16, 1996. 
View Full Essay

Moon Landing Conspiracy Theory the

Words: 1370 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8787574

S. especially against Soviet Union and demonstrating the strength of the presidency institution and the American people in general to succeed in everything they do.

B. Evidence of the Conspiracy

In order to demonstrate the conspiracy, its advocates must submit evidence in this sense. Photographs and videos, as well as sample related aspects seem to induce the idea of clear conspiracy performed for the above mentioned reason.

First of all, the photographs were taken with an enhanced frequency - more than 50 pictures a second, while in the actual condition the normal figure would have been around 2 pictures per second. Another issue that could invalidate the NASA theory on 1969 moon landing is that, like the human body, the film camera would have not survived to the existent radiations, and consequently would have melted. Additionally, the quality of the photographs is extremely high for the natural condition of the moon Environment.

The loss of initial and original video by NASA further more supplies worries and concerns in this case. If we consider the importance for planet and space study of this illustration, we might think that the images were of a deep importance, and should have been saved and…… [Read More]

1) Bill Cooke (2006). "The Great Interplanetary Rock Swap." Astronomy 34 (August): 64-67.

2) Newport, Frank (1999)." Landing a Man on the Moon: The Public's View. The Gallup Poll. The Gallup Poll. Retrieved on 2006- 07-05
View Full Essay

Physics - Mission to Mars

Words: 1503 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80196126


The Mars exploration program announced by President Bush in 2004 relies on first establishing a prolonged human presence on the Moon, in conjunction with completion of the International Space Station by 2015. The President envisions returning to the Moon by 2020 at the latest, for the purpose of being able to launch robotic missions to Mars (Whitehouse, 2004). According to the American Physical Society and many independent scientists, the President's goal overvalues the symbolic significance of landing on Mars at the expense of research that is more immediately beneficial to human society, and a more prudent financial expenditure (APS, 2004). This is a view with which I am inclined to agree.


Abbate, M. (1992) Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact.

Smithsonian Institution Press: London

American Physical Society. (2004) Panel on Public Affairs, Nov./04

The Moon-Mars Program.

Engelbert, P., Dupuis, D. (1998) the Handy Space Answer Book.

Visible Ink Press: Detroit

Kaku, M. (1997) Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st Century.

Doubleday: New York

National Aeronautical and Space Administration. (2007) NASA's Mars

Exploration Program. Accessed September 15, 2007, at

Sagan, C. (1994) Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space.

Random…… [Read More]

Abbate, M. (1992) Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact.

Smithsonian Institution Press: London
View Full Essay

Pluto Why Is Pluto No

Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71090986

That question doesn't affect the classification of planets in our Solar System, but will be relevant to some others" ("Pluto no longer a Planet," World Science Homepage, 2006).

Even some scientists who disliked the definition, however, felt that it was fair to demote Pluto. "According to the new definition, a full-fledged planet is an object that orbits the sun and is large enough to have become round due to the force of its own gravity. In addition, a planet has to dominate the neighborhood around its orbit," and Pluto is not simply small, and Pluto also does not dominate its neighborhood but its moon Charon, is very large in proportion to the former planet, as is about half the size of Pluto, "while all the true planets are far larger than their moons" (Inman, 2006) "In addition, bodies that dominate their neighborhoods, sweep up asteroids, comets, and other debris, clearing a path along their orbits. By contrast, Pluto's orbit is somewhat "untidy" and it lacks this distinct characteristic (Inman, 2006). In short, its orbit and relationship with its 'moon' alone was enough to call its status into question.

Perhaps the real question about the usefulness of the new definition of…… [Read More]

Britt, Robert Roy. "Scientists decide Pluto's no longer a planet: Planet definition approved, but dissenters plan a counteroffensive." MSNBC. 26 Aug 2006. 11 Mar 2007.

Britt, Robert Roy. "Controversial New Definition." 16 Aug 2006. 11 Mar 2007.